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WDC 65C02

The Western Design Center (WDC) 65C02 microprocessor is an enhanced CMOS version of the popular NMOS-based 8-bit MOS Technology 6502 microprocessor—the CMOS redesign being made by Bill Mensch in 1978. Over various periods of time, the 65C02 has been second-sourced by NCR, GTE, Rockwell, Synertek and Sanyo. The 65C02 has been used in some home computers, as well as in embedded applications, including medical-grade implanted devices.

W65C02S microprocessor in a PDIP-40 package.

Introduction and features

The 65C02 is a low cost, general-purpose 8-bit microprocessor (8-bit registers and data bus) with a 16-bit program counter and address bus. The variable length instruction set and manually optimized core size are intended to make the 65C02 well suited for low power system-on-chip (SoC) designs.

A Verilog hardware description model is available for designing the W65C02S core into an application-specific integrated circuit (ASIC) or a field-programmable gate array (FPGA). As is common in the semiconductor industry, WDC offers a development system, which includes a developer board, an in-circuit emulator (ICE) and a software development system.

The W65C02S–14 is the production version of the 65C02 microprocessor, and is available in PDIP, PLCC and QFP packages through distribution. The maximum officially supported ϕ2 (primary) clock speed is 14 MHz, indicated by the –14 part number suffix. The "S" designation indicates that the part has a fully static core, a feature that allows ϕ2 to be slowed down or fully stopped in either the high or low state with no loss of data. Typical microprocessors not implemented in CMOS have dynamic cores and will lose their internal register contents (and thus crash) if they are not continuously clocked at a rate between some minimum and maximum specified values.

General logic features
Logic features
  • Vector pull (VPB) output indicates when interrupt vectors are being addressed
  • Memory lock (MLB) output indicates to other bus masters when a read-modify-write instruction is being processed
  • WAit-for-Interrupt (WAI) and SToP (STP) instructions reduce power consumption, decrease interrupt latency and enable synchronization with external events
Electrical features
  • Supply voltage specified at 1.71 V to 5.25 V
  • Current consumption (core) of 0.15 and 1.5 mA per MHz at 1.89 V and 5.25 V respectively
  • Variable length instruction set, enabling code size optimization over fixed length instruction set processors, results in power savings
  • Fully static circuitry allows stopping the clock to conserve power
Clocking features

The W65C02S may be operated at any convenient supply voltage (V) between 1.8 and 5 volts (±5%). The data sheet AC characteristics table lists operational characteristics at 5 V at 14 MHz, 3.3 V or 3 V at 8 MHz, 2.5 V at 4 MHz, and 1.8 V at 2 MHz. This information may be an artifact of an earlier data sheet, as a graph indicates that typical devices are capable of operation at higher speeds than suggested by the AC characteristics table, and that reliable operation at 20 MHz should be readily attainable with V at 5 volts, assuming the supporting hardware will allow it.

The W65C02S may also be operated at non-integral clock rates such as 13.5 MHz (digital SDTV luma sampling rate), 14.31818 MHz (NTSC colour carrier frequency × 4), 14.75 MHz (PAL square pixels), 14.7456 (baud rate crystal), etc., as long as V is sufficient to support the frequency. Designer Bill Mensch has pointed out that F is affected by off-chip factors, such as the capacitive load on the microprocessor's pins. Minimizing load by using short signal tracks and fewest devices helps raise F. The PLCC and QFP packages have less pin-to-pin capacitance than the PDIP package, and are more economical in the use of printed circuit board space.

WDC has reported that FPGA realizations of the W65C02S have been successfully operated at 200 MHz.

Comparison with the NMOS 6502
Instruction set

The 65C02 shares its predecessor's 8-bit instruction set architecture and 16-bit memory address space $0000 to $FFFF allowing access to a total memory map of 64K. "Zero Page" spans $0000 to $00FF. "Page 1" spans memory address space $0100 to $01FF and is dedicated for the stack. On this processor the stack grows downwards with the stack pointer starting at $01FF and decrementing as the stack grows.

The 65C02 adds a number of improvements and documented opcodes, the most useful being instructions that can push or pull the X and Y index registers to/from the stack. Undefined opcodes have been converted into NOPs, although of varying instruction lengths.

Significantly, the defective "indirect jump page wrap" instruction (JMP (), where straddles a memory page boundary) has been fixed, eliminating a source of trouble for unwary assembly language programmers. This instruction has also been enhanced with .X register indexing, making it possible to code JMP (,X), enabling the development of a simple jump table management methodology.

Some variants of the 65C02 (including the WDC W65C02S and the Rockwell R65C00 family) feature individual bit manipulation operations (RMB, SMB, BBR and BBS). The 65SC02 was also available, which lacked these operations.

Status register

Other problems with the 6502, fixed in the 65C02, relate to its program status register, which contains eight system flags. Some flags are set or reset under program control. Others reflect the status of the machine after arithmetic or bit manipulation instructions.

6502 status flags, with meanings when set:

N Negative result
V Sign bit overflow
1 Undefined (always set)
B Break flag (set by BRK instruction)
D Decimal mode enabled
I IRQ disabled
Z Zero result
C Arithmetic carry (borrow)

In all NMOS logic forms of the 6502, the decimal flag (D flag) is not initialized to a known state following reset (state is "random") or when an interrupt is processed (state has been kept from "before the interrupt occurred"), which may lead to arbitrary behavior. This forces 6502 programmers to use the CLD instruction early in the reset handler code (it is generally the second instruction executed after SEI), as well as in the front end of the interrupt handler. The 65C02 addresses these problems by causing the D flag to be cleared at reset or upon receipt of an interrupt (after the status register is pushed onto the stack).

Also, in NMOS 6502s, the N flag is invalid when the processor is operating in decimal mode. The 65C02 fixes this problem (at the cost of an additional clock cycle), and thus increases the usefulness of decimal mode.


The 65SC02 is a variant of the WDC 65C02 without bit instructions.[1]

Notable uses of the 65C02
Home computers
Video game consoles
Other products
See also
  1. Rodnay Zaks, Programmierung des 6502. Jetzt auch mit 6510, 65C02, 65SC02, p. 348
External links
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WDC 65C02


The Western Design Center (WDC) 65C02 microprocessor is an enhanced CMOS version of the popular NMOS -based 8-bit MOS Technology 6502 microprocessor—the CMOS redesign being made by Bill Mensch in 1978. Over various periods of time, the 65C02 has been second-sourced by NCR , GTE , Rockwell , Synertek and Sanyo . The 65C02 has been used in some home computers , as well as in embedded applications, including medical-grade implanted devices. W65C02S microprocessor in a PDIP-40 package. Introduction and features The 65C02 is a low cost, general-purpose 8-bit microprocessor (8-bit registers and data bus ) with a 16-bit program counter and address bus . The variable length instruction set and manually optimized core size are intended to make the 65C02 well suited for low power system-on-chip (SoC) designs. A Verilog hardware description model is available for designing the W65C02S core into an application-specific integrated circuit (ASIC) or a field-programmable gate array (FPGA). As is common in the semiconductor

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The killer whale or orca (Orcinus orca) is a toothed whale belonging to the oceanic dolphin family, of which it is the largest member. Killer whales have a diverse diet, although individual populations often specialize in particular types of prey. Some feed exclusively on fish, while others hunt marine mammals such as seals and dolphins. They have been known to attack baleen whale calves, and even adult whales. Killer whales are apex predators , as there is no animal that preys on them. Killer whales are considered a cosmopolitan species , and can be found in each of the world's oceans in a variety of marine environments, from Arctic and Antarctic regions to tropical seas. Killer whales are highly social ; some populations are composed of matrilineal family groups (pods) which are the most stable of any animal species. Their sophisticated hunting techniques and vocal behaviours, which are often specific to a particular group and passed across generations, have been described as manifestations of animal cultu

Sébastien Loeb


Sébastien Loeb ( French pronunciation: ​ ; born 26 February 1974) is a French professional rally , racing , and rallycross driver. He competed for the Citroën World Rally Team in the World Rally Championship (WRC) and is the most successful driver in WRC history, having won the world championship a record nine times in a row. He holds several other WRC records , including most wins, most podium finishes and most points. Loeb announced his retirement from World Rallying at the end of the 2012 season. Participating in selected events in the 2013 WRC season , he raced a full season in the FIA GT Series driving a McLaren MP4-12C before moving on with Citroën to the FIA World Touring Car Championship in 2014. Originally a gymnast, Loeb switched to rallying in 1995 and won the Junior World Rally Championship in 2001. Signed by the Citroën factory team for the 2002 season, he and co-driver Daniel Elena took their maiden WRC win that same year at the Rallye Deutschland . After finishing runner-up to Petter Solberg by

Dennis Poore


Roger Dennistoun "Dennis" Poore (19 August 1916, Paddington , London – 12 February 1987, Kensington ) was a British entrepreneur , financier and sometime racing driver . He became chairman of NVT during the dying days of the old British motorcycle industry. Family His father, Roger Poore, DSO, was killed in action in World War I on 26 September, 1917. On 24 March, 1949, Dennis Poore married Peta Coast. The couple had a daughter, Victoria ( Victoria Borwick MP). Motorsport career Poore was a keen motor sport participant, and competed in two World Championship Grands Prix in 1952. He made his debut in the British Grand Prix on 19 July 1952, where he finished fourth. He scored 3 championship points. Poore won the British Hill Climb Championship in 1950 driving a 3.8-litre twin-Wade-blown Alfa Romeo . He finished second at Shelsley Walsh , first at Prescott , second at Bo'ness , taking the win at Rest and Be Thankful , then second at Bouley Bay and first at Val des Terres , rounding off the season with another w

List of 20th-century earthquakes


Earthquakes of magnitude 8.0 and greater since 1900. The apparent 3D volumes of the bubbles are linearly proportional to their respective fatalities. This list of 20th-century earthquakes is a global list of notable earthquakes that occurred in the 20th century . After 1900 most earthquakes have some degree of instrumental records and this means that the locations and magnitudes are more reliable than for earlier events. To prevent this list becoming unmanageable, only those of magnitude 6 and above are included unless they are notable for some other reason. 1901–1910 Date Time Place Lat. Long. Deaths Magnitude Comments Sources   March 3, 1901 07:45 Parkfield, California , United States 36.2 −120.7 6.4 M (Abe, 1988) USGS March 31, 1901 07:10 Cape Shabla-Kaliakra, Black Sea ,see 1901 Black Sea earthquake 4 7.2 M - November 16, 1901 07:47 local time Cheviot, New Zealand -42.42 173.18 6.9 M - September 19, 1902 Warooka , South Australia, Australia 2 6.0 M USGS April 19, 1902 Quetzaltenango , Guatemala see 1902 G

Marcus Ericsson


Marcus Ericsson (born 2 September 1990) is a Swedish race car driver currently racing for Sauber in Formula One , where he is contracted to the end of the 2017 season. After a successful début in car racing in 2007 which saw him take the British Formula BMW title with Fortec Motorsport , he moved up into the British team's British Formula Three Championship squad. After finishing as one of the top rookies in the category, Ericsson turned his attentions to the All-Japan Formula Three Championship where he won the championship in his debut year . In 2010, he moved up to the GP2 Series where he secured one victory during his maiden campaign for Super Nova Racing . Between 2011 and 2012 , Ericsson drove for iSport . Ericsson completed the 2013 GP2 season with DAMS, and debuted in Formula One in 2014 with Caterham F1 . Career Karting Born in Kumla , Örebro County , Ericsson's first taste of motorsport came when he was nine years old racing in karts. "I got a call from Fredrik Ekblom , whom I ran in British Formula

Mercedes AMG F1 W08 EQ Power+


The Mercedes AMG F1 W08 EQ Power+ is a Mercedes-Benz Formula One racing car designed and developed under the direction of Aldo Costa , Geoff Willis and James Allison , to compete during the 2017 FIA Formula One World Championship . The car is driven by three-time World Drivers' Champion Lewis Hamilton , who remained with the team for a fifth season, and Valtteri Bottas , who joined the team after 2016 World Champion Nico Rosberg 's retirement from the sport. The chassis was originally named the "Mercedes F1 W08" to represent the eighth Formula One car that Mercedes had constructed since 2010 . The "EQ Power+" was added to increase exposure of Mercedes' electric road car models, whilst AMG was included to reflect the relationship between Mercedes-AMG and Mercedes-Benz . The car made its competitive début at the 2017 Australian Grand Prix , the opening round of the 2017 season. After fourteen races, the F1 W08 EQ Power+ has taken nine wins, ten other podium finishes, ten pole positions and seven fastest laps

Faroe Islands


The Faroe Islands ( ; Faroese : Føroyar pronounced  ; Danish : Færøerne , pronounced  ), sometimes called the Faeroe Islands, are an archipelago between the Norwegian Sea and the North Atlantic , about halfway between Norway and Iceland , 320 kilometres (200 miles) north-northwest of Scotland . The islands are an autonomous country within the Kingdom of Denmark . Their area is about 1,400 square kilometres (541 square miles) with a population of 50,030 in April 2017. The Faroes' terrain is rugged, and the islands have a subpolar oceanic climate (Cfc) : windy, wet, cloudy, and cool. Despite this island group's northerly latitude, temperatures average above freezing throughout the year because of the Gulf Stream . Between 1035 and 1814, the Faroes were part of the Hereditary Kingdom of Norway . In 1814, the Treaty of Kiel granted Denmark control over the islands, along with two other Norwegian island possessions: Greenland and Iceland . The Faroe Islands have been a self-governing country within the Kingdom

Commodore 64 peripherals


Commodore 64 Home Computer This article is about the various external peripherals of the Commodore 64 home computer . Due to the backwards compatibility of the Commodore 128 , most peripherals will work on that system, as well. There's some compatibility with the VIC-20 and PET too. Storage Tape drives Commodore Datasette 1530 In the United States, the 1541 floppy disk drive was widespread. By contrast, in Europe, the C64 was often used with cassette tape drives (Datasette), which were much cheaper, but also much slower than floppy drives. The Datasette plugged into a proprietary edge connector on the Commodore 64's motherboard . Standard blank audio cassettes could be used in this drive. Data tapes could be write-protected in the same way as audio cassettes, by punching out a tab on the cassette's top edge. The Datasette's speed was very slow (about 300 baud ). Loading a large program at normal speed could take up to 30 minutes in extreme cases. Many European software developers wrote their own fast tape-loa

Mythology and legacy of Benjamin Banneker


A substantial mythology exaggerating Benjamin Banneker 's accomplishments has developed during the two centuries that have elapsed since he lived. Several such urban legends describe Banneker's alleged activities in the Washington, D.C. area around the time that he assisted Andrew Ellicott in the federal district boundary survey. Others involve his clock, his almanacs and his journals. All lack support by historical evidence. Some are contradicted by such evidence. A United States postage stamp and the names of a number of recreational and cultural facilities, schools, streets and other facilities and institutions throughout the United States have commemorated Banneker's documented and mythical accomplishments throughout the years since he lived. Mythology of Benjamin Banneker Plan of the City of Washington Facsimile of manuscript of Peter Charles L'Enfant's 1791 plan for the federal capital city (U.S. Coast and Geodetic Survey, 1887). While Andrew Ellicott and his team were conducting the federal di

Alan Jones (racing driver)


Alan Stanley Jones , MBE (born 2 November 1946 in Melbourne , Victoria ) is an Australian former Formula One driver. He was the first driver to win a Formula One World Championship with the Williams team, becoming the 1980 World Drivers' Champion and the second Australian to do so following triple World Champion Sir Jack Brabham . He competed in a total of 117 Grands Prix, winning 12 and achieving 24 podium finishes. In 1978 Jones won the Can-Am championship driving a Lola . Jones is also the last Australian driver to win the Australian Grand Prix , winning the 1980 event at Calder Park Raceway , having lapped the field consisting mostly of Formula 5000 cars while he was driving his Formula One Championship winning Williams FW07B . Early life and career Jones attended Xavier College and is the son of Stan Jones , an Australian racing driver and winner of the 1959 Australian Grand Prix , and wanted to follow in his footsteps. Jones initially worked in his father's Holden dealership while racing a Mini and a Co

Denny Hulme


Denis Clive "Denny" Hulme , OBE (18 June 1936 – 4 October 1992) was a New Zealand racing driver who won the 1967 Formula One World Drivers' Championship for the Brabham team. Between his debut at Monaco in 1965 and his final race in the 1974 US Grand Prix , he started 112 Grand Prix, resulting eight victories and 33 trips to the podium. He also finished third in the overall standing in 1968 and 1972. Hulme showed versatility by dominating the Canadian-American Challenge Cup (Can-Am) for Group 7 sports cars . As a member of the McLaren team that won five straight titles between 1967 and 1971, he won the individual Drivers' Championship twice and runner-up on four other occasions. Following his Formula One tenure with Brabham, Hulme raced for McLaren in multiple formats—Formula One, Can-Am, and at the Indianapolis 500 . Hulme retired from Formula One at the end of the 1974 season but continued to race Australian Touring Cars. Hulme was nicknamed 'The Bear', because of his "gruff nature" and "rugged features"; h

Marcus Grönholm


Marcus Ulf Johan Grönholm (born February 5, 1968 in Kauniainen ) is a Finnish former rally and rallycross driver, being part of a family of the Swedish-speaking population of Finland lineage. His son, Niclas Grönholm , is an upcoming FIA World Rallycross Championship driver. Marcus' nicknames are either "Bosse" (mainly in his native Finland and the Scandinavian countries) or "Magic Marcus". Driving for Peugeot , he won the World Rally Championship in 2000 and 2002 . After Peugeot withdrew from the World Rally Championship, Grönholm moved to Ford for the 2006 season and placed second in the drivers' world championship, losing the title to Sébastien Loeb by one point. The next year he again placed second, four points behind Loeb. He and his co-driver Timo Rautiainen retired from rallying after the 2007 season but returned to the championship in 2009 driving a private Subaru for a short period of time. Career Early career Marcus' father, Ulf "Uffe" Grönholm , had been an active rally driver in the late 1970s to

Jari-Matti Latvala


Jari-Matti Latvala (born 3 April 1985) is a Finnish rally driver competing in the World Rally Championship . His co-driver has been Miikka Anttila since the 2003 Rallye Deutschland . He is well known for his aggressive driving style, which earns him many plaudits, and comparisons to the late Colin McRae . With 17 event victories in the WRC, he is the most successful driver to not have won a championship. Career Latvala began driving when he was eight years old, after receiving a Ford Escort from his father Jari Latvala, also a rally driver and 1994 national champion in the Group N class. At the age of ten, Latvala started practicing with an Opel Ascona on a frozen lake. 2000s Latvala's first world rally was the 2002 Rally Great Britain at the age of 17. He finished in 17th position with a Mitsubish Lancer Evolution VI . In 2003 , Latvala competed in four WRC events with a Ford Focus WRC , finishing tenth at the Acropolis Rally , 17th at the Rallye Deutschland , 14th at the Neste Oil Rally Finland and tenth a

Markku Alén


Markku Allan Alén (born 15 February 1951, in Helsinki ) is a Finnish former rally and race car driver. He drove for Fiat , Lancia , Subaru and Toyota in the World Rally Championship , and held the record for most stage wins (801) in the series, until Sébastien Loeb overtook it at the 2011 Rally Catalunya . Alén's phrase "now maximum attack" became well-known. Alén never won the world championship itself, despite being for a long time the driver with the most wins to his credit. However, he did win the FIA Cup for Drivers in 1978 , the precursor to the World Championship for Drivers established in 1979 . In 1986 , he was the world champion for eleven days, until Peugeot 's appeal went through and the results of Rallye Sanremo , which Alén had won, were annulled. Career Early Alén's interest in motorsport came from his father, who was the 1963 Finnish champion in ice racing . Alén started his rallying career in 1969 driving a Renault 8 Gordini , and finished ninth at the 1000 Lakes Rally at his first attempt. A

Cape Town


Cape Town ( Afrikaans : Kaapstad , ) is a coastal city in South Africa . It is the second-most populous urban area in South Africa after Johannesburg . It is also the capital and primate city of the Western Cape province. As the seat of the Parliament of South Africa , it is also the legislative capital of the country. It forms part of the City of Cape Town metropolitan municipality . The city is famous for its harbour , for its natural setting in the Cape Floristic Region , and for such well-known landmarks as Table Mountain and Cape Point . As of 2014, it is the 10th most populous city in Africa and home to 64% of the Western Cape's population. It is one of the most multicultural cities in the world, reflecting its role as a major destination for immigrants and expatriates to South Africa. The city was named the World Design Capital for 2014 by the International Council of Societies of Industrial Design . In 2014, Cape Town was named the best place in the world to visit by both the American New York Tim

Takuma Sato


Takuma Sato ( 佐藤 琢磨 Satō Takuma, born 28 January 1977) is a Japanese professional racing driver. He competed in Formula One from 2002 to 2008 for the Jordan , BAR and Super Aguri teams, scoring a single podium at the 2004 United States Grand Prix . Sato has raced full-time in the IndyCar Series since 2010 for the KV , Rahal , Foyt , and currently Andretti teams. Sato won the 2013 Toyota Grand Prix of Long Beach , becoming the first Japanese driver to win an IndyCar race. He is also the first Asian driver to win the Indianapolis 500 , having won the 2017 edition. Racing career Formula One Jordan (2002) In 2002 Sato graduated to Formula One with the Honda-powered Jordan team, and was paired with Giancarlo Fisichella . His low point was a tremendous crash in Austria , caused when Nick Heidfeld lost control of his Sauber under braking and hit the side of Sato's car, punching a hole in the side of the cockpit. Throughout he showed flashes of speed but also wild driving, nevertheless the team's faith in Sato was r

Jacques Villeneuve


Jacques Joseph Charles Villeneuve , OQ ( French pronunciation: ​ ; born April 9, 1971), is a Canadian professional auto racing driver and amateur musician. He is the son of Formula One driver Gilles Villeneuve , and is the namesake of his uncle , who was also a racer. Villeneuve won the 1995 CART Championship, the 1995 Indianapolis 500 and the 1997 Formula One World Championship, making him only the third driver after Mario Andretti and Emerson Fittipaldi to achieve such a feat. As of 2016, no other Canadian has won the Indianapolis 500 or the Formula One Drivers' title. Following two successful years in CART , Villeneuve moved into Formula One with the front-running Williams team, alongside Damon Hill . In his debut season , Villeneuve challenged teammate Hill for the title, winning four races and taking the fight to the final round in Japan , where Villeneuve retired and Hill won the race, and the title. Villeneuve, however, did win the following year's title, this time challenging Michael Schumacher and on

Dolphin drive hunting


Dolphin drive hunting , also called dolphin drive fishing , is a method of hunting dolphins and occasionally other small cetaceans by driving them together with boats and then usually into a bay or onto a beach. Their escape is prevented by closing off the route to the open sea or ocean with boats and nets. Dolphins are hunted this way in several places around the world, including the Solomon Islands , the Faroe Islands , Peru , and Japan , the most well-known practitioner of this method. By numbers, dolphins are mostly hunted for their meat ; some end up in dolphinariums . Despite the controversial nature of the hunt resulting in international criticism, and the possible health risk that the often polluted meat causes, thousands of dolphins are caught in drive hunts each year. Atlantic white-sided dolphin caught in a drive hunt in Hvalba on the Faroe Islands being taken away with a forklift By country Faroe Islands Two dead Northern Bottlenose Whales with cut necks in the bay of Nes (Hvalba) on the Faroe Isl

Giant beaked whale


Giant beaked whales are three species of beaked whales in the genus Berardius : Arnoux's beaked whale (Berardius arnuxii) in cold Southern Hemisphere waters, and Baird's beaked whale (Berardius bairdii) in the cold temperate waters of the North Pacific. An as yet unnamed third species was described in 2016. They are the largest of the beaked whales, growing up to 10–12 m in length. Lifespan estimates, based on earwax plug samples, indicate these whales can live up to 85 years. They are sometimes referred to as "four-toothed whales" or "giant beaked whales", but are most commonly known by their genus name, Berardius. Arnoux's and Baird's beaked whales are so similar that researchers have debated whether or not they are simply two populations of the same species. However, genetic evidence and their wide geographical separation has led them to be classified as separate. Physical description Illustration of Baird's beaked whale. The two established species have very similar features and would be indistinguishabl

Tropical bottlenose whale


The tropical bottlenose whale ( Indopacetus pacificus ), also known as the Indo-Pacific beaked whale and the Longman's beaked whale , was considered to be the world's rarest cetacean until recently, but the spade-toothed whale now holds that position. As of 2010, the species is now known from nearly a dozen strandings and over 65 sightings. History of discovery The species has had a long history riddled with misidentifications, which are now mostly resolved. A skull and jaw found on a beach in Mackay , Queensland , Australia in 1882 provided the basis for the initial description of this species by H. A. Longman in 1926,. Other researchers were not convinced, and felt this specimen might instead represent a Pacific form of True's beaked whale or a female bottlenose whale . Almost 30 years after Longman's original publication, a second skull was discovered near Danane, Somalia (1955). This specimen likely stranded on the coast but was subsequently processed into fertilizer. Only the skull survived. Biologist J

Eureka, California


Eureka ( Hupa : do'-wi-lotl-ding, Karuk : uuth ) is the principal city and county seat of Humboldt County in the Redwood Empire region of California . The city is located on U.S. Route 101 on the shores of Humboldt Bay , 270 miles (430 km) north of San Francisco and 100 miles (160 km) south of the Oregon border. At the 2010 census , the population of the city was 27,191, and the population of Greater Eureka was 45,034. Eureka is the largest coastal city between San Francisco and Portland , and the westernmost city of more than 25,000 residents in the 48 contiguous states. It is the regional center for government, health care, trade, and the arts on the North Coast north of the San Francisco Bay Area . Greater Eureka, one of California's major commercial fishing ports, is the location of the largest deep-water port between San Francisco and Coos Bay , a stretch of about 500 miles (800 km). The headquarters of both the Six Rivers National Forest and the North Coast Redwoods District of the California St

Juha Kankkunen


Juha Matti Pellervo Kankkunen (   pronunciation   ) (born 2 April 1959 in Laukaa ) is a Finnish former rally driver. His factory team career in the World Rally Championship lasted from 1983 to 2002. He won 23 world rallies and four drivers' world championship titles, which were both once records in the series. Sébastien Loeb has since collected more world titles, but no driver has so far been able to repeat Kankkunen's feat of becoming a world champion with three different manufacturers. Kankkunen was signed by Toyota in 1983 and he took his first WRC win in his third year in the team. His performances got him a deal with the defending champions Peugeot for 1986, and Kankkunen was soon crowned the series' then youngest-ever champion. As Peugeot withdrew from the championship following the ban of Group B , Kankkunen moved to Lancia and became the first driver to successfully defend his title. After a two-year stint back at Toyota, he returned to Lancia and won a record third title in 1991. In 1993, Kankkunen r

Godswill Akpabio


Chief Godswill Obot Akpabio , CON (born 9 December 1962), is a Nigerian lawyer and politician who is a Senator of the Federal Republic of Nigeria and the Senate's Minority Leader. He was also Governor of Akwa Ibom State of Nigeria from May 29, 2007 to May 29, 2015. Early life and career Godswill Akpabio is the son of Chief Obot Akpabio and Madam Lucy Obot Akpabio (née Inyangetor) of Ukana, Ikot Ntuen in Essien Udim Local Government Area. He was born on 9 December 1962. He lost his father early in life and was raised by his mother, who inculcated in him the values of hard work, discipline and honesty. Education He was educated at Methodist Primary School, Ukana, Essien Udim LGA, Akwa Ibom State ; the prestigious Federal Government College, Port Harcourt , Rivers State ; and the University of Calabar , Cross River State , where he obtained a Degree in Law. While at the Federal Government College, Port Harcourt , he was appointed the General Senior Prefect. In the University of Calabar , his charisma endeare

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