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XML Metadata Interchange

The XML Metadata Interchange (XMI) is an Object Management Group (OMG) standard for exchanging metadata information via Extensible Markup Language (XML).

It can be used for any metadata whose metamodel can be expressed in Meta-Object Facility (MOF).

The most common use of XMI is as an interchange format for UML models, although it can also be used for serialization of models of other languages (metamodels).


In the OMG vision of modeling, data is split into abstract models and concrete models. The abstract models represent the semantic information, whereas the concrete models represent visual diagrams. Abstract models are instances of arbitrary MOF-based modeling languages such as UML or SysML. For diagrams, the Diagram Interchange (DI, XMI[DI]) standard is used. At the moment there are several incompatibilities between different modeling tool vendor implementations of XMI, even between interchange of abstract model data. The usage of Diagram Interchange is almost nonexistent. Unfortunately this means exchanging files between UML modeling tools using XMI is rarely possible.

One purpose of XML Metadata Interchange (XMI) is to enable easy interchange of metadata between UML-based modeling tools and MOF-based metadata repositories in distributed heterogeneous environments. XMI is also commonly used as the medium by which models are passed from modeling tools to software generation tools as part of model-driven engineering.

Integration of industry standards

XMI integrates four industry standards:

  • XML – Extensible Markup Language, a W3C standard.
  • UML – Unified Modeling Language, an OMG modeling standard.
  • MOF – Meta Object Facility, an OMG language for specifying metamodels.
  • MOF – Mapping to XMI

The integration of these four standards into XMI allows tool developers of distributed systems to share object models and other metadata.

Several versions of XMI have been created: 1.0, 1.1, 1.2, 2.0, 2.1, 2.1.1, 2.4, 2.4.1, 2.4.2. and 2 5.1. The 2.x versions are radically different from the 1.x series.

Version Release date URL
2.5.1 June 2015
2.4.2 April 2014
2.4.1 August 2011
2.4 March 2011
2.1.1 December 2007
2.1 September 2005

There are now other XML standards for representing metadata. One of the most recent is the Web Ontology Language (OWL) (but ontologies are a very specialized kind of metadata, and OWL has no built-in support for most of the information represented in UML). OWL is built upon the Resource Description Framework (RDF).

The Diagram Definition OMG project is another alternative, which can also express the layout and graphical representation.[1]

XMI is an international standard:

XMI 2.4.2
ISO/IEC 19509:2014 Information technology — XML Metadata Interchange (XMI)
XMI 2.0.1
ISO/IEC 19503:2005 Information technology — XML Metadata Interchange (XMI)
See also
  1. OMG (2012-07-01). "Diagram Definition, Version 1.0". Retrieved 2013-02-21.
External links
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Business Process Definition Metamodel


The Business Process Definition Metamodel ( BPDM ) is a standard definition of concepts used to express business process models (a metamodel ), adopted by the OMG (Object Management Group). Metamodels define concepts, relationships, and semantics for exchange of user models between different modeling tools. The exchange format is defined by XSD (XML Schema) and XMI (XML for Metadata Interchange), a specification for transformation of OMG metamodels to XML. Pursuant to the OMG's policies, the metamodel is the result of an open process involving submissions by member organizations, following a Request for Proposal (RFP) issued in 2003. BPDM was adopted in initial form in July 2007, and finalized in July 2008. BPDM provides abstract concepts as the basis for consistent interpretation of specialized concepts used by business process modelers. For example, the ordering of many of the graphical elements in a BPMN (Business Process Modeling Notation) diagram is depicted by arrows between those elements, but the spec ...more...

GPS Exchange Format


GPX , or GPS Exchange Format , is an XML schema designed as a common GPS data format for software applications. It can be used to describe waypoints , tracks , and routes. The format is open and can be used without the need to pay license fees. Location data (and optionally elevation, time, and other information) is stored in tags and can be interchanged between GPS devices and software. Common software applications for the data include viewing tracks projected onto various map sources, annotating maps, and geotagging photographs based on the time they were taken. Data types Waypoints, routes and tracks recorded by GPS receivers. These are the essential data contained in GPX files. Ellipsis (...) means that the previous element can be repeated. Additional data may exist within every markup but is not shown here: wptType is an individual waypoint among a collection of points with no sequential relationship. It consists of the WGS 84 (GPS) coordinates of a point and possibly other descriptive information. rteT ...more...

List of file formats


This is a list of file formats used by computers , organized by type. Filename extensions are usually noted in parentheses if they differ from the file format name or abbreviation. Many operating systems do not limit filenames to one extension shorter than 4 characters, as was common with some operating systems that supported the File Allocation Table (FAT) file system. Examples of operating systems that do not impose this limit include Unix-like systems, and Microsoft Windows NT , 95 , 98 , and Me which have no three character limit on extensions for 32-bit or 64-bit applications on file systems other than pre-Windows 95 and Windows NT 3.5 versions of the FAT file system. Some filenames are given extensions longer than three characters. Some file formats may be listed twice or more. An example is the .txt . Archive and compressed .cab – A cabinet (.cab) file is a library of compressed files stored as one file. Cabinet files are used to organize installation files that are copied to the user's system. .?Q? – ...more...

Comparison of Office Open XML and OpenDocument


This is a comparison of the Office Open XML document file format with the OpenDocument file format . Comparison File format Office Open XML OpenDocument Based on a format developed by Microsoft StarDivision / Sun Microsystems Predecessor file format Microsoft Office XML formats XML Standardized by Ecma International , ISO / IEC OASIS , ISO / IEC First public release date 2006 2005 First stable version Ecma International Standard ECMA-376 Office Open XML File Formats 1st edition OASIS OpenDocument Format for Office Applications (OpenDocument) v1.0 Latest stable version ISO/IEC IS 29500-1:2012—Office Open XML File Formats OASIS Open Document Format for Office Applications (OpenDocument) v1.2 Latest ISO/IEC standardised version ISO/IEC IS 29500-1:2012—Office Open XML File Formats ISO/IEC IS 26300:2006—Open Document Format for Office Applications (OpenDocument) v1.0 Language type Markup language ( XML ) Markup language ( XML ) XML schema representation XML Schema (W3C) (XSD) and RELAX NG (ISO/IEC 1 ...more...

Electronic common technical document


The electronic common technical document ( eCTD ) is an interface and international specification for the pharmaceutical industry to agency transfer of regulatory information. The specification is based on the Common Technical Document (CTD) format and was developed by the International Conference on Harmonisation (ICH) Multidisciplinary Group 2 Expert Working Group (ICH M2 EWG). History Version 2.0 of eCTD – an upgrade over the original CTD – was finalized on February 12, 2002, and version 3.0 was finalized on October 8 of the same year. As of August 2016, the most current version is 3.2.2, released on July 16, 2008. A Draft Implementation Guide for version 4.0 of eCTD was released in August 2012. However, work stalled on the project. An additional Draft Implementation Guide was released in February 2015 Draft specifications and guides were issued in April 2016 by the ICH and the FDA, followed by a May 13 ICH "teleconference to discuss the guidance and any questions and clarifications needed." U.S. On Ma ...more...

List of open formats


An open format is a file format for storing digital data , defined by a published specification usually maintained by a standards organization , and which can be used and implemented by anyone. For example, an open format can be implemented by both proprietary and free and open source software , using the typical software licenses used by each. In contrast to open formats, closed formats are considered trade secrets. Open formats are also called free file formats if they are not encumbered by any copyrights, patents, trademarks or other restrictions (for example, if they are in the public domain ) so that anyone may use them at no monetary cost for any desired purpose. Open formats (in alphabetical order) include: Multimedia Imaging APNG — It allows for animated PNG files that work similarly to animated GIF files. FLIF — Free Lossless Image Format. GBR – a 2D binary vector image file format, the de facto standard in the printed circuit board (PCB) industry GIF — CompuServe's Graphics Interchange Format (openl ...more...

Additive Manufacturing File Format


Additive Manufacturing File Format ( AMF ) is an open standard for describing objects for additive manufacturing processes such as 3D printing . The official ISO / ASTM 52915:2013 standard is an XML -based format designed to allow any computer-aided design software to describe the shape and composition of any 3D object to be fabricated on any 3D printer . Unlike its predecessor STL format , AMF has native support for color, materials, lattices, and constellations. Structure An AMF can represent one object, or multiple objects arranged in a constellation. Each object is described as a set of non-overlapping volumes. Each volume is described by a triangular mesh that references a set of points (vertices). These vertices can be shared among volumes belonging to the same object. An AMF file can also specify the material and the color of each volume, as well as the color of each triangle in the mesh. The AMF file is compressed using the zip compression format, but the ".amf" file extension is retained. A minimal A ...more...

Fedora Commons


Fedora (or Flexible Extensible Digital Object Repository Architecture ) is a digital asset management (DAM) architecture upon which institutional repositories , digital archives, and digital library systems might be built. Fedora is the underlying architecture for a digital repository , and is not a complete management, indexing, discovery, and delivery application. It is a modular architecture built on the principle that interoperability and extensibility are best achieved by the integration of data, interfaces, and mechanisms (i.e., executable programs) as clearly defined modules. History The Fedora Repository open source software is a project supported by the DuraSpace not-for-profit organization. The software has its origins in the Flexible Extensible Digital Object Repository Architecture (i.e., Fedora) which was originally designed and developed by researchers at Cornell University. Fedora is an architecture for storing, managing, and accessing digital content in the form of digital objects inspired by ...more...

Synchronized Multimedia Integration Language


Synchronized Multimedia Integration Language ( SMIL ( )) is a World Wide Web Consortium recommended Extensible Markup Language (XML) markup language to describe multimedia presentations. It defines markup for timing, layout, animations, visual transitions, and media embedding, among other things. SMIL allows presenting media items such as text, images, video, audio, links to other SMIL presentations, and files from multiple web servers. SMIL markup is written in XML, and has similarities to HTML . Version history As of 2008, the W3C Recommendation for SMIL is SMIL 3.0. SMIL 1.0 SMIL 1.0 became a W3C Recommendation in June 1999. SMIL 2.0 SMIL 2.0 became a W3C Recommendation in August 2001. SMIL 2.0 introduced a modular language structure that facilitated integration of SMIL semantics into other XML-based languages. Basic animation and timing modules were integrated into Scalable Vector Graphics ( SVG ) and the SMIL modules formed a basis for Timed-Text . The modular structure made it possible to define the sta ...more...



The AgMES (Agricultural Metadata Element set) initiative was developed by the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) of the United Nations and aims to encompass issues of semantic standards in the domain of agriculture with respect to description, resource discovery, interoperability and data exchange for different types of information resources. There are numerous other metadata schemas for different types of information resources. The following list contains a list of a few examples: Document-like Information Objects (DLIOs): Dublin Core , Agricultural Metadata Element Set (AgMES) Events: VCalendar Geographic and Regional Information: Geographic information—Metadata ISO/IEC 11179 Standards Persons: Friend-of-a-friend (FOAF), vCard Plant Production and Protection: Darwin Core (1.0 and 2.0) (DwC) AgMES as a namespace is designed to include agriculture specific extensions for terms and refinements from established standard metadata namespaces like Dublin Core , AGLS etc. Thus to be used for Document-like Inf ...more...



ANPA-1312 is a 7-bit news agency text markup specification published by the Newspaper Association of America , designed to standardize the content and structure of text news articles. It was last modified in 1989 and is still the most common method of transmitting news to newspapers, web sites and broadcasters from news agencies in North and South America. Although the specification provides for 1200 bit-per-second transmission speeds, modern transmission technology removes any speed limitations. Using fixed metadata fields and a series of control and other special characters, ANPA 1312 was designed to feed text stories to both teleprinters and computer-based news editing systems. Although the specification was based upon the 7-bit ASCII character set , some characters were declared to be replaced by traditional newspaper characters, e.g. small fractions and typesetting code. As such, it was a bridge between older typesetting methods, newspaper traditions and newer technology. Perhaps the best known part of A ...more...

Image file formats


Image file formats are standardized means of organizing and storing digital images . Image files are composed of digital data in one of these formats that can be rasterized for use on a computer display or printer. An image file format may store data in uncompressed, compressed, or vector formats. Once rasterized, an image becomes a grid of pixels, each of which has a number of bits to designate its color equal to the color depth of the device displaying it. Image file sizes The size of raster image files is positively correlated with the resolution and images size (number of pixels) and the color depth (bits per pixel). Images can be compressed in various ways, however. A compression algorithm stores either an exact representation or an approximation of the original image in a smaller number of bytes that can be expanded back to its uncompressed form with a corresponding decompression algorithm. Images with the same number of pixels and color depth can have very different compressed file size. Considering ex ...more...

UML tool


A UML tool or UML modeling tool is a software application that supports some or all of the notation and semantics associated with the Unified Modeling Language ( UML ), which is the industry standard general purpose modeling language for software engineering . UML tool is used broadly here to include application programs which are not exclusively focused on UML, but which support some functions of the Unified Modeling Language, either as an add-on, as a component or as a part of their overall functionality. Kinds of Functionality UML tools support the following kinds of functionality: Diagramming Diagramming in this context means creating and editing UML diagrams ; that is diagrams that follow the graphical notation of the Unified Modeling Language. The use of UML diagrams as a means to draw diagrams of – mostly – object-oriented software is generally agreed upon by software developers. When developers draw diagrams of object-oriented software, they usually follow the UML notation. On the other hand, it is of ...more...

Internationalized Resource Identifier


The Internationalized Resource Identifier ( IRI ) was defined by the Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF) in 2005 as a new internet standard to extend upon the existing Uniform Resource Identifier (URI) scheme. The new standard was published in RFC 3987 . While URIs are limited to a subset of the ASCII character set, IRIs may contain characters from the Universal Character Set (Unicode/ ISO 10646 ), including Chinese or Japanese kanji , Korean , Cyrillic characters, and so forth. Syntax IRI extend upon URIs by using the Universal Character Set whereas URIs were limited to the ASCII with far fewer characters. IRIs may be represented by a sequence of octets but by definition is defined as a sequence of characters because IRIs can be spoken or written by hand. Compatibility IRIs are mapped to URIs to retain backwards-compatibility with systems that do not support the new format. For applications and protocols that do not allow direct consumption of IRIs, the IRI should first be converted to Unicode using cano ...more...



The IMS Question and Test Interoperability specification (QTI) defines a standard format for the representation of assessment content and results, supporting the exchange of this material between authoring and delivery systems, repositories and other learning management systems . It allows assessment materials to be authored and delivered on multiple systems interchangeably. It is, therefore, designed to facilitate interoperability between systems. The specification consists of a data model that defines the structure of questions, assessments and results from questions and assessments together with an XML data binding that essentially defines a language for interchanging questions and other assessment material. The XML binding is widely used for exchanging questions between different authoring tools and by publishers. The assessment and results parts of the specification are less widely used. Background QTI was produced by the IMS Global Learning Consortium, which is an industry and academic consortium that d ...more...



SQL (  (   listen ) S-Q-L, "sequel"; Structured Query Language ) is a domain-specific language used in programming and designed for managing data held in a relational database management system (RDBMS), or for stream processing in a relational data stream management system (RDSMS). In comparison to older read/write APIs like ISAM or VSAM , SQL offers two main advantages: first, it introduced the concept of accessing many records with one single command; and second, it eliminates the need to specify how to reach a record, e.g. with or without an index. Originally based upon relational algebra and tuple relational calculus , SQL consists of many types of statements, which may be informally classed as sublanguages , commonly: a data query language (DQL), a data definition language (DDL), a data control language (DCL), and a data manipulation language (DML) . The scope of SQL includes data query, data manipulation (insert, update and delete), data definition ( schema creation and modification), and data a ...more...

Adobe FrameMaker


Adobe FrameMaker is a document processor designed for writing and editing large or complex documents, including structured documents . It was originally developed by Frame Technology Corporation, which was bought by Adobe . Overview FrameMaker became an Adobe product in 1995 when Adobe purchased Frame Technology Corp. Adobe added SGML support, which eventually morphed into today's XML support. In April 2004, Adobe stopped supporting FrameMaker for the Macintosh . This reinvigorated rumors surfacing in 2001 that product development and support for FrameMaker were being wound down. Adobe denied these rumors in 2001, later releasing FrameMaker 8 at the end of July 2007, FrameMaker 9 in 2009, FrameMaker 10 in 2011, FrameMaker 11 in 2012, FrameMaker 12 in 2014, FrameMaker (2015 release) in June 2015, and FrameMaker 2017 in January 2017. FrameMaker has two ways of approaching documents: structured and unstructured. Structured FrameMaker is used to achieve consistency in documentation within industries such as aer ...more...



BagIt is a hierarchical file packaging format designed to support disk-based storage and network transfer of arbitrary digital content. A "bag" consists of a "payload" (the arbitrary content) and "tags", which are metadata files intended to document the storage and transfer of the bag. A required tag file contains a manifest listing every file in the payload together with its corresponding checksum . The name, BagIt, is inspired by the "enclose and deposit" method, sometimes referred to as "bag it and tag it". Bags are ideal for digital content normally kept as a collection of files. They are also well-suited to the export, for archival purposes, of content normally kept in database structures that receiving parties are unlikely to support. Relying on cross-platform ( Windows and Unix ) filesystem naming conventions, a bag's payload may include any number of directories and sub-directories (folders and sub-folders). A bag can specify payload content indirectly via a "fetch.txt" file that lists URLs for conte ...more...

Unified Modeling Language


The Unified Modeling Language ( UML ) is a general-purpose, developmental, modeling language in the field of software engineering , that is intended to provide a standard way to visualize the design of a system. UML was originally motivated by the desire to standardize the disparate notational systems and approaches to software design developed by Grady Booch , Ivar Jacobson and James Rumbaugh at Rational Software in 1994–1995, with further development led by them through 1996. In 1997 UML was adopted as a standard by the Object Management Group (OMG), and has been managed by this organization ever since. In 2005 UML was also published by the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) as an approved ISO standard. Since then the standard has been periodically revised to cover the latest revision of UML. History History of object-oriented methods and notation Before UML 1.x UML has been evolving since the second half of the 1990s and has its roots in the object-oriented programming methods developed ...more...

Comma-separated values


In computing , a comma-separated values ( CSV ) file stores tabular data (numbers and text) in plain text . Each line of the file is a data record . Each record consists of one or more fields , separated by commas . The use of the comma as a field separator is the source of the name for this file format . The CSV file format is not standardized. The basic idea of separating fields with a comma is clear, but that idea gets complicated when the field data may also contain commas or even embedded line-breaks . CSV implementations may not handle such field data, or they may use quotation marks to surround the field. Quotation does not solve everything: some fields may need embedded quotation marks, so a CSV implementation may include escape characters or escape sequences. In addition, the term "CSV" also denotes some closely related delimiter-separated formats that use different field delimiters. These include tab-separated values and space-separated values. A delimiter that is not present in the field data (such ...more...

Geography Markup Language


The Geography Markup Language ( GML ) is the XML grammar defined by the Open Geospatial Consortium (OGC) to express geographical features. GML serves as a modeling language for geographic systems as well as an open interchange format for geographic transactions on the Internet. Key to GML's utility is its ability to integrate all forms of geographic information, including not only conventional "vector" or discrete objects, but coverages (see also GMLJP2 ) and sensor data. GML model GML contains a rich set of primitives which are used to build application specific schemas or application languages. These primitives include: Feature Geometry Coordinate reference system Topology Time Dynamic feature Coverage (including geographic images) Unit of measure Directions Observations Map presentation styling rules The original GML model was based on the World Wide Web Consortium 's Resource Description Framework (RDF). Subsequently, the OGC introduced XML schemas into GML's structure to help connect the various existing ...more...

Sharable Content Object Reference Model


Sharable Content Object Reference Model ( SCORM ) is a collection of standards and specifications for web-based electronic educational technology (also called e-learning). It defines communications between client side content and a host system (called "the run-time environment"), which is commonly supported by a learning management system . SCORM also defines how content may be packaged into a transferable ZIP file called "Package Interchange Format." SCORM is a specification of the Advanced Distributed Learning (ADL) Initiative from the Office of the United States Secretary of Defense . SCORM 2004 introduced a complex idea called sequencing, which is a set of rules that specifies the order in which a learner may experience content objects. In simple terms, they constrain a learner to a fixed set of paths through the training material, permit the learner to "bookmark" their progress when taking breaks, and assure the acceptability of test scores achieved by the learner. The standard uses XML , and it is based ...more...

Acct (protocol)


The acct URI scheme is a proposed internet standard published by the Internet Engineering Task Force , defined by RFC   7565 . The purpose of the scheme is to identify, rather than interact, with user accounts hosted by a service provider. This scheme differs from the DNS name which specifies the service provider. The acct URI was intended to be the single URI scheme that would return information about a person (or possibly a thing) that holds an account at a given domain . References "Making the Case for a New 'acct' URI Scheme" . Retrieved 12 October 2014 . Saint-Andre, Peter (May 2015). The 'acct' URI Scheme . Acknowledgements to WebFinger and RFC   7033 authors et al. in section "Acknowledgements", page 8. IETF . doi : 10.17487/RFC7565 . RFC 7565 . . Retrieved 2016-10-23 .   "May 2012 W3 List Archive" . Retrieved 12 October 2014 . External links List of Uniform Resource Identifier (URI) Schemes The acct URI scheme is a proposed internet standard published by the Intern ...more...

Encoded Archival Description


Encoded Archival Description (EAD) is an XML standard for encoding archival finding aids , maintained by the Technical Subcommittee for Encoded Archival Description of the Society of American Archivists , in partnership with the Library of Congress . History EAD originated at the 1993 Society of American Archivists annual meeting in New Orleans and was headed by Daniel Pitti at the University of California, Berkeley . The project's goal was to create a data standard for describing archives, similar to the MARC standards for describing bibliographic materials. The initial EAD Version 1.0 was released in the fall of 1998. Such a standard enables archives , museums , libraries , and manuscript repositories to list and describe their holdings in a manner that would be machine-readable and therefore easy to search, maintain and exchange. Since its inception, many archives and special collections have adopted it. In addition to the development and maintenance work done by the Society of American Archivists and t ...more...



The EpiDoc Collaborative, building recommendations for structured markup of epigraphic documents in TEI XML , was originally formed in 2000 by scholars at the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill : Tom Elliott, the former director of the Ancient World Mapping Center, with Hugh Cayless and Amy Hawkins. The guidelines have matured considerably through extensive discussion on the Markup list and other discussion fora, at several conferences, and through the experience of various pilot projects. The first major—but not by any means the only—epigraphic project to adopt and pilot the EpiDoc recommendations were the Inscriptions of Aphrodisias and Vindolanda Tablets Online in 2002-4, and the guidelines reached a degree of stability for the first time in that period. EpiDoc has since been adopted as the native format for the Greek Papyrology site, The EpiDoc schema and guidelines may also be applied, perhaps with some local modification to related palaeographical fields including Sigillography , a ...more...

CIDOC Conceptual Reference Model


The CIDOC Conceptual Reference Model ( CRM ) provides an extensible ontology for concepts and information in cultural heritage and museum documentation . It is the international standard ( ISO  21127:2014) for the controlled exchange of cultural heritage information. Galleries , libraries , archives , museums ( GLAMs ), and other cultural institutions are encouraged to use the CIDOC CRM to enhance accessibility to museum-related information and knowledge . History The CIDOC CRM emerged from the CIDOC Documentation Standards Group in the International Committee for Documentation of the International Council of Museums . Initially, until 1994, the work focused on developing an entity-relationship model for museum information, however, in 1996, the approach shifted to object-oriented modeling methodologies, resulting in the first "CIDOC Conceptual Reference Model (CRM)" in 1999. The process of standardizing the CIDOC CRM began in 2000 and was completed in 2006 with its acceptance as the ISO 21127 standard. Aims ...more...

GIS file formats


A GIS file format is a standard of encoding geographical information into a computer file . They are created mainly by government mapping agencies (such as the USGS or National Geospatial-Intelligence Agency ) or by GIS software developers. Raster A raster data type is, in essence, any type of digital image represented by reducible and enlargeable grids. Anyone who is familiar with digital photography will recognize the Raster graphics pixel as the smallest individual grid unit building block of an image, usually not readily identified as an artifact shape until an image is produced on a very large scale. A combination of the pixels making up an image color formation scheme will compose details of an image, as is distinct from the commonly used points, lines, and polygon area location symbols of scalable vector graphics as the basis of the vector model of area attribute rendering. While a digital image is concerned with its output blending together its grid based details as an identifiable representation of r ...more...

Media type


A media type (also MIME type and content type ) is a two-part identifier for file formats and format contents transmitted on the Internet . The Internet Assigned Numbers Authority (IANA) is the official authority for the standardization and publication of these classifications. Media types were originally defined in Request for Comments 2045 in November 1996 as a part of MIME (Multipurpose Internet Mail Extensions) specification, for denoting type of email message content and attachments; hence the name MIME type. Media types are also used by other internet protocols such as HTTP and document file formats such as HTML , for similar purpose. Naming A media type is composed of a type, a subtype, and optional parameters. As an example, an HTML file might be designated text/html; charset=UTF-8 . In this example text is the type, html is the subtype, and charset= UTF-8 is an optional parameter indicating the character encoding . Media type consists of top-level type name and sub-type name, which is further stru ...more...

Service-Oriented Localisation Architecture Solution


The Service-Oriented Localisation Architecture Solution , or SOLAS , enables the global conversation in communities and is an open source project of The Rosetta Foundation . History SOLAS was conceived at The Rosetta Foundation Design Fest in San Francisco, 5–6 February 2011. The original design was further developed as an open translation and localisation space at the Localisation Research Centre (LRC) at the University of Limerick (UL) in Ireland, part-financed by the Centre for Next Generation Localisation ( CNGL ), a Centre for Science, Engineering and Technology (CSET), supported by Science Foundation Ireland (SFI), the Irish Governments research funding agency, and industry partners. A YouTube video was published on 18 February 2011. SOLAS was demonstrated at the AGIS (Action for Global Information Sharing) event in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia, in December 2011. ORM design principles The SOLAS Design is based on the ORM Design Principles: O-pen (easy to join and to participate), R-ight (serve the right task ...more...



The American Society of Cinematographers Color Decision List ( ASC CDL ) is a format for the exchange of basic primary color grading information between equipment and software from different manufacturers. The format defines the math for three functions: Slope, Offset and Power. Each function uses a number for the red, green, and blue color channels for a total of nine numbers comprising a single color decision. A tenth number, Saturation, specified in the Version 1.2 release, applies to the R, G, and B color channels in combination. The ASC CDL was developed by the ASC Technology Committee , a combined group of cinematographers, post-production engineers, and other motion picture industry professionals. Although the basic controls of most color correction systems are similar, they differ somewhat in specific implementation and detail. The ASC CDL is a common standard that color correctors can translate their proprietary settings to and from. The ASC CDL functions are mathematically orthogonal primitives that ...more...

Final Cut Pro X


Final Cut Pro X (pronounced "Final Cut Pro Ten") is a professional non-linear video editing application published by Apple Inc. as part of their Pro Apps family of software programs. It was released on June 21, 2011 for sale in the Mac App Store and is the controversial successor to Final Cut Pro (both editors are incompatible and have quite different approaches to editing). Features Final Cut Pro X shares some of both its code and interface design philosophy with Apple’s consumer video editing software, iMovie . Interface Event Browser : Replacing “bins” in other NLEs , the Event Browser is where the original media is found and can be searched and sorted by various forms of metadata . Keyword Ranges, Favorite and Rejected Ranges, and Smart Collections allow for faster sorting of a large number of clips. Magnetic Timeline : Inventing an alternative to track-based timelines found in traditional NLEs , Final Cut's Magnetic Timeline uses Clip Connections to keep Connected Clips and Secondary Storylines in sync w ...more...

Rich Text Format


The Rich Text Format (often abbreviated RTF ) is a proprietary document file format with published specification developed by Microsoft Corporation from 1987 until 2008 for cross-platform document interchange with Microsoft products. Most word processors are able to read and write some versions of RTF. There are several different revisions of RTF specification and portability of files will depend on what version of RTF is being used. RTF specifications were changed and published with major Microsoft Word and Office versions. It should not be confused with enriched text ( media type "text/enriched" of RFC 1896 ) or its predecessor Rich Text (media type "text/richtext" of RFC 1341 and 1521 ), nor with IBM's RFT-DCA (Revisable Format Text-Document Content Architecture); these are completely different specifications. History Richard Brodie , Charles Simonyi , and David Luebbert, members of the Microsoft Word development team, developed the original RTF in the middle to late 1980s. Its syntax was influenced by ...more...

ISO 12083


ISO 12083 (informally known as "AAP markup" ) is an international SGML standard for document interchange between authors and publishers, featuring separate DTDs for books, serials, articles, and math. History In 1983, the Association of American Publishers (AAP), a coalition of book and journal publishers in North America, launched the Electronic Manuscript Project, the first effort ever to develop a commercial SGML application. The project sought to create a standard for document interchange that would allow the publishing industry to reap the benefits of descriptive markup , which was seen as “the most effective means of establishing a consistent method for preparing electronic manuscripts which can feed the publishing process.” . Key participants in the project included organizations such as the US Library of Congress , the American Society of Indexers, the IEEE , the American Chemical Society , the American Institute of Physics , and the American Mathematical Society . In 1983, Aspen Systems Corporation ...more...

Extract, transform, load


In computing , extract, transform, load ( ETL ) refers to a process in database usage and especially in data warehousing . The ETL process became a popular concept in the 1970s. Data extraction is where data is extracted from homogeneous or heterogeneous data sources; data transformation is where the data is transformed for storing in the proper format or structure for the purposes of querying and analysis; data loading where the data is loaded into the final target database, more specifically, an operational data store , data mart , or data warehouse. Since the data extraction takes time, it is common to execute the three phases in parallel. While the data is being extracted, another transformation process executes while processing the data already received and prepares it for loading while the data loading begins without waiting for the completion of the previous phases. ETL systems commonly integrate data from multiple applications (systems), typically developed and supported by different vendors or hosted ...more...



AES31 is a standard developed by the Audio Engineering Society for the interchange of digital audio projects between different systems. The primary purpose of the standard is to allow exchange of audio editing projects between digital audio workstations (DAWs). The standard is divided into three parts, the highlight of which is the project interchange format, which defines a standard for edit decision lists . Parts Part 1 - Disk format Ensures the ability to read files across platforms. Part 2 - File format Specifies use of monaural Broadcast Wave Format files Part 3 - Project interchange Provides a method of exchanging edit data in a text format. This allows an audio edit in one DAW to be opened in another, with little or no difference in the mix. The standard focuses on simple and accurate parsing, and human readability. Timecode The standard describes a 'time-code character format' (TCF), which is used to express time code information in character notation. It enables a sample-accurate time to be specified ...more...

JPEG 2000


JPEG 2000 ( JP2 ) is an image compression standard and coding system. It was created by the Joint Photographic Experts Group committee in 2000 with the intention of superseding their original discrete cosine transform -based JPEG standard (created in 1992) with a newly designed, wavelet -based method. The standardized filename extension is .jp2 for ISO / IEC 15444-1 conforming files and .jpx for the extended part-2 specifications, published as ISO/IEC 15444-2. The registered MIME types are defined in RFC 3745 . For ISO/IEC 15444-1 it is image/jp2 . JPEG 2000 code streams are regions of interest that offer several mechanisms to support spatial random access or region of interest access at varying degrees of granularity. It is possible to store different parts of the same picture using different quality. As of 2017, there are very few digital cameras that encode photos in the JPEG 2000 format, and many applications for viewing and editing photos still do not support it. Aims of the standard While there is a mod ...more...

List of International Organization for Standardization standards


This is a list of published International Organization for Standardization (ISO) standards and other deliverables. For a complete and up-to-date list of all the ISO standards, see the ISO catalogue. The standards are protected by copyright and most of them must be purchased. However, about 300 of the standards produced by ISO and IEC 's Joint Technical Committee 1 ( JTC1 ) have been made freely and publicly available. ISO 1 – ISO 99 ISO 1 :2016 Geometrical product specifications (GPS) - Standard reference temperature for the specification of geometrical and dimensional properties ISO 2 :1973 Textiles – Designation of the direction of twist in yarns and related products ISO 3 :1973 Preferred numbers – Series of preferred numbers ISO 4 :1997 Information and documentation – Rules for the abbreviation of title words and titles of publications ISO 5 Photography and graphic technology – Density measurements ISO 6 :1993 Photography – Black-and-white pictorial still camera negative film/process systems – Determinati ...more...

Gerber format


The Gerber format is an open ASCII vector format for 2D binary images . It is the de facto standard used by printed circuit board (PCB) industry software to describe the printed circuit board images: copper layers, solder mask, legend, etc. Gerber is used in PCB fabrication data . PCBs are designed on a specialized electronic design automation (EDA) or a computer-aided design (CAD) system. The CAD systems output PCB fabrication data to allow fabrication of the board. This data typically contains a Gerber file for each image layer (copper layers, solder mask, legend or silk ...). Gerber is also the standard image input format for all bare board fabrication equipment needing image data, such as photoplotters , legend printers, direct imagers or automated optical inspection (AOI) machines and for viewing reference images in different departments. For assembly the fabrication data contains the solder paste layers and the central locations of components to create the stencil and place and bond the components. T ...more...

Drama annotation


Drama annotation is the process of annotating the metadata of a drama . Given a drama expressed in some medium (text, video, audio, etc.), the process of metadata annotation identifies what are the elements that characterize the drama and annotates such elements in some metadata format. For example, in the sentence "Laertes and Polonius warn Ophelia to stay away from Hamlet." from the text Hamlet , the word "Laertes", which refers to a drama element, namely a character, will be annotated as "Char", taken from some set of metadata. This article addresses the drama annotation projects, with the sets of metadata and annotations proposed in the scientific literature, based markup languages and ontologies. Drama across media and genres Drama encompasses different media and languages, ranging from Greek tragedy and musical drama to action movies and video games : despite their huge differences, these examples share traits of the cultural construct that we recognise as drama. drama can be considered as a form of int ...more...

List of computing and IT abbreviations


This is a list of computing and IT acronyms and abbreviations . 0–9 #! —Shebang /. —Slashdot 1GL —First-Generation Programming Language 1NF —First Normal Form 10B2 —10BASE-2 10B5 —10BASE-5 10B-F —10BASE-F 10B-FB —10BASE-FB 10B-FL —10BASE-FL 10B-FP —10BASE-FP 10B-T —10BASE-T 100B-FX —100BASE-FX 100B-T —100BASE-T 100B-TX —100BASE-TX 100BVG —100BASE-VG 286 —Intel 80286 processor 2B1Q —2 Binary 1 Quaternary 2FA —Two-factor authentication 2GL —Second-Generation Programming Language 2NF —Second Normal Form 3GL —Third-Generation Programming Language 3GPP — 3rd Generation Partnership Project —'3G comms 3GPP2 — 3rd Generation Partnership Project 2 3NF —Third Normal Form 386 —Intel 80386 processor 486 —Intel 80486 processor 4B5B LF—4 Byte 5 Byte Local Fiber 4GL —Fourth-Generation Programming Language 4NF —Fourth Normal Form 5GL —Fifth-Generation Programming Language 5NF —Fifth Normal Form 6NF —Sixth Normal Form 8B10BLF —8 Byte 10 Byte Local Fiber 802.11 —Wireless LAN A AAA —Authentication Authorization, Accounting AABB ...more...

Character encoding


In computing character encoding is used to represent a repertoire of characters by some kind of encoding system. Depending on the abstraction level and context, corresponding code points and the resulting code space may be regarded as bit patterns , octets , natural numbers , electrical pulses , etc. A character encoding is used in computation , data storage , and transmission of textual data . "Character set", "character map", "codeset" and " code page " are related, but not identical, terms. Early character codes associated with the optical or electrical telegraph could only represent a subset of the characters used in written languages, sometimes restricted to upper case letters, numerals and some punctuation only. The low cost of digital representation of data in modern computer systems allows more elaborate character codes (such as Unicode ) which represent most of the characters used in many written languages. Character encoding using internationally accepted standards permits worldwide interchange of ...more...



ISO/IEC JTC 1/SC 37 Biometrics is a standardization subcommittee in the Joint Technical Committee ISO/IEC JTC 1 of the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) and the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC), which develops and facilitates standards within the field of biometrics. The international secretariat of ISO/IEC JTC 1/SC 37 is the American National Standards Institute (ANSI), located in the United States. History ISO/IEC JTC 1/SC 37 was established in August 2002, after the approval of a proposal submitted by ANSI to ISO/IEC JTC 1 for the establishment of a new JTC 1 subcommittee on biometrics. The main purpose of the new subcommittee was to provide an international venue that would harmonize and accelerate formal international biometric standardization, resulting in better interoperability, reliability, usability, and security for future standards based systems and applications. With better interoperability between biometrics systems, the success of these applications would be m ...more...

International Virtual Observatory Alliance


The International Virtual Observatory Alliance or IVOA is a worldwide scientific organisation formed in June 2002. Its mission is to facilitate international coordination and collaboration necessary for enabling global and integrated access to data gathered by astronomical observatories. An information system allowing such an access is called a Virtual Observatory . The main task of the organisation so far has focused on defining standards to ensure interoperability of the different virtual observatory projects already existing or in development. The IVOA now comprises 19 VO projects from Argentina, Armenia, Australia, Brazil, Canada, China, Europe, France, Germany, Hungary, India, Italy, Japan, Korea, Russia, Spain, Ukraine, the United Kingdom, and the United States. Membership is open to other national and international projects according to the IVOA Guidelines for Participation. Senior representatives from each national VObs project form the IVOA Executive Committee. A chair is chosen from among the repres ...more...

Object Management Group


The Object Management Group ( OMG ) is an international, open membership, not-for-profit technology standards consortium . OMG Task Forces develop enterprise integration standards for a wide range of technologies and industries. OMG modeling standards enable visual design, execution and maintenance of software and other processes. Originally aimed at standardizing distributed object-oriented systems, the company now focuses on modeling (programs, systems and business processes) and model-based standards. Overview OMG provides only specifications, and does not provide implementations. But before a specification can be accepted as a standard by OMG, the members of the submitter team must guarantee that they will bring a conforming product to market within a year. This is an attempt to prevent unimplemented (and unimplementable) standards. Other private companies or open source groups are encouraged to produce conforming products and OMG is attempting to develop mechanisms to enforce true interoperability. OMG h ...more...

Portable Network Graphics


Portable Network Graphics ( PNG ) is a raster graphics file format that supports lossless data compression . PNG was created as an improved, non-patented replacement for Graphics Interchange Format (GIF), and is the most widely used lossless image compression format on the Internet . PNG supports palette-based images (with palettes of 24-bit RGB or 32-bit RGBA colors), grayscale images (with or without alpha channel for transparency), and full-color non-palette-based RGB/RGBA images (with or without alpha channel). PNG was designed for transferring images on the Internet, not for professional-quality print graphics, and therefore does not support non-RGB color spaces such as CMYK . A PNG file contains a single image in an extensible structure of "chunks", encoding the basic pixels and other information such as textual comments and integrity checks documented in RFC 2083. PNG files nearly always use file extension PNG or png and are assigned MIME media type image/png . PNG was published as informational RFC 2 ...more...

Comparison of graphics file formats


This is a comparison of image file formats . General Ownership of the format and related information. Format Full name Owner Based Format File extension MIME type Application Patented Abc Advanced Bitonal Compression LEAD Technologies .abc Bitonal document and check images. Yes ADRG ARC Digitized Raster Graphics .adrg AdobeResource Adobe Systems TIFF? ADRI ARC Digitized Raster Images .adri AI Adobe Illustrator Document Adobe Systems .ai application/illustrator, application/postscript Adobe Illustrator files are editable using programs that support the format, such as Adobe Illustrator, Inkscape, CorelDRAW, etc. Yes Alias Pix image .pix, .matte, .mask, .alpha, .als Supported by GIMP AMI .ami Supported by Amica Paint ANI ANI file format Microsoft RIFF .ani Used by Microsoft Windows ANIM Electronic Arts and Commodore Amiga IFF .iff, .anim video/x-anim APNG Animated Portable Network Graphics Mozilla PNG .png image/png 1.9 and Opera No Apple Icon Image Apple Inc. .icns Used by macOS APX .apx Supported by Ebuyer Ph ...more...



Inkscape is a free and open-source vector graphics editor ; it can be used to create or edit vector graphics such as illustrations, diagrams, line arts, charts, logos and complex paintings. Inkscape's primary vector graphics format is Scalable Vector Graphics (SVG) , however many other formats can be imported and exported. Inkscape can render primitive vector shapes (e.g. rectangles, ellipses, polygons, arcs, spirals, stars and 3D boxes) and text. These objects may be filled with solid colors, patterns, radial or linear color gradients and their borders may be stroked, both with adjustable transparency. Embedding and optional tracing of raster graphics is also supported, enabling the editor to create vector graphics from photos and other raster sources. Created shapes can be further manipulated with transformations, such as moving, rotating, scaling and skewing. History Inkscape began in 2003 as a code fork of the Sodipodi project. Sodipodi, developed since 1999, was itself based on Raph Levien 's Gill (GNOM ...more...



ISO/IEC JTC 1/SC 36 Information Technology for Learning, Education and Training is a standardization subcommittee (SC), which is part of the Joint Technical Committee ISO/IEC JTC 1 of the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) and the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC), that develops and facilitates standards within the field of information technology (IT) for learning, education and training (LET). ISO/IEC JTC 1/SC 36 was established at the November 1999 ISO/IEC JTC 1 plenary in Seoul, Korea. The subcommittee held its first plenary meeting in March 2000 in London, United Kingdom. The international secretariat of ISO/IEC JTC 1/SC 36 is the Korean Agency for Technology and Standards (KATS), located in the Republic of Korea. Scope and mission The scope of ISO/IEC JTC 1/SC 36 is “Standardization in the field of information technologies for learning, education, and training (ITLET) to support individuals, groups, or organizations, and to enable interoperability and reusability of resou ...more...

Systems Modeling Language


The Systems Modeling Language ( SysML ) is a general-purpose modeling language for systems engineering applications. It supports the specification, analysis , design , verification and validation of a broad range of systems and systems-of-systems . SysML was originally developed by an open source specification project, and includes an open source license for distribution and use. SysML is defined as an extension of a subset of the Unified Modeling Language (UML) using UML's profile mechanism . The language's extensions were designed to support systems engineering activities. Overview SysML offers systems engineers several noteworthy improvements over UML, which tends to be software-centric. These improvements include the following: SysML's semantics are more flexible and expressive. SysML reduces UML's software-centric restrictions and adds two new diagram types, requirement and parametric diagrams. The former can be used for requirements engineering ; the latter can be used for performance analysis and qua ...more...

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