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WDC 65C02

The Western Design Center (WDC) 65C02 microprocessor is an enhanced CMOS version of the popular NMOS-based 8-bit MOS Technology 6502 microprocessor—the CMOS redesign being made by Bill Mensch in 1978. Over various periods of time, the 65C02 has been second-sourced by NCR, GTE, Rockwell, Synertek and Sanyo. The 65C02 has been used in some home computers, as well as in embedded applications, including medical-grade implanted devices.

W65C02S microprocessor in a PDIP-40 package.

Introduction and features

The 65C02 is a low cost, general-purpose 8-bit microprocessor (8-bit registers and data bus) with a 16-bit program counter and address bus. The variable length instruction set and manually optimized core size are intended to make the 65C02 well suited for low power system-on-chip (SoC) designs.

A Verilog hardware description model is available for designing the W65C02S core into an application-specific integrated circuit (ASIC) or a field-programmable gate array (FPGA). As is common in the semiconductor industry, WDC offers a development system, which includes a developer board, an in-circuit emulator (ICE) and a software development system.

The W65C02S–14 is the production version of the 65C02 microprocessor, and is available in PDIP, PLCC and QFP packages through distribution. The maximum officially supported ϕ2 (primary) clock speed is 14 MHz, indicated by the –14 part number suffix. The "S" designation indicates that the part has a fully static core, a feature that allows ϕ2 to be slowed down or fully stopped in either the high or low state with no loss of data. Typical microprocessors not implemented in CMOS have dynamic cores and will lose their internal register contents (and thus crash) if they are not continuously clocked at a rate between some minimum and maximum specified values.

General logic features
Logic features
  • Vector pull (VPB) output indicates when interrupt vectors are being addressed
  • Memory lock (MLB) output indicates to other bus masters when a read-modify-write instruction is being processed
  • WAit-for-Interrupt (WAI) and SToP (STP) instructions reduce power consumption, decrease interrupt latency and enable synchronization with external events
Electrical features
  • Supply voltage specified at 1.71 V to 5.25 V
  • Current consumption (core) of 0.15 and 1.5 mA per MHz at 1.89 V and 5.25 V respectively
  • Variable length instruction set, enabling code size optimization over fixed length instruction set processors, results in power savings
  • Fully static circuitry allows stopping the clock to conserve power
Clocking features

The W65C02S may be operated at any convenient supply voltage (V) between 1.8 and 5 volts (±5%). The data sheet AC characteristics table lists operational characteristics at 5 V at 14 MHz, 3.3 V or 3 V at 8 MHz, 2.5 V at 4 MHz, and 1.8 V at 2 MHz. This information may be an artifact of an earlier data sheet, as a graph indicates that typical devices are capable of operation at higher speeds than suggested by the AC characteristics table, and that reliable operation at 20 MHz should be readily attainable with V at 5 volts, assuming the supporting hardware will allow it.

The W65C02S may also be operated at non-integral clock rates such as 13.5 MHz (digital SDTV luma sampling rate), 14.31818 MHz (NTSC colour carrier frequency × 4), 14.75 MHz (PAL square pixels), 14.7456 (baud rate crystal), etc., as long as V is sufficient to support the frequency. Designer Bill Mensch has pointed out that F is affected by off-chip factors, such as the capacitive load on the microprocessor's pins. Minimizing load by using short signal tracks and fewest devices helps raise F. The PLCC and QFP packages have less pin-to-pin capacitance than the PDIP package, and are more economical in the use of printed circuit board space.

WDC has reported that FPGA realizations of the W65C02S have been successfully operated at 200 MHz.

Comparison with the MOS 6502
Instruction set

The 65C02 shares its predecessor's 8-bit instruction set architecture and 16-bit memory address space $0000 to $FFFF allowing access to a total memory map of 64K. "Zero Page" spans $0000 to $00FF. "Page 1" spans memory address space $0100 to $01FF and is dedicated for the stack. On this processor the stack grows downwards with the stack pointer starting at $01FF and decrementing as the stack grows.

The 65C02 adds a number of improvements and documented opcodes, the most useful being instructions that can push or pull the X and Y index registers to/from the stack. Undefined opcodes have been converted into NOPs, although of varying instruction lengths.

Significantly, the defective "indirect jump page wrap" instruction (JMP (), where straddles a memory page boundary) has been fixed, eliminating a constant source of trouble for unwary assembly language programmers. This instruction has also been enhanced with .X register indexing, making it possible to code JMP (,X), enabling the development of a simple jump table management methodology.

Some variants of the 65C02 (including the WDC W65C02S and the Rockwell R65C00 family) feature individual bit manipulation operations (RMB, SMB, BBR and BBS). The 65SC02 was also available, which lacked these operations.

Status register

Other problems with the 6502, fixed in the 65C02, relate to its program status register, which contains eight system flags. Some flags are set or reset under program control. Others reflect the status of the machine after arithmetic or bit manipulation instructions.

6502 status flags, with meanings when set:
N -- Negative result
V -- Sign bit overflow
1 -- Undefined (always set)
B -- Break flag (set by BRK instruction)
D -- Decimal mode enabled
I -- IRQ disabled
Z -- Zero result
C -- Arithmetic carry (borrow)

In all NMOS logic forms of the 6502, the decimal flag (D flag) is not initialized to a known state following reset (state is "random") or when an interrupt is processed (state has been kept from "before the interrupt occurred"), which may lead to arbitrary behavior. This forces 6502 programmers to use the CLD instruction early in the reset handler code (it is generally the second instruction executed after SEI), as well as in the front end of the interrupt handler. The 65C02 addresses these problems by causing the D flag to be cleared at reset or upon receipt of an interrupt (after the status register is pushed onto the stack).

Also, in NMOS 6502s, the N flag is invalid when the processor is operating in decimal mode. The 65C02 fixes this problem (at the cost of an additional clock cycle), and thus increases the usefulness of decimal mode.


The 65SC02 is a variant of the WDC 65C02 without bit instructions.[1]

Notable uses of the 65C02
Home computers
Video game consoles
Other products
See also
  1. Rodnay Zaks, Programmierung des 6502. Jetzt auch mit 6510, 65C02, 65SC02, p. 348
External links
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WDC 65C02


The Western Design Center (WDC) 65C02 microprocessor is an enhanced CMOS version of the popular NMOS -based 8-bit MOS Technology 6502 microprocessor—the CMOS redesign being made by Bill Mensch in 1978. Over various periods of time, the 65C02 has been second-sourced by NCR , GTE , Rockwell , Synertek and Sanyo . The 65C02 has been used in some home computers , as well as in embedded applications, including medical-grade implanted devices. W65C02S microprocessor in a PDIP-40 package. Introduction and features The 65C02 is a low cost, general-purpose 8-bit microprocessor (8-bit registers and data bus ) with a 16-bit program counter and address bus . The variable length instruction set and manually optimized core size are intended to make the 65C02 well suited for low power system-on-chip (SoC) designs. A Verilog hardware description model is available for designing the W65C02S core into an application-specific integrated circuit (ASIC) or a field-programmable gate array (FPGA). As is common in the semiconductor

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A substantial mythology exaggerating Benjamin Banneker 's accomplishments has developed during the two centuries that have elapsed since he lived. Several such urban legends describe Banneker's alleged activities in the Washington, D.C. area around the time that he assisted Andrew Ellicott in the federal district boundary survey. Others involve his clock, his almanacs and his journals. All lack support by historical evidence. Some are contradicted by such evidence. A United States postage stamp and the names of a number of recreational and cultural facilities, schools, streets and other facilities and institutions throughout the United States have commemorated Banneker's documented and mythical accomplishments throughout the years since he lived. Mythology of Benjamin Banneker Plan of the City of Washington L'Enfant Plan for the federal capital city While Andrew Ellicott and his team were conducting the federal district boundary survey in 1791-1792 (see: Boundary Markers of the Original District of C

BDO World Darts Championship


The BDO World Darts Championship is a world championship competition in darts , organised by the British Darts Organisation (BDO). It began in 1978 , and was, alongside the World Darts Federation 's World Cup of Darts , one of two world championship tournaments until 1993. Since 1994, following a dispute with the BDO and the subsequent fallout, a breakaway group (originally known as the World Darts Council, and now known as the Professional Darts Corporation ) stages its own annual PDC World Championship , generally before the BDO version in late December and early January of each year. The BDO version was first held at the Heart of the Midlands Nightclub in the English city of Nottingham . The following year it moved to the Jollees Cabaret Club, Stoke , where it stayed until 1985. From 1986, it has been held at the Lakeside Country Club in Frimley Green , Surrey . Highlights In 1983 , a 23-year-old qualifier from Ipswich , Keith Deller , beat the world's top 3 players including Eric Bristow in a memorable fi

Dani Sordo


Daniel "Dani" Sordo Castillo (born May 2, 1983 in Torrelavega , Cantabria ) is a Spanish rally driver. He competes in the World Rally Championship for Hyundai Motorsport . He achieved his first WRC victory at the 2013 Rallye Deutschland . Career Sordo began in motocross when he was 12 years old, but also experienced success in hillclimbing , karting and touring cars . He first drove in a World Rally Championship event at the Rally Catalunya , the Spanish round of the series, in 2003 in a Mitsubishi Lancer Evo VII , finishing 18th overall. He won the Spanish Junior Championship that year, and retained the title in 2004, while also accumulating further international experience at the WRC events in Argentina (retired), Germany (19th), France (13th) and Spain (20th). In this last event, he switched from the Lancer Evo to a Citroën C2 S1600 , and for 2005 he committed to a full season driving the C2 in the Junior World Rally Championship (JWRC) with Belgium's Kronos Racing team. He also switched co-drivers, now be

Cape Town


Cape Town ( Afrikaans : Kaapstad ; Xhosa : Ikapa ) is a coastal city in South Africa . It is the second-most populous urban area in South Africa after Johannesburg . It is also the capital and primate city of the Western Cape province. As the seat of the Parliament of South Africa , it is also the legislative capital of the country. It forms part of the City of Cape Town metropolitan municipality . The city is famous for its harbour , for its natural setting in the Cape Floristic Region , and for such well-known landmarks as Table Mountain and Cape Point . As of 2014, it is the 10th most populous city in Africa and home to 64% of the Western Cape's population. It is one of the most multicultural cities in the world, reflecting its role as a major destination for immigrants and expatriates to South Africa. The city was named the World Design Capital for 2014 by the International Council of Societies of Industrial Design . In 2014, Cape Town was named the best place in the world to visit by both the American

Citroën World Rally Team


The Citroën Total Abu Dhabi World Rally Team is the Citroën factory backed entry into the World Rally Championship , run by Citroën Racing. The team Management Yves Matton – team director Xavier Mestelan-Pinon – technical director Partners Total Abu Dhabi Michelin Eurodatacar History 1990–1998 seasons The Citroën ZX Rally raid won the Rally raid Constructors' Championship in 1993, 1994, 1995, 1996, and 1997 with Pierre Lartigue and Ari Vatanen . Citroën also won the Dakar Rally in 1991, 1994, 1995, and 1996. In addition, Citroën won the Pharaons Rally in 1991, the Tunisia rally in 1992 and the Paris-Moscow-Beijing Rally, also in 1992 1998–2000 seasons Citroën Xsara Kit car at the 1998 Rallye Cantabria In 1998, following its withdrawal from Rally raid competition, Citroën Sport began competing in rallying with the Xsara Kit Car. Equipped with a 2L engine developing 280 hp more than 8 000 rpm, this car started competing in the French Rally Championship in 1998. At the wheel, Philippe Bugalski won drivers titles

Denny Hulme


Denis Clive "Denny" Hulme , OBE (18 June 1936 – 4 October 1992) was a New Zealand racing driver who won the 1967 Formula One World Drivers' Championship for the Brabham team. Between his debut at Monaco in 1965 and his final race in the 1974 US Grand Prix , he started 112 Grand Prix, resulting eight victories and 33 trips to the podium. He also finished third in the overall standing in 1968 and 1972. Hulme showed versatility by dominating the Canadian-American Challenge Cup (Can-Am) for Group 7 sports cars . As a member of the McLaren team that won five straight titles between 1967 and 1971, he won the individual drivers’ championship twice and runner-up on four other occasions. Following his Formula One tenure with Brabham, Hulme raced for McLaren in multiple formats—Formula One, Can-Am, and at the Indianapolis 500 . Hulme retired from Formula One at the end of the 1974 season but continued to race Australian Touring Cars. Hulme was nicknamed 'The Bear', because of his "gruff nature" and "rugged features"; h

Whale conservation


Whale conservation is the international environmental and ethical debate over whale hunting . The conservation and anti-whaling debate has focused on issues of sustainability as well as ownership and national sovereignty . Also raised in conservation efforts is the question of cetacean intelligence , the level of suffering which the animals undergo when caught and killed, and the importance that the mammals play in the ecosystem and a healthy marine environment . The International Whaling Commission (IWC) 1986 moratorium on commercial whaling, the value of lethal sampling of whales for scientific research in order to establish catch quotas has also been debated. The value of whaling to fisheries as a method of controlling whales' perceived negative impact on fish stocks is another point of debate. Conservation status Blue whale populations have declined dramatically due to unregulated commercial whaling, putting them at risk of extinction. Prior to the setting up of the IWC in 1946, unregulated whaling had de

Jari-Matti Latvala


Jari-Matti Latvala (born 3 April 1985) is a Finnish rally driver competing in the World Rally Championship . His co-driver has been Miikka Anttila since the 2003 Rallye Deutschland . He is well known for his aggressive driving style, which earns him many plaudits, and comparisons to the late Colin McRae . With 17 event victories in the WRC, he is the most successful driver to not have won a championship. Career Latvala began driving when he was eight years old, after receiving a Ford Escort from his father Jari Latvala, also a rally driver and 1994 national champion in the Group N class. At the age of ten, Latvala started practicing with an Opel Ascona on a frozen lake. 2000s Latvala's first world rally was the 2002 Rally Great Britain at the age of 17. He finished in 17th position with a Mitsubish Lancer Evolution VI . In 2003 , Latvala competed in four WRC events with a Ford Focus WRC , finishing tenth at the Acropolis Rally , 17th at the Rallye Deutschland , 14th at the Neste Oil Rally Finland and tenth a

Markku Alén


Markku Allan Alén (born 15 February 1951, in Helsinki ) is a Finnish former rally and race car driver. He drove for Fiat , Lancia , Subaru and Toyota in the World Rally Championship , and held the record for most stage wins (801) in the series, until Sébastien Loeb overtook it at the 2011 Rally Catalunya . Alén's phrase "now maximum attack" became well-known. Alén never won the world championship itself, despite being for a long time the driver with the most wins to his credit. However, he did win the FIA Cup for Drivers in 1978 , the precursor to the World Championship for Drivers established in 1979 . In 1986 , he was the world champion for eleven days, until Peugeot 's appeal went through and the results of Rallye Sanremo , which Alén had won, were annulled. Career Early Alén's interest in motorsport came from his father, who was the 1963 Finnish champion in ice racing . Alén started his rallying career in 1969 driving a Renault 8 Gordini , and finished ninth at the 1000 Lakes Rally at his first attempt. A

Eureka, California


Eureka ( Hupa : do'-wi-lotl-ding' Karuk : uuth ) is the principal city and county seat of Humboldt County in the Redwood Empire region of California . The city is located on U.S. Route 101 on the shores of Humboldt Bay , 270 miles (430 km) north of San Francisco and 100 miles (160 km) south of the Oregon border. At the 2010 census , the population of the city was 27,191, and the population of Greater Eureka was 45,034. Eureka is the largest coastal city between San Francisco and Portland , and the westernmost city of more than 25,000 residents in the 48 contiguous states. It is the regional center for government, health care, trade, and the arts on the North Coast north of the San Francisco Bay Area . Greater Eureka, one of California's major commercial fishing ports, is the location of the largest deep-water port between San Francisco and Coos Bay , a stretch of about 500 miles (800 km). The headquarters of both the Six Rivers National Forest and the North Coast Redwoods District of the California St

Dennis Poore


Roger Dennistoun "Dennis" Poore (19 August 1916, Paddington , London – 12 February 1987, Kensington ) was a British entrepreneur , financier and sometime racing driver . He became chairman of NVT during the dying days of the old British motorcycle industry. Motorsport career Poore was a keen motor sport participant, and competed in two World Championship Grands Prix in 1952. He made his debut in the British Grand Prix on 19 July 1952, where he finished fourth. He scored 3 championship points. Poore won the British Hill Climb Championship in 1950 driving a 3.8-litre twin-Wade-blown Alfa Romeo . He finished second at Shelsley Walsh , first at Prescott , second at Bo'ness , taking the win at Rest and Be Thankful , then second at Bouley Bay and first at Val des Terres , rounding off the season with another win at Prescott. After his World Championship Grands Prix, Poore raced sportscars for Aston Martin , winning the Goodwood International Nine Hour race with a DB3S in 1955, co-driven by Peter Walker . Poore us



TiVo's logo , a smiling television set TiVo ( TEE -voh ) is a digital video recorder (DVR) developed and marketed by TiVo Corporation and introduced in 1999. TiVo provides an on-screen guide of scheduled broadcast programming television programs , whose features include "Season Pass" schedules which record every new episode of a series, and "WishList" searches which allow the user to find and record shows that match their interests by title, actor, director, category, or keyword. TiVo also provides a range of features when the TiVo DVR is connected to a home network, including film and television show downloads, advanced search, personal photo viewing, music offerings, and online scheduling. Since its launch in the United States, TiVo has been made available in Australia, Canada, Mexico, New Zealand, Puerto Rico , Sweden, Taiwan , Spain, and the United Kingdom. Newer models, however, have adopted the CableCARD standard, which is only deployed in the United States, and which limits the availability of certain

Faroe Islands


The Faroe Islands , also spelled the Faeroes , ( ; Faroese : Føroyar pronounced  ; Danish : Færøerne , pronounced  ) are an archipelago between the Norwegian Sea and the North Atlantic , about halfway between Norway and Iceland , 320 kilometres (200 miles) north-northwest of Scotland . Its area is about 1,400 square kilometres (541 square miles) with a population of 50,030 in April 2017. The Faroe Islands are an autonomous country within the Danish Realm . The land of the Faeroes is rugged, and these islands have a subpolar oceanic climate (Cfc) : windy, wet, cloudy, and cool. Despite this island group's northerly latitude, temperatures average above freezing throughout the year because of the Gulf Stream . Between 1035 and 1814, the Faeroes were part of the Hereditary Kingdom of Norway . In 1814, the Treaty of Kiel granted Denmark control over the islands, along with two other Norwegian island possessions: Greenland and Iceland . The Faroe Islands have been a self-governing country within the Kingdom of Den

Largest organisms


Although it appears to be multiple trees, Pando is a clonal colony of an individual aspen tree with an interconnected root system. It is widely held to be the world's most massive single organism. The largest organisms found on Earth can be determined according to various aspects of an organism's size, such as: mass, volume, area, length, height, or even genome size . Some organisms group together to form a superorganism (such as ants or bees ), but such are not classed as single large organisms. The Great Barrier Reef is the world's largest structure composed of living entities, stretching 2,000 km (1,200 mi), but contains many organisms of many types of species. This article lists the largest species for various types of organisms, and mostly considers extant species. The organism sizes listed are frequently considered "outsized" and are not in the normal size range for the respective group. If considered singular entities, the largest organisms are clonal colonies which can spread over large areas. Pando ,

List of Disney comics by Carl Barks


Carl Barks (1901–2000) was an American Disney Studio illustrator and comic book creator. The quality of his scripts and drawings earned him the nicknames The Duck Man and The Good Duck Artist. This list of Carl Barks' Disney stories is incomplete as it does not contain covers and unpublished comics, and some titles, writers and exact dates in the list are unknown. Barks' non-Disney comic book stories are listed in List of non-Disney comics by Carl Barks . List of comics[1] # Publication date Title # Pages Hero Art Script Story code 1 May 25, 1938 A Hole in One 1 Donald Duck Al Taliaferro Carl Barks, Bob Karp YD 38-05-25 2 June 10, 1938 The Sheriff Goes Crabing 1 Donald Duck Al Taliaferro Carl Barks, Bob Karp YD 38-06-10 3 June 27, 1938 Anything to Oblige 1 Donald Duck Al Taliaferro Carl Barks, Bob Karp YD 38-06-27 4 July 2, 1938 Mr. Woodpecker Goes Picketing 1 Donald Duck Al Taliaferro Carl Barks, Bob Karp YD 38-07-02 5 July 6, 1938 Out of the Frying Pant 1 Donald Duck Al Taliaferro Carl Barks, Bob Karp YD 38

Dolphin drive hunting


Dolphin drive hunting , also called dolphin drive fishing , is a method of hunting dolphins and occasionally other small cetaceans by driving them together with boats and then usually into a bay or onto a beach. Their escape is prevented by closing off the route to the open sea or ocean with boats and nets. Dolphins are hunted this way in several places around the world, including the Solomon Islands , the Faroe Islands , Peru , and Japan , the most well-known practitioner of this method. By numbers, dolphins are mostly hunted for their meat ; some end up in dolphinariums . Despite the controversial nature of the hunt resulting in international criticism, and the possible health risk that the often polluted meat causes, thousands of dolphins are caught in drive hunts each year. Atlantic white-sided dolphin caught in a drive hunt in Hvalba on the Faroe Islands being taken away with a forklift By country Faroe Islands Two dead Northern Bottlenose Whales with cut necks in the bay of Nes (Hvalba) on the Faroe Isl



A computer is a device that can be instructed to carry out an arbitrary set of arithmetic or logical operations automatically. The ability of computers to follow a sequence of operations, called a program , make computers very applicable to a wide range of tasks. Such computers are used as control systems for a very wide variety of industrial and consumer devices . This includes simple special purpose devices like microwave ovens and remote controls , factory devices such as industrial robots and computer assisted design , but also in general purpose devices like personal computers and mobile devices such as smartphones . The Internet is run on computers and it connects millions of other computers. Since ancient times, simple manual devices like the abacus aided people in doing calculations. Early in the Industrial Revolution , some mechanical devices were built to automate long tedious tasks, such as guiding patterns for looms . More sophisticated electrical machines did specialized analog calculations in th

Sébastien Loeb


Sébastien Loeb ( French pronunciation: ​ ; born 26 February 1974) is a French professional rally , racing , and rallycross driver. He competed for the Citroën World Rally Team in the World Rally Championship (WRC) and is the most successful driver in WRC history, having won the world championship a record nine times in a row. He holds several other WRC records , including most wins, most podium finishes and most points. Loeb announced his retirement from World Rallying at the end of the 2012 season. Participating in selected events in the 2013 WRC season , he raced a full season in the FIA GT Series driving a McLaren MP4-12C before moving on with Citroën to the FIA World Touring Car Championship in 2014. Originally a gymnast, Loeb switched to rallying in 1995 and won the Junior World Rally Championship in 2001. Signed by the Citroën factory team for the 2002 season, he and co-driver Daniel Elena took their maiden WRC win that same year at the Rallye Deutschland . After finishing runner-up to Petter Solberg by

M-Sport World Rally Team


The M-Sport Ford World Rally Team , formerly Qatar M-Sport World Rally Team , M-Sport Ford World Rally Team and Stobart M-Sport Ford Rally Team , is the privately run World Rally Championship team of M-Sport , the firm run by Malcolm Wilson that was previously responsible for the operation of the former Ford World Rally Team . History 2006 season Wilson at the 2006 Cyprus Rally . Note that the car is named Elaine Joanne, following sponsor Stobart Group's tradition of giving its lorries female names. Stobart debuted at the 2006 season opener Monte Carlo Rally with drivers Matthew Wilson and Pieter Tsjoen. Wilson went on to compete all the 16 rounds for the team. Other Stobart entrants during the season were Luís Pérez Companc in eight rallies, Kosti Katajamäki in five, Jari-Matti Latvala in four, Juan Pablo Raies at the Cyprus Rally and Andreas Mikkelsen at the Wales Rally GB . The team's best results were Latvala's fourth place at the Wales Rally GB and Katajamäki's fifth at the Rally of Turkey and sixth at t

2014–15 North West Counties Football League


The 2014–15 North West Counties Football League season was the 33rd in the history of the North West Counties Football League , a football competition in England . Teams were divided into two divisions; Premier Division and Division One. Premier Division The Premier Division featured two new teams: Nelson promoted as champions of Division One 1874 Northwich promoted after finishing third in Division One League table Pos Team Pld W D L GF GA GD Pts Qualification or relegation 1 Glossop North End   (C)   (P) 40 33 3 4 100 23 +77 102 Promotion to NPL Division One North 2 Runcorn Linnets 40 28 8 4 89 39 +50 92 3 1874 Northwich 40 26 8 6 90 35 +55 86 4 Colne 40 25 5 10 86 47 +39 80 5 Ashton Athletic 40 21 12 7 69 38 +31 75 6 Squires Gate 40 17 16 7 62 42 +20 67 7 Bootle 40 19 6 15 76 63 +13 63 8 Congleton Town 40 17 9 14 68 57 +11 60 9 A.F.C. Liverpool 40 17 8 15 74 56 +18 59 10 Silsden 40 16 8 16 55 62 −7 56 11 Nelson 40 16 7 17 69 64 +5 55 12 Winsford United 40 15 10 15 66 62 +4 55 13 Runcorn Town 40 13 8 19 72

Graham Hill


Norman Graham Hill OBE (15 February 1929 – 29 November 1975) was a British racing driver and team owner from England , who was twice Formula One World Champion. He is the only driver ever to win the Triple Crown of Motorsport —the 24 Hours of Le Mans , Indianapolis 500 and either the Monaco Grand Prix or the Formula One World Drivers' Championship. He also appeared on TV in the 1970s on a variety of non-sporting programmes including panel games. He liked painting in his spare time. Hill and his son Damon were the first father and son pair to have both won the Formula One World Championship. Hill's grandson Josh , Damon's son, also raced his way through the ranks until he retired from Formula Three in 2013 at the age of 22. Hill died at age 46 when the twin-engine six-seat Piper Aztec aeroplane he was piloting crashed and burned in foggy conditions at night near Arkley golf course in North London. Hill, Tony Brise , and four other members of Hill's racing team were returning from car testing at Circuit Paul

Geoff Lees (racing driver)


Geoffrey Lees (born 1 May 1951) is a former racing driver from England. He participated in 12 Formula One World Championship Grands Prix, making his first appearance on 16 July 1978. He scored no championship points. Career Lees was born near Kingsbury , Warwickshire. His first Grand Prix chance came with a non-works Ensign at his home race in 1978, but he failed to qualify. The following year he had a one-off drive for Tyrrell , before a more regular ride with the struggling Shadow team in 1980. Later that year he also drove for the works Ensign team, and failed to qualify a RAM -entered Williams in the US. He participated in the Formula One non-championship race held on 7 February 1981 at Kyalami for Theodore where he went into the crash barriers on lap 11 due to a broken front suspension. In the hope of taking one step backward and then two steps forward, he joined Ralt-Honda for the European Formula Two championship. He won the championship, but his hopes of "re-entering Formula One with more dignity" wer

Takuma Sato


Takuma Sato ( 佐藤 琢磨 Satō Takuma, born 28 January 1977) is a Japanese professional racing driver. He currently races full-time in the IndyCar Series for Andretti Autosport . Racing career Formula One Jordan (2002) In 2002 Sato graduated to Formula One with the Honda-powered Jordan team, and was paired with Giancarlo Fisichella . His low point was a tremendous crash in Austria , caused when Nick Heidfeld lost control of his Sauber under braking and hit the side of Sato's car, punching a hole in the side of the cockpit. Throughout he showed flashes of speed but also wild driving, nevertheless the team's faith in Sato was repaid by a fine drive to fifth at his home Grand Prix in Suzuka . BAR (2003–05) Sato celebrates his only Formula One podium finish, at the 2004 United States Grand Prix . With Honda's focus shifting solely to British American Racing for 2003 Sato joined the Brackley-based outfit as a test driver. For the final round in Japan Sato replaced Jacques Villeneuve and scored the second points finish

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