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Young Pioneer organization of the Soviet Union

Samantha Smith with Young Pioneers, 1983.

The Vladimir Lenin All-Union Pioneer Organization (Russian: Всесою́зная пионе́рская организа́ция и́мени В. И. Ле́нина About this sound listen ; tr.:Vsesoyuznaya pionerskaya organizatsiya imeni V. I. Lenina), or the Young Pioneers, was a mass youth organization of the Soviet Union for children of age 10–15 that existed between 1922 and 1991. Similar to the Scouting organisations of the Western world, Pioneers learned skills of social cooperation and attended publicly funded summer camps.

History
50 years, Stamp, 1972
Member pin-the inscription reads "Always Ready!" (Russian: Всегда готов!)
File:У тёплого моря (1940).ogv
A documentary from 1940 about a Young Pioneer camp Artek.
Pioneers in the Zeravshan Mountains of the Tajik SSR in 1983.

After the October Revolution of 1917, some Scouts took the Bolsheviks' side, which would later lead to the establishment of ideologically altered Scoutlike organizations, such as ЮК (Юные Коммунисты, or young communists; pronounced as yook) and others.

During the Russian Civil War from 1917 to 1921, most of the Scoutmasters and many Scouts fought in the ranks of the White Army and interventionists against the Red Army.

Those Scouts who did not wish to accept the new Soviet system either left Russia for good (like Oleg Pantyukhov and others) or went underground.

However, clandestine Scouting did not last long. Komsomol persistently fought with the remnants of the Scout movement. Between 1918 and 1920, the second, third, and fourth All-Russian Congresses of the Russian Union of the Communist Youth (Российский коммунистический союз молодёжи, or Rossiyski kommunisticheskiy soyuz molodyozhi) decided to eradicate the Scout movement and create an organization of the communist type, that would take Soviet youth under its umbrella. This organization would properly educate children with Communist teachings.[1]

On behalf of the Soviet Government Nadezhda Krupskaya (Vladimir Lenin's wife and the People's Commissar of State for Education) was one of the main contributors to the cause of the Pioneer movement. In 1922, she wrote an essay called "Russian Union of the Communist Youth and boy-Scoutism." However, it was the remaining scoutmasters themselves who supported the Komonsol and the Red Army, like Innokentiy Zhukov and some others around Nikolaj Fatyanov's "Brothers of the fire", who introduced the name "pioneer" to it and convinced the Komsomol to keep the scout motto "Be prepared!" and adapt it to "Always prepared!" as the organizational motto and slogan.[2]

Just some days before the Komsomol conference the Moscow scoutmasters adopted a "Declaration of the scoutmasters of Moscow concerning the question of the formation of a children's movement in the RSFSR"[3] on May 13, 1922. Thereby they suggested to use the scouting system as a foundation of the new communist organization for children, and give the "Young pioneers" name to it.

The main contribution of the scoutmasters was the introduction of the new expression system scouting into the discourse on communist children's and youth organizations. By doing so they avoided the dissolution of the scout organization as it would happen sooner or later to any organization opposed to the Komsomol.

On May 19, 1922 the second All-Russian Komsomol Conference adopted the scoutmasters' suggestions and decided to "work on the question of a children's movement by using the re-organized system of scouting."[4] During the following years many of the remaining former scoutmasters, who later became the first pioneer leaders in their respective areas, founded pioneer groups and educated future pioneer leaders in these.

May 19, 1922 was later on considered the birthday of the All-Union Pioneer Organization (Всесоюзная пионерская организация, or Vsesoyuznaya pionerskaya organizatsiya). By October 1922 pioneer units nationwide were united to form the Spartak Young Pioneers Organization (SYPO) (Russian: Юные пионеры имени Спартака), which was named after V. I. Lenin by a decision of the Central Committee of Komsomol of January 21, 1924, becoming the Vladimir Lenin Spartak Young Pioneers Organization (VLSYPO). Since March 1926 it bore the name Vladimir Lenin All-Union Pioneer Organization (VLAUPO).

By the middle of 1923 it had 75,000 members. Among other activities, Young Pioneer units, helped by the Komsomol members and leadership at all levels, played a great role in the eradication of illiteracy (Likbez policy) since 1923. Membership was at 161,000 in the beginning of 1924, 2 million in 1926, 13.9 million in 1940, and 25 million in 1974. Many Young Pioneer Palaces were built, which served as community centers for the children, with rooms dedicated to various clubs, such as crafts or sports. Thousands of Young Pioneer camps were set up where children went during summer vacation and winter holidays. All of them were free of charge, sponsored by the government and the Trade Unions.

During World War Two the Pioneers worked hard to contribute to the war effort at all costs. Thousands of them died in battles as military personnel and in the resistance against Nazi Germany in its occupied territories as partisans and Pioneers under secrecy in enemy-occupied towns and cities, even in concentration camps. One of them became widely known, for his resistance in Kerch: Volodia Dubinin. Four Pioneers would later receive the coveted Gold Star Medal as Heroes of the Soviet Union, and countless others were awarded various state orders, decorations and medals for acts of bravery and courage in the battlefield, on enemy lines and occupied territories.

Structure

Its main grouping of members until 1942 was the "Young Pioneer detachment," which then typically consisted of children belonging to the same secondary school. From 1942 to October 1990 (when the organization was broken up) the "detachment" was made up of children belonging to the same class within a school, while a school was referred to as a "Young Pioneer group."

There was also an age-scale structure: children of 10–11 years were called Young Pioneers of the first stage; 11–12 years were Young Pioneers of the second stage; 13–15 years were Young Pioneers of the third stage. At age 15, Young Pioneers could join Komsomol, with a recommendation from their Young Pioneer group.

The main governing body was the Central Soviet of the Young Pioneer organization of the Soviet Union, which worked under the leadership of the main governing body of Komsomol.

Its official newspaper was Pionerskaya Pravda.

Main goals and requirements of membership

The main goals and duties of Young Pioneers and requirements of membership were specified by the Regulations of the Young Pioneer organization of the Soviet Union; by the Solemn Promise (given by each Young Pioneer joining the organization); by the Rules of the Young Pioneers; and by the Young Pioneer Motto, всегда готов! (vsegda gotov!, "Always Ready!"). There were two major revisions of them: in 1967 and 1986.

Although membership was theoretically optional, almost all the children in the Soviet Union belonged to the organization; it was a natural part of growing up. Still, joining was not automatic. In the 3rd grade of school, children were allowed to join the Young Pioneer Organization, which was done in batches, as a solemn ceremony, often in a Pioneers Palace. Only the best students were allowed into the first batch, slightly less advanced and well-behaved were allowed into the second batch, several weeks later. The most ill-behaved or low-performing students were given time to 'catch up' and could be allowed to join only in the 4th grade, a year after the first batch of their classmates. Not being admitted at all was odd, and lack of desire to join was considered suspicious.

In line with the Soviet doctrine of state atheism, the «Young Pioneer Leader's Handbook» stated that "every Pioneer would set up an atheist's corner at home with anti-religious pictures, poems, and sayings", in contrast to the traditional Russian Christian icon corners. The Young Pioneers, "as representatives of atheism and political change, encountered massive resistance in rural areas". In the same vein, some students refused to join the organization because of its promotion of Marxist-Leninist atheism.[5]

Symbols, attributes, rituals and traditions
Dress White Uniform of the Pioneers
Pioneer's necktie (red)

The main symbols of Young Pioneers were the red banner, flag, Young Pioneer's red neck scarf and the organizational badge. Attributes: the bugle, the drum, the organizational uniform (with badges of rank). Some rituals and traditions of the organization were: the Young Pioneer salute, Young Pioneer parade, color guard duty and flag raising. Most common traditions were the Young Pioneers rally (usually round a bonfire, similar to Scout Jamborees) and festivals.

Uniform

The uniform was one of many things that identified Pioneers with each other and the people. The uniform, part of the school uniform worn at school, included the red neckerchief and the organizational and rank badges on the white shirt with long or short pants for boys and long or short skirts for girls, with optional side caps as headdress. Full dress uniforms, used in occasions, were light blue or white with red side caps, the red neckerchief and the badges, with crimson sashes for color bearers and the color escorts. When on outdoor duties brown polo shirts with pants or skirts depending on gender were used, with an optional side cap. Sea service uniforms used sailor caps and blue and white shirts (with Telnyashkas) and pants or skirts depending on the gender, with a brown belt. Instructors and adult leaders wore the same uniforms and the caps in every occasion and in all meetings. In its early years the Pioneers wore campaign hats in major events.

Oath

By 1987, Pioneers who joined the organization recited the revised version of its membership pledge first enacted in 1923:

I (surname, given name), having now joined the ranks of the Vladimir Illich Lenin All-Union Pioneer Organization, in the presence of my comrades solemnly promise: to passionately love my motherland and to cherish it as I can, to live, study, and fight as the Great Lenin has instructed, as the Communist Party teaches me, and as to always comply with the laws of the Pioneers of the Soviet Union.

Songs

Young Pioneer songs were usually sung at various Young Pioneer meetings, in Young Pioneer camps, and at schools. One of the earliest and the most popular song was the Young Pioneer March. It was written in 1922 by Aleksandr Zharov (music by Sergei Dyoshkin) and was sometimes called The Anthem of Young Pioneers. There were a great many other songs, here are some very popular ones:

Awards

The Young Pioneers who excelled in academic study, work, sports or social activity were elected to the self-governing institutions, were sent as delegates to the Young Pioneers gatherings (including All-Union ones). The most notable were recognized in the organization's Book of Honor. During World War II, many Young Pioneers fought against Nazis in partisan detachments and/or Party underground units, which existed near their homes on territories occupied by Nazi Germany and their allies, while Pioneers in areas away from enemy lines helped in the homefront efforts. Nearly 30,000 of them were awarded various orders and medals; four Young Pioneers became Heroes of the Soviet Union. One of the famous young pioneer All-Union camps was "Artek" located in Crimea, Russia, opened in the 1930s. The camp was located on the top of the mountain "A-yu-dahg" which means "Bear's Mountain". Only the best students were selected to go there based on their grades and leadership. Young communists from other countries were welcome as well.

Present
World champion Russian powerlifter Maryana Naumova, a member of the Young Pioneer Organization of Russia,[6] wearing a young pioneer red neck scarf during the award ceremony at the 2012 WPC World Championships in Las Vegas.

After the ban of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union in 1991, the organization had to disband. Russia, Ukraine, Moldova, and Belarus are the only Republics where the restored Pioneer Organizations are located and active.[7]

Gallery
See also
References
  1. Lewis Stegelbaum and Andrei Sokolov, Stalinism As A Way Of Life, p374 ISBN 0-300-08480-3
  2. (in German) Sebastian Waack: Lenins Kinder: Zur Genealogie der Pfadfinder und Pioniere in Russland 1908-1924. wvb, Berlin 2008. ISBN 978-3-86573-356-6
  3. (in Russian) RGASPI Moscow, f.M-1, op.23, d.98, l.29
  4. (in Russian) VLKSM v rezolucijakh ego s'ezdov i konferencij, p.98
  5. Spring, Joel (2012). Pedagogies of Globalization: The Rise of the Educational Security State. Routledge. ISBN 1136502556.
  6. Марьяна Наумова вступила в пионеры (in Russian). Beta Press. 2012-05-21. Retrieved 2014-10-24.
  7. https://02varvara.wordpress.com/2015/07/06/6-july-2015-back-to-the-future-present-day-kprf-young-pioneers-in-simferopol-in-the-crimea/
External links
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The Central Committee of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union ( Russian : Центра́льный комите́т Коммунисти́ческой па́ртии Сове́тского Сою́за – ЦК КПСС , Tsentralniy Komitet Kommunistitcheskoi Partii Sovetskogo Soyuza – TsK KPSS), abbreviated in Russian as ЦК , "Tse-ka", was de jure the highest body of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union (CPSU) between Party Congresses . According to Party rules, the Central Committee directed all Party and government activities between each Party Congress. Members of the committee were elected at the Party Congresses. During Vladimir Lenin 's leadership of the Communist Party, the Central Committee functioned as the highest party authority between congresses. However at the 8th Party Congress held in 1919, the Political Bureau (Politburo) was established to respond to questions needing immediate responses. Some delegates objected to the establishment of the Politburo, and in response, the Politburo became responsible to the Central Committee, and Central Committee memb ...more...



15th Politburo of the All-Union Communist Party (Bolsheviks)

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The 15th Politburo of the All-Union Communist Party (Bolsheviks) was elected by the 15th Central Committee in the aftermath of the 15th Congress . 15th Politburo (1927–1930) Candidate members Name (birth–death) Took office Left office Duration Andreyev, Andrey Andrey Andreyev (1895–1971) 19 December 1927 13 July 1930 2 years, 206 days Kaganovich, Lazar Lazar Kaganovich (1893–1991) 19 December 1927 13 July 1930 2 years, 206 days Kirov, Sergey Sergey Kirov (1886–1934) 19 December 1927 13 July 1930 2 years, 206 days Kosior, Stanislav Stanislav Kosior (1889–1939) 19 December 1927 13 July 1930 2 years, 206 days Mikoyan, Anastas Anastas Mikoyan (1895–1978) 19 December 1927 13 July 1930 2 years, 206 days Petrovsky, Grigory Grigory Petrovsky (1878–1958) 19 December 1927 13 July 1930 2 years, 206 days Uglanov, Nikolai Nikolai Uglanov (1886–1937) 19 December 1927 29 April 1929 1 year, 131 days Chubar, Vlas Vlas Chubar (1891–1939) 19 December 1927 13 July 1930 2 years, 206 days Bauman, Karl Karl Bauman (1892–1937) 29 Ap ...more...



18th Politburo of the All-Union Communist Party (Bolsheviks)

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The 18th Politburo of the All-Union Communist Party (Bolsheviks) was elected by the 18th Central Committee in the aftermath of the 18th Congress . 18th Politburo (1939–1952) Candidate members Name (birth–death) Took office Left office Duration Beria, Lavrentiy Lavrentiy Beria (1899–1953) 22 March 1939 18 March 1946 6 years, 361 days Shvernik, Nikolay Nikolay Shvernik (1888–1970) 22 March 1939 16 October 1952 13 years, 208 days Voznesensky, Nikolai Nikolai Voznesensky (1903–1950) 21 February 1941 26 February 1947 6 years, 5 days Malenkov, Georgy Georgy Malenkov (1902–1988) 21 February 1941 18 March 1946 5 years, 25 days Shcherbakov, Alexander Alexander Shcherbakov (1901–1945) 21 February 1941 10 May 1945 4 years, 78 days Bulganin, Nikolai Nikolai Bulganin (1895–1975) 18 March 1946 18 February 1948 1 year, 337 days Kosygin, Alexei Alexei Kosygin (1904–1980) 18 March 1946 4 September 1948 2 years, 170 days Full members Name (birth–death) Took office Left office Duration Andreyev, Andrey Andrey Andreyev (1895–197 ...more...



Inner composition elected by the Central Committee of the 17th Congress of the All-Union Communist Party (bolsheviks)

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By election of inner composition we are referring to the election of party officials to the Politburo , Secretariat and the Orgburo at the 1st Plenary Session of the Central Committee of the 17th Congress of the All-Union Communist Party (Bolsheviks) . Politburo Full Name (birth–death) Took office Left office Duration Andreyev, Andrey Andrey Andreyev (1895–1971) 10 February 1934 22 March 1939 5 years, 40 days Voroshilov, Kliment Kliment Voroshilov (1881–1969) 10 February 1934 22 March 1939 5 years, 40 days Kaganovich, Lazar Lazar Kaganovich (1893–1991) 10 February 1934 22 March 1939 5 years, 40 days Kalinin, Mikhail Mikhail Kalinin (1875–1946) 10 February 1934 22 March 1939 5 years, 40 days Kirov, Sergey Sergey Kirov (1886–1934) 10 February 1934 1 December 1934 294 days Kosior, Stanislav Stanislav Kosior (1889–1939) 10 February 1934 3 May 1938 4 years, 82 days Kuybyshev, Valerian Valerian Kuybyshev (1888–1935) 10 February 1934 25 January 1935 349 days Molotov, Vyacheslav Vyacheslav Molotov (1890–1986) 10 Febr ...more...



Inner composition elected by the Central Committee of the 16th Congress of the All-Union Communist Party (bolsheviks)

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By election of inner composition we are referring to the election of party officials to the Politburo , Secretariat and the Orgburo at the 1st Plenary Session of the Central Committee of the 16th Congress of the All-Union Communist Party (Bolsheviks) . Politburo Full Name (birth–death) Took office Left office Duration Voroshilov, Kliment Kliment Voroshilov (1881–1969) 13 July 1930 10 February 1934 3 years, 212 days Kaganovich, Lazar Lazar Kaganovich (1893–1991) 13 July 1930 10 February 1934 3 years, 212 days Kalinin, Mikhail Mikhail Kalinin (1875–1946) 13 July 1930 10 February 1934 3 years, 212 days Kirov, Sergey Sergey Kirov (1886–1934) 13 July 1930 10 February 1934 3 years, 212 days Kosior, Stanislav Stanislav Kosior (1889–1939) 13 July 1930 10 February 1934 3 years, 212 days Kuybyshev, Valerian Valerian Kuybyshev (1888–1935) 13 July 1930 10 February 1934 3 years, 212 days Molotov, Vyacheslav Vyacheslav Molotov (1890–1986) 13 July 1930 10 February 1934 3 years, 212 days Rudzutaks, Jānis Jānis Rudzutaks (188 ...more...



17th Congress of the All-Union Communist Party (Bolsheviks)

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The 17th Congress of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union was held during 26 January - 10 February 1934. The congress was attended by 1,225 delegates with a casting vote and 736 delegates with a consultative vote, representing 1,872,488 party members and 935,298 candidate members. Nicknamed "The Congress of the Victors" due to the economic successes of the First Five-Year Plan , it was in fact the last clandestine revolt against Stalin from within party ranks. During the elections to the 17th Central Committee Stalin received a significant number (over a hundred, although the precise number is unknown) of negative votes, whereas only three delegates crossed out the name of the popular Leningrad party boss, Sergei Kirov . The results were subsequently covered up on Stalin's orders and it was officially reported that Stalin also received only three negative votes. During the Congress a group of veteran party members approached Kirov with the suggestion that he replace Stalin as the party leader. Kirov decli ...more...



20th Congress of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union

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The 20th Congress of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union was held during the period 14–25 February 1956. It is known especially for Nikita Khrushchev 's " Secret Speech ", which denounced the personality cult and dictatorship of Joseph Stalin . Delegates at this Congress of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union were given no advance warning of what to expect. Indeed, proceedings were opened by Khruschev's call for all to stand in memory of the Communist leaders who had died since the previous Congress, with Stalin being mentioned in the same breath as Klement Gottwald . Hints of a new direction only came out gradually over the next ten days, which had the effect of leaving those present highly perplexed. The Polish communist leader Bolesław Bierut died in Moscow under mysterious circumstances shortly after attending the 20th Congress. The congress elected the 20th Central Committee . Secret speech On 25 February, the very last day of the Congress, it was announced that an unscheduled session had been ca ...more...



27th Politburo of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union

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The 27th Politburo of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union was elected by the 1st Plenary Session of the 27th Central Committee in the aftermath of the 27th Congress . List of members Candidate members Name (birth–death) Took office Left office Duration Demichev, Pyotr Pyotr Demichev (1917–2000) 6 March 1986 30 September 1988 2 years, 208 days Dolgikh, Vladimir Vladimir Dolgikh (born 1924) 6 March 1986 30 September 1988 2 years, 208 days Yeltsin, Boris Boris Yeltsin (1931–2007) 6 March 1986 18 February 1988 1 year, 349 days Slyunkov, Nikolay Nikolay Slyunkov (born 1923) 6 March 1986 26 June 1987 1 year, 112 days Sokolov, Sergey Sergey Sokolov (1911–2012) 6 March 1986 26 June 1987 1 year, 112 days Talyzin, Nikolai Nikolai Talyzin (1929–1991) 6 March 1986 20 September 1989 3 years, 198 days Solovyev, Yuri Yuri Solovyev (1925–2011) 6 March 1986 20 September 1989 3 years, 198 days Yakovlev, Alexander Alexander Yakovlev (1923–2005) 28 January 1987 26 June 1987 149 days Yazov, Dmitry Dmitry Yazov (born 1924) 26 ...more...



28th Politburo of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union

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The 28th Politburo of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union was elected by the 28th Central Committee in the aftermath of the 28th Congress . The new poliburo was expunged and weakened, and apart from Mikhail Gorbachev himself, no members also held positions in the state or government leadership of the Soviet Union . Included in the new poliburo were all the republic party heads. The resulting geographical diversity made the past practice of weekly meetings impractical. In addition, the category of nonvoting candidate members was dropped. List of members Name (birth–death) Took office Left office Duration Gorbachev, Mikhail Mikhail Gorbachev (born 1931) 14 July 1990 24 August 1991 1 year, 41 days Ivashko, Vladimir Vladimir Ivashko (1932–1994) 14 July 1990 29 August 1991 1 year, 46 days Burokevičius, Mykolas Mykolas Burokevičius (1927-2016) 14 July 1990 29 August 1991 1 year, 46 days Gumbaridze, Givi Givi Gumbaridze (born 1945) 14 July 1990 31 January 1991 201 days Hurenko, Stanislav Stanislav Hurenko (1936– ...more...



13th Congress of the Russian Communist Party (Bolsheviks)

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The 13th Congress of the Russian Communist Party (Bolsheviks) was held during 23–31 May 1924 in Moscow . Of the delegates attending, 748 had voting rights, and 416 had consultative rights. The congress elected the 13th Central Committee . This congress was the Russian Communist Party (Bolsheviks) ' first to take place after the death of Vladimir Lenin , and represents a transition between the Lenin and Joseph Stalin regimes. It was also the first confrontation between the Left Opposition (led by Leon Trotsky ) and the "troika" (led by Stalin, Grigory Zinoviev , and Lev Kamenev ). See also Lenin's Testament References Thirteenth Congress of the Russian Communist Party Bolshevik in The Great Soviet Encyclopedia , 3rd Edition (1970-1979) The 13th Congress of the Russian Communist Party (Bolsheviks) was held during 23–31 May 1924 in Moscow . Of the delegates attending, 748 had voting rights, and 416 had consultative rights. The congress elected the 13th Central Committee . This congress was the Russian Communis ...more...



Central Committee elected by the 18th Congress of the All-Union Communist Party (Bolsheviks)

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The 18th Central Committee of the All-Union Communist Party (Bolsheviks) was elected by the 18th Congress , and was in session from 1939 until 1941. It elected, at its 1st Plenary Session, the 18th Politburo , the 18th Secretariat , the 18th Orgburo and the 18th Party Control Commission of the All-Union Communist Party (Bolsheviks) . Plenums 1st Plenary Session (22 March 1939) 2nd Plenary Session (21–24, 27 July 1939) 3rd Plenary Session (26–28 March 1940) 4th Plenary Session (29–31 July 1940) 5th Plenary Session (21 February 1941) Composition Regular members Andrey Andreyev (1895–1971) Vasily Andrianov (1902–1978) Naum Antselovich (1888–1952) Mir Jafar Baghirov (1896–1956) Alexey Badayev (1883–1951) Ivan Benediktov (1902–1983) Lavrentiy Beria (1899–1953) Gennady Borkov (1905–1983) Semyon Budyonny (1883–1973) Nikolai Bulganin (1895–1975) Mykhailo Burmystenko (1902–1941) Boris Vannikov (1897–1962) Vasily Vahrushev (1902–1947) Nikolai Voznesensky (1903–1950) Kliment Voroshilov (1881–1969) Andrey Vyshinsky (1883 ...more...



Central Committee elected by the 26th Congress of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union

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The 26th Central Committee of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union was elected by the 26th Congress , and was in session from 1981 until 1986. It elected, at its 1st Plenary Session, the 26th Politburo , the 26th Secretariat and the 26th Party Control Committee of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union . Plenums 1st Plenary Session (3 March 1981) 2nd Plenary Session (16 November 1981) 3rd Plenary Session (24 May 1982) 4th Plenary Session (12 November 1982) 5th Plenary Session (22 November 1982) 6th Plenary Session (14–15 June 1983) 7th Plenary Session (26–27 December 1983) 8th Plenary Session (13 February 1984) 9th Plenary Session (10 April 1984) 10th Plenary Session (23 October 1984) 11th Plenary Session (11 March 1985) 12th Plenary Session (23 April 1985) 13th Plenary Session (1 July 1985) 14th Plenary Session (15 October 1985) 15th Plenary Session (18 February 1986) Membership Regular members Pyotr Abrasimov (1912–2009) Stepan Avramenko (1918–2010) Aleksandr Aksyonov (1924–2009) Anatoly Alexandrov (190 ...more...



Central Committee elected by the 27th Congress of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union

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The 27th Central Committee of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union was elected by the 27th Congress , and was in session from 1986 until 1990. Its 1st Plenary Session elected the 27th Politburo , the 27th Secretariat and the 27th Party Control Committee of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union . History Election and composition The 27th Congress witnessed the greatest turnover of Central Committee members in the party's history since 22nd Party Congress (held in 1961) during Nikita Khrushchev 's leadership. The numbers of full membership were reduced from 319 in the 26th Central Committee to 307, while candidate membership was increased from 151 to 170. Of the 307 full members elected to the 27th Central Committee, 102 (making up 33 percent of membership) were newcomers. 25 officials, who had previously served as candidate members in the 26th Central Committee, were promoted to full membership. In total 125 new full members were appointed, making up 41 percent. 182 members (59 percent) were reelect ...more...



Central Committee elected by the 23rd Congress of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union

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The 23rd Central Committee of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union was elected by the 23rd Congress , and was in session from 1966 until 1971. It elected, at its 1st Plenary Session, the 23rd Politburo , the 23rd Secretariat and the 23rd Party Control Committee of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union . Plenums 1st Plenary Session (8 April 1966) 2nd Plenary Session (25–27 May 1966) 3rd Plenary Session (1 August 1966) 4th Plenary Session (12–13 December 1966) 5th Plenary Session (21–21 June 1967) 6th Plenary Session (26 September 1967) 7th Plenary Session (9–10 April 1968) 8th Plenary Session (17 July 1968) 9th Plenary Session (30–31 October 1968) 10th Plenary Session (9 December 1968) 11th Plenary Session (26 June 1969) 12th Plenary Session (15 December 1969) 13th Plenary Session (2–3 July 1970) 14th Plenary Session (13 July 1970) 15th Plenary Session (7 December 1970) 16th Plenary Session (22 March 1971) Membership Regular members Pyotr Abrasimov (1912–2009) Anatoly Alexandrov (1903–1994) Yuri Andropov ...more...



Central Committee elected by the 24th Congress of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union

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The 24th Central Committee of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union was elected by the 24th Congress , and was in session from 1971 until 1976. It elected, at its 1st Plenary Session, the 24th Politburo , the 24th Secretariat and the 24th Party Control Committee of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union . Plenums 1st Plenary Session (9 April 1971) 2nd Plenary Session (22–23 November 1971) 3rd Plenary Session (19 May 1972) 4th Plenary Session (18 December 1972) 5th Plenary Session (26–27 April 1973) 6th Plenary Session (10–11 December 1973) 7th Plenary Session (24 July 1974) 8th Plenary Session (14 December 1974) 9th Plenary Session (16 April 1975) 10th Plenary Session (1 December 1975) 11th Plenary Session (20 February 1976) Membership Regular members Pyotr Abrasimov (1912–2009) Stepan Avramenko (1918–2010) Anatoly Alexandrov (1903–1994) Vasily Akulintsev (1916–1993) Yevgeny Alekseyevsky (1906–1979) Heydar Aliyev (1923–2003) Yuri Andropov (1914–1984) Aleksey Antonov (1912–2010) Boris Aristov (born 1925) As ...more...



Central Committee elected by the 20th Congress of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union

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The 20th Central Committee of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union was elected by the 20th Congress , and was in session from 1956 until 1961. It elected, at its 1st Plenary Session, the 20th Presidium , the 20th Secretariat and the 20th Party Control Committee of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union . Plenums 1st Plenary Session (27 February 1956) 2nd Plenary Session (20–24 December 1956) 3rd Plenary Session (13–14 February 1957) 4th Plenary Session (22–29 June 1957) 5th Plenary Session (28–29 October 1957) 6th Plenary Session (16–17 December 1957) 7th Plenary Session (25–26 February 1958) 8th Plenary Session (6–7 May 1958) 9th Plenary Session (17–18 June 1958) 10th Plenary Session (5 September 1958) 11th Plenary Session (12 November 1958) 12th Plenary Session (15–19 December 1958) 13th Plenary Session (24–29 June 1959) 14th Plenary Session (22–25 December 1959) 15th Plenary Session (4 May 1960) 16th Plenary Session (13–16 July 1960) 17th Plenary Session (10–18 January 1961) 18th Plenary Session (19 Ju ...more...



Central Committee elected by the 19th Congress of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union

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The 19th Central Committee of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union was elected by the 19th Congress , and was in session from 1952 until 1956. It elected, at its 1st Plenary Session, the 19th Presidium , the 19th Secretariat and the 19th Party Control Committee of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union . Plenums 1st Plenary Session (16 October 1952) 2nd Plenary Session (5 March 1953) 3rd Plenary Session (14 March 1953) 4th Plenary Session (2–7 July 1953) 5th Plenary Session (3–7 September 1953) 6th Plenary Session (23 February – 2 March 1954) 7th Plenary Session (21–24 June 1954) 8th Plenary Session (25–31 January 1955) 9th Plenary Session (3–8 March 1955) 10th Plenary Session (4–7 December 1955) 11th Plenary Session (13 February 1956) Membership Regular members Andrey Andreyev (1895–1971) Vasily Andrianov (1902–1978) Averky Aristov (1903–1973) Grigory Arutyunov (1900–1957) Sukhan Babayev (1910–1995) Mir Jafar Baghirov (1896–1956) Nikolai Baibakov (1911–2008) Nikolai Belyaev (1903–1966) Ivan Benediktov (1 ...more...



Central Committee elected by the 25th Congress of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union

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The 25th Central Committee of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union was elected by the 25th Congress , and was in session from 1976 until 1981. It elected, at its 1st Plenary Session, the 25th Politburo , the 25th Secretariat and the 25th Party Control Committee of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union . Plenums 1st Plenary Session (3 March 1976) 2nd Plenary Session (25–26 October 1976) 3rd Plenary Session (24 May 1977) 4th Plenary Session (3 October 1977) 5th Plenary Session (13 December 1977) 6th Plenary Session (3–4 July 1978) 7th Plenary Session (27 November 1978) 8th Plenary Session (17 April 1979) 9th Plenary Session (27 November 1979) 10th Plenary Session (23 June 1980) 11th Plenary Session (21 October 1980) 12th Plenary Session (20 February 1981) Membership Regular members Pyotr Abrasimov (1912–2009) Stepan Avramenko (1918–2010) Aleksandr Aksyonov (1924–2009) Vasily Akulintsev (1916–1993) Anatoly Alexandrov (1903–1994) Pyotr Alekseyev (1913–1999) Yevgeny Alekseyevsky (1906–1979) Heydar Aliyev (192 ...more...



13th Politburo of the All-Union Communist Party (Bolsheviks)

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The 13th Politburo of the All-Union Communist Party ( Bolsheviks ) was elected by the 13th Central Committee in the aftermath of the 13th Congress . 13th Politburo (1924–1926) Candidate members Name (birth–death) Took office Left office Duration Dzerzhinsky, Felix Felix Dzerzhinsky (1877–1926) 2 June 1924 1 January 1926 1 year, 213 days Kalinin, Mikhail Mikhail Kalinin (1875–1946) 2 June 1924 1 January 1926 1 year, 213 days Molotov, Vyacheslav Vyacheslav Molotov (1890–1986) 2 June 1924 1 January 1926 1 year, 213 days Rudzutaks, Jānis Jānis Rudzutaks (1887–1938) 2 June 1924 1 January 1926 1 year, 213 days Sokolnikov, Grigori Grigori Sokolnikov (1888–1939) 2 June 1924 1 January 1926 1 year, 213 days Frunze, Mikhail Mikhail Frunze (1885–1925) 2 June 1924 31 October 1925 1 year, 151 days Full members Name (birth–death) Took office Left office Duration Bukharin, Nikolai Nikolai Bukharin (1888–1938) 2 June 1924 1 January 1926 1 year, 213 days Zinoviev, Grigoriy Grigoriy Zinoviev (1883–1938) 2 June 1924 1 January 19 ...more...



International Department of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union

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The International Department of the Central Committee of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union was a department of the Central Committee of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union that oversaw the Party's relationships with foreign Communist Parties as well as with international communist front organizations. It inherited the files and some of the personnel of the Communist International , which disbanded in 1943. The International Department was found in 1943 at roughly the same time as the Comintern's dissolution. The Department was headed from 1955-1986 by Boris Ponomarev , who had previously served as the first deputy director from 1938-1955 and as deputy director of the Cominform from 1947-1948. The Party's relations with international front groups was managed by the Department's International Social Organizations Sector. See also Departments of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union References Ebon, Martin The Soviet propaganda machine New York : McGraw-Hill, 1987 p.88 Mark Kramer, The Role of the C ...more...



28th Congress of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union

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The 28th Congress of the CPSU (July 2, 1990 – July 13, 1990) was held in Moscow . It was held a year ahead of the traditional schedule and turned out to be the last Communist Party of the Soviet Union (CPSU) congress in the history of the party. Notably, this congress displayed open factionalism: opposing views were championed by the centrist "CPSU Central Committee platform" (supported by Gorbachev), the liberal "Democratic Platform" (which included Boris Yeltsin) and the conservative "Marxist Platform". Mikhail Gorbachev was reelected General Secretary with a 3411 to 1116 vote. Gorbachev's challenger, Teimuraz Avaliani, received 501 votes with 4020 opposing. Vladimir Ivashko was elected deputy general secretary, defeating Yegor Ligachyov . A new Party Statute was passed, which formalized the end of the monopoly of power of the CPSU announced at the previous Party Congress . The New Union Treaty project was proposed by Gorbachev. Boris Yeltsin and some others resigned from the party after the "Democratic Pla ...more...



League of Militant Atheists

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The League of Militant Atheists ( Russian : Союз воинствующих безбожников Soyuz voinstvuyushchikh bezbozhnikov, literally League of the Militant Godless - LMG ); Society of the Godless (Общество безбожников Obshchestvo bezbozhnikov); Union of the Godless (Союз безбожников Soyuz bezbozhnikov), was an atheistic and antireligious organization of workers and intelligentsia that developed in Soviet Russia under the influence of the ideological and cultural views and policies of the Soviet Communist Party from 1925 to 1947. It consisted of party members, members of the Komsomol youth movement, those without specific political affiliation, workers and military veterans. The league embraced workers, peasants, students, and intelligentsia. It had its first affiliates at factories, plants, collective farms ( kolkhozy ), and educational institutions. By the beginning of 1941 it had about 3.5 million members from 100 nationalities. It had about 96,000 offices across the country. Guided by Bolshevik principles of anti-re ...more...



Central Committee elected by the 14th Congress of the All-Union Communist Party (Bolsheviks)

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The Central Committee (CC) composition was elected by the 14th Congress , and sat from 31 December 1925 until 19 December 1927. The CC 1st Plenary Session renewed the composition of the Politburo , Secretariat and the Organizational Bureau (OB) of the All-Union Communist Party (Bolsheviks) . Keys ✡ Indicates that the individual was born into a Jewish family. ♀ Indicates that the individual is female. ↑ Indicates that the individual was transferred from candidate to full membership. BY Birth year. DY Death year. PB Politburo member. SC Secretariat member. OB Orgburo member. CPB, CSC, COB The first "C" in these initials refers to "Candidate member" Plenums The CC was not a permanent institution. It convened plenary sessions , one emergency session, four CC plenary sessions and six joint CC– Central Control Commission (CCC) plenary sessions were held between the 14th Congress and the 15th Congress . When the CC was not in session, decision-making powers were transferred to inner bodies of the CC itself; the Poli ...more...



Central Committee elected by the 13th Congress of the All-Union Communist Party (Bolsheviks)

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The Central Committee (CC) composition was elected by the 13th Congress , and sat from 2 June 1924 until 31 December 1925. The CC 1st Plenary Session renewed the composition of the Politburo , Secretariat and the Organizational Bureau (OB) of the All-Union Communist Party (Bolsheviks) . Keys ✡ Indicates that the individual was born into a Jewish family. ♀ Indicates that the individual is female. ✡♀ Indicates that the individual was a women and born into a Jewish family. BY Birth year. DY Death year. PB Politburo member. SC Secretariat member. OB Orgburo member. CPB, CSC, COB The first "C" in these initials refers to "Candidate member" Plenums The CC was not a permanent institution. It convened plenary sessions , of which nine CC plenary sessions and one joint CC– Central Control Commission (CCC) plenary sessions were held between the 13th Congress and the 14th Congress . When the CC was not in session, decision-making powers were transferred to inner bodies of the CC itself; the Politburo , Secretariat and Or ...more...



Central Committee elected by the 15th Congress of the All-Union Communist Party (Bolsheviks)

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The Central Committee (CC) composition was elected by the 15th Congress , and sat from 19 December 1927 until 13 July 1930. The CC 1st Plenary Session renewed the composition of the Politburo , Secretariat and the Organizational Bureau (OB) of the All-Union Communist Party (Bolsheviks) . Keys ✡ Indicates that the individual was born into a Jewish family. ♀ Indicates that the individual is female. BY Birth year. DY Death year. PB Politburo member. SC Secretariat member. OB Orgburo member. CPB, CSC, COB The first "C" in these initials refers to "Candidate member" Plenums The CC was not a permanent institution. It convened plenary sessions , of which six CC plenary sessions and two joint CC– Central Control Commission (CCC) plenary sessions were held between the 15th Congress and the 16th Congress . When the CC was not in session, decision-making powers were transferred to inner bodies of the CC itself; the Politburo , Secretariat and Orgburo (none of these bodies were permanent either, but convened several time ...more...



15th Congress of the All-Union Communist Party (Bolsheviks)

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The 15th Congress of the All-Union Communist Party (Bolsheviks) was held during 2–19 December 1927 in Moscow . It was attended by 898 delegates with a casting vote and 771 with a consultative vote. History Background In October 1927, the last Left Opposition members were expelled from the Central Committee elected by the 14th Congress , and in November 1927 Leon Trotsky and Grigory Zinoviev were expelled from the Party itself. Repudiation of the United Opposition The 15th Congress of the All-Union Communist Party (Bolsheviks) was convened in Moscow on December 2, 1927. This marked the first Soviet Communist Party Congress in two years, this despite the fact that party regulations called for annual meetings. The gathering was retrospectively remembered as the "Congress of the Collectivization of Agriculture and of the Socialist Offensive on All Fronts" in the celebratory official party history of 1962, although in actual fact a major part of time spent by the gathering related to internal party politics and t ...more...



Vikzhel

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The All-Russian Executive Committee of the Union of Railwaymen ( Russian: Всероссийский исполнительный комитет железнодорожного профсоюза), commonly known in English by its Cyrillic acronym, Vikzhel , was the governing body of an industrial union established in revolutionary Russia during the summer of 1917. Inclined towards syndicalism and standing as one of the most radical Russian unions of the period, Vikzhel played a decisive role in stymying the attempted Kornilov coup in August 1917. At the time of the October Revolution Vikzhel was the largest and best organized union in Russia. Simultaneously but independent of the Bolshevik Party's seizure of state power, Vikzhel would seize control of Russia's railways in the fall of 1917. Favoring a multi-party government, Vikzhel managed to leverage its position of strength through threat of a general transportation strike to force the Bolsheviks to add other socialist political parties to the previously all-Bolshevik government — a power play culminated by the p ...more...



Central Control Commission of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union

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The Central Control Commission ( Russian : Комитет партийного контроля , Komitet Partiynogo Kontrolya) was a supreme disciplinary body within the Central Committee of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union . Its members were elected at plenary sessions of the Central Committee. Function The Party Control Committee oversaw the party discipline of the party members and candidate party members in terms of their observance of the Programme and regulations of the Party, state discipline and Party ethics. It administered punishments, including expulsions from the Party. The Party Control Committee also considered the appeals of party members punished by their local Party organizations. History It was through this committee that Joseph Stalin consolidated near complete control of the Soviet secret police and eventually of the Soviet Union . Stalin was never the official leader of the secret police agencies, but since all secret police leaders were appointed to the Control Committee by Stalin, he was thus able to in ...more...



Soviet rocketry

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RD-107 rocket engine Soviet rocketry spanned the entire history of the Soviet Union (1922–1991). Rocket scientists and engineers contributed to the development of rocket and jet engine propulsion systems, which were first used for artillery and later for fighter aircraft , bombers , ballistic missiles , and space exploration . Progress was greatly augmented by the reverse engineering of German technology captured by westward-moving troops during the final days of World War II and the immediate period following. Liquid Fuel: The early contribution Konstantin Tsiolkovsky Traditionally, the Russian military had used only solid fuel (generally black powder ). Russian involvement in rocketry began in 1903 when Konstantin Tsiolkovsky published a paper on liquid-propelled rockets (LPREs). Though the idea of rockets stems from the 1600s, Tsiolkovsky's efforts made significant advances in the use of liquid fuel. His work challenged traditional thought and sparked a revolution in science which embraced new ideas in r ...more...



Communist Party of the Karelo-Finnish Soviet Socialist Republic

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Communist Party of the Karelo-Finnish SSR ( Russian : Коммунистическая партия Карело-Финской Советской Социалистической Республики , Finnish : Karjalais-suomalaisen sosialistisen neuvostotasavallan kommunistinen puolue ), initially known as the Communist Party (bolshevik) of the Karelo-Finnish SSR , was the branch of the All-Union Communist Party/ Communist Party of the Soviet Union in the Karelo Finnish SSR 1940-1956. First Secretaries of the Party First Secretearies of the Party were: Gennady Nikolaev Kupriyanov 2 April 1940–25 January 1950 Aleksandr Andreevich Kondakov 25 January 1950–27 September 1950 Aleksandr Nikolaev Egorov 27 September 1950–16 August 1955 Leonid Ignatevich Lubennikov 16 August 1955–16 July 1956 Yuri Andropov was elected Second Secretary of the Central Committee in 1947. References Карельский государственный архив новейшей истории. Путеводитель Андропов Юрий Владимирович See also Leninist Communist Youth League of the Karelo-Finnish SSR Communist Party of the Karelo-Finnish SSR ( Russi ...more...



22nd Congress of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union

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The 22nd Congress of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union was held from 17 to 31 October 1961. In fourteen days of sessions (22 October was a day off), 4,413 delegates, in addition to delegates from 83 foreign Communist parties , listened to Nikita Khrushchev and others review policy issues. At the Congress, the Sino-Soviet split hardened, especially due to Soviet de-Stalinization efforts, and it was the last Congress to be attended by the Chinese Communist Party . The Congress elected the 22nd Central Committee . Speeches, splits and plans Other than Sino-Soviet disputes, matters dealt with at the Congress included accepting the CPSU's Third Program and statute, and the opening of the Volgograd Hydroelectric Plant , the largest in Europe or Russia at the time. The Soviets also tested the world's most powerful thermonuclear bomb (" Tsar Bomba ") in Novaya Zemlya in the Arctic Circle, creating the largest man-made explosion in history. They also accepted the removal of Stalin's remains from the Lenin Ma ...more...



The Thing (listening device)

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The seal opened exposing the Soviet bugging device, on display at the NSA 's National Cryptologic Museum . The Thing , also known as the Great Seal bug , was one of the first covert listening devices (or "bugs") to use passive techniques to transmit an audio signal. It was concealed inside a gift given by the Soviet Union to W. Averell Harriman , the United States Ambassador to the Soviet Union , on August 4, 1945. Because it was passive, needing electromagnetic energy from an outside source to become energized and activate, it is considered a predecessor of Radio-Frequency Identification ( RFID ) technology. Creation The Thing was designed by Soviet Russian inventor Léon Theremin , best-known for his invention of the theremin , an electronic musical instrument. The principal operational component of The Thing, a resonant cavity microphone, had been patented by Winfield R. Koch of the Radio Corporation of America (RCA) in 1941. In US patent 2,238,117 he describes the principle of a sound-modulated resonant c ...more...



Inner-composition of the 6th Congress of the Russian Social Democratic Labour Party (Bolsheviks)

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The inner-composition of the 6th Congress was elected by the sixth composition of the Central Committee of the Russian Social Democratic Labour Party (Bolsheviks) . Narrow Composition Name (birth–death) Took office Left office Duration Bubnov, Andrei Andrei Bubnov (1884–1938) 4 August 1917 10 October 1917 68 days Dzerzhinsky, Felix Felix Dzerzhinsky (1887–1926) 4 August 1917 10 October 1917 68 days Joffe, Adolf Adolf Joffe (1883–1927) 4 August 1917 10 October 1917 68 days Milutin, Vladimir Vladimir Milutin (1884–1937) 4 August 1917 10 October 1917 68 days Muranov, Matvei Matvei Muranov (1873–1959) 4 August 1917 10 October 1917 68 days Sverdlov, Yakov Yakov Sverdlov (1885–1919) 4 August 1917 10 October 1917 68 days Sokolnikov, Grigori Grigori Sokolnikov (1888–1939) 4 August 1917 10 October 1917 68 days Stalin, Joseph Joseph Stalin (1878–1953) 4 August 1917 10 October 1917 68 days Stasova, Yelena Yelena Stasova (1873–1966) 4 August 1917 10 October 1917 68 days Uritsky, Moisei Moisei Uritsky (1873–1918) 4 August ...more...



Communist Party of Uzbekistan

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The Communist Party of Uzbekistan ( Russian : Коммунистическая партия Узбекистана , Uzbek : Oʻzbekiston Kommunistik Partiyasi ), initially known as Communist Party (bolshevik) of Uzbekistan , was the ruling communist party of the Uzbek SSR , and a part of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union . First secretaries of the Communist Party of Uzbekistan Vladimir Ivanovich Ivanov (12 February 1925 – 1927) Kuprian Osipovich Kirkizh (1927 – April 1929) Nikolay Fyodorovich Gikalo (April – 11 June 1929) Isaak Abramovich Zelensky (June – December 1929) Akmal Ikramovich Ikramov (December 1929 – 21 September 1937) Pyotr Yakovlev (21 September 1937 – 27 September 1937) (acting) Usman Yusupovich Yusupov (27 September 1937 – 7 April 1953) Amin Irmatovich Niyazov (7 April 1953 – 22 December 1955) Nuriddin Akromovich Muhiddinov (22 December 1955 – 28 December 1957) Sobir Kamolovich Kamolov (28 December 1957 – 15 March 1959) Sharof Rashidovich Rashidov (15 March 1959 – 31 October 1983) Inomjon Buzrukovich Usmonxo‘jayev (3 Nov ...more...




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