Quizzes Lists Topics

WDC 65C02

The Western Design Center (WDC) 65C02 microprocessor is an enhanced CMOS version of the popular NMOS-based 8-bit MOS Technology 6502 microprocessor—the CMOS redesign being made by Bill Mensch in 1978. Over various periods of time, the 65C02 has been second-sourced by NCR, GTE, Rockwell, Synertek and Sanyo. The 65C02 has been used in some home computers, as well as in embedded applications, including medical-grade implanted devices.

W65C02S microprocessor in a PDIP-40 package.

Introduction and features

The 65C02 is a low cost, general-purpose 8-bit microprocessor (8-bit registers and data bus) with a 16-bit program counter and address bus. The variable length instruction set and manually optimized core size are intended to make the 65C02 well suited for low power system-on-chip (SoC) designs.

A Verilog hardware description model is available for designing the W65C02S core into an application-specific integrated circuit (ASIC) or a field-programmable gate array (FPGA). As is common in the semiconductor industry, WDC offers a development system, which includes a developer board, an in-circuit emulator (ICE) and a software development system.

The W65C02S–14 is the production version of the 65C02 microprocessor, and is available in PDIP, PLCC and QFP packages through distribution. The maximum officially supported ϕ2 (primary) clock speed is 14 MHz, indicated by the –14 part number suffix. The "S" designation indicates that the part has a fully static core, a feature that allows ϕ2 to be slowed down or fully stopped in either the high or low state with no loss of data. Typical microprocessors not implemented in CMOS have dynamic cores and will lose their internal register contents (and thus crash) if they are not continuously clocked at a rate between some minimum and maximum specified values.

General logic features
Logic features
  • Vector pull (VPB) output indicates when interrupt vectors are being addressed
  • Memory lock (MLB) output indicates to other bus masters when a read-modify-write instruction is being processed
  • WAit-for-Interrupt (WAI) and SToP (STP) instructions reduce power consumption, decrease interrupt latency and enable synchronization with external events
Electrical features
  • Supply voltage specified at 1.71 V to 5.25 V
  • Current consumption (core) of 0.15 and 1.5 mA per MHz at 1.89 V and 5.25 V respectively
  • Variable length instruction set, enabling code size optimization over fixed length instruction set processors, results in power savings
  • Fully static circuitry allows stopping the clock to conserve power
Clocking features

The W65C02S may be operated at any convenient supply voltage (V) between 1.8 and 5 volts (±5%). The data sheet AC characteristics table lists operational characteristics at 5 V at 14 MHz, 3.3 V or 3 V at 8 MHz, 2.5 V at 4 MHz, and 1.8 V at 2 MHz. This information may be an artifact of an earlier data sheet, as a graph indicates that typical devices are capable of operation at higher speeds than suggested by the AC characteristics table, and that reliable operation at 20 MHz should be readily attainable with V at 5 volts, assuming the supporting hardware will allow it.

The W65C02S may also be operated at non-integral clock rates such as 13.5 MHz (digital SDTV luma sampling rate), 14.31818 MHz (NTSC colour carrier frequency × 4), 14.75 MHz (PAL square pixels), 14.7456 (baud rate crystal), etc., as long as V is sufficient to support the frequency. Designer Bill Mensch has pointed out that F is affected by off-chip factors, such as the capacitive load on the microprocessor's pins. Minimizing load by using short signal tracks and fewest devices helps raise F. The PLCC and QFP packages have less pin-to-pin capacitance than the PDIP package, and are more economical in the use of printed circuit board space.

WDC has reported that FPGA realizations of the W65C02S have been successfully operated at 200 MHz.

Comparison with the NMOS 6502
Instruction set

The 65C02 shares its predecessor's 8-bit instruction set architecture and 16-bit memory address space $0000 to $FFFF allowing access to a total memory map of 64K. "Zero Page" spans $0000 to $00FF. "Page 1" spans memory address space $0100 to $01FF and is dedicated for the stack. On this processor the stack grows downwards with the stack pointer starting at $01FF and decrementing as the stack grows.

The 65C02 adds a number of improvements and documented opcodes, the most useful being instructions that can push or pull the X and Y index registers to/from the stack. Undefined opcodes have been converted into NOPs, although of varying instruction lengths.

Significantly, the defective "indirect jump page wrap" instruction (JMP (), where straddles a memory page boundary) has been fixed, eliminating a source of trouble for unwary assembly language programmers. This instruction has also been enhanced with .X register indexing, making it possible to code JMP (,X), enabling the development of a simple jump table management methodology.

Some variants of the 65C02 (including the WDC W65C02S and the Rockwell R65C00 family) feature individual bit manipulation operations (RMB, SMB, BBR and BBS). The 65SC02 was also available, which lacked these operations.

Status register

Other problems with the 6502, fixed in the 65C02, relate to its program status register, which contains eight system flags. Some flags are set or reset under program control. Others reflect the status of the machine after arithmetic or bit manipulation instructions.

6502 status flags, with meanings when set:

N Negative result
V Sign bit overflow
1 Undefined (always set)
B Break flag (set by BRK instruction)
D Decimal mode enabled
I IRQ disabled
Z Zero result
C Arithmetic carry (borrow)

In all NMOS logic forms of the 6502, the decimal flag (D flag) is not initialized to a known state following reset (state is "random") or when an interrupt is processed (state has been kept from "before the interrupt occurred"), which may lead to arbitrary behavior. This forces 6502 programmers to use the CLD instruction early in the reset handler code (it is generally the second instruction executed after SEI), as well as in the front end of the interrupt handler. The 65C02 addresses these problems by causing the D flag to be cleared at reset or upon receipt of an interrupt (after the status register is pushed onto the stack).

Also, in NMOS 6502s, the N flag is invalid when the processor is operating in decimal mode. The 65C02 fixes this problem (at the cost of an additional clock cycle), and thus increases the usefulness of decimal mode.

65SC02

The 65SC02 is a variant of the WDC 65C02 without bit instructions.[1]

Notable uses of the 65C02
Home computers
Video game consoles
Other products
See also
References
  1. Rodnay Zaks, Programmierung des 6502. Jetzt auch mit 6510, 65C02, 65SC02, p. 348
External links
Continue Reading...
Content from Wikipedia Licensed under CC-BY-SA.

Juha Kankkunen

topic

Juha Matti Pellervo Kankkunen (   pronunciation   ) (born 2 April 1959 in Laukaa ) is a Finnish former rally driver. His factory team career in the World Rally Championship lasted from 1983 to 2002. He won 23 world rallies and four drivers' world championship titles, which were both once records in the series. Sébastien Loeb has since collected more world titles, but no driver has so far been able to repeat Kankkunen's feat of becoming a world champion with three different manufacturers. Kankkunen was signed by Toyota in 1983 and he took his first WRC win in his third year in the team. His performances got him a deal with the defending champions Peugeot for 1986, and Kankkunen was soon crowned the series' then youngest-ever champion. As Peugeot withdrew from the championship following the ban of Group B , Kankkunen moved to Lancia and became the first driver to successfully defend his title. After a two-year stint back at Toyota, he returned to Lancia and won a record third title in 1991. In 1993, Kankkunen r



Jacques Villeneuve

topic

Jacques Joseph Charles Villeneuve , OQ ( French pronunciation: ​ ; born April 9, 1971), is a Canadian professional auto racing driver and amateur musician. He is the son of Formula One driver Gilles Villeneuve , and is the namesake of his uncle , who was also a racer. Villeneuve won the 1995 CART Championship, the 1995 Indianapolis 500 and the 1997 Formula One World Championship, making him only the third driver after Mario Andretti and Emerson Fittipaldi to achieve such a feat. As of 2016, no other Canadian has won the Indianapolis 500 or the Formula One Drivers' title. Following two successful years in CART , Villeneuve moved into Formula One with the front running Williams team, alongside Damon Hill . In his debut season , Villeneuve challenged Hill for the title, winning four races and taking the fight to the final round in Japan , where Villeneuve retired and Hill won the race, and the title. Villeneuve, however, did win the following year's title, this time challenging Michael Schumacher and once again



Jenson Button

topic

Jenson Alexander Lyons Button MBE (born 19 January 1980) is a British racing driver currently under contract with McLaren - Honda , as a reserve driver. He won the 2009 Formula One World Championship , driving for Brawn GP . Button announced in September 2016 that he would be giving up his 2017 seat at the end of the 2016 Formula One season but announced that he would still be at McLaren as a reserve driver and ambassador of McLaren until the 2018 Formula One season. Button began karting at the age of eight and achieved early success, before progressing to car racing in the British Formula Ford Championship and the British Formula 3 Championship . He first drove in Formula One with Williams for the 2000 season . The following year he switched to Benetton , which in 2002 became Renault , and then for the 2003 season he moved to BAR . In 2004 he finished 3rd in the World Drivers' Championship, with only the two Ferraris ahead of him. BAR was subsequently renamed Honda for the 2006 season , during which Button w



Takuma Sato

topic

Takuma Sato ( 佐藤 琢磨 Satō Takuma, born 28 January 1977) is a Japanese professional racing driver. He currently races full-time in the IndyCar Series for Andretti Autosport . Racing career Formula One Jordan (2002) In 2002 Sato graduated to Formula One with the Honda-powered Jordan team, and was paired with Giancarlo Fisichella . His low point was a tremendous crash in Austria , caused when Nick Heidfeld lost control of his Sauber under braking and hit the side of Sato's car, punching a hole in the side of the cockpit. Throughout he showed flashes of speed but also wild driving, nevertheless the team's faith in Sato was repaid by a fine drive to fifth at his home Grand Prix in Suzuka . BAR (2003–05) Sato celebrates his only Formula One podium finish, at the 2004 United States Grand Prix . With Honda's focus shifting solely to British American Racing for 2003 Sato joined the Brackley-based outfit as a test driver. For the final round in Japan Sato replaced Jacques Villeneuve and scored the second points finish



Ford World Rally Team

topic

The Ford World Rally Team , also known as the Ford Motor Co. Team prior to 2005, is Ford Motor Company 's full factory World Rally Championship team. In its current form, it has been a competitor since the 1997 season , when Ford Motor Company 's motorsport arm selected the Malcolm Wilson Motorsport company to run its factory team, entering the Ford Escort World Rally Car . The new team took their first victory in the 1997 Acropolis Rally . The team The late Ford Motorsport manager Peter Ashcroft in 1982 Ford team director Malcolm Wilson at the 2011 Rally Finland Management Gerard Quinn senior manager motorsport Ford of Europe Malcolm Wilson team director Christian Loriaux technical director Partners BP Castrol Michelin Icepeak Teng Tools Trade partners Sparco OZ Racing Recaro M-Sport Reiger Racing History 1978 season Ford would end the 1978 season with a win for Hannu Mikkola on season ending Lombard RAC Rally, at the hands of an Escort RS1800, he would be followed home by Björn Waldegård and Britain's Ru



Alan Jones (racing driver)

topic

Alan Stanley Jones MBE (born 2 November 1946 in Melbourne , Victoria ) is an Australian former Formula One driver. He was the first driver to win a Formula One World Championship with the Williams team, becoming the 1980 World Drivers' Champion and the second Australian to do so following triple World Champion Sir Jack Brabham . He competed in a total of 117 Grands Prix, winning 12 and achieving 24 podium finishes. In 1978 Jones won the Can-Am championship driving a Lola . Jones is also the last Australian driver to win the Australian Grand Prix , winning the 1980 event at Calder Park Raceway , having lapped the field consisting mostly of Formula 5000 cars while he was driving his Formula One Championship winning Williams FW07B . Early life and career Jones attended Xavier College and is the son of Stan Jones , an Australian racing driver and winner of the 1959 Australian Grand Prix , and wanted to follow in his footsteps. Jones initially worked in his father's Holden dealership while racing a Mini and a Coop



Marcus Ericsson

topic

Marcus Ericsson (born 2 September 1990) is a Swedish race car driver currently racing for Sauber in Formula One , where he is contracted to the end of the 2017 season. After a successful début in car racing in 2007 which saw him take the British Formula BMW title with Fortec Motorsport , he moved up into the British team's British Formula Three Championship squad. After finishing as one of the top rookies in the category, Ericsson turned his attentions to the All-Japan Formula Three Championship where he won the championship in his debut year . In 2010, he moved up to the GP2 Series where he secured one victory during his maiden campaign for Super Nova Racing . Between 2011 and 2012 , Ericsson drove for iSport . Ericsson completed the 2013 GP2 season with DAMS, and debuted in Formula One in 2014 with Caterham F1 . Career Karting Born in Kumla , Örebro County , Ericsson's first taste of motorsport came when he was nine years old racing in karts. "I got a call from Fredrik Ekblom , whom I ran in British Formula



Philippe Alliot

topic

Philippe Alliot (born 27 July 1954 in Voves , Eure-et-Loir , France ) is a former racing driver who participated in Formula One from 1984 to 1990 and from 1993 to 1994 . He raced for RAM , Ligier , Larrousse and McLaren . Early career Prior to his career in Formula One he competed during 1976 and 1977 in Formule Renault , and won the championship in 1978, in the BP Racing team. With said team he also won the French Formula Renault championship and went on to French Formula Three . He finished third in his first race and moved to the European Formula 3 Championship in 1980. By 1983 he moved to Formula Two but hit the headlines that year when he finished third in the Le Mans 24 Hours with Michael and Mario Andretti in a Kremer Porsche . Formula One Alliot driving the Ligier JS33B at the 1990 United States Grand Prix . In 1984 Alliot joined the Skoal Bandit RAM F1 team, but did not enjoy much in the way of success. After Jacques Laffite was injured at the 1986 British Grand Prix , Alliot took his place at Ligier



Marcus Grönholm

topic

Marcus Ulf Johan Grönholm (born February 5, 1968 in Kauniainen ) is a Finnish former rally and rallycross driver, being part of a family of the Swedish-speaking population of Finland lineage. His son, Niclas Grönholm , is an upcoming FIA World Rallycross Championship driver. Marcus' nicknames are either "Bosse" (mainly in his native Finland and the Scandinavian countries) or "Magic Marcus". Driving for Peugeot , he won the World Rally Championship in 2000 and 2002 . After Peugeot withdrew from the World Rally Championship, Grönholm moved to Ford for the 2006 season and placed second in the drivers' world championship, losing the title to Sébastien Loeb by one point. The next year he again placed second, four points behind Loeb. He and his co-driver Timo Rautiainen retired from rallying after the 2007 season but returned to the championship in 2009 driving a private Subaru for a short period of time. Career Early career Marcus' father, Ulf "Uffe" Grönholm , had been an active rally driver in the late 1970s to



The Bill (series 14)

topic

The 14th series of The Bill , a British television drama , consisted of 121 episodes. Background In 1998, with the appointment of new executive producer Richard Handford , discussions were made with broadcaster ITV to return to the format of hour-long episodes, which the show last used on a regular basis in 1987. As such, beginning in August 1998, the show returned to a twice-weekly hour-long format, which it retained for many years until the decision to move the show to a later time-slot came in 2009. It is notable that the first few episodes broadcast in the hour-long format were originally written for the half hour time-slot, and thus, some episodes contain two completely different stories, written by different writers, which jump from one to another. For example, the opening episode, "Deep End", was initially written in three twenty-five minute parts, with a fourth epilogue episode, the first half of "The Party's Over", all conceived by Elizabeth Anne-Wheal. A separate story by Neil Clarke, initially envi




Javascript Version
Revolvy Server //www.revolvy.com