The Western Design Center (WDC) 65C02 microprocessor is an enhanced CMOS version of the popular NMOS-based 8-bit MOS Technology 6502 microprocessor—the CMOS redesign being made by Bill Mensch in 1978. Over various periods of time, the 65C02 has been second-sourced by NCR, GTE, Rockwell, Synertek and Sanyo. The 65C02 has been used in some home computers, as well as in embedded applications, including medical-grade implanted devices.
The 65C02 is a low cost, general-purpose 8-bit microprocessor (8-bit registers and data bus) with a 16-bit program counter and address bus. The variable length instruction set and manually optimized core size are intended to make the 65C02 well suited for low power system-on-chip (SoC) designs.
A Verilog hardware description model is available for designing the W65C02S core into an application-specific integrated circuit (ASIC) or a field-programmable gate array (FPGA). As is common in the semiconductor industry, WDC offers a development system, which includes a developer board, an in-circuit emulator (ICE) and a software development system.
The W65C02S–14 is the production version of the 65C02 microprocessor, and is available in PDIP, PLCC and QFP packages through distribution. The maximum officially supported ϕ2 (primary) clock speed is 14 MHz, indicated by the –14 part number suffix. The "S" designation indicates that the part has a fully static core, a feature that allows ϕ2 to be slowed down or fully stopped in either the high or low state with no loss of data. Typical microprocessors not implemented in CMOS have dynamic cores and will lose their internal register contents (and thus crash) if they are not continuously clocked at a rate between some minimum and maximum specified values.
The W65C02S may be operated at any convenient supply voltage (V) between 1.8 and 5 volts (±5%). The data sheet AC characteristics table lists operational characteristics at 5 V at 14 MHz, 3.3 V or 3 V at 8 MHz, 2.5 V at 4 MHz, and 1.8 V at 2 MHz. This information may be an artifact of an earlier data sheet, as a graph indicates that typical devices are capable of operation at higher speeds than suggested by the AC characteristics table, and that reliable operation at 20 MHz should be readily attainable with V at 5 volts, assuming the supporting hardware will allow it.
The W65C02S may also be operated at non-integral clock rates such as 13.5 MHz (digital SDTV luma sampling rate), 14.31818 MHz (NTSC colour carrier frequency × 4), 14.75 MHz (PAL square pixels), 14.7456 (baud rate crystal), etc., as long as V is sufficient to support the frequency. Designer Bill Mensch has pointed out that F is affected by off-chip factors, such as the capacitive load on the microprocessor's pins. Minimizing load by using short signal tracks and fewest devices helps raise F. The PLCC and QFP packages have less pin-to-pin capacitance than the PDIP package, and are more economical in the use of printed circuit board space.
WDC has reported that FPGA realizations of the W65C02S have been successfully operated at 200 MHz.
The 65C02 shares its predecessor's 8-bit instruction set architecture and 16-bit memory address space $0000 to $FFFF allowing access to a total memory map of 64K. "Zero Page" spans $0000 to $00FF. "Page 1" spans memory address space $0100 to $01FF and is dedicated for the stack. On this processor the stack grows downwards with the stack pointer starting at $01FF and decrementing as the stack grows.
The 65C02 adds a number of improvements and documented opcodes, the most useful being instructions that can push or pull the X and Y index registers to/from the stack. Undefined opcodes have been converted into NOPs, although of varying instruction lengths.
Significantly, the defective "indirect jump page wrap" instruction (JMP (
Some variants of the 65C02 (including the WDC W65C02S and the Rockwell R65C00 family) feature individual bit manipulation operations (RMB, SMB, BBR and BBS). The 65SC02 was also available, which lacked these operations.
Other problems with the 6502, fixed in the 65C02, relate to its program status register, which contains eight system flags. Some flags are set or reset under program control. Others reflect the status of the machine after arithmetic or bit manipulation instructions.
|V||--||Sign bit overflow|
|1||--||Undefined (always set)|
|B||--||Break flag (set by BRK instruction)|
|D||--||Decimal mode enabled|
|C||--||Arithmetic carry (borrow)|
In all NMOS logic forms of the 6502, the decimal flag (D flag) is not initialized to a known state following reset (state is "random") or when an interrupt is processed (state has been kept from "before the interrupt occurred"), which may lead to arbitrary behavior. This forces 6502 programmers to use the CLD instruction early in the reset handler code (it is generally the second instruction executed after SEI), as well as in the front end of the interrupt handler. The 65C02 addresses these problems by causing the D flag to be cleared at reset or upon receipt of an interrupt (after the status register is pushed onto the stack).
Also, in NMOS 6502s, the N flag is invalid when the processor is operating in decimal mode. The 65C02 fixes this problem (at the cost of an additional clock cycle), and thus increases the usefulness of decimal mode.
The 65SC02 is a variant of the WDC 65C02 without bit instructions.
The Western Design Center (WDC) 65C02 microprocessor is an enhanced CMOS version of the popular NMOS -based 8-bit MOS Technology 6502 microprocessor—the CMOS redesign being made by Bill Mensch in 1978. Over various periods of time, the 65C02 has been second-sourced by NCR , GTE , Rockwell , Synertek and Sanyo . The 65C02 has been used in some home computers , as well as in embedded applications, including medical-grade implanted devices. W65C02S microprocessor in a PDIP-40 package. Introduction and features The 65C02 is a low cost, general-purpose 8-bit microprocessor (8-bit registers and data bus ) with a 16-bit program counter and address bus . The variable length instruction set and manually optimized core size are intended to make the 65C02 well suited for low power system-on-chip (SoC) designs. A Verilog hardware description model is available for designing the W65C02S core into an application-specific integrated circuit (ASIC) or a field-programmable gate array (FPGA). As is common in the semiconductor
The W65C816S (also 65C816 or 65816 ) is a 8-bit / 16-bit microprocessor (MPU) developed and sold by the Western Design Center (WDC). Introduced in 1983, the W65C816S is an enhanced version of the WDC 65C02 8-bit MPU, itself a CMOS enhancement of the venerable MOS Technology 6502 NMOS MPU. The 65 in the part's designation comes from its 65C02 compatibility mode, and the 816 signifies that the MPU has selectable 8– and 16–bit register sizes. In addition to the availability of 16 bit registers, the W65C816S features extended memory addressing to 24-bits , supporting up to 16 megabytes of random access memory , an enhanced instruction set, and a 16 bit stack pointer , as well as several new electrical signals for improved system hardware management. At reset , the W65C816S starts in "emulation mode," meaning it essentially behaves as a 65C02. Following reset, the W65C816S may be switched to "native mode" with a two instruction sequence, causing it to enable all enhanced features, yet still maintain a substantial
The 65xx family of microprocessors , consisting of the MOS Technology 6502 and its derivatives, the WDC 65C02 , WDC 65C802 and WDC 65C816 , and CSG 65CE02 , all handle interrupts in a similar fashion. There are three hardware interrupt signals common to all 65xx processors and one software interrupt , the BRK instruction. The WDC 65C816 adds a fourth hardware interrupt— ABORT , useful for implementing virtual memory architectures—and the COP software interrupt instruction (also present in the 65C802), intended for use in a system with a coprocessor of some type (e.g., a floating point processor ). Interrupt types 65xx interrupt vector locations Interrupt Vector (hexadecimal) LSB MSB ABORT FFF8 FFF9 COP FFF4 FFF5 IRQ / BRK FFFE FFFF NMI FFFA FFFB RESET FFFC FFFD The hardware interrupt signals are all active low, and are as follows: The detection of a RESET signal causes the processor to enter a system initialization period of six clock cycles, after which it sets the interrupt request disable flag in the statu
The HuC6280 8-bit microprocessor is Japanese company Hudson Soft 's improved version of the WDC 65C02 CPU , an upgraded CMOS version of the popular NMOS-based MOS Technology 6502 8-bit CPU manufactured for Hudson by Seiko Epson . The most notable product using the HuC6280 is NEC 's PC Engine video game console . Description The HuC6280 contains a 65C02 core which has several additional instructions and a few internal peripheral functions such as an interrupt controller , a memory management unit , a timer , an 8-bit parallel I/O port, and a programmable sound generator . The processor operates at two speeds, 1.79 MHz and 7.16 MHz. Memory mapping The HuC6280 has a 64 KB logical address space and a 2 MB physical address space. To access this entire memory space, the HuC6280 uses an MMU (Memory Management Unit) that splits the memory space into segments of 8 KB. The logical address space is split as follows: page 0 -> $0000-$1FFF page 1 -> $2000–$3FFF page 2 -> $4000–$5FFF page 3
William ( Bill ) David Mensch, Jr. (born February 9, 1945), is an American electrical engineer born in Quakertown, Pennsylvania . He is best known as a major contributor to the design of the Motorola 6800 8-bit microprocessor , part of the small team that created the MOS Technology 6502 (led by Chuck Peddle ), and designer of the 16-bit successor to the 6502, the 65816 . Mensch is the founder, chairman, and CEO of the Western Design Center (WDC) located in Mesa, Arizona . Prior to founding the Western Design Center in 1978, Mensch held design engineering and management positions at Philco-Ford , Motorola , MOS Technology and Integrated Circuit Engineering. At WDC, Bill Mensch worked primarily on extending and expanding the 6502 architecture. His designs are widely used in embedded systems and implantable, electronic, life-support devices. Education, teaching, honors Mensch graduated with an associate's degree from Temple University in 1966, and received his bachelor's degree in electrical engineering from th
The Renesas 740 is a family of 8-bit microcontrollers based on the CMOS version of the MOS Technology 6502 processor core. The family was originally designed by the Mitsubishi Electric semiconductor group. Variants Subfamilies include the 3800, 38000, 7400 and 7500 groups. Individual parts are generally classified based on package type, pin count, ROM size, ROM type, RAM size and included peripherals (such as timers , serial UART , USB controller). Comparison with the MOS 6502 The 740 Family consists of microcontrollers as opposed to stand-alone microprocessors . To achieve the similar configurations, the original 6502 had to be paired with a secondary IC such as the MOS RIOT , MOS RRIOT , or other discrete components. Several additional instructions are available in the 740 Family. The branch always (BRA), accumulator increment (INA), and decrement (DEA) instructions from the WDC 65C02 are included. Several bit manipulation (CLB, SEB) and bit branching (BBC, BBS) instructions similar to those from the Rockwe
WDC 65C134 Microcontroller The Western Design Center (WDC) W65C134S microcomputer is a complete fully static 8-bit computer fabricated on a single chip using a low power CMOS process. The W65C134S complements an established and growing line of 65xx products and has a wide range of microcomputer applications. The W65C134S has been developed for Hi-Rel applications, and where minimum power is required. The W65C134S consists of a W65C02S (Static) Central Processing Unit (CPU), 4096 bytes of Read Only Memory (ROM), 192 bytes of Random Access Memory (RAM), two 16 bit timers, a low power Serial Interface Bus (SIB) configured as a token passing Local Area Network , Universal Asynchronous Receiver and Transmitter (UART) with baud rate timer, one 16-bit "Monitor Watch-Dog Timer " with "restart" interrupt, twenty-two priority encoded interrupts, ICE Interface, Real-Time clock features including Time of Day (ToD) clock, Bus Control Register (BCR) for external memory bus control, interface circuitry for peripheral device
Static core generally refers to a microprocessor (MPU) entirely implemented in static logic . A static core MPU may be halted by stopping the system clock oscillator that is driving it, maintaining its state and resume processing at the point where it was stopped when the clock signal is restarted, as long as power continues to be applied. Static core MPUs are fabricated in the CMOS process and hence consume very little power when the clock is stopped, making them useful in designs in which the MPU remains in standby mode until needed and minimal loading of the power source (often a battery ) is desirable during standby. In comparison, typical microprocessor designs, those without a static core, only refresh and present valid outputs on their pins during specific periods of the clock cycle. If the clock is slowed, or stopped, the charge on the pin leaks out of the capacitors over time, quickly moving to the default state and no longer being valid. These designs have to run within a set range of clock freque
The Western Design Center (WDC) , located in Mesa, Arizona , USA , is a company developing and manufacturing MOS 65xx -based microprocessors , microcontrollers (µCs), and related support devices. WDC was founded in 1978 by co-holder of the MOS Technology 6502 patent, Bill Mensch , himself a former MOS Technology employee. In addition to the discrete devices, WDC offers device designs in the form of IP cores to be used inside other chips (such as ASICs ), and provides ASIC and embedded systems consulting services revolving around their processor designs. WDC also produces C compilers , assembler / linker packages, simulators , development/evaluation boards , and in-circuit emulators for their processors. Hardware products Devices Name Type Comments W65C02S 8-bit microprocessor Enhanced static core CMOS version of the MOS Technology 6502 microprocessor W65C816S 16-bit microprocessor Extended version of the W65C02S, featuring larger instruction set, selectable register sizes and 24-bit memory addressing W65C134S
W65C22S Versatile Interface Adapter in a DIP-40 package. The W65C22 versatile interface adapter ( VIA ) is an input/output device for use with the 65xx series microprocessor family. Designed by the Western Design Center , the W65C22 is made in two versions, both of which are rated for 14 megahertz operation, and available in DIP-40 or PLCC-44 packages. W65C22N : This device is fully compatible with the NMOS 6522 produced by MOS Technology and others, and includes current-limiting resistors on its output lines. The W65C22N has an open-drain interrupt output (the IRQB pin) that is compatible with a wired-OR interrupt circuit. Hence the DIP-40 version is a "drop-in" replacement for the NMOS part. W65C22S : This device is fully software– and partially hardware–compatible with the NMOS part. The W65C22S' IRQB output is a totem pole configuration, and thus cannot be directly connected to a wired-OR interrupt circuit. As with the NMOS 6522, the W65C22 includes functions for programmed control of two peripheral ports
The Ricoh 5A22 is a microprocessor produced by Ricoh for the Super Nintendo Entertainment System (SNES) video game console. The 5A22 is based on the 16-bit CMD /GTE 65c816, itself a version of the WDC 65C816 (used in the Apple II GS personal computer). It has a 16-bit accumulator , a 24-bit address bus , and is based on the MOS Technology 6502 family of processors. Major features Ricoh 5A22 In addition to the 65C816 CPU core, the 5A22 contains support hardware, including: Controller port interface circuits, including serial access to controller data An 8-bit parallel I/O port, which is mostly unused in the SNES Circuitry for generating non-maskable interrupts on V-blank Circuitry for generating IRQ interrupts on calculated screen positions A DMA unit, supporting two primary modes: General DMA, for block transfers at a rate of 2.68 MB/s H-blank DMA, for transferring small data sets at the end of each scanline outside of the active display period Multiplication and division registers Two separate address busses
This is a list of assemblers: computer programs that translate (assembler) assembly language source code into binary programs. As part of a compiler suite GNU Assembler (gas): GPL: many target instruction sets including ARM architecture , Atmel AVR , x86 , Freescale 68HC11 , Freescale v4e , Motorola 680x0 , MIPS , PowerPC , IBM System z , TI MSP430 , Zilog Z80 . ASxxxx Cross Assembler (part of the Small Device C Compiler project): GPL: several target instruction sets including Intel 8051 , Zilog Z80 , Freescale 68HC08 , PIC microcontroller . The Amsterdam Compiler Kit (ACK) targets many architectures of the 1980s, including 6502 , 6800 , 680x0 , ARM , x86 , Zilog Z80 and Z8000 . LLVM targets many platforms, however emits no per-target assembly language, instead more high-level typed intermediate representation assembly-like language used. Some others self-hosted native-targeted language implementations (like Golang , Free Pascal , SBCL ) have their own assemblers with multiple targets. They may be used for in
Apple II accelerators are computer hardware devices which enable an Apple II computer to operate faster than their intended clock rate . 8-bit accelerators Number Nine Apple Booster – Number Nine Computer Corporation (Number Nine Visual Technology) Platform: Apple II, Apple II Plus Form Factor: 50-pin slot card Speed: 3.58 MHz Cache: 64 KB on board RAM DMA compatible: No Upgradeable: No Number Nine Apple Booster (1982) was one of the first accelerators for the Apple II series of computers. This card is the original version of Saturn's Accelerator II (thus the Accelerator II PCB shares both Saturn Systems' and NNCC's logos.) At $598, the Saturn was much cheaper than the NNCC, but little information about the board is available today. SpeedDemon – Microcomputer Technologies (M-c-T) Platform: Apple II, Apple II Plus, Apple IIe Form Factor: 50-pin slot card Speed: 3.58 MHz Cache: 4 KB cache DMA compatible: No Upgradeable: No Microcomputer Technologies (M-c-T) SpeedDemon card was the one of early Apple II accelera
MOS Technology, Inc. ("MOS" being short for Metal Oxide Semiconductor ), also known as CSG (Commodore Semiconductor Group) , was a semiconductor design and fabrication company based in Norristown, Pennsylvania , in the United States . It is most famous for its 6502 microprocessor and various designs for Commodore International 's range of home computers . History A 1973 MOS Technology advertisement highlighting their custom integrated circuit capabilities. MOS Technology, Inc. was originally started in 1969 by Allen-Bradley to provide a second source for electronic calculators and their chips designed by Texas Instruments (TI). In the early 1970s TI decided to release their own line of calculators, instead of selling just the chips inside them, and introduced them at a price that was lower than the price of the chipset alone. Many early chip companies were wiped out in the aftermath; those that survived did so by finding other chips to produce. MOS became a supplier to Atari , producing a custom single-chip P
The seventh series of The Bill , a British television drama , consisted of 105 episodes, broadcast between 1 January – 31 December 1991. The series was released on DVD for the first time on 6 June 2012, in Australia. It features the above artwork, which features images of Sgt. Alec Peters and WDC Viv Martella. Cast changes Arrivals Sgt Matthew Boyden PC Donna Harris Departures Sgt Joseph Corrie PC Phil Young Episodes # Title Episode notes Directed by Written by Original air date 1 "Grief" Samantha Janus , Elizabeth Bradley and Eve White guest star. Graham Theakston Arthur McKenzie 1 January 1991 Brownlow's wife causes trouble at Sun Hill. 2 "The Chase" Martyn Read and Ian Liston guest star. Stuart Urban Carol Harrison 3 January 1991 Whilst investigating wheels stolen from a car, Loxton and Hollis are called to pursue armed robbers after robbing a garage. Datta risks her life in order to save a baby after arriving at the garage. Tragedy strikes as Loxton collides with another vehicle in Sierra One. 3 "The Atta
Low-power electronics are electronics that have been designed to use less electric power , e.g. notebook processors . History Watches The earliest attempts to reduce the amount of power required by an electronic device were related to the development of the wristwatch . Electronic watches require electricity as a power source, and some mechanical movements and hybrid electronic-mechanical movements also require electricity. Usually the electricity is provided by a replaceable battery . The first use of electrical power in watches was as a substitute for the mainspring, to remove the need for winding. The first electrically powered watch, the Hamilton Electric 500, was released in 1957 by the Hamilton Watch Company of Lancaster, Pennsylvania . Watch batteries (strictly speaking cells, as a battery is composed of multiple cells) are specially designed for their purpose. They are very small and provide tiny amounts of power continuously for very long periods (several years or more). In some cases, replacing the
A Japanese manufactured HuC6260A microprocessor Microprocessors can be recycled . STM32 microprocessor A microprocessor is a computer processor which incorporates the functions of a computer 's central processing unit (CPU) on a single integrated circuit (IC) , or at most a few integrated circuits. The microprocessor is a multipurpose, clock driven, register based, programmable electronic device which accepts binary data as input, processes it according to instructions stored in its memory , and provides results as output. Microprocessors contain both combinational logic and sequential digital logic . Microprocessors operate on numbers and symbols represented in the binary numeral system . The integration of a whole CPU onto a single chip or on a few chips greatly reduced the cost of processing power, increasing efficiency. Integrated circuit processors are produced in large numbers by highly automated processes resulting in a low per unit cost. Single-chip processors increase reliability as there are many
XScale is a microarchitecture for central processing units initially designed by Intel implementing the ARM architecture (version 5) instruction set . XScale comprises several distinct families: IXP, IXC, IOP, PXA and CE (see more below), with some later models designed as SoCs . Intel sold the PXA family to Marvell Technology Group in June 2006. Marvell then extended the brand to include processors with other microarchitectures , like ARM 's Cortex . The XScale architecture is based on the ARMv5TE ISA without the floating point instructions. XScale uses a seven-stage integer and an eight-stage memory super- pipelined microarchitecture . It is the successor to the Intel StrongARM line of microprocessors and microcontrollers , which Intel acquired from DEC 's Digital Semiconductor division as part of a settlement of a lawsuit between the two companies. Intel used the StrongARM to replace its ailing line of outdated RISC processors, the i860 and i960 . All the generations of XScale are 32-bit ARMv5TE processor
Commodore 64 Home Computer This article is about the various external peripherals of the Commodore 64 home computer . Due to the backwards compatibility of the Commodore 128 , most peripherals will work on that system, as well. There's some compatibility with the VIC-20 and PET too. Storage Tape drives Commodore Datasette 1530 In the United States, the 1541 floppy disk drive was widespread. By contrast, in Europe, the C64 was often used with cassette tape drives (Datasette), which were much cheaper, but also much slower than floppy drives. The Datasette plugged into a proprietary edge connector on the Commodore 64's motherboard . Standard blank audio cassettes could be used in this drive. Data tapes could be write-protected in the same way as audio cassettes, by punching out a tab on the cassette's top edge. The Datasette's speed was very slow (about 300 baud ). Loading a large program at normal speed could take up to 30 minutes in extreme cases. Many European software developers wrote their own fast tape-loa
The transistor count is the number of transistors on an integrated circuit (IC). Transistor count is the most common measure of IC complexity, although there are caveats. For instance, the majority of transistors are contained in the cache memories in modern microprocessors , which consist mostly of the same memory cell circuits replicated many times. The rate at which transistor counts have increased generally follows Moore's law , which observed that the transistor count doubles approximately every two years. As of 2016, the largest transistor count in a commercially available single-chip processor is over 7.2 billion—the Intel Broadwell-EP Xeon . In other types of ICs, such as field-programmable gate arrays (FPGAs), Intel's (previously Altera) Stratix 10 has the largest transistor count, containing over 30 billion transistors. Microprocessors A microprocessor incorporates the functions of a computer's central processing unit on a single integrated circuit. It is a multipurpose, programmable device that acc
Addressing modes are an aspect of the instruction set architecture in most central processing unit (CPU) designs. The various addressing modes that are defined in a given instruction set architecture define how machine language instructions in that architecture identify the operand (s) of each instruction. An addressing mode specifies how to calculate the effective memory address of an operand by using information held in registers and/or constants contained within a machine instruction or elsewhere. In computer programming , addressing modes are primarily of interest to compiler writers and to those who write in assembly languages . Caveats Note that there is no generally accepted way of naming the various addressing modes. In particular, different authors and computer manufacturers may give different names to the same addressing mode, or the same names to different addressing modes. Furthermore, an addressing mode which, in one given architecture, is treated as a single addressing mode may represent functio
Earthquakes of magnitude 8.0 and greater since 1900. The apparent 3D volumes of the bubbles are linearly proportional to their respective fatalities. This list of 20th-century earthquakes is a global list of notable earthquakes that occurred in the 20th century. After 1900 most earthquakes have some degree of instrumental records and this means that the locations and magnitudes are more reliable than for earlier events. To prevent this list becoming unmanageable, only those of magnitude 6 and above are included unless they are notable for some other reason. 1901–1910 Date Time Place Lat. Long. Deaths Magnitude Comments Sources March 3, 1901 07:45 Parkfield, California , United States 36.2 −120.7 6.4 M (Abe, 1988) USGS March 31, 1901 07:10 Cape Shabla-Kaliakra, Black Sea ,see 1901 Black Sea earthquake 4 7.2 M - November 16, 1901 07:47 local time Cheviot, New Zealand -42.42 173.18 6.9 M - September 19, 1902 Warooka , South Australia, Australia Choco 2 6.0 M USGS April 19, 1902 Quetzaltenango , Guatemala see 1
The Apple IIGS (styled as II GS ) is a personal computer released by Apple Computer on September 15, 1986 that's compatible with the Apple II series, but otherwise has capabilities comparable to the Atari ST , Commodore Amiga , and Macintosh . The "GS" in the name stands for "Graphics" and "Sound," referring to its enhanced multimedia hardware, especially its state of the art sound and music synthesis . The machine is a radical departure from any previous Apple II, with its 16-bit processor, direct access to megabytes of RAM , and mouse . It's the first computer produced by Apple to use a color graphical user interface (color was introduced on the Macintosh II six months later) and Apple Desktop Bus interface for keyboards, mice, and other input devices. It is the first personal computer to come with a built-in wavetable synthesis chip, utilizing technology from Ensoniq . The IIGS set forth a promising future and evolutionary advancement of the Apple II line, but Apple paid it relatively little attention as t
Chief Godswill Obot Akpabio , CON (born 9 December 1962), is a Nigerian lawyer and politician who is a Senator of the Federal Republic of Nigeria and the Senate's Minority Leader. He was also Governor of Akwa Ibom State of Nigeria from May 29, 2007 to May 29, 2015. Early life and career Godswill Akpabio is the son of Chief Obot Akpabio and Madam Lucy Obot Akpabio (née Inyangetor) of Ukana, Ikot Ntuen in Essien Udim Local Government Area. He was born on 9 December 1962. He lost his father early in life and was raised by his mother, who inculcated in him the values of hard work, discipline and honesty. Education He was educated at Methodist Primary School, Ukana, Essien Udim LGA, Akwa Ibom State ; the prestigious Federal Government College, Port Harcourt , Rivers State ; and the University of Calabar , Cross River State , where he obtained a Degree in Law. He was called to the Nigerian bar in 1988. While at the Federal Government College, Port Harcourt , he was appointed the General Senior Prefect. In the U
Giant beaked whales are three species of beaked whales in the genus Berardius : Arnoux's beaked whale (Berardius arnuxii) in cold Southern Hemisphere waters, and Baird's beaked whale (Berardius bairdii) in the cold temperate waters of the North Pacific. An as yet unnamed third species was described in 2016. They are the largest of the beaked whales, growing up to 10–12 m in length. Lifespan estimates, based on earwax plug samples,indicate these whales can live up to 85 years. They are sometimes referred to as "four-toothed whales" or "giant beaked whales", but are most commonly known by their genus name, Berardius. Arnoux's and Baird's beaked whales are so similar that researchers have debated whether or not they are simply two populations of the same species. However, genetic evidence and their wide geographical separation has led them to be classified as separate. Physical description Illustration of Baird's beaked whale. The two established species have very similar features and would be indistinguishable
The Irrawaddy dolphin (Orcaella brevirostris) is a euryhaline species of oceanic dolphin found in discontinuous subpopulations near sea coasts and in estuaries and rivers in parts of the Bay of Bengal and Southeast Asia. Etymology and taxonomic history Irrawaddy dolphin skeleton specimen exhibited in Museo di storia naturale e del territorio dell'Università di Pisa Closeup Irrawaddy dolphin jumping in Mekong River One of the earliest recorded descriptions of the Irrawaddy dolphin was by Sir Richard Owen in 1866 based on a specimen found in 1852, in the harbour of Visakhapatnam on the east coast of India. It is one of two species in its genus. It has sometimes been listed variously in a family containing just itself and in Monodontidae and in Delphinapteridae . There is now widespread agreement to list it in the family Delphinidae . Genetically, the Irrawaddy dolphin is closely related to the killer whale (orca). It is also closely related to the Australian snubfin dolphin , and these two were only recently r
A substantial mythology exaggerating Benjamin Banneker 's accomplishments has developed during the two centuries that have elapsed since he lived. Several such urban legends describe Banneker's alleged activities in the Washington, D.C. area around the time that he assisted Andrew Ellicott in the federal district boundary survey. Others involve his clock, his almanacs and his journals. All lack support by historical evidence. Some are contradicted by such evidence. A United States postage stamp and the names of a number of recreational and cultural facilities, schools, streets and other facilities and institutions throughout the United States have commemorated Banneker's documented and mythical accomplishments throughout the years since he lived. Mythology of Benjamin Banneker Plan of the City of Washington L'Enfant Plan for the federal capital city While Andrew Ellicott and his team were conducting the federal district boundary survey in 1791-1792 (see: Boundary Markers of the Original District of C
Daniel "Dani" Sordo Castillo (born May 2, 1983 in Torrelavega , Cantabria ) is a Spanish rally driver. He competes in the World Rally Championship for Hyundai Motorsport . He achieved his first WRC victory at the 2013 Rally of Germany . Career Sordo began in motocross when he was 12 years old, but also experienced success in hillclimbing , karting and touring cars . He first drove in a World Rally Championship event at the Rally Catalunya , the Spanish round of the series, in 2003 in a Mitsubishi Lancer Evo VII , finishing 18th overall. He won the Spanish Junior Championship that year, and retained the title in 2004, while also accumulating further international experience at the WRC events in Argentina (retired), Germany (19th), France (13th) and Spain (20th). In this last event, he switched from the Lancer Evo to a Citroën C2 S1600 , and for 2005 he committed to a full season driving the C2 in the Junior World Rally Championship (JWRC) with Belgium's Kronos Racing team. He also switched co-drivers, now bein
The BDO World Darts Championship is a world championship competition in darts , organised by the British Darts Organisation (BDO). It began in 1978 , and was, alongside the World Darts Federation 's World Cup of Darts , one of two world championship tournaments until 1993. Since 1994, following a dispute with the BDO and the subsequent fallout, a breakaway group (originally known as the World Darts Council, and now known as the Professional Darts Corporation ) stages its own annual PDC World Championship , generally before the BDO version in late December and early January of each year. The BDO version was first held at the Heart of the Midlands Nightclub in the English city of Nottingham . The following year it moved to the Jollees Cabaret Club, Stoke , where it stayed until 1985. From 1986, it has been held at the Lakeside Country Club in Frimley Green , Surrey . Highlights In 1983 , a 23-year-old qualifier from Ipswich , Keith Deller , beat the world's top 3 players including Eric Bristow in a memorable fi
Cape Town ( Afrikaans : Kaapstad ; Xhosa : Ikapa ) is a coastal city in South Africa . It is the second-most populous urban area in South Africa after Johannesburg . It is also the capital and primate city of the Western Cape province. As the seat of the Parliament of South Africa , it is also the legislative capital of the country. It forms part of the City of Cape Town metropolitan municipality . The city is famous for its harbour , for its natural setting in the Cape Floristic Region , and for such well-known landmarks as Table Mountain and Cape Point . As of 2014, it is the 10th most populous city in Africa and home to 64% of the Western Cape's population. It is one of the most multicultural cities in the world, reflecting its role as a major destination for immigrants and expatriates to South Africa. The city was named the World Design Capital for 2014 by the International Council of Societies of Industrial Design . In 2014, Cape Town was named the best place in the world to visit by both the American
The Citroën Total Abu Dhabi World Rally Team is the Citroën factory backed entry into the World Rally Championship , run by Citroën Racing. The team Management Yves Matton – team director Xavier Mestelan-Pinon – technical director Partners Total Abu Dhabi Michelin Eurodatacar History 1990–1998 seasons The Citroën ZX Rally raid won the Rally raid Constructors' Championship in 1993, 1994, 1995, 1996, and 1997 with Pierre Lartigue and Ari Vatanen . Citroën also won the Dakar Rally in 1991, 1994, 1995, and 1996. In addition, Citroën won the Pharaons Rally in 1991, the Tunisia rally in 1992 and the Paris-Moscow-Beijing Rally, also in 1992 1998–2000 seasons Citroën Xsara Kit car at the 1998 Rallye Cantabria In 1998, following its withdrawal from Rally raid competition, Citroën Sport began competing in rallying with the Xsara Kit Car. Equipped with a 2L engine developing 280 hp more than 8 000 rpm, this car started competing in the French Rally Championship in 1998. At the wheel, Philippe Bugalski won drivers titles
Jari-Matti Latvala (born 3 April 1985) is a Finnish rally driver competing in the World Rally Championship . His co-driver has been Miikka Anttila since the 2003 Rallye Deutschland . He is well known for his aggressive driving style, which earns him many plaudits, and comparisons to the late Colin McRae . With 17 event victories in the WRC, he is the most successful driver to not have won a championship. Career Latvala began driving when he was eight years old, after receiving a Ford Escort from his father Jari Latvala, also a rally driver and 1994 national champion in the Group N class. At the age of ten, Latvala started practicing with an Opel Ascona on a frozen lake. 2000s Latvala's first world rally was the 2002 Rally Great Britain at the age of 17. He finished in 17th position with a Mitsubish Lancer Evolution VI . In 2003 , Latvala competed in four WRC events with a Ford Focus WRC , finishing tenth at the Acropolis Rally , 17th at the Rallye Deutschland , 14th at the Neste Oil Rally Finland and tenth a
Denis Clive "Denny" Hulme , OBE (18 June 1936 – 4 October 1992) was a New Zealand racing driver who won the 1967 Formula One World Drivers' Championship for the Brabham team. Between his debut at Monaco in 1965 and his final race in the 1974 US Grand Prix , he started 112 Grand Prix, resulting eight victories and 33 trips to the podium. He also finished third in the overall standing in 1968 and 1972. Hulme showed versatility by dominating the Canadian-American Challenge Cup (Can-Am) for Group 7 sports cars . As a member of the McLaren team that won five straight titles between 1967 and 1971, he won the individual drivers’ championship twice and runner-up on four other occasions. Following his Formula One tenure with Brabham, Hulme raced for McLaren in multiple formats—Formula One, Can-Am, and at the Indianapolis 500 . Hulme retired from Formula One at the end of the 1974 season but continued to race Australian Touring Cars. Hulme was nicknamed 'The Bear', because of his "gruff nature" and "rugged features"; h
Whale conservation is the international environmental and ethical debate over whale hunting . The conservation and anti-whaling debate has focused on issues of sustainability as well as ownership and national sovereignty . Also raised in conservation efforts is the question of cetacean intelligence , the level of suffering which the animals undergo when caught and killed, and the importance that the mammals play in the ecosystem and a healthy marine environment . The International Whaling Commission (IWC) 1986 moratorium on commercial whaling, the value of lethal sampling of whales for scientific research in order to establish catch quotas has also been debated. The value of whaling to fisheries as a method of controlling whales' perceived negative impact on fish stocks is another point of debate. Conservation status Blue whale populations have declined dramatically due to unregulated commercial whaling, putting them at risk of extinction. Prior to the setting up of the IWC in 1946, unregulated whaling had de
Markku Allan Alén (born 15 February 1951, in Helsinki ) is a Finnish former rally and race car driver. He drove for Fiat , Lancia , Subaru and Toyota in the World Rally Championship , and held the record for most stage wins (801) in the series, until Sébastien Loeb overtook it at the 2011 Rally Catalunya . Alén's phrase "now maximum attack" became well-known. Alén never won the world championship itself, despite being for a long time the driver with the most wins to his credit. However, he did win the FIA Cup for Drivers in 1978 , the precursor to the World Championship for Drivers established in 1979 . In 1986 , he was the world champion for eleven days, until Peugeot 's appeal went through and the results of Rallye Sanremo , which Alén had won, were annulled. Career Early Alén's interest in motorsport came from his father, who was the 1963 Finnish champion in ice racing . Alén started his rallying career in 1969 driving a Renault 8 Gordini , and finished ninth at the 1000 Lakes Rally at his first attempt. A
Roger Dennistoun "Dennis" Poore (19 August 1916, Paddington , London – 12 February 1987, Kensington ) was a British entrepreneur , financier and sometime racing driver . He became chairman of NVT during the dying days of the old British motorcycle industry. Motorsport career Poore was a keen motor sport participant, and competed in two World Championship Grands Prix in 1952. He made his debut in the British Grand Prix on 19 July 1952, where he finished fourth. He scored 3 championship points. Poore won the British Hill Climb Championship in 1950 driving a 3.8-litre twin-Wade-blown Alfa Romeo . He finished second at Shelsley Walsh , first at Prescott , second at Bo'ness , taking the win at Rest and Be Thankful , then second at Bouley Bay and first at Val des Terres , rounding off the season with another win at Prescott. After his World Championship Grands Prix, Poore raced sportscars for Aston Martin , winning the Goodwood International Nine Hour race with a DB3S in 1955, co-driven by Peter Walker . Poore us
Eureka ( Hupa : do'-wi-lotl-ding' Karuk : uuth ) is the principal city and county seat of Humboldt County in the Redwood Empire region of California . The city is located on U.S. Route 101 on the shores of Humboldt Bay , 270 miles (430 km) north of San Francisco and 100 miles (160 km) south of the Oregon border. At the 2010 census , the population of the city was 27,191, and the population of Greater Eureka was 45,034. Eureka is the largest coastal city between San Francisco and Portland , and the westernmost city of more than 25,000 residents in the 48 contiguous states. It is the regional center for government, health care, trade, and the arts on the North Coast north of the San Francisco Bay Area . Greater Eureka, one of California's major commercial fishing ports, is the location of the largest deep-water port between San Francisco and Coos Bay , a stretch of about 500 miles (800 km). The headquarters of both the Six Rivers National Forest and the North Coast Redwoods District of the California St
TiVo's logo , a smiling television set TiVo ( TEE -voh ) is a digital video recorder (DVR) developed and marketed by TiVo Corporation and introduced in 1999. TiVo provides an on-screen guide of scheduled broadcast programming television programs , whose features include "Season Pass" schedules which record every new episode of a series, and "WishList" searches which allow the user to find and record shows that match their interests by title, actor, director, category, or keyword. TiVo also provides a range of features when the TiVo DVR is connected to a home network, including film and television show downloads, advanced search, personal photo viewing, music offerings, and online scheduling. Since its launch in the United States, TiVo has been made available in Australia, Canada, Mexico, New Zealand, Puerto Rico , Sweden, Taiwan , Spain, and the United Kingdom. Newer models, however, have adopted the CableCARD standard, which is only deployed in the United States, and which limits the availability of certain
The Faroe Islands , also spelled the Faeroes , ( ; Faroese : Føroyar pronounced ; Danish : Færøerne , pronounced ) is an archipelago between the Norwegian Sea and the North Atlantic , about halfway between Norway and Iceland , 320 kilometres (200 miles) north-northwest of Scotland . Its area is about 1,400 square kilometres (541 square miles) with a population of 49,188 in 2016. The Faeroe Islands is an autonomous country within the Danish Realm . The land of the Faeroes is rugged, and these islands have a subpolar oceanic climate (Cfc) : windy, wet, cloudy, and cool. Despite this island group's northerly latitude, temperatures average above freezing throughout the year because of the Gulf Stream . Between 1035 and 1814, the Faeroes were part of the Hereditary Kingdom of Norway . In 1814, the Treaty of Kiel granted Denmark control over the islands, along with two other Norwegian island possessions: Greenland and Iceland . The Faroe Islands have been a self-governing country within the Kingdom of Denmark si
Although it appears to be multiple trees, Pando is a clonal colony of an individual aspen tree with an interconnected root system. It is widely held to be the world's most massive single organism. The largest organisms found on Earth can be determined according to various aspects of an organism's size, such as: mass, volume, area, length, height, or even genome size . Some organisms group together to form a superorganism (such as ants or bees ), but such are not classed as single large organisms. The Great Barrier Reef is the world's largest structure composed of living entities, stretching 2,000 km (1,200 mi), but contains many organisms of many types of species. This article lists the largest species for various types of organisms, and mostly considers extant species. The organism sizes listed are frequently considered "outsized" and are not in the normal size range for the respective group. If considered singular entities, the largest organisms are clonal colonies which can spread over large areas. Pando ,
Carl Barks (1901–2000) was an American Disney Studio illustrator and comic book creator. The quality of his scripts and drawings earned him the nicknames The Duck Man and The Good Duck Artist. This list of Carl Barks' Disney stories is incomplete as it does not contain covers and unpublished comics, and some titles, writers and exact dates in the list are unknown. Barks' non-Disney comic book stories are listed in List of non-Disney comics by Carl Barks . List of comics # Publication date Title # Pages Hero Art Script Story code 1 May 25, 1938 A Hole in One 1 Donald Duck Al Taliaferro Carl Barks, Bob Karp YD 38-05-25 2 June 10, 1938 The Sheriff Goes Crabing 1 Donald Duck Al Taliaferro Carl Barks, Bob Karp YD 38-06-10 3 June 27, 1938 Anything to Oblige 1 Donald Duck Al Taliaferro Carl Barks, Bob Karp YD 38-06-27 4 July 2, 1938 Mr. Woodpecker Goes Picketing 1 Donald Duck Al Taliaferro Carl Barks, Bob Karp YD 38-07-02 5 July 6, 1938 Out of the Frying Pant 1 Donald Duck Al Taliaferro Carl Barks, Bob Karp YD 38
A computer is a device that can be instructed to carry out an arbitrary set of arithmetic or logical operations automatically. The ability of computers to follow a sequence of operations, called a program , make computers very applicable to a wide range of tasks. Such computers are used as control systems for a very wide variety of industrial and consumer devices . This includes simple special purpose devices like microwave ovens and remote controls , factory devices such as industrial robots and computer assisted design , but also in general purpose devices like personal computers and mobile devices such as smartphones . The Internet is run on computers and it connects millions of other computers. Since ancient times, simple manual devices like the abacus aided people in doing calculations. Early in the Industrial Revolution , some mechanical devices were built to automate long tedious tasks, such as guiding patterns for looms . More sophisticated electrical machines did specialized analog calculations in th
Dolphin drive hunting , also called dolphin drive fishing , is a method of hunting dolphins and occasionally other small cetaceans by driving them together with boats and then usually into a bay or onto a beach. Their escape is prevented by closing off the route to the open sea or ocean with boats and nets. Dolphins are hunted this way in several places around the world, including the Solomon Islands , the Faroe Islands , Peru , and Japan , the most well-known practitioner of this method. By numbers, dolphins are mostly hunted for their meat ; some end up in dolphinariums . Despite the controversial nature of the hunt resulting in international criticism, and the possible health risk that the often polluted meat causes, thousands of dolphins are caught in drive hunts each year. Atlantic white-sided dolphin caught in a drive hunt in Hvalba on the Faroe Islands being taken away with a forklift By country Faroe Islands Two dead Northern Bottlenose Whales with cut necks in the bay of Nes (Hvalba) on the Faroe Isl
The M-Sport Ford World Rally Team , formerly Qatar M-Sport World Rally Team , M-Sport Ford World Rally Team and Stobart M-Sport Ford Rally Team , is the privately run World Rally Championship team of M-Sport , the firm run by Malcolm Wilson that was previously responsible for the operation of the former Ford World Rally Team . History 2006 season Wilson at the 2006 Cyprus Rally . Note that the car is named Elaine Joanne, following sponsor Stobart Group's tradition of giving its lorries female names. Stobart debuted at the 2006 season opener Monte Carlo Rally with drivers Matthew Wilson and Pieter Tsjoen. Wilson went on to compete all the 16 rounds for the team. Other Stobart entrants during the season were Luís Pérez Companc in eight rallies, Kosti Katajamäki in five, Jari-Matti Latvala in four, Juan Pablo Raies at the Cyprus Rally and Andreas Mikkelsen at the Wales Rally GB . The team's best results were Latvala's fourth place at the Wales Rally GB and Katajamäki's fifth at the Rally of Turkey and sixth at t
Sébastien Loeb ( French pronunciation: ; born 26 February 1974) is a French professional rally , racing , and rallycross driver. He competed for the Citroën World Rally Team in the World Rally Championship (WRC) and is the most successful driver in WRC history, having won the world championship a record nine times in a row. He holds several other WRC records , including most wins, most podium finishes and most points. Loeb announced his retirement from World Rallying at the end of the 2012 season. Participating in selected events in the 2013 WRC season , he raced a full season in the FIA GT Series driving a McLaren MP4-12C before moving on with Citroën to the FIA World Touring Car Championship in 2014. Originally a gymnast, Loeb switched to rallying in 1995 and won the Junior World Rally Championship in 2001. Signed by the Citroën factory team for the 2002 season, he and co-driver Daniel Elena took their maiden WRC win that same year at the Rallye Deutschland . After finishing runner-up to Petter Solberg by
The 2014–15 North West Counties Football League season was the 33rd in the history of the North West Counties Football League , a football competition in England . Teams were divided into two divisions; Premier Division and Division One. Premier Division The Premier Division featured two new teams: Nelson promoted as champions of Division One 1874 Northwich promoted after finishing third in Division One League table Pos Team Pld W D L GF GA GD Pts Qualification or relegation 1 Glossop North End (C) (P) 40 33 3 4 100 23 +77 102 Promotion to NPL Division One North 2 Runcorn Linnets 40 28 8 4 89 39 +50 92 3 1874 Northwich 40 26 8 6 90 35 +55 86 4 Colne 40 25 5 10 86 47 +39 80 5 Ashton Athletic 40 21 12 7 69 38 +31 75 6 Squires Gate 40 17 16 7 62 42 +20 67 7 Bootle 40 19 6 15 76 63 +13 63 8 Congleton Town 40 17 9 14 68 57 +11 60 9 A.F.C. Liverpool 40 17 8 15 74 56 +18 59 10 Silsden 40 16 8 16 55 62 −7 56 11 Nelson 40 16 7 17 69 64 +5 55 12 Winsford United 40 15 10 15 66 62 +4 55 13 Runcorn Town 40 13 8 19 72
Geoffrey Lees (born 1 May 1951) is a former racing driver from England. He participated in 12 Formula One World Championship Grands Prix, making his first appearance on 16 July 1978. He scored no championship points. Career Lees was born near Kingsbury , Warwickshire. His first Grand Prix chance came with a non-works Ensign at his home race in 1978, but he failed to qualify. The following year he had a one-off drive for Tyrrell , before a more regular ride with the struggling Shadow team in 1980. Later that year he also drove for the works Ensign team, and failed to qualify a RAM -entered Williams in the US. He participated in the Formula One non-championship race held on 7 February 1981 at Kyalami for Theodore where he went into the crash barriers on lap 11 due to a broken front suspension. In the hope of taking one step backward and then two steps forward, he joined Ralt-Honda for the European Formula Two championship. He won the championship, but his hopes of "re-entering Formula One with more dignity" wer
Norman Graham Hill OBE (15 February 1929 – 29 November 1975) was a British racing driver and team owner from England , who was twice Formula One World Champion. He is the only driver ever to win the Triple Crown of Motorsport —the 24 Hours of Le Mans , Indianapolis 500 and either the Monaco Grand Prix or the Formula One World Drivers' Championship. He also appeared on TV in the 1970s on a variety of non sporting programmes including panel games. He liked painting in his spare time. Hill and his son Damon were the first father and son pair to have both won the Formula One World Championship. Hill's grandson Josh , Damon's son, also raced his way through the ranks until he retired from Formula Three in 2013 at the age of 22. Hill died at age 46 when the twin-engine six-seat Piper Aztec aeroplane he was piloting crashed and burned in foggy conditions at night near Arkley golf course in North London. Hill, Tony Brise , and four other members of Hill's racing team were returning from car testing at Circuit Paul
Takuma Sato ( 佐藤 琢磨 Satō Takuma, born 28 January 1977) is a Japanese professional racing driver. He currently races full-time in the IndyCar Series for Andretti Autosport . Racing career Formula One Jordan (2002) In 2002 Sato graduated to Formula One with the Honda-powered Jordan team, and was paired with Giancarlo Fisichella . His low point was a tremendous crash in Austria , caused when Nick Heidfeld lost control of his Sauber under braking and hit the side of Sato's car, punching a hole in the side of the cockpit. Throughout he showed flashes of speed but also wild driving, nevertheless the team's faith in Sato was repaid by a fine drive to fifth at his home Grand Prix in Suzuka . BAR (2003–05) Sato celebrates his only Formula One podium finish, at the 2004 United States Grand Prix . With Honda's focus shifting solely to British American Racing for 2003 Sato joined the Brackley-based outfit as a test driver. For the final round in Japan Sato replaced Jacques Villeneuve and scored the second points finish
Lewis Carl Davidson Hamilton , MBE (born 7 January 1985) is a British Formula One racing driver from England, currently racing for the Mercedes AMG Petronas team. A three-time Formula One World Champion , he is regarded by fellow and former drivers as one of the greatest Formula One drivers in the history of the sport. He won his first title with McLaren in 2008 before moving to Mercedes , where he won back-to-back titles in 2014 and 2015 . In December 1995, at the age of ten, he approached McLaren team principal Ron Dennis at the Autosport Awards ceremony and told him, "I want to race for you one day... I want to race for McLaren." Less than three years later McLaren and Mercedes-Benz signed him to their Young Driver Support Programme . After winning the British Formula Renault , Formula Three Euroseries , and GP2 championships on his way up the racing career ladder, he drove for McLaren in 2007, making his Formula One debut 12 years after his initial encounter with Dennis. Hamilton's contract for the M