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WDC 65C02

The Western Design Center (WDC) 65C02 microprocessor is an enhanced CMOS version of the popular NMOS-based 8-bit MOS Technology 6502 microprocessor—the CMOS redesign being made by Bill Mensch in 1978. Over various periods of time, the 65C02 has been second-sourced by NCR, GTE, Rockwell, Synertek and Sanyo. The 65C02 has been used in some home computers, as well as in embedded applications, including medical-grade implanted devices.

W65C02S microprocessor in a PDIP-40 package.

Introduction and features

The 65C02 is a low cost, general-purpose 8-bit microprocessor (8-bit registers and data bus) with a 16-bit program counter and address bus. The variable length instruction set and manually optimized core size are intended to make the 65C02 well suited for low power system-on-chip (SoC) designs.

A Verilog hardware description model is available for designing the W65C02S core into an application-specific integrated circuit (ASIC) or a field-programmable gate array (FPGA). As is common in the semiconductor industry, WDC offers a development system, which includes a developer board, an in-circuit emulator (ICE) and a software development system.

The W65C02S–14 is the production version of the 65C02 microprocessor, and is available in PDIP, PLCC and QFP packages through distribution. The maximum officially supported ϕ2 (primary) clock speed is 14 MHz, indicated by the –14 part number suffix. The "S" designation indicates that the part has a fully static core, a feature that allows ϕ2 to be slowed down or fully stopped in either the high or low state with no loss of data. Typical microprocessors not implemented in CMOS have dynamic cores and will lose their internal register contents (and thus crash) if they are not continuously clocked at a rate between some minimum and maximum specified values.

General logic features
Logic features
  • Vector pull (VPB) output indicates when interrupt vectors are being addressed
  • Memory lock (MLB) output indicates to other bus masters when a read-modify-write instruction is being processed
  • WAit-for-Interrupt (WAI) and SToP (STP) instructions reduce power consumption, decrease interrupt latency and enable synchronization with external events
Electrical features
  • Supply voltage specified at 1.71 V to 5.25 V
  • Current consumption (core) of 0.15 and 1.5 mA per MHz at 1.89 V and 5.25 V respectively
  • Variable length instruction set, enabling code size optimization over fixed length instruction set processors, results in power savings
  • Fully static circuitry allows stopping the clock to conserve power
Clocking features

The W65C02S may be operated at any convenient supply voltage (V) between 1.8 and 5 volts (±5%). The data sheet AC characteristics table lists operational characteristics at 5 V at 14 MHz, 3.3 V or 3 V at 8 MHz, 2.5 V at 4 MHz, and 1.8 V at 2 MHz. This information may be an artifact of an earlier data sheet, as a graph indicates that typical devices are capable of operation at higher speeds than suggested by the AC characteristics table, and that reliable operation at 20 MHz should be readily attainable with V at 5 volts, assuming the supporting hardware will allow it.

The W65C02S may also be operated at non-integral clock rates such as 13.5 MHz (digital SDTV luma sampling rate), 14.31818 MHz (NTSC colour carrier frequency × 4), 14.75 MHz (PAL square pixels), 14.7456 (baud rate crystal), etc., as long as V is sufficient to support the frequency. Designer Bill Mensch has pointed out that F is affected by off-chip factors, such as the capacitive load on the microprocessor's pins. Minimizing load by using short signal tracks and fewest devices helps raise F. The PLCC and QFP packages have less pin-to-pin capacitance than the PDIP package, and are more economical in the use of printed circuit board space.

WDC has reported that FPGA realizations of the W65C02S have been successfully operated at 200 MHz.

Comparison with the NMOS 6502
Instruction set

The 65C02 shares its predecessor's 8-bit instruction set architecture and 16-bit memory address space $0000 to $FFFF allowing access to a total memory map of 64K. "Zero Page" spans $0000 to $00FF. "Page 1" spans memory address space $0100 to $01FF and is dedicated for the stack. On this processor the stack grows downwards with the stack pointer starting at $01FF and decrementing as the stack grows.

The 65C02 adds a number of improvements and documented opcodes, the most useful being instructions that can push or pull the X and Y index registers to/from the stack. Undefined opcodes have been converted into NOPs, although of varying instruction lengths.

Significantly, the defective "indirect jump page wrap" instruction (JMP (), where straddles a memory page boundary) has been fixed, eliminating a source of trouble for unwary assembly language programmers. This instruction has also been enhanced with .X register indexing, making it possible to code JMP (,X), enabling the development of a simple jump table management methodology.

Some variants of the 65C02 (including the WDC W65C02S and the Rockwell R65C00 family) feature individual bit manipulation operations (RMB, SMB, BBR and BBS). The 65SC02 was also available, which lacked these operations.

Status register

Other problems with the 6502, fixed in the 65C02, relate to its program status register, which contains eight system flags. Some flags are set or reset under program control. Others reflect the status of the machine after arithmetic or bit manipulation instructions.

6502 status flags, with meanings when set:

N Negative result
V Sign bit overflow
1 Undefined (always set)
B Break flag (set by BRK instruction)
D Decimal mode enabled
I IRQ disabled
Z Zero result
C Arithmetic carry (borrow)

In all NMOS logic forms of the 6502, the decimal flag (D flag) is not initialized to a known state following reset (state is "random") or when an interrupt is processed (state has been kept from "before the interrupt occurred"), which may lead to arbitrary behavior. This forces 6502 programmers to use the CLD instruction early in the reset handler code (it is generally the second instruction executed after SEI), as well as in the front end of the interrupt handler. The 65C02 addresses these problems by causing the D flag to be cleared at reset or upon receipt of an interrupt (after the status register is pushed onto the stack).

Also, in NMOS 6502s, the N flag is invalid when the processor is operating in decimal mode. The 65C02 fixes this problem (at the cost of an additional clock cycle), and thus increases the usefulness of decimal mode.


The 65SC02 is a variant of the WDC 65C02 without bit instructions.[1]

Notable uses of the 65C02
Home computers
Video game consoles
Other products
See also
  1. Rodnay Zaks, Programmierung des 6502. Jetzt auch mit 6510, 65C02, 65SC02, p. 348
External links
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WDC 65C02


The Western Design Center (WDC) 65C02 microprocessor is an enhanced CMOS version of the popular NMOS -based 8-bit MOS Technology 6502 microprocessor—the CMOS redesign being made by Bill Mensch in 1978. Over various periods of time, the 65C02 has been second-sourced by NCR , GTE , Rockwell , Synertek and Sanyo . The 65C02 has been used in some home computers , as well as in embedded applications, including medical-grade implanted devices. W65C02S microprocessor in a PDIP-40 package. Introduction and features The 65C02 is a low cost, general-purpose 8-bit microprocessor (8-bit registers and data bus ) with a 16-bit program counter and address bus . The variable length instruction set and manually optimized core size are intended to make the 65C02 well suited for low power system-on-chip (SoC) designs. A Verilog hardware description model is available for designing the W65C02S core into an application-specific integrated circuit (ASIC) or a field-programmable gate array (FPGA). As is common in the semiconductor ...more...

WDC 65816/65802


The W65C816S (also 65C816 or 65816 ) is a 16-bit microprocessor (MPU) developed and sold by the Western Design Center (WDC). Introduced in 1983, the W65C816S is an enhanced version of the WDC 65C02 8-bit MPU, itself a CMOS enhancement of the venerable MOS Technology 6502 NMOS MPU. The 65 in the part's designation comes from its 65C02 compatibility mode, and the 816 signifies that the MPU has selectable 8– and 16–bit register sizes. In addition to the availability of 16 bit registers, the W65C816S features extended memory addressing to 24-bits , supporting up to 16 megabytes of random access memory , an enhanced instruction set, and a 16 bit stack pointer , as well as several new electrical signals for improved system hardware management. At reset , the W65C816S starts in "emulation mode," meaning it essentially behaves as a 65C02. Following reset, the W65C816S may be switched to "native mode" with a two instruction sequence, causing it to enable all enhanced features, yet still maintain a substantial degree ...more...

Interrupts in 65xx processors


The 65xx family of microprocessors , consisting of the MOS Technology 6502 and its derivatives, the WDC 65C02 , WDC 65C802 and WDC 65C816 , and CSG 65CE02 , all handle interrupts in a similar fashion. There are three hardware interrupt signals common to all 65xx processors and one software interrupt , the BRK instruction. The WDC 65C816 adds a fourth hardware interrupt— ABORT , useful for implementing virtual memory architectures—and the COP software interrupt instruction (also present in the 65C802), intended for use in a system with a coprocessor of some type (e.g., a floating point processor ). Interrupt types 65xx interrupt vector locations Interrupt Vector (hexadecimal) LSB MSB ABORT FFF8 FFF9 COP FFF4 FFF5 IRQ / BRK FFFE FFFF NMI FFFA FFFB RESET FFFC FFFD The hardware interrupt signals are all active low, and are as follows: The detection of a RESET signal causes the processor to enter a system initialization period of six clock cycles, after which it sets the interrupt request disable flag in the statu ...more...

WDC 65C134


WDC 65C134 Microcontroller The Western Design Center (WDC) W65C134S microcomputer is a complete fully static 8-bit computer fabricated on a single chip using a low power CMOS process. The W65C134S complements an established and growing line of 65xx products and has a wide range of microcomputer applications. The W65C134S has been developed for Hi-Rel applications, and where minimum power is required. The W65C134S consists of a W65C02S (Static) Central Processing Unit (CPU), 4096 bytes of Read Only Memory (ROM), 192 bytes of Random Access Memory (RAM), two 16 bit timers, a low power Serial Interface Bus (SIB) configured as a token passing Local Area Network , Universal Asynchronous Receiver and Transmitter (UART) with baud rate timer, one 16-bit "Monitor Watch-Dog Timer " with "restart" interrupt, twenty-two priority encoded interrupts, ICE Interface, Real-Time clock features including Time of Day (ToD) clock, Bus Control Register (BCR) for external memory bus control, interface circuitry for peripheral device ...more...

WDC 65C22


W65C22S Versatile Interface Adapter in a DIP-40 package. The W65C22 versatile interface adapter ( VIA ) is an input/output device for use with the 65xx series microprocessor family. Designed by the Western Design Center , the W65C22 is made in two versions, both of which are rated for 14 megahertz operation, and available in DIP-40 or PLCC-44 packages. W65C22N : This device is fully compatible with the NMOS 6522 produced by MOS Technology and others, and includes current-limiting resistors on its output lines. The W65C22N has an open-drain interrupt output (the IRQB pin) that is compatible with a wired-OR interrupt circuit. Hence the DIP-40 version is a "drop-in" replacement for the NMOS part. W65C22S : This device is fully software– and partially hardware–compatible with the NMOS part. The W65C22S' IRQB output is a totem pole configuration, and thus cannot be directly connected to a wired-OR interrupt circuit. As with the NMOS 6522, the W65C22 includes functions for programmed control of two peripheral ports ...more...

Bill Mensch


William ( Bill ) David Mensch, Jr. (born February 9, 1945), is an American electrical engineer born in Quakertown, Pennsylvania . He is best known as a major contributor to the design of the Motorola 6800 8-bit microprocessor , part of the small team that created the MOS Technology 6502 (led by Chuck Peddle ), and designer of the 16-bit successor to the 6502, the 65816 . Mensch is the founder, chairman, and CEO of the Western Design Center (WDC) located in Mesa, Arizona . Prior to founding the Western Design Center in 1978, Mensch held design engineering and management positions at Philco-Ford , Motorola , MOS Technology and Integrated Circuit Engineering. At WDC, Bill Mensch worked primarily on extending and expanding the 6502 architecture. His designs are widely used in embedded systems and implantable, electronic, life-support devices. Education, teaching, honors Mensch graduated with an associate's degree from Temple University in 1966 where he was a member of Sigma Pi fraternity. He received his bachel ...more...

Hudson Soft HuC6280


The HuC6280 8-bit microprocessor is Japanese company Hudson Soft 's improved version of the WDC 65C02 CPU , an upgraded CMOS version of the popular NMOS-based MOS Technology 6502 8-bit CPU manufactured for Hudson by Seiko Epson . The most notable product using the HuC6280 is NEC 's PC Engine video game console . Description The HuC6280 contains a 65C02 core which has several additional instructions and a few internal peripheral functions such as an interrupt controller , a memory management unit , a timer , an 8-bit parallel I/O port, and a programmable sound generator . The processor operates at two speeds, 1.79 MHz and 7.16 MHz. Memory mapping The HuC6280 has a 64 KB logical address space and a 2 MB physical address space. To access this entire memory space, the HuC6280 uses an MMU (Memory Management Unit) that splits the memory space into segments of 8 KB. The logical address space is split as follows: page 0 -> $0000-$1FFF page 1 -> $2000–$3FFF page 2 -> $4000–$5FFF page 3 ...more...

Western Design Center


The Western Design Center (WDC) , located in Mesa, Arizona , USA , is a company developing and manufacturing MOS 65xx -based microprocessors , microcontrollers (µCs), and related support devices. WDC was founded in 1978 by co-holder of the MOS Technology 6502 patent, Bill Mensch , himself a former MOS Technology employee. In addition to the discrete devices, WDC offers device designs in the form of IP cores to be used inside other chips (such as ASICs ), and provides ASIC and embedded systems consulting services revolving around their processor designs. WDC also produces C compilers , assembler / linker packages, simulators , development/evaluation boards , and in-circuit emulators for their processors. Hardware products Devices Name Type Comments W65C02S 8-bit microprocessor Enhanced static core CMOS version of the MOS Technology 6502 microprocessor W65C816S 16-bit microprocessor Extended version of the W65C02S, featuring larger instruction set, selectable register sizes and 24-bit memory addressing W65C134S ...more...

Static core


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Ricoh 5A22


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Renesas 740


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MOS Technology


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The BDO World Darts Championship is a world championship competition in darts , organised by the British Darts Organisation (BDO). It began in 1978 , and was, alongside the World Darts Federation 's World Cup of Darts , one of two world championship tournaments until 1993. Since 1994, following a dispute with the BDO and the subsequent fallout, a breakaway group (originally known as the World Darts Council, and now known as the Professional Darts Corporation ) stages its own annual PDC World Championship , generally before the BDO version in late December and early January of each year. The BDO version was first held at the Heart of the Midlands Nightclub in the English city of Nottingham . The following year it moved to the Jollees Cabaret Club, Stoke , where it stayed until 1985. From 1986, it has been held at the Lakeside Country Club in Frimley Green , Surrey . Highlights In 1983 , a 23-year-old qualifier from Ipswich , Keith Deller , beat the world's top 3 players including Eric Bristow in a memorable fi ...more...

List of 20th-century earthquakes


Earthquakes of magnitude 8.0 and greater since 1900. The apparent 3D volumes of the bubbles are linearly proportional to their respective fatalities. This list of 20th-century earthquakes is a global list of notable earthquakes that occurred in the 20th century . After 1900 most earthquakes have some degree of instrumental records and this means that the locations and magnitudes are more reliable than for earlier events. To prevent this list becoming unmanageable, only those of magnitude 6 and above are included unless they are notable for some other reason. 1901–1910 Date Time Place Lat. Long. Deaths Magnitude Comments Sources   March 3, 1901 07:45 Parkfield, California , United States 36.2 −120.7 6.4 M (Abe, 1988) USGS March 31, 1901 07:10 Cape Shabla-Kaliakra, Black Sea ,see 1901 Black Sea earthquake 4 7.2 M - November 16, 1901 07:47 local time Cheviot, New Zealand -42.42 173.18 6.9 M - September 19, 1902 Warooka , South Australia, Australia 2 6.0 M USGS April 19, 1902 Quetzaltenango , Guatemala see 1902 G ...more...

Mythology and legacy of Benjamin Banneker


A substantial mythology exaggerating Benjamin Banneker 's accomplishments has developed during the two centuries that have elapsed since he lived. Several such urban legends describe Banneker's alleged activities in the Washington, D.C. area around the time that he assisted Andrew Ellicott in the federal district boundary survey. Others involve his clock, his almanacs and his journals. All lack support by historical evidence. Some are contradicted by such evidence. A United States postage stamp and the names of a number of recreational and cultural facilities, schools, streets and other facilities and institutions throughout the United States have commemorated Banneker's documented and mythical accomplishments throughout the years since he lived. Mythology of Benjamin Banneker Plan of the City of Washington Facsimile of manuscript of Peter Charles L'Enfant's 1791 plan for the federal capital city (U.S. Coast and Geodetic Survey, 1887). While Andrew Ellicott and his team were conducting the federal di ...more...

Sébastien Loeb


Sébastien Loeb ( French pronunciation: ​ ; born 26 February 1974) is a French professional rally , racing , and rallycross driver. He competed for the Citroën World Rally Team in the World Rally Championship (WRC) and is the most successful driver in WRC history, having won the world championship a record nine times in a row. He holds several other WRC records , including most wins, most podium finishes and most points. Loeb announced his retirement from World Rallying at the end of the 2012 season. Participating in selected events in the 2013 WRC season , he raced a full season in the FIA GT Series driving a McLaren MP4-12C before moving on with Citroën to the FIA World Touring Car Championship in 2014. Originally a gymnast, Loeb switched to rallying in 1995 and won the Junior World Rally Championship in 2001. Signed by the Citroën factory team for the 2002 season, he and co-driver Daniel Elena took their maiden WRC win that same year at the Rallye Deutschland . After finishing runner-up to Petter Solberg by ...more...

Cape Town


Cape Town ( Afrikaans : Kaapstad , ) is a coastal city in South Africa . It is the second-most populous urban area in South Africa after Johannesburg . It is also the capital and primate city of the Western Cape province. As the seat of the Parliament of South Africa , it is also the legislative capital of the country. It forms part of the City of Cape Town metropolitan municipality . The city is famous for its harbour , for its natural setting in the Cape Floristic Region , and for such well-known landmarks as Table Mountain and Cape Point . As of 2014, it is the 10th most populous city in Africa and home to 64% of the Western Cape's population. It is one of the most multicultural cities in the world, reflecting its role as a major destination for immigrants and expatriates to South Africa. The city was named the World Design Capital for 2014 by the International Council of Societies of Industrial Design . In 2014, Cape Town was named the best place in the world to visit by both the American New York Tim ...more...

Low-power electronics


Low-power electronics are electronics that have been designed to use less electric power , e.g. notebook processors . History Watches The earliest attempts to reduce the amount of power required by an electronic device were related to the development of the wristwatch . Electronic watches require electricity as a power source, and some mechanical movements and hybrid electronic-mechanical movements also require electricity. Usually the electricity is provided by a replaceable battery . The first use of electrical power in watches was as a substitute for the mainspring, to remove the need for winding. The first electrically powered watch, the Hamilton Electric 500, was released in 1957 by the Hamilton Watch Company of Lancaster, Pennsylvania . Watch batteries (strictly speaking cells, as a battery is composed of multiple cells) are specially designed for their purpose. They are very small and provide tiny amounts of power continuously for very long periods (several years or more). In some cases, replacing the ...more...

Dani Sordo


Daniel "Dani" Sordo Castillo (born 2 May 1983 in Torrelavega , Cantabria ) is a Spanish rally driver. He competes in the World Rally Championship for Hyundai Motorsport . He achieved his first WRC victory at the 2013 Rallye Deutschland . Career Sordo began in motocross when he was 12 years old, but also experienced success in hillclimbing , karting and touring cars . He first drove in a World Rally Championship event at the Rally Catalunya , the Spanish round of the series, in 2003 in a Mitsubishi Lancer Evo VII , finishing 18th overall. He won the Spanish Junior Championship that year, and retained the title in 2004, while also accumulating further international experience at the WRC events in Argentina (retired), Germany (19th), France (13th) and Spain (20th). In this last event, he switched from the Lancer Evo to a Citroën C2 S1600 , and for 2005 he committed to a full season driving the C2 in the Junior World Rally Championship (JWRC) with Belgium's Kronos Racing team. He also switched co-drivers, now bei ...more...

Irrawaddy dolphin


The Irrawaddy dolphin (Orcaella brevirostris) is a euryhaline species of oceanic dolphin found in discontinuous subpopulations near sea coasts and in estuaries and rivers in parts of the Bay of Bengal and Southeast Asia. Taxonomy Irrawaddy dolphin skeleton specimen exhibited in Museo di storia naturale e del territorio dell'Università di Pisa One of the earliest recorded descriptions of the Irrawaddy dolphin was by Sir Richard Owen in 1866 based on a specimen found in 1852, in the harbour of Visakhapatnam on the east coast of India. It is one of two species in its genus. It has sometimes been listed variously in a family containing just itself and in Monodontidae and in Delphinapteridae . There is now widespread agreement to list it in the family Delphinidae . The species name brevirostris comes from the Latin meaning short-beaked. It is very closely related to the Australian snubfin dolphin (Orcaella heinsohni). The two snubfin dolphins were only recognised as separate species in 2005 where a genetic analys ...more...

Marcus Ericsson


Marcus Ericsson (born 2 September 1990) is a Swedish race car driver currently racing for Sauber in Formula One , where he is contracted to the end of the 2018 season. After a successful début in car racing in 2007 which saw him take the British Formula BMW title with Fortec Motorsport , he moved up into the British team's British Formula Three Championship squad. After finishing as one of the top rookies in the category, Ericsson turned his attentions to the All-Japan Formula Three Championship where he won the championship in his debut year . In 2010, he moved up to the GP2 Series where he secured one victory during his maiden campaign for Super Nova Racing . Between 2011 and 2012 , Ericsson drove for iSport . Ericsson completed the 2013 GP2 season with DAMS, and debuted in Formula One in 2014 with Caterham F1 . Career Karting Born in Kumla , Örebro County , Ericsson's first taste of motorsport came when he was nine years old racing in karts. "I got a call from Fredrik Ekblom , whom I ran in British Formula ...more...

Dennis Poore


Roger Dennistoun "Dennis" Poore (19 August 1916, Paddington , London – 12 February 1987, Kensington ) was a British entrepreneur , financier and sometime racing driver . He became chairman of NVT during the dying days of the old British motorcycle industry. Family His father, Roger Poore, DSO, was killed in action in World War I on 26 September, 1917. On 24 March, 1949, Dennis Poore married Peta Coast. The couple had a daughter, Victoria ( Victoria Borwick MP). Motorsport career Poore was a keen motor sport participant, and competed in two World Championship Grands Prix in 1952. He made his debut in the British Grand Prix on 19 July 1952, where he finished fourth. He scored 3 championship points. Poore won the British Hill Climb Championship in 1950 driving a 3.8-litre twin-Wade-blown Alfa Romeo . He finished second at Shelsley Walsh , first at Prescott , second at Bo'ness , taking the win at Rest and Be Thankful , then second at Bouley Bay and first at Val des Terres , rounding off the season with another w ...more...

56th Air Defense Artillery Regiment


The 56th Air Defense Artillery is a training regiment in the United States Army. History This number has had two lineages started under it. A 1917 unit that served in France during World War I and in the Americas during World War II, and the 506th Artillery (AA) CAC, which was renumbered in December 1940. After the renumbering a separate lineage was again started for the 506th CA in 1943. The 56th Artillery (Coast Artillery Corps) (C.A.C.) was organized on 1 December 1917 from existing Regular Army units and Connecticut National Guard companies from the Harbor Defenses of Long Island Sound . Moved to the Western Front in France March 1918. Armed with 24 155 mm guns purchased from the French and towed by Holt tractors . Served in the 31st Artillery Brigade, including support of III Army Corps and V Army Corps . Returned to the US January 1919, and moved to Camp Jackson , South Carolina. National Guard companies demobilized early 1919 at Fort Schuyler , New York. Reactivated on 2 June 1941 as the 56th Coas ...more...

Marcus Grönholm


Marcus Ulf Johan Grönholm (born February 5, 1968 in Kauniainen ) is a Finnish former rally and rallycross driver, being part of a family of the Swedish-speaking population of Finland lineage. His son, Niclas Grönholm , is an upcoming FIA World Rallycross Championship driver. Marcus' nicknames are either "Bosse" (mainly in his native Finland and the Scandinavian countries) or "Magic Marcus". Driving for Peugeot , he won the World Rally Championship in 2000 and 2002 . After Peugeot withdrew from the World Rally Championship, Grönholm moved to Ford for the 2006 season and placed second in the drivers' world championship, losing the title to Sébastien Loeb by one point. The next year he again placed second, four points behind Loeb. He and his co-driver Timo Rautiainen retired from rallying after the 2007 season but returned to the championship in 2009 driving a private Subaru for a short period of time. Career Early career Marcus' father, Ulf "Uffe" Grönholm , had been an active rally driver in the late 1970s to ...more...

Alan Jones (racing driver)


Alan Stanley Jones , MBE (born 2 November 1946 in Melbourne , Victoria ) is an Australian former Formula One driver. He was the first driver to win a Formula One World Championship with the Williams team, becoming the 1980 World Drivers' Champion and the second Australian to do so following triple World Champion Sir Jack Brabham . He competed in a total of 117 Grands Prix, winning 12 and achieving 24 podium finishes. In 1978 Jones won the Can-Am championship driving a Lola . Jones is also the last Australian driver to win the Australian Grand Prix , winning the 1980 event at Calder Park Raceway , having lapped the field consisting mostly of Formula 5000 cars while he was driving his Formula One Championship winning Williams FW07B . Early life and career Jones attended Xavier College and is the son of Stan Jones , an Australian racing driver and winner of the 1959 Australian Grand Prix , and wanted to follow in his footsteps. Jones initially worked in his father's Holden dealership while racing a Mini and a Co ...more...

Killer whale


The killer whale or orca (Orcinus orca) is a toothed whale belonging to the oceanic dolphin family, of which it is the largest member. Killer whales have a diverse diet, although individual populations often specialize in particular types of prey. Some feed exclusively on fish, while others hunt marine mammals such as seals and dolphins. They have been known to attack baleen whale calves, and even adult whales. Killer whales are apex predators , as there is no animal that preys on them. Killer whales are considered a cosmopolitan species , and can be found in each of the world's oceans in a variety of marine environments, from Arctic and Antarctic regions to tropical seas - Killer whales are only absent from the Baltic and Black seas, and some areas of the Arctic ocean. Killer whales are highly social ; some populations are composed of matrilineal family groups (pods) which are the most stable of any animal species. Their sophisticated hunting techniques and vocal behaviours, which are often specific to a pa ...more...

Tropical bottlenose whale


The tropical bottlenose whale ( Indopacetus pacificus ), also known as the Indo-Pacific beaked whale and the Longman's beaked whale , was considered to be the world's rarest cetacean until recently, but the spade-toothed whale now holds that position. As of 2010, the species is now known from nearly a dozen strandings and over 65 sightings. History of discovery The species has had a long history riddled with misidentifications, which are now mostly resolved. A skull and jaw found on a beach in Mackay , Queensland , Australia in 1882 provided the basis for the initial description of this species by H. A. Longman in 1926,. Other researchers were not convinced, and felt this specimen might instead represent a Pacific form of True's beaked whale or a female bottlenose whale . Almost 30 years after Longman's original publication, a second skull was discovered near Danane, Somalia (1955). This specimen likely stranded on the coast but was subsequently processed into fertilizer. Only the skull survived. Biologist J ...more...

Markku Alén


Markku Allan Alén (born 15 February 1951, in Helsinki ) is a Finnish former rally and race car driver. He drove for Fiat , Lancia , Subaru and Toyota in the World Rally Championship , and held the record for most stage wins (801) in the series, until Sébastien Loeb overtook it at the 2011 Rally Catalunya . Alén's phrase "now maximum attack" became well-known. Alén never won the world championship itself, despite being for a long time the driver with the most wins to his credit. However, he did win the FIA Cup for Drivers in 1978 , the precursor to the World Championship for Drivers established in 1979 . In 1986 , he was the world champion for eleven days, until Peugeot 's appeal went through and the results of Rallye Sanremo , which Alén had won, were annulled. Career Early Alén's interest in motorsport came from his father, who was the 1963 Finnish champion in ice racing . Alén started his rallying career in 1969 driving a Renault 8 Gordini , and finished ninth at the 1000 Lakes Rally at his first attempt. A ...more...

Lewis Hamilton


Lewis Carl Davidson Hamilton MBE (born 7 January 1985) is a British racing driver who races in Formula One for the Mercedes AMG Petronas team. A four-time Formula One World Champion , he is often considered the best driver of his generation and widely regarded as one of the greatest Formula One drivers in the history of the sport. He won his first World Championship title with McLaren in 2008 , then moved to Mercedes where he won back-to-back titles in 2014 and 2015 before winning his fourth title in 2017 . Statistically the most successful British driver in the history of the sport, Hamilton has won more World Championship titles (4) and more race victories than any other British driver in Formula One (62). He also holds records for the all-time most career points (2,610), the most wins at different circuits (24), the all-time most pole positions (72) and the most grand slams in a season (3). Born and raised in Stevenage , Hertfordshire , Hamilton's interest in racing started when his father bought him a ra ...more...

Philippe Alliot


Philippe Alliot (born 27 July 1954 in Voves , Eure-et-Loir , France ) is a former racing driver who participated in Formula One from 1984 to 1990 and from 1993 to 1994 . He raced for RAM , Ligier , Larrousse and McLaren . Early career Prior to his career in Formula One he competed during 1976 and 1977 in Formule Renault , and won the championship in 1978, in the BP Racing team. With said team he also won the French Formula Renault championship and went on to French Formula Three . He finished third in his first race and moved to the European Formula 3 Championship in 1980. By 1983 he moved to Formula Two but hit the headlines that year when he finished third in the Le Mans 24 Hours with Michael and Mario Andretti in a Kremer Porsche . Formula One Alliot driving the Ligier JS33B at the 1990 United States Grand Prix . In 1984 Alliot joined the Skoal Bandit RAM F1 team, but did not enjoy much in the way of success. After Jacques Laffite was injured at the 1986 British Grand Prix , Alliot took his place at Ligier ...more...

Faroe Islands


The Faroe Islands ( ; Faroese : Føroyar pronounced  ; Danish : Færøerne , pronounced  ), sometimes called the Faeroe Islands , is an archipelago between the Norwegian Sea and the North Atlantic , about halfway between Norway and Iceland , 320 kilometres (200 miles) north-northwest of Scotland . The islands are an autonomous country within the Kingdom of Denmark . Their area is about 1,400 square kilometres (541 square miles) with a population of 50,322 in October 2017. The Faroes' terrain is rugged, and the islands have a subpolar oceanic climate (Cfc) : windy, wet, cloudy, and cool. Despite this island group's northerly latitude, temperatures average above freezing throughout the year because of the Gulf Stream . Between 1035 and 1814, the Faroes were part of the Hereditary Kingdom of Norway . In 1814, the Treaty of Kiel granted Denmark control over the islands, along with two other Norwegian island possessions: Greenland and Iceland . The Faroe Islands have been a self-governing country within the Kingdo ...more...

Jari-Matti Latvala


Jari-Matti Latvala (born 3 April 1985) is a Finnish rally driver competing in the World Rally Championship . His co-driver has been Miikka Anttila since the 2003 Rallye Deutschland . He is well known for his aggressive driving style, which earns him many plaudits, and comparisons to the late Colin McRae . With 17 event victories in the WRC, he is the most successful driver to not have won a championship. Career Latvala began driving when he was eight years old, after receiving a Ford Escort from his father Jari Latvala, also a rally driver and 1994 national champion in the Group N class. At the age of ten, Latvala started practicing with an Opel Ascona on a frozen lake. 2000s Latvala's first world rally was the 2002 Rally Great Britain at the age of 17. He finished in 17th position with a Mitsubish Lancer Evolution VI . In 2003 , Latvala competed in four WRC events with a Ford Focus WRC , finishing tenth at the Acropolis Rally , 17th at the Rallye Deutschland , 14th at the Neste Oil Rally Finland and tenth a ...more...

Citroën World Rally Team


The Citroën Total Abu Dhabi World Rally Team is the Citroën factory backed entry into the World Rally Championship , run by Citroën Racing. The team Management Yves Matton – team director Xavier Mestelan-Pinon – technical director Partners Total Abu Dhabi Michelin Eurodatacar History 1990–1998 seasons The Citroën ZX Rally raid won the Rally raid Constructors' Championship in 1993, 1994, 1995, 1996, and 1997 with Pierre Lartigue and Ari Vatanen . Citroën also won the Dakar Rally in 1991, 1994, 1995, and 1996. In addition, Citroën won the Pharaons Rally in 1991, the Tunisia rally in 1992 and the Paris-Moscow-Beijing Rally, also in 1992 1998–2000 seasons Citroën Xsara Kit car at the 1998 Rallye Cantabria In 1998, following its withdrawal from Rally raid competition, Citroën Sport began competing in rallying with the Xsara Kit Car. Equipped with a 2L engine developing 280 hp more than 8 000 rpm, this car started competing in the French Rally Championship in 1998. At the wheel, Philippe Bugalski won drivers titles ...more...

Giant beaked whale


Giant beaked whales are three species of beaked whales in the genus Berardius : Arnoux's beaked whale (Berardius arnuxii) in cold Southern Hemisphere waters, and Baird's beaked whale (Berardius bairdii) in the cold temperate waters of the North Pacific. An as yet unnamed third species was described in 2016. They are the largest of the beaked whales, growing up to 10–12 m in length. Lifespan estimates, based on earwax plug samples, indicate these whales can live up to 85 years. They are sometimes referred to as "four-toothed whales" or "giant beaked whales", but are most commonly known by their genus name, Berardius. Arnoux's and Baird's beaked whales are so similar that researchers have debated whether or not they are simply two populations of the same species. However, genetic evidence and their wide geographical separation has led them to be classified as separate. Physical description Size of Baird's beaked whale compared to an average human Size of Arnoux's beaked whale compared to an average human The t ...more...



TiVo's logo , a smiling television set TiVo ( TEE -voh ) is a digital video recorder (DVR) developed and marketed by TiVo Corporation and introduced in 1999. TiVo provides an on-screen guide of scheduled broadcast programming television programs , whose features include "Season Pass" schedules which record every new episode of a series, and "WishList" searches which allow the user to find and record shows that match their interests by title, actor, director, category, or keyword. TiVo also provides a range of features when the TiVo DVR is connected to a home network, including film and television show downloads, advanced search, personal photo viewing, music offerings, and online scheduling. Since its launch in its home market of America, TiVo has also been made available in Australia, Canada, Mexico, New Zealand, Puerto Rico , Sweden, Taiwan , Spain, and the United Kingdom. Newer models, however, have adopted the CableCARD standard, which is only deployed in the United States, and which limits the availabil ...more...

Godswill Akpabio


Chief Godswill Obot Akpabio , CON (born 9 December 1962), is a Nigerian lawyer and politician who is a Senator of the Federal Republic of Nigeria and the Senate's Minority Leader. He was also Governor of Akwa Ibom State of Nigeria from May 29, 2007 to May 29, 2015. Early life and career Godswill Akpabio is the son of Chief Obot Akpabio and Madam Lucy Obot Akpabio (née Inyangetor) of Ukana, Ikot Ntuen in Essien Udim Local Government Area. He was born on 9 December 1962. He lost his father early in life and was raised by his mother, who inculcated in him the values of hard work, discipline and honesty. Education He was educated at Methodist Primary School, Ukana, Essien Udim LGA, Akwa Ibom State ; the prestigious Federal Government College, Port Harcourt , Rivers State ; and the University of Calabar , Cross River State , where he obtained a Degree in Law. While at the Federal Government College, Port Harcourt , he was appointed the General Senior Prefect. In the University of Calabar , his charisma endeare ...more...

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