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Wilhelminism

Kaiser Wilhelm II., Neo-Baroque painting by Max Koner for the German embassy, Hôtel Beauharnais, Paris (1891)

The Wilhelmine Period comprises the period of German history between 1890 and 1918, embracing the reign of Emperor Wilhelm II in the German Empire from the resignation of Chancellor Otto von Bismarck until the end of World War I and Wilhelm's abdication during the November Revolution. It roughly coincided with the Belle Époque era of Western Europe.

Characteristics

By Wilhelminism is not meant a conception of society associated with the name Wilhelm, and traceable to an intellectual initiative of the German Emperor. Rather, it relates to the image presented by Wilhelm II, and his demeanour, manifested by the public presentation of grandiose military parades, and self-aggrandisement on his part, this latter tendency having already been noticed by his grandfather Emperor Wilhelm I during the period that Wilhelm’s father Frederick was Crown Prince.

The term Wilhelminism also characterizes the social and cultural climate of the reign of Wilhelm II, which found expression in rigidly conservative attitudes relying on the Prussian Junker landowners and associated in the German Agrarian League. Thereby resembling the Victorian era in the United Kingdom, at the same time, the period was distinguished by an extraordinary belief in progress, which, while contributing to the enormous prosperity of the highly industrialised German Empire, was at odds with its social conservatism. Though Bismarcks's Anti-Socialist Laws were not renewed, Wilhelm's government continued to implement measures against Socialist ideas. Nevertheless, the Social Democratic Party continued to grow in strength and became the largest faction in the Reichstag parliament upon the 1912 elections. With stronger influence, the internal developments were characterised by an increasing loyalty of the party establishment towards Emperor and Reich; an attitude that was condemned as "revisionism" by its opponents and culminated in the Burgfrieden policy of granting loans to fund the German effort in World War I.

Foreign policies were founded on Wilhelm's imperialist ambitions and directed towards the establishment of Germany as a world power (Weltmacht); the desire for a "place in the sun" as coined by Secretary of State Bernhard von Bülow was shared by a large number of German citizens and intellectuals. German nationalism achieved a short-lived high point, following the acquisition of some remote colonial possessions on the African continent and in the South Seas, while external relations deteriorated: in 1890, Germany had refused to prolong the secret Reinsurance Treaty with Russia, concluded by Bismarck in 1887, and had to witness the forming of the Franco-Russian Alliance presenting a new two-front war scenario. The relations with the British were not only strained by the "Scramble for Africa" but also by the Anglo-German naval arms race. Wilhelm’s fascination for the German Navy, and his ambition to see it established as an instrument for the projection of world power, were reflected in everyday German life. Still until the middle of the twentieth century, boys were dressed in sailor suits, and in this way were impressed at an early age with the Navy’s aura and prestige.

Prussian Pickelhauben

The distinctive spiked helmet, the so-called Pickelhaube, although it had existed previously, and not only in the German Empire, was symbolic for the Wilhelmine period, for the Imperial Army, and German militarism in general (in various sign languages, the extended forefinger placed in front of the forehead, indicating the spiked helmet, is still the sign for “German”). The term is equally applied to the distinctive styles prevailing in the visual arts and architecture of the period, for example the ornate Germania postage stamps,[1] numerous government buildings as well as the Wilhelmine Ring housing areas of Berlin and many other German cities. It is also used to describe, among other things, an essentially Neo-Baroque, extraordinarily prestige-oriented style calculated to give expression to the German state’s claim to imperial power. This style was particularly exemplified by the grandiose Siegesallee, a boulevard of sculptures lampooned by Berliners as Puppenallee (“mall of dolls”), and was given official status by Wilhelm’s so-called “Rinnsteinrede“ (“gutter speech”) on what he considered modernist degenerate art at the inauguration of the extravagant boulevard on December 18, 1901.

See also
Literature
  • Geoff Eley (ed.) and James Retallack (ed.): Wilhelminism and its Legacies. German Modernities and the Meanings of Reform, 1890-1930. Essays for Hartmut Pogge von Strandmann. Berghahn Books, New York and Oxford, 2003
  • R. J. Evans (ed.) and Hartmut Pogge von Strandmann (ed.): The Coming of the First World War. Clarendon Press, 1990.
  • John C. G. Röhl: The Kaiser and his court: Wilhelm II and the government of Germany. Cambridge University Press, 1966.
  • John C. G. Röhl: Wilhelm II : The Kaiser's Personal Monarchy, 1888-1900 - August 2004.
  • John C. G. Röhl: Kaiser, Hof und Staat. Wilhelm II. und die deutsche Politik. C. H. Beck, Munich ³1988 (TB 2002), ISBN 978-3-406-49405-5.
  • John C. G. Röhl: Wilhelm II., C. H. Beck, Munich 1993–2008:
  • Fritz Fischer: Griff nach der Weltmacht. Die Kriegszielpolitik des kaiserlichen Deutschland 1914/18 (1961), Droste 2000 (reprint of special edition, 1967), ISBN 3-7700-0902-9.
References
External links
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Wilhelminism

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Kaiser Wilhelm II., Neo-Baroque painting by Max Koner for the German embassy, Hôtel Beauharnais , Paris (1891) The Wilhelmine Period comprises the period of German history between 1890 and 1918, embracing the reign of Emperor Wilhelm II in the German Empire from the resignation of Chancellor Otto von Bismarck until the end of World War I and Wilhelm's abdication during the November Revolution . It roughly coincided with the Belle Époque era of Western Europe. Characteristics By Wilhelminism is not meant a conception of society associated with the name Wilhelm, and traceable to an intellectual initiative of the German Emperor . Rather, it relates to the image presented by Wilhelm II, and his demeanour, manifested by the public presentation of grandiose military parades, and self-aggrandisement on his part, this latter tendency having already been noticed by his grandfather Emperor Wilhelm I during the period that Wilhelm’s father Frederick was Crown Prince. The term Wilhelminism also characterizes the social a ...more...



Rosa Luxemburg (film)

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Rosa Luxemburg ( German : Die Geduld der Rosa Luxemburg ) is a 1986 West German drama film directed by Margarethe von Trotta . The film received the 1986 German Film Award for Best Feature Film (Bester Spielfilm), and Barbara Sukowa won the Cannes Film Festival 's Best Actress Award and the German Film Award for Best Actress for her performance as Rosa Luxemburg . Plot Polish socialist and Marxist Rosa Luxemburg dreams about revolution during the era of German Wilhelminism . While Luxemburg campaigns relentlessly for her beliefs, getting repeatedly imprisoned in Germany as well as in Poland, she spars with lovers and comrades until the ambitious leader is assassinated by Freikorps for her leadership in the Spartacist uprising after World War I in 1919. Cast Barbara Sukowa as Rosa Luxemburg Daniel Olbrychski as Leo Jogiches Otto Sander as Karl Liebknecht Adelheid Arndt as Luise Kautsky Jürgen Holtz as Karl Kautsky Doris Schade as Clara Zetkin Hannes Jaenicke as Kostja Zetkin Jan Biczycki as August Bebel Karin ...more...



Belle Époque

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The Belle Époque or La Belle Époque ( French pronunciation: ​ ; French for "Beautiful Era") was a period of Western history . It is conventionally dated from the end of the Franco-Prussian War in 1871 to the outbreak of World War I in 1914. Occurring during the era of the French Third Republic (beginning 1870), it was a period characterized by optimism, regional peace, economic prosperity, an apex of colonial empires and technological , scientific and cultural innovations. In the climate of the period, especially in Paris , the arts flourished. Many masterpieces of literature, music, theater, and visual art gained recognition. The Belle Époque was named in retrospect, when it began to be considered a " Golden Age " in contrast to the horrors of World War I. In the United Kingdom , the Belle Époque overlapped with the late Victorian era and the Edwardian era . In Germany , the Belle Époque coincided with the Wilhelminism ; in Russia with the reigns of Alexander III and Nicholas II . In the United States , eme ...more...



Kyffhäuser Monument

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Main tower and equestrian statue of Emperor William I The Kyffhäuser Monument ( German : Kyffhäuserdenkmal ), also known as Barbarossa Monument (Barbarossadenkmal), is an Emperor William monument within the Kyffhäuser mountain range in the German state of Thuringia . It was erected in 1890–96 at the site of medieval Kyffhausen Castle near Bad Frankenhausen . The Kyffhäuser Monument is the third-largest monument in Germany, after the Monument to the Battle of the Nations (Völkerschlachtdenkmal) commemorating the 1813 Battle of Leipzig and the Emperor William Monument at Porta Westfalica , both of which also were designed by architect Bruno Schmitz (1858–1916). Geography The monument, which totals 81 metres (266 ft) tall, is located in the eastern part of the Kyffhäuser range at an elevation of c. 420 m (1,380 ft) below the Kyffhäuserburgberg peak, 439.7 m (1,443 ft). The site belongs to Steinthaleben in the municipal area of Kyffhäuserland , about 6.5 km (4.0 mi) north of Bad Frankenhausen and southwest of Til ...more...



Index of Germany-related articles

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Topics related to Germany (sorted alphabetically) include: 0–9 A map of Germany A Alb-Donau (district) Asylum in Germany Austro-Prussian War B Baden-Baden Baden-Württemberg Basic Law for the Federal Republic of Germany Bavaria Berlin Berlin Airlift Berlin Cathedral Berlin wall Biberach (district) Otto von Bismarck Bodensee (district) Böblingen (district) Bonn Brandenburg Willy Brandt Breisgau-Hochschwarzwald Bremen Bremen (state) Bundesrat (Germany) Bundestag Bundeswehr C The Coat of arms of Germany Calw Chancellor of Germany Chancellor of Germany (Federal Republic of Germany) Coinage of the Federal Republic of Germany Cologne Cologne Cathedral Culture of Germany D Danube Das Lied der Deutschen Demographics of Germany Deputy Chancellor of Germany Deutscher Akademischer Austauschdienst (DAAD) Deutschland (magazine) Deutschlandlied (National anthem of Germany) Dresden Düsseldorf Die Linke E East Germany Economy of Germany Elbe Emmendingen (district) Enabling Act of 1933 Enz (district) Erich Honecker Esslingen a ...more...



Baroque Revival architecture

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Belfast City Hall , an example of Edwardian Baroque architecture or "Wrenaissance" The Széchenyi Medicinal Bath in Budapest Alferaki Palace in Taganrog , Russia (1848) Sofia University rectorate in Sofia (1924-1934) The Church of Salta, Argentina The Baroque Revival , also known as Neo-Baroque (or Second Empire architecture in France), was an architectural style of the late 19th century. The term is used to describe architecture which displays important aspects of Baroque style, but is not of the Baroque period proper—i.e., the 17th and 18th centuries. Elements of the Baroque architectural tradition were an essential part of the curriculum of the École des Beaux-Arts in Paris, the pre-eminent school of architecture in the second half of the 19th century, and are integral to the Beaux-Arts architecture it engendered both in France and abroad. An ebullient sense of European imperialism encouraged an official architecture to reflect it in Britain and France, and in Germany and Italy the Baroque revival expresse ...more...



Pickelhaube

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Prussian police leather Pickelhaube The Pickelhaube (plural Pickelhauben; from the German Pickel, "point" or "pickaxe", and Haube, "bonnet", a general word for "headgear"), also Pickelhelm , was a spiked helmet worn in the nineteenth and twentieth centuries by German military , firefighters , and police . Although typically associated with the Prussian Army , which adopted it in 1842–43, the helmet was widely imitated by other armies during this period. History Origins Otto von Bismarck wearing a cuirassier officer's metal Pickelhaube The Pickelhaube was originally designed in 1842 by King Frederick William IV of Prussia , perhaps as a copy of similar helmets that were adopted at the same time by the Russian military. It is not clear whether this was a case of imitation, parallel invention, or if both were based on the earlier Napoleonic cuirassier . The early Russian type (known as "The Helmet of Yaroslav Mudry ") was also used by cavalry, which had used the spike as a holder for a horsehair plume in full ...more...



German Empire

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The German Empire ( German : Deutsches Kaiserreich , officially Deutsches Reich ) was the German nation state that existed from the Unification of Germany in 1871 until the abdication of Kaiser Wilhelm II in 1918. It was founded in 1871 when Wilhelm I, King of Prussia from the Hohenzollern dynasty was proclaimed the German Emperor in the Hall of Mirrors at the Palace of Versailles . Berlin became its capital with the Berlin Palace as the Emperor's official residence. Its constitution then entered into force, and Otto von Bismarck became the first Chancellor . As these events occurred, the Prussian -led North German Confederation and its southern German allies were still engaged in the Franco-Prussian War . The state was founded with the notable exclusion of Austria and, as such, represented the so-called Lesser German solution (Kleindeutsche Lösung). The German Empire consisted of 26 constituent territories, most of them ruled by royal families . They included four kingdoms , six grand duchies , five duch ...more...



Wilhelm II, German Emperor

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Wilhelm II , or William II , (Friedrich Wilhelm Viktor Albert; 27 January 1859 – 4 June 1941) was the last German Emperor (Kaiser) and King of Prussia , ruling the German Empire and the Kingdom of Prussia from 15 June 1888 to 9 November 1918. He was the eldest grandchild of the British Queen Victoria and related to many monarchs and princes of Europe. Acceding to the throne in 1888, he dismissed the Chancellor, Otto von Bismarck , in 1890 and launched Germany on a bellicose "New Course" in foreign affairs that culminated in his support for Austria-Hungary in the crisis of July 1914 that led in a matter of days to the First World War . Bombastic and impetuous, he sometimes made tactless pronouncements on sensitive topics without consulting his ministers, culminating in a disastrous Daily Telegraph interview in 1908 that cost him most of his influence. His leading generals, Paul von Hindenburg and Erich Ludendorff , dictated policy during the First World War with little regard for the civilian government. An i ...more...



Karl Wilhelm Diefenbach

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Karl Wilhelm Diefenbach (February 21, 1851, Hadamar , Duchy of Nassau – December 15, 1913, Capri ) was a German painter and social reformer . Life Diefenbach was a pioneer of the naturist and the peace movements . His country commune , Himmelhof, in Ober Sankt Veit near Vienna (1897–1899) was one of the models for the reform settlement Monte Verità in Ascona . His ideas included life in harmony with nature and rejection of monogamy , turning away from any religion (although he was a follower of theosophy ), and a vegetarian diet. When his commune went bankrupt, he moved to Capri and stayed there for the rest of his life. As a painter, Diefenbach was an independent representative of Symbolism . There has been a museum of his works in Certosa di San Giacomo on Capri since 1974. Selected words Frage an die Sterne (Asking the Stars), 1898 Du sollst nicht töten ( Thou shalt not kill ), 1903 Coastal Road near Sorrento - Amalfi , 1911 Il Tramonto (Sunset), by 1913 Sterbender Hirsch (Dying Deer), before 1913 Exhibi ...more...



Niall Ferguson

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Niall Campbell Ferguson ( ; born 18 April 1964) is a Scottish historian . He was the Laurence A. Tisch Professor of History at Harvard University . He is a senior research fellow at Jesus College, Oxford , a senior fellow at the Hoover Institution , Stanford University and visiting professor at the New College of the Humanities . He writes and speaks about international history , economic and financial history, and British and American imperialism . He is known for his provocative, contrarian views. Ferguson's books include Empire: How Britain Made the Modern World, The Ascent of Money: A Financial History of the World and Civilization: The West and the Rest, all of which he has presented as Channel 4 television series. In 2004, he was named as one of the 100 most influential people in the world by Time magazine . In previous years, he has been a contributing editor for Bloomberg Television and a columnist for Newsweek . Ferguson was an advisor to John McCain 's U.S. presidential campaign in 2008, supporte ...more...



Pax Americana

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Pax Americana (Latin for "American Peace", modeled after Pax Romana , Pax Britannica , and Pax Mongolica ) is a term applied to the concept of relative peace in the Western Hemisphere and later the world as a result of the preponderance of power enjoyed by the United States beginning around the middle of the 20th century and now in decline. Although the term finds its primary utility in the latter half of the 20th century, it has been used with different meanings and eras, such as the post- Civil War era in North America , and regionally in the Americas at the start of the 20th century. Pax Americana is primarily used in its modern connotations to refer to the peace among great powers established after the end of World War II in 1945, also called the Long Peace . In this modern sense, it has come to indicate the military and economic position of the United States in relation to other nations. For example, the Marshall Plan , which spent $13 billion to rebuild the economy of Western Europe, has been seen as " ...more...



German colonial empire

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An East African native Askari holding the German Empire's colonial flag The German colonial empire ( German : Deutsches Kolonialreich ) constituted the overseas colonies, dependencies and territories of Imperial Germany . Short-lived attempts of colonization by individual German states had occurred in preceding centuries, but crucial colonial efforts only began in 1884 with the Scramble for Africa . Claiming much of the left-over colonies that were yet unclaimed in the Scramble of Africa, Germany managed to build the third largest colonial empire after the British and the French ones. Germany lost control when World War I began in 1914 and its colonies were seized by its enemies in the first weeks of the war. However some military units held out for a while longer: German South West Africa surrendered in 1915, Kamerun in 1916 and German East Africa only in 1918 at the end of the war. Germany's colonial empire was officially confiscated with the Treaty of Versailles after Germany's defeat in the war and the v ...more...



List of ideologies named after people

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This list contains names of ideological systems, movements and trends named after persons. The stem may be either a person's real name or a nickname . Some of the eponyms are given by people adhering to the movements mentioned, others by outsiders. Political Artiguism , after José Gervasio Artigas Assadism , after Hafez al-Assad Bevanism , after Aneurin Bevan Blairism , after Tony Blair Blanquism , after Louis Auguste Blanqui Bolivarianism , after Simón Bolívar Bonapartism , after Napoleon Buharism , after Muhammadu Buhari Cameronism , after David Cameron Carlotism , after Carlota Joaquina of Spain Castroism , after Fidel and Raúl Castro Chavismo , after Hugo Chávez Clintonism , after Bill and Hillary Clinton Cobdenism , after Richard Cobden Colbertism , after Jean-Baptiste Colbert Craxism , after Bettino Craxi De Leonism , after Daniel De Leon Deng Xiaoping Theory , after Deng Xiaoping Đilasism , after Milovan Đilas Engelsism , after Friedrich Engels Francoism , after Francisco Franco Fujimorism after Albert ...more...



Herero and Namaqua genocide

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The Herero and Nama genocide was a campaign of racial extermination and collective punishment that the German Empire undertook in German South West Africa (modern-day Namibia ) against the Herero , Nama and San people . It is considered the first genocide of the 20th century. It took place between 1904 and 1907 during the Herero Wars . In January 1904, the Herero people, led by Samuel Maharero and Nama Captain Hendrik Witbooi , rebelled against German colonial rule . In August, German General Lothar von Trotha defeated the Herero in the Battle of Waterberg and drove them into the desert of Omaheke , where most of them died of dehydration. In October, the Nama people also rebelled against the Germans, only to suffer a similar fate. Between 24,000 and 100,000 Herero and 10,000 Nama died. The first phase of the genocide was characterized by widespread death from starvation and dehydration due to the prevention of the retreating Herero from leaving the Namib Desert by German forces. Once defeated, thous ...more...



List of films set in Berlin

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Berlin is a major center in the European and German film industry . It is home to more than 1000 film and television production companies and 270 movie theaters. Three hundred national and international co-productions are filmed in the region every year. The world renowned Babelsberg Studios and the production company UFA are located outside Berlin in Potsdam . The city is also home of the European Film Academy and the German Film Academy , and hosts the annual Berlin International Film Festival which is considered to be the largest publicly attended film festival in the world. This is a list of films whose setting is Berlin. 1920s 1922 Dr. Mabuse the Gambler (Dr. Mabuse, der Spieler), 1922 - first (silent) film about the character Doctor Mabuse from the novels of Norbert Jacques , by Fritz Lang . 1924 The Last Laugh (Der Letzte Mann), 1924 - the aging doorman at a Berlin hotel is demoted to washroom attendant but gets the last laugh, by F.W. Murnau . 1925 Variety (Varieté), 1925 - circus melodrama set in B ...more...



Harden–Eulenburg affair

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Maximilian Harden (left), journalist who reported on the homosexual relationship between Philip, Prince of Eulenburg (centre) and Kuno von Moltke (right) The Harden–Eulenburg affair , often simply Eulenburg affair , was the controversy surrounding a series of courts-martial and five civil trials regarding accusations of homosexual conduct, and accompanying libel trials, among prominent members of Kaiser Wilhelm II 's cabinet and entourage during 1907–1909. The affair centred on journalist Maximilian Harden 's accusations of homosexual conduct between Philipp, Prince of Eulenburg-Hertefeld , and General Kuno, Graf von Moltke . Accusations and counter-accusations quickly multiplied, and the phrase "Liebenberg Round Table" came to be used for the homosexual circle around the Kaiser. The affair received wide publicity and is often considered the biggest domestic scandal of the German Second Empire . It led to one of the first major public discussions of homosexuality in Germany, comparable to the trial of Oscar W ...more...



Gustav Bauer

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Gustav Adolf Bauer (   listen   ; 6 January 1870 – 16 September 1944) was a German Social Democratic Party leader and 11th Chancellor of Germany from 1919 to 1920. He served as head of government for a total of 219 days. Prior to becoming head of government, Bauer had been Minister of Labour in the first democratically elected German cabinet. After his cabinet resigned in March 1920, Bauer served as vice-chancellor, Minister of Transportation, and Minister of the Treasury in other cabinets of the Weimar Republic . Early life Bauer was born on 6 January 1870 in Darkehmen , near Königsberg in East Prussia (now Ozyorsk, Kaliningrad Oblast , Russia) as the son of bailiff Gustav Bauer and his wife Henriette (née Groß). From 1876 to 1884, he attended the Volksschule in Königsberg. After 1884, he worked as a clerk and later head clerk for a lawyer at Königsberg. In 1895, he became president of the Verband der Büroangestellten, a white-collar union that he co-founded. He also was editor of the publication Der Büroang ...more...



Timeline of LGBT history

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The following is a timeline of lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender ( LGBT ) history . Before the Common Era 10th millennium BCE – 5th millennium BCE 96th century BCE – 50th century BCE c. 9,600 BCE – c. 5,000 BCE  – Mesolithic rock art in Sicily depicts phallic male figures in pairs that have been interpreted variously, including as hunters, acrobats, religious initiates, and depictions of male homosexual intercourse. 8th millennium BCE 80th century BCE c. 8,000 BCE  – San rock paintings in Zimbabwe depict homosexuality. 8th millennium BCE – 2nd millennium BCE 70th century BCE – 17th century BCE c. 7,000 BCE – c. 1,700 BCE  – Among the sexual depictions in Neolithic and Bronze Age drawings and figurines from the Mediterranean are, as one author describes it, a " third sex " human figure having female breasts and male genitals or without distinguishing sex characteristics. In Neolithic Italy, female images are found in a domestic context, while images that combine sexual characteristics appear in burials o ...more...



Bremen City Hall

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The Bremen City Hall is the seat of the President of the Senate and Mayor of the Free Hanseatic City of Bremen . It is one of the most important examples of Brick Gothic architecture in Europe. Since 1973, it is protected by the monument protection act. In July 2004, along with the Bremen Roland , the building was added to the list of UNESCO World Heritage Sites . Locality The city hall stands on northeastern side of the market square in the historic city centre. Directly in front of it is the statue of Roland, mentioned above. On the opposite side of that square there is the ancient guildhall, called Schütting , still today seat of the board of commerce. On the southeastern side of the square is the seat of Bremen state parliament, called the Bürgerschaft . East of both, town hall and parliament, Bremen Cathedral is located. Near the northern corner of the town hall, the sculpture of the Town Musicians of Bremen (by Gerhard Marcks ) has been placed. North of it, there is the Church of Our Dear Lady ("Kirche ...more...



LGBT history in Germany

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This is a list of events in lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender (LGBT) history in Germany . Medieval and early modern periods 1007 – The Decretum of Burchard of Worms equates homosexual acts with other sexual transgressions such as adultery and argues, therefore, that it should have the same penance (generally fasting ). "Sodom and Gomorrah" from the Nuremberg Chronicle by Hartmann Schedel, 1493. 1493 -- Hartmann Schedel illustrates Sodom and Gomorrah in Nuremberg Chronicle . The Book of Genesis 18 and 19 describes the destruction of Sodom as punishment for homosexuality . Albrecht Dürer , Lot and His Daughters 1499 Albrecht Dürer paints " Lot (biblical person) and Lot's daughters " escaping Sodom and Gomorrah during its downfall due to homosexuality . 1532 – Holy Roman Empire makes sodomy punishable by death. Seventeenth-Century The Flight of Lot and His Family from-Sodom by Peter Paul Rubens,1613-15. 1615 -- Peter Paul Rubens paints "The Flight of Lot and his Family from Sodom ." 1620 – Brandenburg-Pruss ...more...



History of Lae

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As the township of Lae , in Morobe Province , Papua New Guinea is a relatively new entity, the history of the Lae environs is much older. Archaeology Humans have been in New Guinea for as long as 60,000 years, according to archaeological evidence, although this is under debate. Recent archaeological research suggests that 50,000 years ago, people may have occupied sites in the highlands at altitudes of up to 2000 metres, rather than being restricted to warmer coastal areas. European contact Russian anthropologist Nicholai Miklukho-Maklai made a number of expeditions to New Guinea, spending several years living among native tribes, and described their way of life in a comprehensive treatise. In 1793 Antoine Bruni d'Entrecasteaux sailed up tail of New Guinea into the Gulf he named Houn de Kermadec . In 1856 Italian Catholic priests arrived at Mandok Island, Siassi before being forced to leave by disease. In 1874 John Moresby on HMS Basilisk sails along Huon Gulf and names Parsee Point (Salamaua), the Markham, R ...more...



Siegesallee

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Map of Siegesallee from 1902 The Siegesallee ( German: , Victory Avenue) was a broad boulevard in Berlin , Germany . in 1895, Kaiser Wilhelm II ordered and financed the construction and expansion of an existing alley with a variety of marble statues, which was finalized in 1901. About 750 m in length, it ran northwards through the Tiergarten park from Kemperplatz (an intersection of roads on the southern edge of the park near Potsdamer Platz ), to the former site of the Berlin Victory Column at the Königsplatz , close to the Reichstag. Along its length the Siegesallee cut across the Charlottenburger Chausee (today's Straße des 17. Juni , the main avenue that runs east–west through the park and leads to the Brandenburg Gate ). The marble monuments and the neobaroque ensemble were ridiculed even by its contemporaries. Berlin folkore dubbed the Kaiser Denkmalwilly (Monument Billy) for his excessive historicism. Moves to have the statues demolished were thwarted after the end of the monarchy in 1919. The Siegess ...more...



Pomorska Street in Bydgoszcz

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Pomorska Street is an important street in downtown Bydgoszcz . Location Pomorska Street is roughly oriented south-north, starting from Gdańska Street up to the railway line to the north. It crosses important thoroughfares, such as Śniadecki Street , Cieszkowski Street or Swiętojańska street. Naming Through history, the street had the following names: Before 1920, "Der weg nach Schwetz" (Road to Świecie ), then "Rinkauerstraße" (from Rinkau - Polish : Rynkowo -, a village north of Bromberg ); 1920–1939, Ulica Pomorska (southern part)-Ulica Szczecińska (northern part); 1939–1945, Robert Ley Straße; since 1945, Ulica Pomorska. Current namesake of the street comes from the Kuyavian-Pomeranian Voivodeship . History View of northern part of Pomorska ca 1907 The axis has since long been the path linking Bydgoszcz to Świecie , German : Schwetz , hence its name on one of the first recorded maps from 1800, "Der weg nach Schwetz" (The road to Świecie ). In fact, this path was an historical thoroughfare, existing before ...more...



Schütting (Bremen)

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The Schütting , situated on the Marktplatz (market square) in Bremen , Germany , initially served the city's merchants and tradesmen as a guild house . In 1849, it became Bremen's chamber of commerce . Since 1973, it has been under monument protection. It lies on the south site of the Bremen marketplaces directly across from the town hall. Name Merchants' guildhalls named "Schütting" exist or have existed also in Bergen ( Norway ), there called Scotting, and in Lübeck , Lüneburg , Oldenburg (since 1604), Osnabrück and Rostock . They did not only serve administrative tasks and social events, but also as accommodation for foreign merchants. Therefore, the name can be related to the German word schützen meaning "to protect". Locality and politics The Bremish merchants' coat of arms above the entrance The first guild houses of the merchants were former private houses. In 1425, the aldermen purchased a house in Langenstraße on the corner with Hakenstraße. But in 1410, the town hall of Bremen at the market square ...more...



August Cieszkowski Street in Bydgoszcz

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August Cieszkowski Street belongs to architecturally remarkable streets of Bydgoszcz , with its Art Nouveau features from the Fin de siècle period, forming a homogeneous complex of tenements from the end of 19th-century beginnining of 20th century, most of which are registered on Kuyavian-Pomeranian Voivodeship Heritage List . Location The street is located in the middle Downtown district in Bydgoszcz, connecting on a southeast - northwest axis Gdańska Street to Pomorska Street . At its south-eastern end stands an Evangelical Methodist Church, and its opposite tip aims at the so-called Bydgoszcz Musical District. History The establishment of the street is associated with the dynamic development of the city in the second half of the 19th century. The location of Bydgoszcz Main train station, away from the current center of Bydgoszcz in 1851, eased the urban expansion of the city to the north and north-west. After the construction of new quarters along Gdańska Street , Dworcowa Street and Pomorska Street , ano ...more...



Sélestat

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Sélestat ( pronounced  ; Alsatian : Schlettstàdt; German : Schlettstadt) is a commune in the northeast region of France . An administrative division ( sous-préfecture ) of the Bas-Rhin department , the town lies on the Ill river, 17 kilometres (11 mi) from the Rhine and the German border. Sélestat is located between the largest communes of Alsace , Strasbourg and Mulhouse . In 2013, Sélestat had a total population of 19,332, which makes it the eighth most populous town in Alsace. During the Middle Ages and the Renaissance it was the third largest city in the region, after Strasbourg and Colmar , and it is ranked the third commune in Alsace for cultural heritage. Sélestat was founded in the 8th century as a port on the Ill and it experienced a long period of prosperity thanks to the trade in wine and a thriving religious and cultural life. It gradually declined after the Reformation and the French conquest in the 17th century. The town eventually experienced a new demographic growth in the second half of the 2 ...more...



History of LGBTQ in journalism

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The following is a timeline of lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender and queer (LGBTQ) journalism history. 19th century 1869  – The term " homosexual " appears in print for the first time in a German - Hungarian pamphlet written by Karl-Maria Kertbeny (1824–1882). 1899  – The first LGBT-related periodical is established, Jahrbuch für sexuelle Zwischenstufen . 20th century 1901–1909 Adolf Brand , the activist leader of the Gemeinschaft der Eigenen, working to overturn Paragraph 175, publishes a piece "outing" the imperial chancellor of Germany, Prince Bernhard von Bülow . The Prince sues Brand for libel and clears his name; Brand is sentenced to 18 months in prison. Harden-Eulenburg Affair in Germany. 1910s 1913  – The word faggot is first used in print in reference to gays in a vocabulary of criminal slang published in Portland, Oregon : "All the fagots [sic] (sissies) will be dressed in drag at the ball tonight". 1919  – In Berlin, Germany, Doctor Magnus Hirschfeld co-founds the Institut für Sexualwissenschaft ...more...



Procrustes (short story)

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" Procrustes " is an English-language science fiction short story written in 1994 by Larry Niven . It is the sixth in the series of stories about crashlander Beowulf Shaeffer . The short story was originally published in Crashlander (1994). The story is retold, from the point of view of Sigmund Ausfaller , in Juggler of Worlds . Plot summary Beowulf "Bey" Shaeffer, half-dreaming, fitfully remembers events leading up to the moment he is shot with an ARM punchgun, a weapon best described as a large-caliber handgun. The recent events, and his memories leading up to them, keep replaying in his head, and Shaeffer realizes that he must be inside Carlos Wu's special autodoc, and that he must be terribly damaged. When he finally awakens, Shaeffer learns he has been in the autodoc for four months and eleven days. He crawls out of the autodoc, feeling unbalanced, and finds himself on the same deserted island on which they had all landed, though he is alone. Moving to the center of the island, which is a shallow cone, h ...more...





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