The Western Design Center (WDC) 65C02 microprocessor is an enhanced CMOS version of the popular NMOS-based 8-bit MOS Technology 6502 microprocessor—the CMOS redesign being made by Bill Mensch in 1978. Over various periods of time, the 65C02 has been second-sourced by NCR, GTE, Rockwell, Synertek and Sanyo. The 65C02 has been used in some home computers, as well as in embedded applications, including medical-grade implanted devices.
The 65C02 is a low cost, general-purpose 8-bit microprocessor (8-bit registers and data bus) with a 16-bit program counter and address bus. The variable length instruction set and manually optimized core size are intended to make the 65C02 well suited for low power system-on-chip (SoC) designs.
A Verilog hardware description model is available for designing the W65C02S core into an application-specific integrated circuit (ASIC) or a field-programmable gate array (FPGA). As is common in the semiconductor industry, WDC offers a development system, which includes a developer board, an in-circuit emulator (ICE) and a software development system.
The W65C02S–14 is the production version of the 65C02 microprocessor, and is available in PDIP, PLCC and QFP packages through distribution. The maximum officially supported ϕ2 (primary) clock speed is 14 MHz, indicated by the –14 part number suffix. The "S" designation indicates that the part has a fully static core, a feature that allows ϕ2 to be slowed down or fully stopped in either the high or low state with no loss of data. Typical microprocessors not implemented in CMOS have dynamic cores and will lose their internal register contents (and thus crash) if they are not continuously clocked at a rate between some minimum and maximum specified values.
The W65C02S may be operated at any convenient supply voltage (V) between 1.8 and 5 volts (±5%). The data sheet AC characteristics table lists operational characteristics at 5 V at 14 MHz, 3.3 V or 3 V at 8 MHz, 2.5 V at 4 MHz, and 1.8 V at 2 MHz. This information may be an artifact of an earlier data sheet, as a graph indicates that typical devices are capable of operation at higher speeds than suggested by the AC characteristics table, and that reliable operation at 20 MHz should be readily attainable with V at 5 volts, assuming the supporting hardware will allow it.
The W65C02S may also be operated at non-integral clock rates such as 13.5 MHz (digital SDTV luma sampling rate), 14.31818 MHz (NTSC colour carrier frequency × 4), 14.75 MHz (PAL square pixels), 14.7456 (baud rate crystal), etc., as long as V is sufficient to support the frequency. Designer Bill Mensch has pointed out that F is affected by off-chip factors, such as the capacitive load on the microprocessor's pins. Minimizing load by using short signal tracks and fewest devices helps raise F. The PLCC and QFP packages have less pin-to-pin capacitance than the PDIP package, and are more economical in the use of printed circuit board space.
WDC has reported that FPGA realizations of the W65C02S have been successfully operated at 200 MHz.
The 65C02 shares its predecessor's 8-bit instruction set architecture and 16-bit memory address space $0000 to $FFFF allowing access to a total memory map of 64K. "Zero Page" spans $0000 to $00FF. "Page 1" spans memory address space $0100 to $01FF and is dedicated for the stack. On this processor the stack grows downwards with the stack pointer starting at $01FF and decrementing as the stack grows.
The 65C02 adds a number of improvements and documented opcodes, the most useful being instructions that can push or pull the X and Y index registers to/from the stack. Undefined opcodes have been converted into NOPs, although of varying instruction lengths.
Significantly, the defective "indirect jump page wrap" instruction (JMP (
Some variants of the 65C02 (including the WDC W65C02S and the Rockwell R65C00 family) feature individual bit manipulation operations (RMB, SMB, BBR and BBS). The 65SC02 was also available, which lacked these operations.
Other problems with the 6502, fixed in the 65C02, relate to its program status register, which contains eight system flags. Some flags are set or reset under program control. Others reflect the status of the machine after arithmetic or bit manipulation instructions.
6502 status flags, with meanings when set:
|V||—||Sign bit overflow|
|1||—||Undefined (always set)|
|B||—||Break flag (set by BRK instruction)|
|D||—||Decimal mode enabled|
|C||—||Arithmetic carry (borrow)|
In all NMOS logic forms of the 6502, the decimal flag (D flag) is not initialized to a known state following reset (state is "random") or when an interrupt is processed (state has been kept from "before the interrupt occurred"), which may lead to arbitrary behavior. This forces 6502 programmers to use the CLD instruction early in the reset handler code (it is generally the second instruction executed after SEI), as well as in the front end of the interrupt handler. The 65C02 addresses these problems by causing the D flag to be cleared at reset or upon receipt of an interrupt (after the status register is pushed onto the stack).
Also, in NMOS 6502s, the N flag is invalid when the processor is operating in decimal mode. The 65C02 fixes this problem (at the cost of an additional clock cycle), and thus increases the usefulness of decimal mode.
The 65SC02 is a variant of the WDC 65C02 without bit instructions.
The Western Design Center (WDC) 65C02 microprocessor is an enhanced CMOS version of the popular NMOS -based 8-bit MOS Technology 6502 microprocessor—the CMOS redesign being made by Bill Mensch in 1978. Over various periods of time, the 65C02 has been second-sourced by NCR , GTE , Rockwell , Synertek and Sanyo . The 65C02 has been used in some home computers , as well as in embedded applications, including medical-grade implanted devices. W65C02S microprocessor in a PDIP-40 package. Introduction and features The 65C02 is a low cost, general-purpose 8-bit microprocessor (8-bit registers and data bus ) with a 16-bit program counter and address bus . The variable length instruction set and manually optimized core size are intended to make the 65C02 well suited for low power system-on-chip (SoC) designs. A Verilog hardware description model is available for designing the W65C02S core into an application-specific integrated circuit (ASIC) or a field-programmable gate array (FPGA). As is common in the semiconductor
The W65C816S (also 65C816 or 65816 ) is a 16-bit microprocessor (MPU) developed and sold by the Western Design Center (WDC). Introduced in 1983, the W65C816S is an enhanced version of the WDC 65C02 8-bit MPU, itself a CMOS enhancement of the venerable MOS Technology 6502 NMOS MPU. The 65 in the part's designation comes from its 65C02 compatibility mode, and the 816 signifies that the MPU has selectable 8– and 16–bit register sizes. In addition to the availability of 16 bit registers, the W65C816S features extended memory addressing to 24-bits , supporting up to 16 megabytes of random access memory , an enhanced instruction set, and a 16 bit stack pointer , as well as several new electrical signals for improved system hardware management. At reset , the W65C816S starts in "emulation mode," meaning it essentially behaves as a 65C02. Following reset, the W65C816S may be switched to "native mode" with a two instruction sequence, causing it to enable all enhanced features, yet still maintain a substantial degree
The 65xx family of microprocessors , consisting of the MOS Technology 6502 and its derivatives, the WDC 65C02 , WDC 65C802 and WDC 65C816 , and CSG 65CE02 , all handle interrupts in a similar fashion. There are three hardware interrupt signals common to all 65xx processors and one software interrupt , the BRK instruction. The WDC 65C816 adds a fourth hardware interrupt— ABORT , useful for implementing virtual memory architectures—and the COP software interrupt instruction (also present in the 65C802), intended for use in a system with a coprocessor of some type (e.g., a floating point processor ). Interrupt types 65xx interrupt vector locations Interrupt Vector (hexadecimal) LSB MSB ABORT FFF8 FFF9 COP FFF4 FFF5 IRQ / BRK FFFE FFFF NMI FFFA FFFB RESET FFFC FFFD The hardware interrupt signals are all active low, and are as follows: The detection of a RESET signal causes the processor to enter a system initialization period of six clock cycles, after which it sets the interrupt request disable flag in the statu
WDC 65C134 Microcontroller The Western Design Center (WDC) W65C134S microcomputer is a complete fully static 8-bit computer fabricated on a single chip using a low power CMOS process. The W65C134S complements an established and growing line of 65xx products and has a wide range of microcomputer applications. The W65C134S has been developed for Hi-Rel applications, and where minimum power is required. The W65C134S consists of a W65C02S (Static) Central Processing Unit (CPU), 4096 bytes of Read Only Memory (ROM), 192 bytes of Random Access Memory (RAM), two 16 bit timers, a low power Serial Interface Bus (SIB) configured as a token passing Local Area Network , Universal Asynchronous Receiver and Transmitter (UART) with baud rate timer, one 16-bit "Monitor Watch-Dog Timer " with "restart" interrupt, twenty-two priority encoded interrupts, ICE Interface, Real-Time clock features including Time of Day (ToD) clock, Bus Control Register (BCR) for external memory bus control, interface circuitry for peripheral device
William ( Bill ) David Mensch, Jr. (born February 9, 1945), is an American electrical engineer born in Quakertown, Pennsylvania . He is best known as a major contributor to the design of the Motorola 6800 8-bit microprocessor , part of the small team that created the MOS Technology 6502 (led by Chuck Peddle ), and designer of the 16-bit successor to the 6502, the 65816 . Mensch is the founder, chairman, and CEO of the Western Design Center (WDC) located in Mesa, Arizona . Prior to founding the Western Design Center in 1978, Mensch held design engineering and management positions at Philco-Ford , Motorola , MOS Technology and Integrated Circuit Engineering. At WDC, Bill Mensch worked primarily on extending and expanding the 6502 architecture. His designs are widely used in embedded systems and implantable, electronic, life-support devices. Education, teaching, honors Mensch graduated with an associate's degree from Temple University in 1966 where he was a member of Sigma Pi fraternity. He received his bachel
The HuC6280 8-bit microprocessor is Japanese company Hudson Soft 's improved version of the WDC 65C02 CPU , an upgraded CMOS version of the popular NMOS-based MOS Technology 6502 8-bit CPU manufactured for Hudson by Seiko Epson . The most notable product using the HuC6280 is NEC 's PC Engine video game console . Description The HuC6280 contains a 65C02 core which has several additional instructions and a few internal peripheral functions such as an interrupt controller , a memory management unit , a timer , an 8-bit parallel I/O port, and a programmable sound generator . The processor operates at two speeds, 1.79 MHz and 7.16 MHz. Memory mapping The HuC6280 has a 64 KB logical address space and a 2 MB physical address space. To access this entire memory space, the HuC6280 uses an MMU (Memory Management Unit) that splits the memory space into segments of 8 KB. The logical address space is split as follows: page 0 -> $0000-$1FFF page 1 -> $2000–$3FFF page 2 -> $4000–$5FFF page 3
W65C22S Versatile Interface Adapter in a DIP-40 package. The W65C22 versatile interface adapter ( VIA ) is an input/output device for use with the 65xx series microprocessor family. Designed by the Western Design Center , the W65C22 is made in two versions, both of which are rated for 14 megahertz operation, and available in DIP-40 or PLCC-44 packages. W65C22N : This device is fully compatible with the NMOS 6522 produced by MOS Technology and others, and includes current-limiting resistors on its output lines. The W65C22N has an open-drain interrupt output (the IRQB pin) that is compatible with a wired-OR interrupt circuit. Hence the DIP-40 version is a "drop-in" replacement for the NMOS part. W65C22S : This device is fully software– and partially hardware–compatible with the NMOS part. The W65C22S' IRQB output is a totem pole configuration, and thus cannot be directly connected to a wired-OR interrupt circuit. As with the NMOS 6522, the W65C22 includes functions for programmed control of two peripheral ports
The Western Design Center (WDC) , located in Mesa, Arizona , USA , is a company developing and manufacturing MOS 65xx -based microprocessors , microcontrollers (µCs), and related support devices. WDC was founded in 1978 by co-holder of the MOS Technology 6502 patent, Bill Mensch , himself a former MOS Technology employee. In addition to the discrete devices, WDC offers device designs in the form of IP cores to be used inside other chips (such as ASICs ), and provides ASIC and embedded systems consulting services revolving around their processor designs. WDC also produces C compilers , assembler / linker packages, simulators , development/evaluation boards , and in-circuit emulators for their processors. Hardware products Devices Name Type Comments W65C02S 8-bit microprocessor Enhanced static core CMOS version of the MOS Technology 6502 microprocessor W65C816S 16-bit microprocessor Extended version of the W65C02S, featuring larger instruction set, selectable register sizes and 24-bit memory addressing W65C134S
Static core generally refers to a microprocessor (MPU) entirely implemented in static logic . A static core MPU may be halted by stopping the system clock oscillator that is driving it, maintaining its state and resume processing at the point where it was stopped when the clock signal is restarted, as long as power continues to be applied. Static core MPUs are fabricated in the CMOS process and hence consume very little power when the clock is stopped, making them useful in designs in which the MPU remains in standby mode until needed and minimal loading of the power source (often a battery ) is desirable during standby. In comparison, typical microprocessor designs, those without a static core, only refresh and present valid outputs on their pins during specific periods of the clock cycle. If the clock is slowed, or stopped, the charge on the pin leaks out of the capacitors over time, quickly moving to the default state and no longer being valid. These designs have to run within a set range of clock freque
This is a list of assemblers: computer programs that translate assembly language source code into binary programs. Some assemblers are components of a compiler system for a high level language and may have limited or no usable functionality outside of the compiler system. Some assemblers are hosted on the target processor and operating system, while other assemblers (cross-assemblers) may run under an unrelated operating system or processor. For example, assemblers for embedded systems are not usually hosted on the target system since it would not have the storage and terminal I/O to permit entry of a program from a keyboard. An assembler may have a single target processor or may have options to support multiple processor types. Very simple assemblers may lack features, such as macros , present in more powerful versions. As part of a compiler suite GNU Assembler (gas): GPL: many target instruction sets including ARM architecture , Atmel AVR , x86 , Freescale 68HC11 , Freescale v4e , Motorola 680x0 , MIPS , Po
The Ricoh 5A22 is a microprocessor produced by Ricoh for the Super Nintendo Entertainment System (SNES) video game console. The 5A22 is based on the 16-bit CMD /GTE 65c816, itself a version of the WDC 65C816 (used in the Apple II GS personal computer). It has a 16-bit accumulator , a 24-bit address bus , and is based on the MOS Technology 6502 family of processors. Major features Ricoh 5A22 In addition to the 65C816 CPU core, the 5A22 contains support hardware, including: Controller port interface circuits, including serial access to controller data An 8-bit parallel I/O port, which is mostly unused in the SNES Circuitry for generating non-maskable interrupts on V-blank Circuitry for generating IRQ interrupts on calculated screen positions A DMA unit, supporting two primary modes: General DMA, for block transfers at a rate of 2.68 MB/s H-blank DMA, for transferring small data sets at the end of each scanline outside of the active display period Multiplication and division registers Two separate address busses
The Renesas 740 is a family of 8-bit microcontrollers based on the CMOS version of the MOS Technology 6502 processor core. The family was originally designed by the Mitsubishi Electric semiconductor group. Variants Subfamilies include the 3800, 38000, 7400 and 7500 groups. Individual parts are generally classified based on package type, pin count, ROM size, ROM type, RAM size and included peripherals (such as timers , serial UART , USB controller). Comparison with the MOS 6502 The 740 Family consists of microcontrollers as opposed to stand-alone microprocessors . To achieve the similar configurations, the original 6502 had to be paired with a secondary IC such as the MOS RIOT , MOS RRIOT , or other discrete components. Several additional instructions are available in the 740 Family. The branch always (BRA), accumulator increment (INA), and decrement (DEA) instructions from the WDC 65C02 are included. Several bit manipulation (CLB, SEB) and bit branching (BBC, BBS) instructions similar to those from the Rockwe
MOS Technology, Inc. ("MOS" being short for Metal Oxide Semiconductor ), also known as CSG (Commodore Semiconductor Group) , was a semiconductor design and fabrication company based in Norristown, Pennsylvania , in the United States . It is most famous for its 6502 microprocessor and various designs for Commodore International 's range of home computers . History A 1973 MOS Technology advertisement highlighting their custom integrated circuit capabilities. MOS Technology, Inc. was originally started in 1969 by Allen-Bradley to provide a second source for electronic calculators and their chips designed by Texas Instruments (TI). In the early 1970s TI decided to release their own line of calculators, instead of selling just the chips inside them, and introduced them at a price that was lower than the price of the chipset alone. Many early chip companies were wiped out in the aftermath; those that survived did so by finding other chips to produce. MOS became a supplier to Atari , producing a custom single-chip P
The seventh series of The Bill , a British television drama , consisted of 105 episodes, broadcast between 1 January – 31 December 1991. The series was released on DVD for the first time on 6 June 2012, in Australia. It features the above artwork, which features images of Sgt. Alec Peters and WDC Viv Martella. Cast changes Arrivals Sgt Matthew Boyden PC Donna Harris Departures Sgt Joseph Corrie PC Phil Young Episodes # Title Episode notes Directed by Written by Original air date 1 "Grief" Samantha Janus , Elizabeth Bradley , James McClure and Eve White guest star. Graham Theakston Arthur McKenzie 1 January 1991 Brownlow's wife causes trouble at Sun Hill. 2 "The Chase" Richard Graham , Ian Liston and Martyn Read guest star. Stuart Urban Carol Harrison 3 January 1991 Whilst investigating wheels stolen from a car, Loxton and Hollis are called to pursue armed robbers who have robbed a garage. Datta risks her life in order to save a baby after arriving at the garage. Tragedy strikes as Loxton in Sierra One collide
Carl Barks (1901–2000) was an American Disney Studio illustrator and comic book creator. The quality of his scripts and drawings earned him the nicknames The Duck Man and The Good Duck Artist. This list of Carl Barks' Disney stories is incomplete as it does not contain covers and unpublished comics, and some titles, writers and exact dates in the list are unknown. Barks' non-Disney comic book stories are listed in List of non-Disney comics by Carl Barks . List of comics # Publication date Title # Pages Hero Art Script Story code 1 May 25, 1938 A Hole in One 1 Donald Duck Al Taliaferro Carl Barks, Bob Karp YD 38-05-25 2 June 10, 1938 The Sheriff Goes Crabing 1 Donald Duck Al Taliaferro Carl Barks, Bob Karp YD 38-06-10 3 June 27, 1938 Anything to Oblige 1 Donald Duck Al Taliaferro Carl Barks, Bob Karp YD 38-06-27 4 July 2, 1938 Mr. Woodpecker Goes Picketing 1 Donald Duck Al Taliaferro Carl Barks, Bob Karp YD 38-07-02 5 July 6, 1938 Out of the Frying Pant 1 Donald Duck Al Taliaferro Carl Barks, Bob Karp YD 38
A Japanese manufactured HuC6260A microprocessor Microprocessors can be recycled . STM32 microprocessor A microprocessor is a computer processor which incorporates the functions of a computer 's central processing unit (CPU) on a single integrated circuit (IC) , or at most a few integrated circuits. The microprocessor is a multipurpose, clock driven, register based, digital-integrated circuit which accepts binary data as input, processes it according to instructions stored in its memory , and provides results as output. Microprocessors contain both combinational logic and sequential digital logic . Microprocessors operate on numbers and symbols represented in the binary numeral system . The integration of a whole CPU onto a single chip or on a few chips greatly reduced the cost of processing power, increasing efficiency. Integrated circuit processors are produced in large numbers by highly automated processes resulting in a low per unit cost. Single-chip processors increase reliability as there are many fewe
Apple II accelerators are computer hardware devices which enable an Apple II computer to operate faster than their intended clock rate . 8-bit accelerators Number Nine Apple Booster – Number Nine Computer Corporation (Number Nine Visual Technology) Platform: Apple II, Apple II Plus Form Factor: 50-pin slot card Speed: 3.58 MHz Cache: 64 KB on board RAM DMA compatible: No Upgradeable: No Number Nine Apple Booster (1982) was one of the first accelerators for the Apple II series of computers. This card is the original version of Saturn's Accelerator II (thus the Accelerator II PCB shares both Saturn Systems' and NNCC's logos.) At $598, the Saturn was much cheaper than the NNCC, but little information about the board is available today. SpeedDemon – Microcomputer Technologies (M-c-T) Platform: Apple II, Apple II Plus, Apple IIe Form Factor: 50-pin slot card Speed: 3.58 MHz Cache: 4 KB cache DMA compatible: No Upgradeable: No Microcomputer Technologies (M-c-T) SpeedDemon card was the one of early Apple II accelera
The transistor count is the number of transistors on an integrated circuit (IC). Transistor count is the most common measure of IC complexity, although there are caveats. For instance, the majority of transistors are contained in the cache memories in modern microprocessors , which consist mostly of the same memory cell circuits replicated many times. The rate at which transistor counts have increased generally follows Moore's law , which observed that the transistor count doubles approximately every two years. As of 2016, the largest transistor count in a commercially available single-chip processor is over 7.2 billion—the Intel Broadwell-EP Xeon . In other types of ICs, such as field-programmable gate arrays (FPGAs), Intel's (previously Altera) Stratix 10 has the largest transistor count, containing over 30 billion transistors. Microprocessors A microprocessor incorporates the functions of a computer's central processing unit on a single integrated circuit. It is a multipurpose, programmable device that acc
XScale is a microarchitecture for central processing units initially designed by Intel implementing the ARM architecture (version 5) instruction set . XScale comprises several distinct families: IXP, IXC, IOP, PXA and CE (see more below), with some later models designed as SoCs . Intel sold the PXA family to Marvell Technology Group in June 2006. Marvell then extended the brand to include processors with other microarchitectures , like ARM 's Cortex . The XScale architecture is based on the ARMv5TE ISA without the floating point instructions. XScale uses a seven-stage integer and an eight-stage memory super- pipelined microarchitecture . It is the successor to the Intel StrongARM line of microprocessors and microcontrollers , which Intel acquired from DEC 's Digital Semiconductor division as part of a settlement of a lawsuit between the two companies. Intel used the StrongARM to replace its ailing line of outdated RISC processors, the i860 and i960 . All the generations of XScale are 32-bit ARMv5TE processor
Lewis Carl Davidson Hamilton MBE (born 7 January 1985) is a British racing driver who races in Formula One for the Mercedes AMG Petronas team. A three-time Formula One World Champion , he is often considered the best driver of his generation and widely regarded as one of the greatest Formula One drivers in the history of the sport. He won his first World Championship title with McLaren in 2008 before moving to Mercedes , where he won back-to-back titles in 2014 and 2015 . Hamilton has more race victories than any other British driver in the history of Formula One (60), and holds records for the all-time most career points (2,510), the most wins at different circuits (24), the all-time most pole positions (69), as well as achieving the joint-most podium finishes in a season (17). Hamilton is also the only driver to have won at least one Grand Prix in every season he has competed in. Born and raised in Stevenage , Hertfordshire , Hamilton's interest in racing started when his father bought him a radio-controll
Addressing modes are an aspect of the instruction set architecture in most central processing unit (CPU) designs. The various addressing modes that are defined in a given instruction set architecture define how machine language instructions in that architecture identify the operand (s) of each instruction. An addressing mode specifies how to calculate the effective memory address of an operand by using information held in registers and/or constants contained within a machine instruction or elsewhere. In computer programming , addressing modes are primarily of interest to compiler writers and to those who write in assembly languages . Caveats Note that there is no generally accepted way of naming the various addressing modes. In particular, different authors and computer manufacturers may give different names to the same addressing mode, or the same names to different addressing modes. Furthermore, an addressing mode which, in one given architecture, is treated as a single addressing mode may represent functio
A computer is a device that can be instructed to carry out arbitrary sequences of arithmetic or logical operations automatically. The ability of computers to follow generalized sets of operations, called programs , enables them to perform an extremely wide range of tasks. Such computers are used as control systems for a very wide variety of industrial and consumer devices . This includes simple special purpose devices like microwave ovens and remote controls , factory devices such as industrial robots and computer assisted design , but also in general purpose devices like personal computers and mobile devices such as smartphones . The Internet is run on computers and it connects millions of other computers. Since ancient times, simple manual devices like the abacus aided people in doing calculations. Early in the Industrial Revolution , some mechanical devices were built to automate long tedious tasks, such as guiding patterns for looms . More sophisticated electrical machines did specialized analog calculati
Esteban Ocon (born 17 September 1996) is a French racing driver who currently drives in Formula One for Force India . He made his Formula One debut for Manor Racing in the 2016 Belgian Grand Prix , replacing Rio Haryanto . Ocon is part of the Mercedes-Benz driver development programme. Early life Esteban Ocon was born in Évreux , Normandy to Sabrina and Laurent Ocon . Laurent Ocon is a mechanic who owns a garage in Évreux . His family is of Spanish origin hailing from Málaga . Career Karting Ocon entered karting in 2006, when he finished eighth in the French Minime Championship, subsequently winning the championship in the following year. His success continued in 2008, as he won the French Cadet Championship. On the back of that victory, Ocon began the first of his three seasons in the KF3 kart category. He would ultimately win the French KF3 title and finish as runner-up in the WSK Euro Series in 2011, his final season before stepping up to cars. At the age of 14, Ocon was signed by Gravity Sports managem
Jenson Alexander Lyons Button MBE (born 19 January 1980) is a British racing driver currently under contract with McLaren - Honda , as a reserve driver. He won the 2009 FIA Formula One World Championship , driving for Brawn GP . Button announced in September 2016 that he would be giving up his seat at the end of the 2016 season but announced that he would remain at McLaren as a reserve driver and ambassador of McLaren until 2018. Button began karting at the age of eight and achieved early success, before progressing to car racing in the British Formula Ford Championship and the British Formula 3 Championship . He first drove in Formula One with Williams for the 2000 season . The following year he switched to Benetton , which in 2002 became Renault , and then for the 2003 season he moved to BAR . In 2004 he finished 3rd in the World Drivers' Championship, with only the two Ferraris ahead of him. BAR was subsequently renamed Honda for the 2006 season , during which Button won his first Grand Prix in Hungary , a
Although it appears to be multiple trees, Pando is a clonal colony of an individual aspen tree with an interconnected root system. It is widely held to be the world's most massive single organism. The largest organisms found on Earth can be determined according to various aspects of an organism's size, such as: mass, volume, area, length, height, or even genome size . Some organisms group together to form a superorganism (such as ants or bees ), but such are not classed as single large organisms. The Great Barrier Reef is the world's largest structure composed of living entities, stretching 2,000 km (1,200 mi), but contains many organisms of many types of species. This article lists the largest species for various types of organisms, and mostly considers extant species. The organism sizes listed are frequently considered "outsized" and are not in the normal size range for the respective group. If considered singular entities, the largest organisms are clonal colonies which can spread over large areas. Pando ,
The Apple IIGS (styled as II GS ) is a personal computer released by Apple Computer on September 15, 1986 which is compatible with the Apple II series, but otherwise has capabilities comparable to the Atari ST , Commodore Amiga , and Macintosh . The "GS" in the name stands for "Graphics" and "Sound," referring to its enhanced multimedia hardware, especially its state of the art sound and music synthesis . The machine is a radical departure from any previous Apple II, with its 65C816 16-bit microprocessor, direct access to megabytes of RAM , and mouse . It was the first computer produced by Apple to use a color graphical user interface (color was introduced on the Macintosh II six months later) and Apple Desktop Bus interface for keyboards, mice, and other input devices. It is the first personal computer to come with a built-in wavetable synthesis chip, utilizing technology from Ensoniq . The IIGS set forth a promising future and evolutionary advancement of the Apple II line, but Apple increasingly focused on
Low-power electronics are electronics that have been designed to use less electric power , e.g. notebook processors . History Watches The earliest attempts to reduce the amount of power required by an electronic device were related to the development of the wristwatch . Electronic watches require electricity as a power source, and some mechanical movements and hybrid electronic-mechanical movements also require electricity. Usually the electricity is provided by a replaceable battery . The first use of electrical power in watches was as a substitute for the mainspring, to remove the need for winding. The first electrically powered watch, the Hamilton Electric 500, was released in 1957 by the Hamilton Watch Company of Lancaster, Pennsylvania . Watch batteries (strictly speaking cells, as a battery is composed of multiple cells) are specially designed for their purpose. They are very small and provide tiny amounts of power continuously for very long periods (several years or more). In some cases, replacing the
The killer whale or orca (Orcinus orca) is a toothed whale belonging to the oceanic dolphin family, of which it is the largest member. Killer whales have a diverse diet, although individual populations often specialize in particular types of prey. Some feed exclusively on fish, while others hunt marine mammals such as seals and dolphins. They have been known to attack baleen whale calves, and even adult whales. Killer whales are apex predators , as there is no animal that preys on them. Killer whales are considered a cosmopolitan species , and can be found in each of the world's oceans in a variety of marine environments, from Arctic and Antarctic regions to tropical seas. Killer whales are highly social ; some populations are composed of matrilineal family groups (pods) which are the most stable of any animal species. Their sophisticated hunting techniques and vocal behaviours, which are often specific to a particular group and passed across generations, have been described as manifestations of animal cultu
Sébastien Loeb ( French pronunciation: ; born 26 February 1974) is a French professional rally , racing , and rallycross driver. He competed for the Citroën World Rally Team in the World Rally Championship (WRC) and is the most successful driver in WRC history, having won the world championship a record nine times in a row. He holds several other WRC records , including most wins, most podium finishes and most points. Loeb announced his retirement from World Rallying at the end of the 2012 season. Participating in selected events in the 2013 WRC season , he raced a full season in the FIA GT Series driving a McLaren MP4-12C before moving on with Citroën to the FIA World Touring Car Championship in 2014. Originally a gymnast, Loeb switched to rallying in 1995 and won the Junior World Rally Championship in 2001. Signed by the Citroën factory team for the 2002 season, he and co-driver Daniel Elena took their maiden WRC win that same year at the Rallye Deutschland . After finishing runner-up to Petter Solberg by
Roger Dennistoun "Dennis" Poore (19 August 1916, Paddington , London – 12 February 1987, Kensington ) was a British entrepreneur , financier and sometime racing driver . He became chairman of NVT during the dying days of the old British motorcycle industry. Family His father, Roger Poore, DSO, was killed in action in World War I on 26 September, 1917. On 24 March, 1949, Dennis Poore married Peta Coast. The couple had a daughter, Victoria ( Victoria Borwick MP). Motorsport career Poore was a keen motor sport participant, and competed in two World Championship Grands Prix in 1952. He made his debut in the British Grand Prix on 19 July 1952, where he finished fourth. He scored 3 championship points. Poore won the British Hill Climb Championship in 1950 driving a 3.8-litre twin-Wade-blown Alfa Romeo . He finished second at Shelsley Walsh , first at Prescott , second at Bo'ness , taking the win at Rest and Be Thankful , then second at Bouley Bay and first at Val des Terres , rounding off the season with another w
Earthquakes of magnitude 8.0 and greater since 1900. The apparent 3D volumes of the bubbles are linearly proportional to their respective fatalities. This list of 20th-century earthquakes is a global list of notable earthquakes that occurred in the 20th century . After 1900 most earthquakes have some degree of instrumental records and this means that the locations and magnitudes are more reliable than for earlier events. To prevent this list becoming unmanageable, only those of magnitude 6 and above are included unless they are notable for some other reason. 1901–1910 Date Time Place Lat. Long. Deaths Magnitude Comments Sources March 3, 1901 07:45 Parkfield, California , United States 36.2 −120.7 6.4 M (Abe, 1988) USGS March 31, 1901 07:10 Cape Shabla-Kaliakra, Black Sea ,see 1901 Black Sea earthquake 4 7.2 M - November 16, 1901 07:47 local time Cheviot, New Zealand -42.42 173.18 6.9 M - September 19, 1902 Warooka , South Australia, Australia 2 6.0 M USGS April 19, 1902 Quetzaltenango , Guatemala see 1902 G
Marcus Ericsson (born 2 September 1990) is a Swedish race car driver currently racing for Sauber in Formula One , where he is contracted to the end of the 2017 season. After a successful début in car racing in 2007 which saw him take the British Formula BMW title with Fortec Motorsport , he moved up into the British team's British Formula Three Championship squad. After finishing as one of the top rookies in the category, Ericsson turned his attentions to the All-Japan Formula Three Championship where he won the championship in his debut year . In 2010, he moved up to the GP2 Series where he secured one victory during his maiden campaign for Super Nova Racing . Between 2011 and 2012 , Ericsson drove for iSport . Ericsson completed the 2013 GP2 season with DAMS, and debuted in Formula One in 2014 with Caterham F1 . Career Karting Born in Kumla , Örebro County , Ericsson's first taste of motorsport came when he was nine years old racing in karts. "I got a call from Fredrik Ekblom , whom I ran in British Formula
The Mercedes AMG F1 W08 EQ Power+ is a Mercedes-Benz Formula One racing car designed and developed under the direction of Aldo Costa , Geoff Willis and James Allison , to compete during the 2017 FIA Formula One World Championship . The car is driven by three-time World Drivers' Champion Lewis Hamilton , who remained with the team for a fifth season, and Valtteri Bottas , who joined the team after 2016 World Champion Nico Rosberg 's retirement from the sport. The chassis was originally named the "Mercedes F1 W08" to represent the eighth Formula One car that Mercedes had constructed since 2010 . The "EQ Power+" was added to increase exposure of Mercedes' electric road car models, whilst AMG was included to reflect the relationship between Mercedes-AMG and Mercedes-Benz . The car made its competitive début at the 2017 Australian Grand Prix , the opening round of the 2017 season. After fourteen races, the F1 W08 EQ Power+ has taken nine wins, ten other podium finishes, ten pole positions and seven fastest laps
The Faroe Islands ( ; Faroese : Føroyar pronounced ; Danish : Færøerne , pronounced ), sometimes called the Faeroe Islands, are an archipelago between the Norwegian Sea and the North Atlantic , about halfway between Norway and Iceland , 320 kilometres (200 miles) north-northwest of Scotland . The islands are an autonomous country within the Kingdom of Denmark . Their area is about 1,400 square kilometres (541 square miles) with a population of 50,030 in April 2017. The Faroes' terrain is rugged, and the islands have a subpolar oceanic climate (Cfc) : windy, wet, cloudy, and cool. Despite this island group's northerly latitude, temperatures average above freezing throughout the year because of the Gulf Stream . Between 1035 and 1814, the Faroes were part of the Hereditary Kingdom of Norway . In 1814, the Treaty of Kiel granted Denmark control over the islands, along with two other Norwegian island possessions: Greenland and Iceland . The Faroe Islands have been a self-governing country within the Kingdom
Commodore 64 Home Computer This article is about the various external peripherals of the Commodore 64 home computer . Due to the backwards compatibility of the Commodore 128 , most peripherals will work on that system, as well. There's some compatibility with the VIC-20 and PET too. Storage Tape drives Commodore Datasette 1530 In the United States, the 1541 floppy disk drive was widespread. By contrast, in Europe, the C64 was often used with cassette tape drives (Datasette), which were much cheaper, but also much slower than floppy drives. The Datasette plugged into a proprietary edge connector on the Commodore 64's motherboard . Standard blank audio cassettes could be used in this drive. Data tapes could be write-protected in the same way as audio cassettes, by punching out a tab on the cassette's top edge. The Datasette's speed was very slow (about 300 baud ). Loading a large program at normal speed could take up to 30 minutes in extreme cases. Many European software developers wrote their own fast tape-loa
A substantial mythology exaggerating Benjamin Banneker 's accomplishments has developed during the two centuries that have elapsed since he lived. Several such urban legends describe Banneker's alleged activities in the Washington, D.C. area around the time that he assisted Andrew Ellicott in the federal district boundary survey. Others involve his clock, his almanacs and his journals. All lack support by historical evidence. Some are contradicted by such evidence. A United States postage stamp and the names of a number of recreational and cultural facilities, schools, streets and other facilities and institutions throughout the United States have commemorated Banneker's documented and mythical accomplishments throughout the years since he lived. Mythology of Benjamin Banneker Plan of the City of Washington Facsimile of manuscript of Peter Charles L'Enfant's 1791 plan for the federal capital city (U.S. Coast and Geodetic Survey, 1887). While Andrew Ellicott and his team were conducting the federal di
Alan Stanley Jones , MBE (born 2 November 1946 in Melbourne , Victoria ) is an Australian former Formula One driver. He was the first driver to win a Formula One World Championship with the Williams team, becoming the 1980 World Drivers' Champion and the second Australian to do so following triple World Champion Sir Jack Brabham . He competed in a total of 117 Grands Prix, winning 12 and achieving 24 podium finishes. In 1978 Jones won the Can-Am championship driving a Lola . Jones is also the last Australian driver to win the Australian Grand Prix , winning the 1980 event at Calder Park Raceway , having lapped the field consisting mostly of Formula 5000 cars while he was driving his Formula One Championship winning Williams FW07B . Early life and career Jones attended Xavier College and is the son of Stan Jones , an Australian racing driver and winner of the 1959 Australian Grand Prix , and wanted to follow in his footsteps. Jones initially worked in his father's Holden dealership while racing a Mini and a Co
Denis Clive "Denny" Hulme , OBE (18 June 1936 – 4 October 1992) was a New Zealand racing driver who won the 1967 Formula One World Drivers' Championship for the Brabham team. Between his debut at Monaco in 1965 and his final race in the 1974 US Grand Prix , he started 112 Grand Prix, resulting eight victories and 33 trips to the podium. He also finished third in the overall standing in 1968 and 1972. Hulme showed versatility by dominating the Canadian-American Challenge Cup (Can-Am) for Group 7 sports cars . As a member of the McLaren team that won five straight titles between 1967 and 1971, he won the individual Drivers' Championship twice and runner-up on four other occasions. Following his Formula One tenure with Brabham, Hulme raced for McLaren in multiple formats—Formula One, Can-Am, and at the Indianapolis 500 . Hulme retired from Formula One at the end of the 1974 season but continued to race Australian Touring Cars. Hulme was nicknamed 'The Bear', because of his "gruff nature" and "rugged features"; h
Marcus Ulf Johan Grönholm (born February 5, 1968 in Kauniainen ) is a Finnish former rally and rallycross driver, being part of a family of the Swedish-speaking population of Finland lineage. His son, Niclas Grönholm , is an upcoming FIA World Rallycross Championship driver. Marcus' nicknames are either "Bosse" (mainly in his native Finland and the Scandinavian countries) or "Magic Marcus". Driving for Peugeot , he won the World Rally Championship in 2000 and 2002 . After Peugeot withdrew from the World Rally Championship, Grönholm moved to Ford for the 2006 season and placed second in the drivers' world championship, losing the title to Sébastien Loeb by one point. The next year he again placed second, four points behind Loeb. He and his co-driver Timo Rautiainen retired from rallying after the 2007 season but returned to the championship in 2009 driving a private Subaru for a short period of time. Career Early career Marcus' father, Ulf "Uffe" Grönholm , had been an active rally driver in the late 1970s to
Jari-Matti Latvala (born 3 April 1985) is a Finnish rally driver competing in the World Rally Championship . His co-driver has been Miikka Anttila since the 2003 Rallye Deutschland . He is well known for his aggressive driving style, which earns him many plaudits, and comparisons to the late Colin McRae . With 17 event victories in the WRC, he is the most successful driver to not have won a championship. Career Latvala began driving when he was eight years old, after receiving a Ford Escort from his father Jari Latvala, also a rally driver and 1994 national champion in the Group N class. At the age of ten, Latvala started practicing with an Opel Ascona on a frozen lake. 2000s Latvala's first world rally was the 2002 Rally Great Britain at the age of 17. He finished in 17th position with a Mitsubish Lancer Evolution VI . In 2003 , Latvala competed in four WRC events with a Ford Focus WRC , finishing tenth at the Acropolis Rally , 17th at the Rallye Deutschland , 14th at the Neste Oil Rally Finland and tenth a
Markku Allan Alén (born 15 February 1951, in Helsinki ) is a Finnish former rally and race car driver. He drove for Fiat , Lancia , Subaru and Toyota in the World Rally Championship , and held the record for most stage wins (801) in the series, until Sébastien Loeb overtook it at the 2011 Rally Catalunya . Alén's phrase "now maximum attack" became well-known. Alén never won the world championship itself, despite being for a long time the driver with the most wins to his credit. However, he did win the FIA Cup for Drivers in 1978 , the precursor to the World Championship for Drivers established in 1979 . In 1986 , he was the world champion for eleven days, until Peugeot 's appeal went through and the results of Rallye Sanremo , which Alén had won, were annulled. Career Early Alén's interest in motorsport came from his father, who was the 1963 Finnish champion in ice racing . Alén started his rallying career in 1969 driving a Renault 8 Gordini , and finished ninth at the 1000 Lakes Rally at his first attempt. A
Cape Town ( Afrikaans : Kaapstad , ) is a coastal city in South Africa . It is the second-most populous urban area in South Africa after Johannesburg . It is also the capital and primate city of the Western Cape province. As the seat of the Parliament of South Africa , it is also the legislative capital of the country. It forms part of the City of Cape Town metropolitan municipality . The city is famous for its harbour , for its natural setting in the Cape Floristic Region , and for such well-known landmarks as Table Mountain and Cape Point . As of 2014, it is the 10th most populous city in Africa and home to 64% of the Western Cape's population. It is one of the most multicultural cities in the world, reflecting its role as a major destination for immigrants and expatriates to South Africa. The city was named the World Design Capital for 2014 by the International Council of Societies of Industrial Design . In 2014, Cape Town was named the best place in the world to visit by both the American New York Tim
Takuma Sato ( 佐藤 琢磨 Satō Takuma, born 28 January 1977) is a Japanese professional racing driver. He competed in Formula One from 2002 to 2008 for the Jordan , BAR and Super Aguri teams, scoring a single podium at the 2004 United States Grand Prix . Sato has raced full-time in the IndyCar Series since 2010 for the KV , Rahal , Foyt , and currently Andretti teams. Sato won the 2013 Toyota Grand Prix of Long Beach , becoming the first Japanese driver to win an IndyCar race. He is also the first Asian driver to win the Indianapolis 500 , having won the 2017 edition. Racing career Formula One Jordan (2002) In 2002 Sato graduated to Formula One with the Honda-powered Jordan team, and was paired with Giancarlo Fisichella . His low point was a tremendous crash in Austria , caused when Nick Heidfeld lost control of his Sauber under braking and hit the side of Sato's car, punching a hole in the side of the cockpit. Throughout he showed flashes of speed but also wild driving, nevertheless the team's faith in Sato was r
Jacques Joseph Charles Villeneuve , OQ ( French pronunciation: ; born April 9, 1971), is a Canadian professional auto racing driver and amateur musician. He is the son of Formula One driver Gilles Villeneuve , and is the namesake of his uncle , who was also a racer. Villeneuve won the 1995 CART Championship, the 1995 Indianapolis 500 and the 1997 Formula One World Championship, making him only the third driver after Mario Andretti and Emerson Fittipaldi to achieve such a feat. As of 2016, no other Canadian has won the Indianapolis 500 or the Formula One Drivers' title. Following two successful years in CART , Villeneuve moved into Formula One with the front-running Williams team, alongside Damon Hill . In his debut season , Villeneuve challenged teammate Hill for the title, winning four races and taking the fight to the final round in Japan , where Villeneuve retired and Hill won the race, and the title. Villeneuve, however, did win the following year's title, this time challenging Michael Schumacher and on
Dolphin drive hunting , also called dolphin drive fishing , is a method of hunting dolphins and occasionally other small cetaceans by driving them together with boats and then usually into a bay or onto a beach. Their escape is prevented by closing off the route to the open sea or ocean with boats and nets. Dolphins are hunted this way in several places around the world, including the Solomon Islands , the Faroe Islands , Peru , and Japan , the most well-known practitioner of this method. By numbers, dolphins are mostly hunted for their meat ; some end up in dolphinariums . Despite the controversial nature of the hunt resulting in international criticism, and the possible health risk that the often polluted meat causes, thousands of dolphins are caught in drive hunts each year. Atlantic white-sided dolphin caught in a drive hunt in Hvalba on the Faroe Islands being taken away with a forklift By country Faroe Islands Two dead Northern Bottlenose Whales with cut necks in the bay of Nes (Hvalba) on the Faroe Isl
Giant beaked whales are three species of beaked whales in the genus Berardius : Arnoux's beaked whale (Berardius arnuxii) in cold Southern Hemisphere waters, and Baird's beaked whale (Berardius bairdii) in the cold temperate waters of the North Pacific. An as yet unnamed third species was described in 2016. They are the largest of the beaked whales, growing up to 10–12 m in length. Lifespan estimates, based on earwax plug samples, indicate these whales can live up to 85 years. They are sometimes referred to as "four-toothed whales" or "giant beaked whales", but are most commonly known by their genus name, Berardius. Arnoux's and Baird's beaked whales are so similar that researchers have debated whether or not they are simply two populations of the same species. However, genetic evidence and their wide geographical separation has led them to be classified as separate. Physical description Illustration of Baird's beaked whale. The two established species have very similar features and would be indistinguishabl
The tropical bottlenose whale ( Indopacetus pacificus ), also known as the Indo-Pacific beaked whale and the Longman's beaked whale , was considered to be the world's rarest cetacean until recently, but the spade-toothed whale now holds that position. As of 2010, the species is now known from nearly a dozen strandings and over 65 sightings. History of discovery The species has had a long history riddled with misidentifications, which are now mostly resolved. A skull and jaw found on a beach in Mackay , Queensland , Australia in 1882 provided the basis for the initial description of this species by H. A. Longman in 1926,. Other researchers were not convinced, and felt this specimen might instead represent a Pacific form of True's beaked whale or a female bottlenose whale . Almost 30 years after Longman's original publication, a second skull was discovered near Danane, Somalia (1955). This specimen likely stranded on the coast but was subsequently processed into fertilizer. Only the skull survived. Biologist J
Eureka ( Hupa : do'-wi-lotl-ding, Karuk : uuth ) is the principal city and county seat of Humboldt County in the Redwood Empire region of California . The city is located on U.S. Route 101 on the shores of Humboldt Bay , 270 miles (430 km) north of San Francisco and 100 miles (160 km) south of the Oregon border. At the 2010 census , the population of the city was 27,191, and the population of Greater Eureka was 45,034. Eureka is the largest coastal city between San Francisco and Portland , and the westernmost city of more than 25,000 residents in the 48 contiguous states. It is the regional center for government, health care, trade, and the arts on the North Coast north of the San Francisco Bay Area . Greater Eureka, one of California's major commercial fishing ports, is the location of the largest deep-water port between San Francisco and Coos Bay , a stretch of about 500 miles (800 km). The headquarters of both the Six Rivers National Forest and the North Coast Redwoods District of the California St
Juha Matti Pellervo Kankkunen ( pronunciation ) (born 2 April 1959 in Laukaa ) is a Finnish former rally driver. His factory team career in the World Rally Championship lasted from 1983 to 2002. He won 23 world rallies and four drivers' world championship titles, which were both once records in the series. Sébastien Loeb has since collected more world titles, but no driver has so far been able to repeat Kankkunen's feat of becoming a world champion with three different manufacturers. Kankkunen was signed by Toyota in 1983 and he took his first WRC win in his third year in the team. His performances got him a deal with the defending champions Peugeot for 1986, and Kankkunen was soon crowned the series' then youngest-ever champion. As Peugeot withdrew from the championship following the ban of Group B , Kankkunen moved to Lancia and became the first driver to successfully defend his title. After a two-year stint back at Toyota, he returned to Lancia and won a record third title in 1991. In 1993, Kankkunen r
Chief Godswill Obot Akpabio , CON (born 9 December 1962), is a Nigerian lawyer and politician who is a Senator of the Federal Republic of Nigeria and the Senate's Minority Leader. He was also Governor of Akwa Ibom State of Nigeria from May 29, 2007 to May 29, 2015. Early life and career Godswill Akpabio is the son of Chief Obot Akpabio and Madam Lucy Obot Akpabio (née Inyangetor) of Ukana, Ikot Ntuen in Essien Udim Local Government Area. He was born on 9 December 1962. He lost his father early in life and was raised by his mother, who inculcated in him the values of hard work, discipline and honesty. Education He was educated at Methodist Primary School, Ukana, Essien Udim LGA, Akwa Ibom State ; the prestigious Federal Government College, Port Harcourt , Rivers State ; and the University of Calabar , Cross River State , where he obtained a Degree in Law. While at the Federal Government College, Port Harcourt , he was appointed the General Senior Prefect. In the University of Calabar , his charisma endeare