XML Metadata Interchange

The XML Metadata Interchange (XMI) is an Object Management Group (OMG) standard for exchanging metadata information via Extensible Markup Language (XML).

It can be used for any metadata whose metamodel can be expressed in Meta-Object Facility (MOF).

The most common use of XMI is as an interchange format for UML models, although it can also be used for serialization of models of other languages (metamodels).

Overview

In the OMG vision of modeling, data is split into abstract models and concrete models. The abstract models represent the semantic information, whereas the concrete models represent visual diagrams. Abstract models are instances of arbitrary MOF-based modeling languages such as UML or SysML. For diagrams, the Diagram Interchange (DI, XMI[DI]) standard is used. At the moment there are several incompatibilities between different modeling tool vendor implementations of XMI, even between interchange of abstract model data. The usage of Diagram Interchange is almost nonexistent. Unfortunately this means exchanging files between UML modeling tools using XMI is rarely possible.

One purpose of XML Metadata Interchange (XMI) is to enable easy interchange of metadata between UML-based modeling tools and MOF-based metadata repositories in distributed heterogeneous environments. XMI is also commonly used as the medium by which models are passed from modeling tools to software generation tools as part of model-driven engineering.

Integration of industry standards

XMI integrates four industry standards:

  • XML – Extensible Markup Language, a W3C standard.
  • UML – Unified Modeling Language, an OMG modeling standard.
  • MOF – Meta Object Facility, an OMG language for specifying metamodels.
  • MOF – Mapping to XMI

The integration of these four standards into XMI allows tool developers of distributed systems to share object models and other metadata.

Several versions of XMI have been created: 1.0, 1.1, 1.2, 2.0, 2.1, 2.1.1, 2.4, 2.4.1, 2.4.2. and 2 5.1. The 2.x versions are radically different from the 1.x series.

Version Release date URL
2.5.1 June 2015 http://www.omg.org/spec/XMI/2.5.1
2.4.2 April 2014 http://www.omg.org/spec/XMI/2.4.2
2.4.1 August 2011 http://www.omg.org/spec/XMI/2.4.1
2.4 March 2011 http://www.omg.org/spec/XMI/2.4
2.1.1 December 2007 http://www.omg.org/spec/XMI/2.1.1
2.1 September 2005 http://www.omg.org/spec/XMI/2.1

There are now other XML standards for representing metadata. One of the most recent is the Web Ontology Language (OWL) (but ontologies are a very specialized kind of metadata, and OWL has no built-in support for most of the information represented in UML). OWL is built upon the Resource Description Framework (RDF).

The Diagram Definition OMG project is another alternative, which can also express the layout and graphical representation.[1]

XMI is an international standard:

XMI 2.4.2
ISO/IEC 19509:2014 Information technology — XML Metadata Interchange (XMI)
XMI 2.0.1
ISO/IEC 19503:2005 Information technology — XML Metadata Interchange (XMI)
See also
References
  1. OMG (2012-07-01). "Diagram Definition, Version 1.0". Retrieved 2013-02-21.
External links
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XML Metadata Interchange

topic

XML Metadata Interchange

The XML Metadata Interchange (XMI) is an Object Management Group (OMG) standard for exchanging metadata information via Extensible Markup Language (XML). It can be used for any metadata whose metamodel can be expressed in Meta-Object Facility (MOF). The most common use of XMI is as an interchange format for UML models, although it can also be used for serialization of models of other languages (metamodels). Overview In the OMG vision of modeling, data is split into abstract models and concrete models. The abstract models represent the semantic information, whereas the concrete models represent visual diagrams. Abstract models are instances of arbitrary MOF-based modeling languages such as UML or SysML. For diagrams, the Diagram Interchange (DI, XMI[DI]) standard is used. At the moment there are several incompatibilities between different modeling tool vendor implementations of XMI, even between interchange of abstract model data. The usage of Diagram Interchange is almost nonexistent. Unfortunately this m ...more...

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XMI

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XMI

XMI may refer to: The IATA airport code of Masasi Airport XML Metadata Interchange, a standard for exchanging metadata information ...more...



Common warehouse metamodel

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Common warehouse metamodel

The common warehouse metamodel (CWM) defines a specification for modeling metadata for relational, non-relational, multi-dimensional, and most other objects found in a data warehousing environment. The specification is released and owned by the Object Management Group, which also claims a trademark in the use of "CWM".[1] By year 2011 the active version of the CWM specification is v1.1 with a supplementary specification, CWM metadata interchange patterns (MIP), which further refines the requirements for tools to inter-operate smoothly. Overview The CWM specifies interfaces that can be used to enable interchange of warehouse and business intelligence metadata between warehouse tools, warehouse platforms and warehouse metadata repositories in distributed heterogeneous environments. CWM is based on three standards: UML – Unified Modeling Language, an OMG modeling standard MOF – Meta Object Facility, an OMG metamodeling and metadata repository standard XMI – XML Metadata Interchange, an OMG metadata int ...more...

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Metadata registry

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Metadata registry

A metadata registry is a central location in an organization where metadata definitions are stored and maintained in a controlled method. A metadata repository is the database where metadata is stored. The registry also adds relationships with related metadata types. Use of metadata registries Metadata registries are used whenever data must be used consistently within an organization or group of organizations. Examples of these situations include: Organizations that transmit data using structures such as XML, Web Services or EDI Organizations that need consistent definitions of data across time, between databases, between organizations or between processes, for example when an organization builds a data warehouse Organizations that are attempting to break down "silos" of information captured within applications or proprietary file formats Central to the charter of any metadata management programme is the process of creating trusting relationships with stakeholders and that definitions and structures ...more...

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UXF

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UXF

Example of UXF In computing, UML eXchange Format (UXF) is a XML-based model interchange format for Unified Modeling Language (UML), which is a standard software modeling language. UXF is a structured format described in 1998 and intended to encode, publish, access and exchange UML models.[1] More recent alternatives include XML Metadata Interchange[2] and OMG's Diagram Definition standard.[3] Known uses UMLet is an application that uses UXF as its native file format. References Suzuki, Junichi; Yamamoto, Yoshikazu (1999). "Making UML Models Interoperable with UXF". Selected papers from the First International Workshop on The Unified Modeling Language - UML '98: Beyond the Notation. Association for Computing Machinery. CiteSeerX 10.1.1.19.474 . UML Forum. "UML FAQ". Retrieved 2013-02-21. OMG (2012-07-01). "Diagram Definition, Version 1.0". Retrieved 2013-02-21. ...more...

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Clinical Data Interchange Standards Consortium

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Clinical Data Interchange Standards Consortium

The Clinical Data Interchange Standards Consortium (CDISC) is an open, multidisciplinary, neutral, 501(c)(3) non-profit standards developing organization (SDO) that has been working through productive, consensus-based collaborative teams, since its formation in 1997, to develop global standards and innovations to streamline medical research and ensure a link with healthcare. The CDISC mission is "to develop and support global, platform-independent data standards that enable information system interoperability to improve medical research and related areas of healthcare". The CDISC Vision is "informing patient care and safety through higher quality medical research". The CDISC suite of standards supports medical research of any type from protocol through analysis and reporting of results. They have been shown to decrease resources needed by 60% overall and 70–90% in the start-up stages when they are implemented at the beginning of the research process.[1] They are harmonized through a model that is now not onl ...more...

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Eclipse Modeling Framework

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Eclipse Modeling Framework

Eclipse Modeling Framework (EMF) is an Eclipse-based modeling framework and code generation facility for building tools and other applications based on a structured data model. From a model specification described in XML Metadata Interchange (XMI), EMF provides tools and runtime support to produce a set of Java classes for the model, a set of adapter classes that enable viewing and command-based editing of the model, and a basic editor. Models can be specified using annotated Java, UML, XML documents, or modeling tools, then imported into EMF. Most important of all, EMF provides the foundation for interoperability with other EMF-based tools and applications. Ecore Ecore is the core (meta-)model at the heart of EMF. It allows expressing other models by leveraging its constructs. Ecore is also its own metamodel (i.e.: Ecore is defined in terms of itself). According to Ed Merks, EMF project lead, "Ecore is the defacto reference implementation of OMG's EMOF" (Essential Meta-Object Facility). Still according t ...more...

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Extensible Metadata Platform

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Extensible Metadata Platform

The Extensible Metadata Platform (XMP) is an ISO standard, originally created by Adobe Systems Inc., for the creation, processing and interchange of standardized and custom metadata for digital documents and data sets. XMP standardizes a data model, a serialization format and core properties for the definition and processing of extensible metadata. It also provides guidelines for embedding XMP information into popular image, video and document file formats, such as JPEG and PDF, without breaking their readability by applications that do not support XMP. Therefore, the non-XMP metadata have to be reconciled with the XMP properties. Although metadata can alternatively be stored in a sidecar file, embedding metadata avoids problems that occur when metadata is stored separately. The XMP data model, serialization format and core properties is published by the International Organization for Standardization as ISO 16684-1:2012 standard.[1] Data model The defined XMP data model can be used to store any set of met ...more...

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Requirements Interchange Format

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Requirements Interchange Format

RIF/ReqIF (Requirements Interchange Format) is an XML file format that can be used to exchange requirements, along with its associated metadata, between software tools from different vendors. The requirements exchange format also defines a workflow for transmitting the status of requirements between partners. Although developed in the automotive industry, ReqIF is suitable for lossless exchange of requirements in any industry. History In 2004, HIS (Herstellerinitiative Software) a consortium of German automotive manufacturers, defined a generic requirements interchange format called RIF. The format was handed over in 2008 to ProSTEP iViP e.V. for further maintenance. A project group responsible for international standardization further developed the format and handed over a revised version to Object Management Group (OMG) as Request for Comment in 2010.[1] As the acronym RIF had an ambiguous meaning within the OMG, the new name ReqIF was introduced to separate it from the W3C`s Rule Interchange Format. I ...more...

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Object Constraint Language

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Object Constraint Language

The Object Constraint Language (OCL) is a declarative language describing rules applying to Unified Modeling Language (UML) models developed at IBM and is now part of the UML standard. Initially, OCL was merely a formal specification language extension for UML.[1] OCL may now be used with any Meta-Object Facility (MOF) Object Management Group (OMG) meta-model, including UML.[2] The Object Constraint Language is a precise text language that provides constraint and object query expressions on any MOF model or meta-model that cannot otherwise be expressed by diagrammatic notation. OCL is a key component of the new OMG standard recommendation for transforming models, the Queries/Views/Transformations (QVT) specification. Description OCL is a descendant of Syntropy, a second-generation object-oriented analysis and design method. The OCL 1.4 definition specified a constraint language. In OCL 2.0, the definition has been extended to include general object query language definitions. OCL statements are constructed ...more...

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Metadata standard

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Metadata standard

A metadata standard is a requirement which is intended to establish a common understanding of the meaning or semantics of the data, to ensure correct and proper use and interpretation of the data by its owners and users. To achieve this common understanding, a number of characteristics, or attributes of the data have to be defined, also known as metadata.[1] Metadata Metadata is often defined as data about data.[2][3][4] It is “structured information that describes, explains, locates, or otherwise makes it easier to retrieve, use or manage an information resource”, especially in a distributed network environment like for example the internet or an organization.[5] A good example of metadata is the cataloging system found in libraries, which records for example the author, title, subject, and location on the shelf of a resource. Another is software system knowledge extraction of software objects such as data flows, control flows, call maps, architectures, business rules, business terms, and database schemas. ...more...

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IPTC Information Interchange Model

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IPTC Information Interchange Model

The Information Interchange Model (IIM) is a file structure and set of metadata attributes that can be applied to text, images and other media types. It was developed in the early 1990s by the International Press Telecommunications Council (IPTC) to expedite the international exchange of news among newspapers and news agencies. The full IIM specification includes a complex data structure and a set of metadata definitions. Although IIM was intended for use with all types of news items — including simple text articles — a subset found broad worldwide acceptance as the standard embedded metadata used by news and commercial photographers. Information such as the name of the photographer, copyright information and the caption or other description can be embedded either manually or automatically. IIM metadata embedded in images are often referred to as "IPTC headers", and can be easily encoded and decoded by most popular photo editing software. The Extensible Metadata Platform (XMP) has largely superseded IIM's ...more...

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Meta-Object Facility

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Meta-Object Facility

Illustration of the Meta-Object Facility. The Meta-Object Facility (MOF) is an Object Management Group (OMG) standard for model-driven engineering. Its purpose is to provide a type system for entities in the CORBA architecture and a set of interfaces through which those types can be created and manipulated. The official reference page may be found at OMG's website.[1] Overview MOF was developed to provide a type system for use in the CORBA architecture, a set of schemas by which the structure, meaning and behaviour of objects could be defined, and a set of CORBA interfaces through which these schemas could be created, stored and manipulated.[2] MOF is designed as a four-layered architecture. It provides a meta-meta model at the top layer, called the M3 layer. This M3-model is the language used by MOF to build metamodels, called M2-models. The most prominent example of a Layer 2 MOF model is the UML metamodel, the model that describes the UML itself. These M2-models describe elements of the M1-layer, and t ...more...

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Metadata

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Metadata

In the 2010s, metadata typically refers to digital forms, but traditional card catalogues contain metadata, with cards holding information about books in a library (author, title, subject, etc.). Metadata is "data [information] that provides information about other data".[1] Many distinct types of metadata exist, among these descriptive metadata, structural metadata, administrative metadata[2], reference metadata and statistical metadata[3] Descriptive metadata describes a resource for purposes such as discovery and identification. It can include elements such as title, abstract, author, and keywords. Structural metadata is metadata about containers of data and indicates how compound objects are put together, for example, how pages are ordered to form chapters. It describes the types, versions, relationships and other characteristics of digital materials. [4] Administrative metadata provides information to help manage a resource, such as when and how it was created, file type and other technical informa ...more...

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Publishing Requirements for Industry Standard Metadata

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Publishing Requirements for Industry Standard Metadata

The Publishing Requirements for Industry Standard Metadata (PRISM)[1] specification defines a set of XML metadata vocabularies for syndicating, aggregating, post-processing and multi-purposing content. PRISM provides a framework for the interchange and preservation of content and metadata, a collection of elements to describe that content, and a set of controlled vocabularies listing the values for those elements. PRISM can be XML, RDF/XML, or XMP and incorporates Dublin Core elements. PRISM can be thought of as a set of XML tags used to contain the metadata of articles and even tag article content. PRISM conforms to the World Wide Web standard for Namespaces. PRISM namespaces are PRISM (prism:), PRISM Usage Rights (pur:), Dublin Core (dc: and dcterms:), PRISM Inline Metadata (pim:), PRISM Rights Language (prl:), PRISM Aggregator Message (pam:), and PRISM Controlled Vocabulary (pcv:). PRISM incorporated existing industry standards such as Dublin Core and XHTML in order to leverage work that had already been ...more...

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Entity–attribute–value model

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Entity–attribute–value model

Entity–attribute–value model (EAV) is a data model to encode, in a space-efficient manner, entities where the number of attributes (properties, parameters) that can be used to describe them is potentially vast, but the number that will actually apply to a given entity is relatively modest. Such entities correspond to the mathematical notion of a sparse matrix. EAV is also known as object–attribute–value model, vertical database model, and open schema. Structure of an EAV table This data representation is analogous to space-efficient methods of storing a sparse matrix, where only non-empty values are stored. In an EAV data model, each attribute-value pair is a fact describing an entity, and a row in an EAV table stores a single fact. EAV tables are often described as "long and skinny": "long" refers to the number of rows, "skinny" to the few columns. Data is recorded as three columns: The entity: the item being described. The attribute or parameter: typically implemented as a foreign key into a table of ...more...

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Metadata publishing

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Metadata publishing

Metadata publishing is the process of making metadata data elements available to external users, both people and machines using a formal review process and a commitment to change control processes. Metadata publishing is the foundation upon which advanced distributed computing functions are being built. But like building foundations, care must be taken in metadata publishing systems to ensure the structural integrity of the systems built on top of them. Definition of metadata publishing Published metadata has the following characteristics: Metadata structures available to the general public on a public web site or by a download There is a documented review and approval process for adding or updating data elements to the system New releases are made available without disturbing prior versions A publishing organization that makes a commitment to change control process Benefits of metadata publishing When classifying benefits of metadata publishing two groups are usually considered. External parties a ...more...

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XML

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XML

In computing, Extensible Markup Language (XML) is a markup language that defines a set of rules for encoding documents in a format that is both human-readable and machine-readable. The W3C's XML 1.0 Specification[2] and several other related specifications[3]—all of them free open standards—define XML.[4] The design goals of XML emphasize simplicity, generality, and usability across the Internet.[5] It is a textual data format with strong support via Unicode for different human languages. Although the design of XML focuses on documents, the language is widely used for the representation of arbitrary data structures[6] such as those used in web services. Several schema systems exist to aid in the definition of XML-based languages, while programmers have developed many application programming interfaces (APIs) to aid the processing of XML data. Applications of XML The essence of why extensible markup languages are necessary is explained at Markup language (for example, see Markup language § XML) and at Stan ...more...

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Unified Modeling Language

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Unified Modeling Language

The Unified Modeling Language (UML) is a general-purpose, developmental, modeling language in the field of software engineering, that is intended to provide a standard way to visualize the design of a system.[1] The creation of UML was originally motivated by the desire to standardize the disparate notational systems and approaches to software design. It was developed by Grady Booch, Ivar Jacobson and James Rumbaugh at Rational Software in 1994–1995, with further development led by them through 1996.[1] In 1997 UML was adopted as a standard by the Object Management Group (OMG), and has been managed by this organization ever since. In 2005 UML was also published by the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) as an approved ISO standard.[2] Since then the standard has been periodically revised to cover the latest revision of UML.[3] History History of object-oriented methods and notation Before UML 1.0 UML has been evolving since the second half of the 1990s and has its roots in the object- ...more...

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JSON

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JSON

In computing, JavaScript Object Notation or JSON ( "Jason", )[1] is an open-standard file format that uses human-readable text to transmit data objects consisting of attribute–value pairs and array data types (or any other serializable value). It is a very common data format used for asynchronous browser–server communication, including as a replacement for XML in some AJAX-style systems.[2] JSON is a language-independent data format. It was derived from JavaScript, but as of 2017 many programming languages include code to generate and parse JSON-format data. The official Internet media type for JSON is application/json. JSON filenames use the extension .json. Douglas Crockford originally specified the JSON format in the early 2000s; two competing standards, RFC 8259 and ECMA-404,[3] defined it in 2017. The ECMA standard describes only the allowed syntax, whereas the RFC covers some security and interoperability considerations.[4] A restricted profile of JSON, known as I-JSON (short for "Internet JSON"), se ...more...

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UML tool

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UML tool

A UML tool or UML modeling tool is a software application that supports some or all of the notation and semantics associated with the Unified Modeling Language (UML), which is the industry standard general purpose modeling language for software engineering. UML tool is used broadly here to include application programs which are not exclusively focused on UML, but which support some functions of the Unified Modeling Language, either as an add-on, as a component or as a part of their overall functionality. Kinds of Functionality UML tools support the following kinds of functionality: Diagramming Diagramming in this context means creating and editing UML diagrams; that is diagrams that follow the graphical notation of the Unified Modeling Language. The use of UML diagrams as a means to draw diagrams of – mostly – object-oriented software is generally agreed upon by software developers. When developers draw diagrams of object-oriented software, they usually follow the UML notation. On the other hand, it is ...more...

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Uniform Resource Identifier

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Uniform Resource Identifier

A Uniform Resource Identifier (URI) is a string of characters designed for unambiguous identification of resources and extensibility via the URI scheme. Such identification enables interaction with representations of the resource over a network, typically the World Wide Web, using specific protocols. Schemes specifying a concrete syntax and associated protocols define each URI. The most common form of URI is the Uniform Resource Locator (URL), frequently referred to informally as a web address. More rarely seen in usage is the Uniform Resource Name (URN), which was designed to complement URLs by providing a mechanism for the identification of resources in particular namespaces. URL and URN A Uniform Resource Name (URN) is a URI that identifies a resource by name in a particular namespace. A URN may be used to talk about a resource without implying its location or how to access it. For example, in the International Standard Book Number (ISBN) system, ISBN 0-486-27557-4 identifies a specific edition of Shake ...more...

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ISO 20022

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ISO 20022

ISO 20022 is an ISO standard for electronic data interchange between financial institutions. It describes a metadata repository containing descriptions of messages and business processes, and a maintenance process for the repository content. The standard covers financial information transferred between financial institutions that includes payment transactions, securities trading and settlement information, credit and debit card transactions and other financial information. The repository contains a huge amount of financial services metadata that has been shared and standardized across the industry. The metadata is stored in UML models with a special ISO 20022 UML Profile. Underlying all of this is the ISO 20022 metamodel - a model of the models. The UML profile is the metamodel transformed into UML. The metadata is transformed into the syntax of messages used in financial networks. The first syntax supported for messages was XML Schema. ISO 20022 is widely used in financial services. Organizations participa ...more...

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Data exchange

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Data exchange

Data exchange is the process of taking data structured under a source schema and transforming it into data structured under a target schema, so that the target data is an accurate representation of the source data.[1] Data exchange allows data to be shared between different computer programs. It is similar to the related concept of data integration except that data is actually restructured (with possible loss of content) in data exchange. There may be no way to transform an instance given all of the constraints. Conversely, there may be numerous ways to transform the instance (possibly infinitely many), in which case a "best" choice of solutions has to be identified and justified. Single-domain data exchange In some domains, a few dozen different source and target schema (proprietary data formats) may exist. An "exchange" or "interchange format" is often developed for a single domain, and then necessary routines (mappings) are written to (indirectly) transform/translate each and every source schema to each ...more...

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List of types of XML schemas

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List of types of XML schemas

This is a list of XML schemas in use on the Internet sorted by purpose. XML schemas can be used to create XML documents for a wide range of purposes such as syndication, general exchange, and storage of data in a standard format. Bookmarks XBEL - XML Bookmark Exchange Language Brewing BeerXML: a free XML based data description standard for the exchange of brewing data [2] Business ARTSXML - Retail XML schema specifications by Association for Retail Technology Standards [3] Auto-lead Data Format - for communicating consumer purchase requests to automotive dealerships. PCXML and TXLife - Insurance Industry XML schema specifications by Association for Cooperative Operations Research and Development [4] eCOM XML Standards - eCom XML Standards, there are many XML standards, supporting processes like Order to Cash (Order, Deliver and Payment), Transport & Logistics and Upstream. ([5]) OAGIS - A library of business documents (purchase orders, invoices, shipments) that support business proce ...more...

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Common Logic

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Common Logic

Common Logic (CL) is a framework for a family of logic languages, based on first-order logic, intended to facilitate the exchange and transmission of knowledge in computer-based systems. The CL definition permits and encourages the development of a variety of different syntactic forms, called dialects. A dialect may use any desired syntax, but it must be possible to demonstrate precisely how the concrete syntax of a dialect conforms to the abstract CL semantics, which are based on a model theoretic interpretation. Each dialect may be then treated as a formal language. Once syntactic conformance is established, a dialect gets the CL semantics for free, as they are specified relative to the abstract syntax only, and hence are inherited by any conformant dialect. In addition, all CL dialects are equivalent (i.e., can be mechanically translated to each other), although some may be more expressive than others. In general, a less expressive subset of CL may be translated to a more expressive version of CL, but th ...more...

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Data mapping

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Data mapping

In computing and data management, data mapping is the process of creating data element mappings between two distinct data models. Data mapping is used as a first step for a wide variety of data integration tasks, including[1]: Data transformation or data mediation between a data source and a destination Identification of data relationships as part of data lineage analysis Discovery of hidden sensitive data such as the last four digits of a social security number hidden in another user id as part of a data masking or de-identification project Consolidation of multiple databases into a single database and identifying redundant columns of data for consolidation or elimination For example, a company that would like to transmit and receive purchases and invoices with other companies might use data mapping to create data maps from a company's data to standardized ANSI ASC X12 messages for items such as purchase orders and invoices. Standards X12 standards are generic Electronic Data Interchange (EDI) sta ...more...

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List of XML markup languages

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List of XML markup languages

This is a list of XML markup languages. A AdsML Markup language used for interchange of data between advertising systems. Agricultural Ontology Service AIML Markup language used for creating artificial intelligence chatterbots. AnIML Markup language used for data created by scientific analytical instruments.[1] Attention Profiling Mark-up Language (APML): format for capturing a person's interests and dislikes Atom (standard): The Atom Syndication Format is a language used for web feeds Automated Test Markup Language (ATML): defines a standard exchange medium for sharing information between components of automatic test systems. Attention.xml: used for RSS and similar online subscription-tracking applications[2][3] aecXML: a mark-up language which uses Industry Foundation Classes to create a vendor-neutral means to access data generated by Building Information Modeling. Auto-lead Data Format: an open XML-based standard specifically for communicating consumer purchase requests to automoti ...more...

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Object-oriented analysis and design

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Object-oriented analysis and design

Object-oriented analysis and design (OOAD) is a popular technical approach for analyzing and designing an application, system, or business by applying object-oriented programming, as well as using visual modeling throughout the development life cycles to foster better stakeholder communication and product quality. According to the popular guide Unified Process, OOAD in modern software engineering is best conducted in an iterative and incremental way. Iteration by iteration, the outputs of OOAD activities, analysis models for OOA and design models for OOD respectively, will be refined and evolve continuously driven by key factors like risks and business value. History In the early days of object-oriented technology before the mid-1990s, there were many different competing methodologies for software development and object-oriented modeling, often tied to specific Computer Aided Software Engineering (CASE) tool vendors. No standard notations, consistent terms and process guides were the major concerns at the ...more...

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Document-oriented database

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Document-oriented database

A document-oriented database, or document store, is a computer program designed for storing, retrieving and managing document-oriented information, also known as semi-structured data. Document-oriented databases are one of the main categories of NoSQL databases, and the popularity of the term "document-oriented database" has grown[1] with the use of the term NoSQL itself. XML databases are a subclass of document-oriented databases that are optimized to work with XML documents. Graph databases are similar, but add another layer, the relationship, which allows them to link documents for rapid traversal. Document-oriented databases are inherently a subclass of the key-value store, another NoSQL database concept. The difference lies in the way the data is processed; in a key-value store, the data is considered to be inherently opaque to the database, whereas a document-oriented system relies on internal structure in the document in order to extract metadata that the database engine uses for further optimization. ...more...

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XSIL

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XSIL

XSIL (Extensible Scientific Interchange Language) is an XML-based transport language for scientific data, supporting the inclusion of both in-file data and metadata. The language comes with an extensible Java object model. The language's elementary objects include Param (arbitrary association between a keyword and a value), Array, Table (a set of column headings followed by a set of records), and Stream, which enables one to either encapsulate data inside the XSIL file or point to an external data source. BFD is an XML dialect based on XSIL. External links XSIL: Extensible Scientific Interchange Language ...more...

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Platform-specific model

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Platform-specific model

A platform-specific model is a model of a software or business system that is linked to a specific technological platform (e.g. a specific programming language, operating system, document file format or database). Platform-specific models are indispensable for the actual implementation of a system. For example, a need to implement an online shop. The system will need to store information regarding users, goods, credit cards, etc. The designer might decide to use for this purpose an Oracle database. For this to work, the designer will need to express concepts (e.g. the concept of a user) in a relational model using the Oracle's SQL dialect. This Oracle's specific relational model is an example of a Platform-specific model. The term platform-specific model is most frequently used in the context of the MDA approach. This MDA approach corresponds the OMG vision of Model Driven Engineering. The main idea is that it should be possible to use a MTL to transform a Platform-independent model into a Platform-specific ...more...

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Text Encoding Initiative

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Text Encoding Initiative

The Text Encoding Initiative (TEI) is a text-centric community of practice in the academic field of digital humanities, operating continuously since the 1980s. The community currently runs a mailing list, meetings and conference series, and maintains an eponymous technical standard, a journal, a wiki, a GitHub repository and a toolchain. TEI guidelines The TEI Guidelines, which collectively define an XML format, are the defining output of the community of practice. The format differs from other well-known open formats for text (such as HTML and OpenDocument) in that it's primarily semantic rather than presentational; the semantics and interpretation of every tag and attribute are specified. Some 500 different textual components and concepts (word,[1]sentence,[2]character,[3]glyph,[4]person,[5] etc.); each is grounded in one or more academic discipline and examples are given. Technical details The standard is split into two parts, a discursive textual description with extended examples and discussion and s ...more...

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Textual scholarship

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S1000D

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S1000D

S1000D is an international specification for the procurement and production of technical publications. It is an XML specification for preparing, managing, and using equipment maintenance and operations information. It was initially developed by the AeroSpace and Defence Industries Association of Europe (ASD) for use with military aircraft. The specification has since been modified for use with land, sea, and commercial equipment. S1000D is part of the S-Series of ILS specifications. S1000D is maintained by the S1000D Steering Committee,[1] which includes board members from ASD, the United States' Aerospace Industries Association (AIA), and the Air Transport Association (ATA), along with national industry and defence representatives from most of the countries currently using the specification. The specification is free to download and use, although it is recommended that advice be sought on the best methods for implementing an S1000D repository. S1000D requires a document to be broken down into individual d ...more...

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EPUB

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EPUB

EPUB is an e-book file format with the extension .epub EPUB files can be read using complying software on devices like smartphones, tablets, computers, or e-readers. It is a technical standard published by the International Digital Publishing Forum (IDPF). The term is short for electronic publication and is sometimes styled ePub. EPUB became an official standard of the IDPF in September 2007, superseding the older Open eBook standard.[2] The Book Industry Study Group endorses EPUB 3 as the format of choice for packaging content and has stated that the global book publishing industry should rally around a single standard.[3] EPUB format is implemented as an archive file consisting of HTML files carrying the content, along with images and other supporting files. EPUB is the most widely supported vendor-independent XML-based (as opposed to PDF) e-book format; that is, it is supported by the largest number of hardware readers. History A successor to the Open eBook Publication Structure, EPUB 2.0 was approved in ...more...

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File format

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File format

A file format is a standard way that information is encoded for storage in a computer file. It specifies how bits are used to encode information in a digital storage medium. File formats may be either proprietary or free and may be either unpublished or open. Some file formats are designed for very particular types of data: PNG files, for example, store bitmapped images using lossless data compression. Other file formats, however, are designed for storage of several different types of data: the Ogg format can act as a container for different types of multimedia including any combination of audio and video, with or without text (such as subtitles), and metadata. A text file can contain any stream of characters, including possible control characters, and is encoded in one of various character encoding schemes. Some file formats, such as HTML, scalable vector graphics, and the source code of computer software are text files with defined syntaxes that allow them to be used for specific purposes. Specifications ...more...

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News Industry Text Format

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News Industry Text Format

News Industry Text Format (NITF) is an XML specification designed to standardize the content and structure of individual text news articles. Usage The NITF specification defines a standard way to mark up an article's content and structure, as well as a wide variety of metadata that different organizations may choose to use. Additionally, multimedia can be associated with articles, although NITF does not allow for layout of multimedia within article text.[1] Since NITF files are XML, they can be easily parsed, as well as transformed via XSLT to other formats. The format is widely used across the news industry. Newspapers such as The New York Times, amongst others, news agencies such as Associated Press and Agence France-Presse, and archival services such as LexisNexis use NITF for inter-agency transmission of news as well as internal transmission and storage.[2] NITF complements NewsML-G2 — an IPTC XML format for bundling and transmitting news. NITF provided schema (XSD) files in addition to DTDs for vali ...more...

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Data definition specification

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Data definition specification

In computing, a data definition specification (DDS) is a guideline to ensure comprehensive and consistent data definition. It represents the attributes required to quantify data definition. A comprehensive data definition specification encompasses enterprise data, the hierarchy of data management, prescribed guidance enforcement and criteria to determine compliance. Overview A data definition specification may be developed for any organization or specialized field, improving the quality of its products through consistency and transparency. It eliminates redundancy (since all contributing areas are referencing the same specification) and provides standardization, making it easier and more efficient to create, modify, verify, analyze and share information across the enterprise.[1] To understand how a data definition specification works in an enterprise, we must look at the elements of a DDS. Writing data definitions, defining business terms (or rules) in the context of a particular environment, provides stru ...more...

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ExifTool

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ExifTool

ExifTool is a free and open-source software program for reading, writing, and manipulating image, audio, video, and PDF metadata. It is platform independent, available as both a Perl library (Image::ExifTool) and command-line application. ExifTool is commonly incorporated into different types of digital workflows and supports many types of metadata including Exif, IPTC, XMP, JFIF, GeoTIFF, ICC Profile, Photoshop IRB, FlashPix, AFCP and ID3, as well as the manufacturer-specific metadata formats of many digital cameras. The image hosting site Flickr uses ExifTool to parse the metadata from uploaded images.[3] Meta Information Encapsulation ExifTool implements its own open metadata format. It is designed to encapsulate meta information from many sources, in binary or textual form, and bundle it together with any type of file. It can either be a single file, wrapping existing data, or used as a sidecar file, carrying for example Exif or XMP metadata. Supported file types ExifTool can read, edit or create met ...more...

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Tag editors

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Object Management Group

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Object Management Group

The Object Management Group (OMG) is an international, open membership, not-for-profit technology standards consortium. OMG Task Forces develop enterprise integration standards for a wide range of technologies and industries. OMG modeling standards enable visual design, execution and maintenance of software and other processes. Originally aimed at standardizing distributed object-oriented systems, the company now focuses on modeling (programs, systems and business processes) and model-based standards. Overview OMG provides only specifications, and does not provide implementations. But before a specification can be accepted as a standard by OMG, the members of the submitter team must guarantee that they will bring a conforming product to market within a year. This is an attempt to prevent unimplemented (and unimplementable) standards. Other private companies or open source groups are encouraged to produce conforming products and OMG is attempting to develop mechanisms to enforce true interoperability. OMG ...more...

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IXML

topic

IXML

iXML is an open standard for the inclusion of location sound metadata in Broadcast Wave audio files. This includes things like Scene, Take and Notes information. It is the result of extended discussions between the various manufacturers of Field recorders, and editing systems. It is designed to standardise the exchange of metadata between these systems. The iXML specification describes an WAV RIFF chunk in BWF files which contains standard XML data following the iXML specification. Prior to the development of the iXML specification, the film and TV industry relied on the BWF bext description chunk which was used differently by many vendors to roughly encode some small metadata, but was invariably undefined, with too little space for full information. Whilst many systems tried to read what they could from the bext data, because of no specification and limited space, bext usefulness was limited. History The iXML concept was born during a meeting of various vendors, including manufacturers of field recorder ...more...

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List of file formats

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List of file formats

This is a list of file formats used by computers, organized by type. Filename extensions are usually noted in parentheses if they differ from the file format name or abbreviation. Many operating systems do not limit filenames to one extension shorter than 4 characters, as was common with some operating systems that supported the File Allocation Table (FAT) file system. Examples of operating systems that do not impose this limit include Unix-like systems, and Microsoft Windows NT, 95, 98, and Me which have no three character limit on extensions for 32-bit or 64-bit applications on file systems other than pre-Windows 95 and Windows NT 3.5 versions of the FAT file system. Some filenames are given extensions longer than three characters. Some file formats may be listed twice or more. An example is the .txt . Archive and compressed .cab – A cabinet (.cab) file is a library of compressed files stored as one file. Cabinet files are used to organize installation files that are copied to the user's system.[1] . ...more...

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Quake (series)

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Music Encoding Initiative

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Music Encoding Initiative

The Music Encoding Initiative (MEI) is an open-source[1] effort to create a system for representation musical documents in a machine-readable structure.[2] MEI closely mirrors work done by text scholars in the Text Encoding Initiative (TEI) and while the two encoding initiatives are not formally related, they share many common characteristics and development practices. The term "MEI", like "TEI", describes the governing organization and the markup language. The MEI community solicits input and development directions from specialists in various music research communities, including technologists, librarians, historians, and theorists in a common effort to discuss and define best practices for representing a broad range of musical documents and structures. The results of these discussions are then formalized into the MEI schema, a core set of rules for recording physical and intellectual characteristics of music notation documents. This schema is expressed in an XML Schema Language, with RelaxNG being the prefe ...more...

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Music notation file formats

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Journal Article Tag Suite

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Journal Article Tag Suite

The Journal Article Tag Suite (JATS) is an XML format used to describe scientific literature published online. It is a technical standard developed by the National Information Standards Organization (NISO) and approved by the American National Standards Institute with the code Z39.96-2012. The NISO project was a continuation of the work done by NLM/NCBI, and popularized by the NLM's PubMed Central as an de facto standard for archiving and interchange of scientific open-access journals and its contents with XML. With the NISO standardization the NLM initiative has gained a wider reach, and several other repositories, such as SciELO, adopted the XML formatting for scientific articles. The JATS provides a set of XML elements and attributes for describing the textual and graphical content of journal articles as well as some non-article material such as letters, editorials, and book and product reviews.[1] JATS allows for descriptions of the full article content or just the article header metadata; and allows o ...more...

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Semantic Web

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Semantic Web

The Semantic Web is an extension of the World Wide Web through standards by the World Wide Web Consortium (W3C).[1] The standards promote common data formats and exchange protocols on the Web, most fundamentally the Resource Description Framework (RDF). According to the W3C, "The Semantic Web provides a common framework that allows data to be shared and reused across application, enterprise, and community boundaries".[2] The Semantic Web is therefore regarded as an integrator across different content, information applications and systems. The term was coined by Tim Berners-Lee for a web of data (or data web)[3] that can be processed by machines[4]—that is, one in which much of the meaning is machine-readable. While its critics have questioned its feasibility, proponents argue that applications in industry, biology and human sciences research have already proven the validity of the original concept.[5] Berners-Lee originally expressed his vision of the Semantic Web as follows: I have a dream for the Web [in ...more...

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Web services

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Categories for the Description of Works of Art

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Categories for the Description of Works of Art

Categories for the Description of Works of Art (CDWA) describes the content of art databases by articulating a conceptual framework for describing and accessing information about works of art, architecture, other material culture, groups and collections of works, and related images. The CDWA includes 532 categories and subcategories. A small subset of categories are considered core in that they represent the minimum information necessary to identify and describe a work. The CDWA includes discussions, basic guidelines for cataloging, and examples. [1] Purpose The Categories provide a framework to which existing art information systems can be mapped and upon which new systems can be developed. In addition, the discussions in the CDWA identify vocabulary resources and descriptive practices that will make information residing in diverse systems both more compatible and more accessible. The use of the CDWA framework will contribute to the integrity and longevity of data and will facilitate its inevitable migrat ...more...

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Art history

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Advanced Authoring Format

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Advanced Authoring Format

The Advanced Authoring Format (AAF) is a professional file interchange format designed for the video post-production and authoring environment. It was created by the Advanced Media Workflow Association. The AMWA develops specifications and technologies to facilitate the deployment and operation of efficient media workflows, working closely with standards bodies like the SMPTE. General Technical work of the AMWA is through projects that strive for compatibility between AAF (Advanced Authoring Format), BXF, MXF (Material Exchange Format) and XML. The current projects fall into three categories: data models, interface specifications, and application specifications. AAF was created to help address the problem of multi-vendor, cross-platform interoperability for computer-based digital video production. There are two kinds of data that can be interchanged using AAF: • Audio, video, still image, graphics, text, animation, music, and other forms of multimedia data. In AAF these kinds of data are called essence da ...more...

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Film and video technology

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Systems Modeling Language

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Systems Modeling Language

Sysml diagrams collage The Systems Modeling Language (SysML)[1] is a general-purpose modeling language for systems engineering applications. It supports the specification, analysis, design, verification and validation of a broad range of systems and systems-of-systems. SysML was originally developed by an open source specification project, and includes an open source license for distribution and use.[2] SysML is defined as an extension of a subset of the Unified Modeling Language (UML) using UML's profile mechanism. The language's extensions were designed to support systems engineering activities. Overview SysML offers systems engineers several noteworthy improvements over UML, which tends to be software-centric. These improvements include the following:[2] SysML's semantics are more flexible and expressive. SysML reduces UML's software-centric restrictions and adds two new diagram types, requirement and parametric diagrams. The former can be used for requirements engineering; the latter can be used fo ...more...

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Image file formats

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Image file formats

Image file formats are standardized means of organizing and storing digital images. Image files are composed of digital data in one of these formats that can be rasterized for use on a computer display or printer. An image file format may store data in uncompressed, compressed, or vector formats. Once rasterized, an image becomes a grid of pixels, each of which has a number of bits to designate its color equal to the color depth of the device displaying it. Image file sizes The size of raster image files is positively correlated with the number of pixels in the image and the color depth (bits per pixel). Images can be compressed in various ways, however. A compression algorithm stores either an exact representation or an approximation of the original image in a smaller number of bytes that can be expanded back to its uncompressed form with a corresponding decompression algorithm. Images with the same number of pixels and color depth can have very different compressed file size. Considering exactly the same ...more...

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Graphics file formats

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International Press Telecommunications Council

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International Press Telecommunications Council

The International Press Telecommunications Council (IPTC), based in London, United Kingdom, is a consortium of the world's major news agencies, other news providers and news industry vendors and acts as the global standards body of the news media. Currently more than 50 companies and organizations from the news industry are members of the IPTC, including global players like Associated Press (AP), Agence France-Presse (AFP), Deutsche Presse-Agentur (dpa), BBC, Getty Images, Press Association (PA), Reuters and The New York Times. IPTC aims at simplifying the distribution of information. To achieve this technical standards are developed to improve the management and exchange of information between content providers, intermediaries and consumers. IPTC is committed to open standards and makes all standards freely available to its members and the wider community. The IPTC was established in 1965 by a group of news organisations including the Alliance Européenne des Agences de Presse (EANA), American Newspaper Pu ...more...

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Organizations started in 1965

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