WDC 65C02

The Western Design Center (WDC) 65C02 microprocessor is an enhanced CMOS version of the popular NMOS-based 8-bit MOS Technology 6502 microprocessor—the CMOS redesign being made by Bill Mensch in 1978. Over various periods of time, the 65C02 has been second-sourced by NCR, GTE, Rockwell, Synertek and Sanyo. The 65C02 has been used in some home computers, as well as in embedded applications, including medical-grade implanted devices.

W65C02S microprocessor in a PDIP-40 package.

Introduction and features

The 65C02 is a low cost, general-purpose 8-bit microprocessor (8-bit registers and data bus) with a 16-bit program counter and address bus. The variable length instruction set and manually optimized core size are intended to make the 65C02 well suited for low power system-on-chip (SoC) designs.

A Verilog hardware description model is available for designing the W65C02S core into an application-specific integrated circuit (ASIC) or a field-programmable gate array (FPGA). As is common in the semiconductor industry, WDC offers a development system, which includes a developer board, an in-circuit emulator (ICE) and a software development system.

The W65C02S–14 is the production version of the 65C02 microprocessor, and is available in PDIP, PLCC and QFP packages through distribution. The maximum officially supported ϕ2 (primary) clock speed is 14 MHz, indicated by the –14 part number suffix. The "S" designation indicates that the part has a fully static core, a feature that allows ϕ2 to be slowed down or fully stopped in either the high or low state with no loss of data. Typical microprocessors not implemented in CMOS have dynamic cores and will lose their internal register contents (and thus crash) if they are not continuously clocked at a rate between some minimum and maximum specified values.

General logic features
Die photograph of a Sitronix ST2064B microcontroller showing embedded W65C02S core in the upper right
Logic features
  • Vector pull (VPB) output indicates when interrupt vectors are being addressed
  • Memory lock (MLB) output indicates to other bus masters when a read-modify-write instruction is being processed
  • WAit-for-Interrupt (WAI) and SToP (STP) instructions reduce power consumption, decrease interrupt latency and enable synchronization with external events
Electrical features
  • Supply voltage specified at 1.71 V to 5.25 V
  • Current consumption (core) of 0.15 and 1.5 mA per MHz at 1.89 V and 5.25 V respectively
  • Variable length instruction set, enabling code size optimization over fixed length instruction set processors, results in power savings
  • Fully static circuitry allows stopping the clock to conserve power
Clocking features

The W65C02S may be operated at any convenient supply voltage (V) between 1.8 and 5 volts (±5%). The data sheet AC characteristics table lists operational characteristics at 5 V at 14 MHz, 3.3 V or 3 V at 8 MHz, 2.5 V at 4 MHz, and 1.8 V at 2 MHz. This information may be an artifact of an earlier data sheet, as a graph indicates that typical devices are capable of operation at higher speeds than suggested by the AC characteristics table, and that reliable operation at 20 MHz should be readily attainable with V at 5 volts, assuming the supporting hardware will allow it.

The W65C02S may also be operated at non-integral clock rates such as 13.5 MHz (digital SDTV luma sampling rate), 14.31818 MHz (NTSC colour carrier frequency × 4), 14.75 MHz (PAL square pixels), 14.7456 (baud rate crystal), etc., as long as V is sufficient to support the frequency. Designer Bill Mensch has pointed out that F is affected by off-chip factors, such as the capacitive load on the microprocessor's pins. Minimizing load by using short signal tracks and fewest devices helps raise F. The PLCC and QFP packages have less pin-to-pin capacitance than the PDIP package, and are more economical in the use of printed circuit board space.

WDC has reported that FPGA realizations of the W65C02S have been successfully operated at 200 MHz.

Comparison with the NMOS 6502Instruction set

The 65C02 shares its predecessor's 8-bit instruction set architecture and 16-bit memory address space $0000 to $FFFF allowing access to a total memory map of 64K. "Zero Page" spans $0000 to $00FF. "Page 1" spans memory address space $0100 to $01FF and is dedicated for the stack. On this processor the stack grows downwards with the stack pointer starting at $01FF and decrementing as the stack grows.

The 65C02 adds a number of improvements and documented opcodes, the most useful being instructions that can push or pull the X and Y index registers to/from the stack. Undefined opcodes have been converted into NOPs, although of varying instruction lengths.

Significantly, the defective "indirect jump page wrap" instruction (JMP (), where straddles a memory page boundary) has been fixed, eliminating a source of trouble for unwary assembly language programmers. This instruction has also been enhanced with .X register indexing, making it possible to code JMP (,X), enabling the development of a simple jump table management methodology.

Some variants of the 65C02 (including the WDC W65C02S and the Rockwell R65C00 family) feature individual bit manipulation operations (RMB, SMB, BBR and BBS). The 65SC02 was also available, which lacked these operations.

Status register

Other problems with the 6502, fixed in the 65C02, relate to its program status register, which contains eight system flags. Some flags are set or reset under program control. Others reflect the status of the machine after arithmetic or bit manipulation instructions.

6502 status flags, with meanings when set:

N Negative result
V Sign bit overflow
1 Undefined (always set)
B Break flag (set by BRK instruction)
D Decimal mode enabled
I IRQ disabled
Z Zero result
C Arithmetic carry (borrow)

In all NMOS logic forms of the 6502, the decimal flag (D flag) is not initialized to a known state following reset (state is "random") or when an interrupt is processed (state has been kept from "before the interrupt occurred"), which may lead to arbitrary behavior. This forces 6502 programmers to use the CLD instruction early in the reset handler code (it is generally the second instruction executed after SEI), as well as in the front end of the interrupt handler. The 65C02 addresses these problems by causing the D flag to be cleared at reset or upon receipt of an interrupt (after the status register is pushed onto the stack).

Also, in NMOS 6502s, the N, V, and Z flags are invalid when the processor is operating in decimal mode. The 65C02 fixes this problem (at the cost of an additional clock cycle), and thus increases the usefulness of decimal mode. [1]

65SC02

The 65SC02 is a variant of the WDC 65C02 without bit instructions.[2] The WDC 65C02 is the base for the HuC6280 by NEC used in their video game console TG-16 (PC-Engine)[3]

Notable uses of the 65C02Home computers Video game consoles Other products
  • TurboMaster accelerator cartridge for the Commodore 64 home computer (65C02 @ 4.09 MHz)
  • many dedicated chess computers i.e.: Mephisto MMV, Novag Super Constellation, Fidelity Elite and many more (4–20 MHz)
See also References
  1. "Differences between NMOS 6502 and CMOS 65c02". Retrieved 27 February 2018. N, V, and Z flags were incorrect after decimal operation (but C was ok). (CMOS adds one cycle to fix them.)
  2. Rodnay Zaks, Programmierung des 6502. Jetzt auch mit 6510, 65C02, 65SC02, p. 348
  3. http://archaicpixels.com/HuC6280
External links
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Graham Hill

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Graham Hill

Norman Graham Hill OBE[2] (15 February 1929 – 29 November 1975) was a British racing driver and team owner from England, who was twice Formula One World Champion. He is the only driver ever to win the Triple Crown of Motorsport—the 24 Hours of Le Mans, Indianapolis 500 and the Monaco Grand Prix.[3][4] He also appeared on TV in the 1970s on a variety of non-sporting programmes including panel games. He liked painting in his spare time. Hill and his son Damon were the first father and son pair to win Formula One World Championships. Hill's grandson Josh, Damon's son, also raced his way through the ranks until he retired from Formula Three in 2013 at the age of 22. Hill and five other members of the Embassy Hill team died in 1975 when the aeroplane he was piloting from France crashed in fog at night on Arkley golf course while attempting to land at Elstree Airfield in north London.[5][6] Early life Born in Hampstead, London, Hill attended Hendon Technical College and joined Smiths Instruments as an apprentice ...more...

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Jacques Villeneuve

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Jacques Villeneuve

Jacques Joseph Charles Villeneuve, OQ (French pronunciation: ​; born April 9, 1971), is a Canadian professional auto racing driver and amateur musician. He is the son of Formula One driver Gilles Villeneuve, and is the namesake of his uncle, who was also a racer. Villeneuve won the 1995 CART Championship, the 1995 Indianapolis 500 and the 1997 Formula One World Championship, making him only the third driver after Mario Andretti and Emerson Fittipaldi to achieve such a feat. As of 2017, no other Canadian has won the Indianapolis 500 or the Formula One Drivers' title. Following two successful years in CART, Villeneuve moved into Formula One with the front-running Williams team, alongside Damon Hill. In his debut season, Villeneuve challenged teammate Hill for the title, winning four races and taking the fight to the final round in Japan, where Villeneuve retired and Hill won the race, and the title. Villeneuve, however, did win the following year's title, this time challenging Michael Schumacher and once again ...more...

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Dennis Poore

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Dennis Poore

Roger Dennistoun "Dennis" Poore (19 August 1916, Paddington, London – 12 February 1987, Kensington [1]) was a British entrepreneur, financier and sometime racing driver. He became chairman of NVT during the dying days of the old British motorcycle industry. Family His father, Roger Poore, DSO, was killed in action in World War I on 26 September 1917. On 24 March 1949, Dennis Poore married Peta Coast. The couple had a daughter, Victoria (Victoria Borwick MP).[2] Motorsport career Poore was a keen motor sport participant, and competed in two World Championship Grands Prix in 1952. He made his debut in the British Grand Prix on 19 July 1952, where he finished fourth. He scored 3 championship points. Poore won the British Hill Climb Championship in 1950 driving a 3.8-litre twin-Wade-blown Alfa Romeo.[3] He finished second at Shelsley Walsh, first at Prescott, second at Bo'ness, taking the win at Rest and Be Thankful, then second at Bouley Bay and first at Val des Terres, rounding off the season with another win ...more...

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Whale conservation

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Whale conservation

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Eureka, California

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Eureka, California

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Mythology and legacy of Benjamin Banneker

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Mythology and legacy of Benjamin Banneker

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Sébastien Loeb

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Sébastien Loeb

Sébastien Loeb (French pronunciation: ​; born 26 February 1974) is a French professional rally, racing, and rallycross driver. He competed for the Citroën World Rally Team in the World Rally Championship (WRC) and is the most successful driver in WRC history, having won the world championship a record nine times in a row. He holds several other WRC records, including most event wins, most podium finishes and most stage wins. Loeb announced his retirement from World Rallying at the end of the 2012 season. Participating in selected events in the 2013 WRC season, he raced a full season in the FIA GT Series driving a McLaren MP4-12C before moving on with Citroën to the FIA World Touring Car Championship in 2014. In the 2018 season he is one of the official drivers of the Team Peugeot Total.[1] Originally a gymnast, Loeb switched to rallying in 1995 and won the Junior World Rally Championship in 2001. Signed by the Citroën factory team for the 2002 season, he and co-driver Daniel Elena took their maiden WRC win t ...more...

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Denny Hulme

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Denny Hulme

Denis Clive "Denny" Hulme, OBE (18 June 1936 – 4 October 1992) was a New Zealand racing driver who won the 1967 Formula One World Drivers' Championship for the Brabham team. Between his debut at Monaco in 1965 and his final race in the 1974 US Grand Prix, he started 112 Grand Prix, resulting eight victories and 33 trips to the podium. He also finished third in the overall standing in 1968 and 1972.[1] Hulme showed versatility by dominating the Canadian-American Challenge Cup (Can-Am) for Group 7 sports cars. As a member of the McLaren team that won five straight titles between 1967 and 1971, he won the individual Drivers' Championship twice and runner-up on four other occasions.[1] Following his Formula One tenure with Brabham, Hulme raced for McLaren in multiple formats—Formula One, Can-Am, and at the Indianapolis 500. Hulme retired from Formula One at the end of the 1974 season but continued to race Australian Touring Cars. Hulme was nicknamed 'The Bear', because of his "gruff nature" and "rugged feature ...more...

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Max Papis

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Max Papis

Massimiliano "Max" Papis (born October 3, 1969)[1] is an Italian professional motorsport driver who has competed in several top-level motorsports events such as Le Mans 24 Hours, Formula One and Champ Car. He has three Champ Car victories. He is the son-in-law of Emerson Fittipaldi. His sons' godfather is fellow Italian Alex Zanardi. Papis also currently drives in the NASCAR Whelen Euroseries. Personal life Papis was born on October 3, 1969 in Como, Italy. He was raised in Italy and got an interest in car racing at a young age, winning several go-kart races and several rounds for racing clubs in Italy.[2] He is married to Tatiana Papis, daughter of the racing driver Emerson Fittipaldi, and has two children, Marco and Matteo Papis.[3] Formula One Papis made his Formula One debut for Footwork at the 1995 British Grand Prix. After a spell as the Lotus team's test driver in 1994, Papis replaced Gianni Morbidelli in the Footwork team for seven races in the middle of the 1995 Formula One season, as he brou ...more...

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Alan Jones (racing driver)

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Alan Jones (racing driver)

Alan Stanley Jones,[2] MBE (born 2 November 1946 in Melbourne, Victoria) is an Australian former Formula One driver. He was the first driver to win a Formula One World Championship with the Williams team, becoming the 1980 World Drivers' Champion and the second Australian to do so following triple World Champion Sir Jack Brabham. He competed in a total of 117 Grands Prix, winning 12 and achieving 24 podium finishes. In 1978 Jones won the Can-Am championship driving a Lola. Jones is also the last Australian driver to win the Australian Grand Prix, winning the 1980 event at Calder Park Raceway, having lapped the field consisting mostly of Formula 5000 cars while he was driving his Formula One Championship winning Williams FW07B. Early life and career Jones attended Xavier College and is the son of Stan Jones, an Australian racing driver and winner of the 1959 Australian Grand Prix, and wanted to follow in his footsteps. Jones initially worked in his father's Holden dealership while racing a Mini and a Cooper. ...more...

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M-Sport World Rally Team

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TiVo

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TiVo

TiVo's former logo, a smiling television set TiVo ( TEE-voh) is a digital video recorder (DVR) developed and marketed by TiVo Corporation and introduced in 1999. TiVo provides an on-screen guide of scheduled broadcast programming television programs, whose features include "Season Pass" schedules which record every new episode of a series, and "WishList" searches which allow the user to find and record shows that match their interests by title, actor, director, category, or keyword. TiVo also provides a range of features when the TiVo DVR is connected to a home network, including film and television show downloads, advanced search, personal photo viewing, music offerings, and online scheduling. Since its launch in its home market of America, TiVo has also been made available in Australia, Canada, Mexico, New Zealand, Puerto Rico, Sweden, Taiwan, Spain, and the United Kingdom.[1] Newer models, however, have adopted the CableCARD standard, which is only deployed in the United States, and which limits the av ...more...

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Juha Kankkunen

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Juha Kankkunen

Juha Matti Pellervo Kankkunen ( pronunciation ) (born 2 April 1959 in Laukaa) is a Finnish former rally driver. His factory team career in the World Rally Championship lasted from 1983 to 2002. He won 23 world rallies and four drivers' world championship titles, which were both once records in the series. Both Sébastien Loeb and Sébastien Ogier have since collected more world titles, but no driver has so far been able to repeat Kankkunen's feat of becoming a world champion with three different manufacturers, but Ogier has managed to match his feat of winning consecutive titles with different manufacturers. Kankkunen was signed by Toyota in 1983 and he took his first WRC win in his third year in the team. His performances got him a deal with the defending champions Peugeot for 1986, and Kankkunen was soon crowned the series' then youngest-ever champion. As Peugeot withdrew from the championship following the ban of Group B, Kankkunen moved to Lancia and became the first driver to successfully defend his title ...more...

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56th Air Defense Artillery Regiment

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56th Air Defense Artillery Regiment

The 56th Air Defense Artillery is a training regiment in the United States Army. History This number has had two lineages started under it. A 1917 unit that served in France during World War I[1] and in the Americas during World War II,[2] and the 506th Artillery (AA) CAC, which was renumbered in December 1940. After the renumbering a separate lineage was again started for the 506th CA in 1943. The 56th Artillery (Coast Artillery Corps) (C.A.C.) was organized on 1 December 1917 from existing Regular Army units and Connecticut National Guard companies from the Harbor Defenses of Long Island Sound.[3][4] Moved to the Western Front in France March 1918. Armed with 24 155 mm guns purchased from the French and towed by Holt tractors. Served in the 31st Artillery Brigade,[5] including support of III Army Corps and V Army Corps. Returned to the US January 1919, and moved to Camp Jackson, South Carolina. National Guard companies demobilized early 1919 at Fort Schuyler, New York.[1] Reactivated on 2 June 1941 as th ...more...

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Ford World Rally Team

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Ford World Rally Team

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2014–15 North West Counties Football League

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2014–15 North West Counties Football League

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Citroën World Rally Team

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Citroën World Rally Team

The Citroën Total Abu Dhabi World Rally Team is the Citroën factory backed entry into the World Rally Championship, run by Citroën Racing. History1990–1998 seasons The Citroën ZX Rally raid won the Rally raid Constructors' Championship in 1993, 1994, 1995, 1996, and 1997 with Pierre Lartigue and Ari Vatanen. Citroën also won the Dakar Rally in 1991, 1994, 1995, and 1996. In addition, Citroën won the Pharaons Rally in 1991, the Tunisia rally in 1992 and the Paris-Moscow-Beijing Rally, also in 1992 1998–2000 seasons Citroën Xsara Kit car at the 1998 Rallye Cantabria In 1998, following its withdrawal from Rally raid competition, Citroën Sport began competing in rallying with the Xsara Kit Car. Equipped with a 2L engine developing 280 hp more than 8 000 rpm, this car started competing in the French Rally Championship in 1998. At the wheel, Philippe Bugalski won drivers titles in 1998 and 1999, and Sébastien Loeb won the driver title in 2001. In addition to the French championship, Citroën also entered t ...more...

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Tropical bottlenose whale

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Tropical bottlenose whale

The tropical bottlenose whale (Indopacetus pacificus), also known as the Indo-Pacific beaked whale and Longman's beaked whale, was considered to be the world's rarest cetacean until recently, but the spade-toothed whale now holds that position. As of 2010, the species is now known from nearly a dozen strandings and over 65 sightings.[2] History of discovery The species has had a long history riddled with misidentifications, which are now mostly resolved. A skull and jaw found on a beach in Mackay, Queensland, in 1882, provided the basis for the initial description of this species by H. A. Longman in 1926.[3] Other researchers were not convinced, and felt this specimen might instead represent a Pacific form of True's beaked whale or a female bottlenose whale. Almost 30 years after Longman's original publication, a second skull was discovered near Danane, Somalia (1955). This specimen likely stranded on the coast, but was subsequently processed into fertilizer. Only the skull survived. Biologist Joseph C. Moor ...more...

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A. Loudon Snowden

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A. Loudon Snowden

Archibald Loudon Snowden (August 11, 1835 – September 7, 1912) was an American politician and diplomat during the late 19th century.[1] Early life Snowden was born in Cumberland County, Pennsylvania on August 11, 1835.[2] He was the son of Margery Bines (née Louden) (1808–1888) and Isaac Wayne Snowden (1794–1850).[3][4] His siblings included Nathaniel Randolph Snowden, John Ross Snowden, Sarah Gustine Snowden Stewart, and Maude Loudon Snowden. His uncle, James Ross Snowden, was a director of the United States Mint.[5] His father was a surgeon in the U.S. Army and served in the First Seminole War under General Jackson and was wounded at Fort Scott.[2] Snowden graduated from Jefferson College in 1856.[2] Career Following his graduation in 1856, he was made register of the United States Mint 7 May 1857.[6] Politically, Snowden was a Democrat until 1860 when he switched to the Republican party believing that the Democrat's policies were detrimental to the manufacturing interests of the country.[7] After the A ...more...

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