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Victor Skumin

Victor Andreevich Skumin (Russian: Ви́ктор Андре́евич Ску́мин, born 30 August 1948) is a Russian and Soviet scientist, psychiatrist, psychotherapist and psychologist.

After graduating from the Kharkiv National Medical University in 1973, in 1976, he became a psychotherapist in Kiev Institute of Cardiovascular Surgery. In 1978, he described a new disease, the Skumin syndrome. He introduced a method of psychotherapy and self-improvement based on optimistic autosuggestion for psychological rehabilitation of cardiosurgical patients (1979).

From 1980 to 1990, he was professor of psychotherapy at the Kharkiv Medical Academy of Post-graduate Education. The main result of his scientific activity was the discovery of the "syndrome of the neurotic phantom of somatic disease" and a "concept of the mental constituent of a chronic somatic disease".

From 1990 to 1994, Skumin held positions as Professor by the Chair of Psychology and Pedagogy, and Professor by the Chair of Physical Education and Health life at the Kharkiv State Academy of Culture. In 1994, he was elected to the post of the President-founder of the World Organisation of Culture of Health (Moscow). In 1995, Skumin became the first editor-in-chief of the journal To Health via Culture. He is known for inventing a popular term "Culture of Health" (1968).

Besides psychiatry and psychology, Skumin writes on healthy lifestyle, yoga, and philosophy. He co-authored series of illustrated books and articles on Living Ethics, Rerikhism, Russian cosmism, Transhumanism, and New Age. He wrote books of fiction and lyrics for several songs.

Early life and education
Victor Skumin (he stands in the center) on a river beach at Petrozavodsk, 1959

Victor Skumin[1] was born on 30 August 1948 in Penza Oblast, RSFSR, where his father – Andrew Skumin (Russian: Андре́й Ску́мин) – was an officer of MGB of the USSR.[2] [3] After the birth of Victor, the family moved to the city of Kazan, where his father was appointed to the post of Chairman of the Military Tribunal of the Internal Troops of the Volga Military District.[4] The family many times moved from one city to another, where Andrew Skumin was appointed to a new post. These cities, in particular, were Penza, Chelyabinsk, and Petrozavodsk.[5] [3] For this reason, he studied in various educational institutions.[6]

Skumin studied medicine at the Kharkiv National Medical University. The history of the higher medical school in Kharkiv is more than 200 years long and closely connected with the history of Vasily Karazin Kharkiv National University, because it sprang from its Medical Faculty. The University – the oldest University of the Russian Empire and the Soviet Union – was founded in 1804, a decree about its foundation was signed by the Emperor of Russia Alexander I, and the first Statutes of the University were approved at that time. In the Kharkiv University were laid high scientific standards. Its history is connected with the names of the Nobel LaureatesLev Landau, Simon Kuznets, Élie Metchnikoff – and other distinguished scientists.[7] [8]

Skumin graduated the Medical University in 1973 with diploma with honours.[2] In 1968, when he was still a medical student, he proposed the term ″Culture of Health″ (Russian: ″Культу́ра Здоро́вья″,[9] [10] which has become widespread.[11] [12] [13] The main task of a Culture of Health is to implement innovative health programs that support a holistic approach to physical, mental and spiritual well-being.[2] [14]

Contribution to psychiatry and psychotherapy
Cardiac surgery

He researched from 1976 to 1980 psychological and psychiatric problems of cardiac surgery under the mentorship of Nikolai Amosov,[15] who was the founder and first director of the Kiev Institute of Cardiovascular Surgery. This Institute was the first to conduct surgical treatment of heart diseases in the Ukrainian SSR (since 1955), the Institute began to conduct operations with extracorporeal circulation (1958), and mitral valve replacements (1963). In 1961, Amosov was awarded Lenin Prize for the work of surgery.[16] [17]

Since a valve replacement is a heart surgical procedure, it requires placing the patient on cardiopulmonary bypass. With a valve replacement surgery, there are some risks. Skumin researched a neuropsychological and psychopathologic changes following open heart surgery, nonpsychotic mental disorders in patients with valvular heart disease before and after surgery, associated with mechanical artificial heart valve (MHV) implant.[18]

Total Artificial Heart beside a human heart

An artificial heart valve is a device implanted in the heart of a patient with valvular heart disease, congenital heart defect, etc. When one or two of the four heart valves malfunctions, the medical choice may be to replace the natural valve with an artificial valve. There are three major types of mechanical valves with many modifications on these designs. This requires open heart surgery. The mechanical valves are made from metal and pyrolytic carbon, and can last a lifetime. All MHV function in the human body creating a unique sound effects and vibration. Patients with mechanical valves must take blood-thinning medications to prevent clotting. The choice of which valve type to use depends upon the patient's age, medical condition, preferences with medication, and lifestyle.[19] Skumin syndrome (Russian: Синдро́м Ску́мина) was described by Skumin in 1978 as a cardioprosthetic psychopathological syndrome,[20] associated with mechanical heart valve implant and manifested by irrational fear, anxiety, depression and sleep disorder.[21] This syndrome is often accompanied by asthenia.[22] [23] [24] Alain Carpentier – a member of the French Academy of Sciences and the head the Department of Cardiovascular Surgery at the Hôpital Européen Georges-Pompidou in Paris – believed in 2011 that Skumin syndrome develops in a quarter of the patients with an artificial heart valve.[25] It is possible that a similar problem arises in the conduct of operations to implement an artificial heart.[26] [27]

The Russia's international news agency «RIA Novosti», operating under the purview of the Russian Ministry of Communications and Mass Media, wrote about this problem (2014),[28]

Victor Skumin, our domestic scientist, described "cardioprosthetic psychopathologic syndrome", which entered the textbooks as "Skumin syndrome". The human mind is constantly fixed on the motor is running. For example, in contrast to prosthetic of teeth, arms or legs, it is not possible to divert attention of human from the sounds of functioning implant in his body. Person is constantly waiting for a suddenly the motor will stop? In the human heart the pain gives signals. Here there is no pain and can not to be. In the future, probably, there will be heart prostheses, imitating his heartbeat. But they will not be hurt, and Skumin syndrome will continue to hang over the human psyche with a heart valve prosthesis.

The methods and the main principles of such therapy and neuropsychological rehabilitation are described and its efficacy was demonstrated.[29] [30] Skumin proposed mixture subsequently named after him. Skumin’s mixture (Russian: Миксту́ра Ску́мина) is a medicine with a sedative effect, affecting the central nervous system. It is used to treat Skumin syndrome, light forms of heart failure, anxiety and sleep disorders, and asthenia.[31] The medicine is known to be well tolerated, with no contra-indications, except sensitivity. The formula contains Adonis vernalis, Crataegus, Valerian root, Leonurus cardiaca, Eucalyptus, Peppermint, and Rose hip.[32]

For psychological rehabilitation, Skumin improved psychological function by calming the nervous system, enhancing relaxation, increasing body awareness and decreasing general anxiety.[23] [33]

Sitting meditation posture
Lying down meditation posture

In 1979, Skumin created a special modification of mind control method for psychological rehabilitation of cardiosurgical patients.[34] [35] This method is based on autogenic training. Autogenic training is a relaxation technique developed by the psychiatrist Johannes Heinrich Schultz. He emphasized parallels to techniques in yoga and meditation. It is a method for influencing one's autonomic nervous system. The technique involves the daily practice of sessions that last around 15 minutes, usually in the morning, at lunch time, and in the evening. During each session, the practitioner will repeat a set of visualisations that induce a state of relaxation. Each session can be practiced in a position chosen amongst a set of recommended postures.[36]

The technique of the Skumin mind control method (Russian: Психотре́нинг по Ску́мину) involves the use of two standard postures: sitting meditation and lying down meditation. This method of psychotraining includes five psychological exercises: the first is "the relaxation", the second one is "the warming", the third one is "the zero gravity", the fourth one is "the target autosuggestion", and the fifth exercise is "the psychological activation". Each session contain explanation of the theory and practice of each new exercise as it is reached. The therapeutic effect is achieved by the neutralization of traumatic emotional experiences and the progressive reorganization of the psychic structures to include previously unacceptable mental contents, too.[37] [38] This method of psychotherapy has found application in medical practice, in particular in the treatment of phobias, headaches, etc.[39] [40]

Skumin's priority on the description of this syndrome and the establishment of effective methods of treatment and rehabilitation of cardiosurgical patients confirmed Nikolai Amosov and Yakov Bendet,[41] Alain Carpentier,[42] [43] and many others.[23] [44] [45] [46] The Higher Attestation Commission under the USSR Council of Ministers awarded him for this research study the degree of Candidate of Sciences (1980).[47] It is a first post-graduate scientific degree in some former Eastern Bloc countries.

Gastroenterology

From 1980 to 1990, he worked as professor of psychotherapy at the Kharkiv Medical Academy of Post-graduate Education. During this period Skumin investigated borderline mental disorders in chronic diseases of the digestive system in children and adolescents.[48]

Diagnostic intervention

A most significant life event in the first years of life is a disease, especially if it is of early onset, severe, life-threatening, with an uncertain prognosis, and with the necessity of frequent diagnostic and therapeutic interventions. Psychological implications are a significant part of the illness, not a marginal component; they can affect prognosis and outcome. Various laboratory tests, physical examinations, and surgeries on these individuals show no evidence supporting the idea that these exaggerating symptoms are present.[49] [50]

In particular, Skumin studied the patients, aged from 6 to 17, suffering from diseases of the gastrointestinal tract. Most of them have revealed a negative psychological attitude to the dietotherapy they received. A system of special measures has been developed including three main elements: (1) psychotherapeutic mediation of dietotherapy before its administration and in the process of the therapy; (2) creation of the psychologic attitude to the diet adherence; (3) alteration of the patient's taste stereotype. Realization of such measures has been conducive to higher effectiveness of the dietotherapy.[51]

Based on studies into the mental sphere of gastroenterological patients, he systematized borderline neurotic and personality disorders on the clinical and etiopathogenetic basis. He studied the psychosocial problems that may affect children or teenagers who have the chronic gastrointestinal disease. A system of measures aimed at early diagnosis, correction, therapy and prophylaxis of borderline conditions and psychosocial readaptation of patients is scientifically based. The main result of his scientific activity was the discovery of the "syndrome of the neurotic phantom of somatic disease"[52] (a specific psychopathological complex of symptoms) and a "concept of the mental constituent of a chronic somatic disease".[53] [54] [55]

Skumin defended his doctoral thesis in Moscow at the Serbsky State Scientific Center for Social and Forensic Psychiatry (1988). The Higher Attestation Commission awarded him for this research study the degree of Doktor Nauk in Medicine (Doctor of Medical Sciences – Dr.scient.med.).[56] It is a higher doctoral degree which may be earned after the Candidate of Sciences (which is informally regarded in Russia and many other post-Soviet states as equivalent to PhD obtained in countries in which PhD is not the highest academic degree).

Culture of Health and other contributions

From 1990 to 1994, Skumin held positions as Professor by the Chair of Psychology and Pedagogy, and Professor by the Chair of Physical Education and Health life at the Kharkiv State Academy of Culture. Skumin completed research of theoretical and practical issues of culture of health, which he developed throughout his scientific and pedagogical activity. These methods, he has introduced in the training course for the students of the Academy: "The Foundations of a Culture of Health.[57]

Symbol of Rerikhism: the Pax per Cultura, the true culture being the "Cult of Light", the all-pervading Fire (Agni).[58]

His scientific and pedagogical work Skumin combine with a social activity. In 1994, he was elected to the post of the President-founder of the World Organisation of Culture of Health (WOCH) — International social movement "To Health via Culture" (Russian: Междунаро́дное обще́ственное Движе́ние «К Здоро́вью че́рез Культу́ру»).[57] Coat of arms of the WOCH contain a symbol of Rerikhism.

The organization operates in accordance with the registered in Ministry of Justice of the Russian Federation Charter. Key element of a Culture of Health is implement innovative health programs that support a holistic approach to physical, mental and spiritual well-being both inside and outside the workplace.[59] [60]

In the Russian Orthodox Church the social activities of this international organization qualifies as an ideology of the Living Ethics and New Age (NA),[61] [62]

The ideology of the NA serves outstanding contemporary philosophers: Gregory Bateson, Ken Wilber, Paul Feyerabend. On a grand scale is the creation and support of international organizations, contained in the ideology of the NA. In Russia and in Ukraine, International movement "To Health via Culture", based on the teachings of Agni Yoga, operates and has a great publishing activity.

Two philosophers greatly influenced the New Age movement: Helena Blavatsky (left) and Helena Roerich (right)

The relationship between the Skumin's doctrine and Rerikhism is also confirmed by some scientists, such as Goraschuk V. P., Professor of H.S. Skovoroda Kharkiv National Pedagogical University. In 2004, he wrote in his thesis for a Doctor’s degree on speciality "general pedagogics and history of pedagogics",[63]

V. Skumìn developed the problems associated with a culture of health in the context of philosophy of Roerich.

Living Ethics (Agni Yoga) is a philosophical teaching which embraces all sides of being—from cosmological problems, down to daily human life. This teaching is based on the books written by Helena and Nicholas Roerich in the first half of the 20th century.[64] The New Age movement is a spiritual movement that developed in Western nations during the 1970s. The movement is characterised by a holistic view of the cosmos, a belief in an emergent Age of Aquarius an emphasis on self-spirituality and the authority of the self, a focus on healing (particularly with alternative therapies).[65] [66]

Professor Verhorubova and professor Lobanova from Tomsk State Pedagogical University argued (2012) that in accordance with the concept of a culture of health, proposed by Skumin, the culture – spiritual, mental, and physical – determines the status of human health. And health – spiritual, mental, physical – is a prerequisite for achieving a higher level of culture.[67]

The essence of the teachings of the culture of health, reveals professor of University of Luhansk N. Gribok. He wrote at 2009,[68]

Russian Professor Skumin insists on the fact that the culture of health should be considered as an integral part of the spiritual culture and the moral culture, culture of labour and culture of recreation, culture of personality and culture of relationships. According to the scientist, the culture of health is not only the mechanical connection of the two concepts—the concept of ″culture″ and the concept of ″health″. This is their synthesis, which forms a new quality, a new content. Skumin examines the culture of health as the specific science, that develops the theoretical and practical tasks of harmonious development of the spiritual, mental, and physical human force, forming of optimum environment, which provides a higher level of creativity of life. Thus, Skumin argues that the culture of health is a separate science, that creates new content. The main challenge of culture of health is the development of spiritual, mental and physical capabilities of man.

Symbol of Theosophical Society incorporated the Swastika, Star of David, Ankh, Aum and Ouroboros symbols
The Culture of Health is the basic science about Spiritual Humanity. It studies the perspectives of harmonious development of Spiritual man and Spiritual ethnos as a conscious creator of the State of Light into the territory of the Solar System.
 —Victor Skumin[69] [70]

The Culture of Health means recognizing health’s central importance in the lives. Expounding the philosophical aspects of his Doctrine of Culture of Health, Skumin referred to the works of Helena Blavatsky, Helena and Nicholas Roerich, Konstantin Tsiolkovsky, and Alexander Chizhevsky.[71] [72] In some of his publications, he argues that the Culture of Health will play an important role in the creation of a human spiritual society into the Solar System.

He elaborated on the theosophical conceptions of spiritual evolution and proposed (1990) a classification of Homo spiritalis (Latin: spiritual man), the sixth root race, consisting of eight sub-races (subspecies) – HS0 Anabiosis spiritalis, HS1 Scientella spiritalis, HS2 Aurora spiritalis, HS3 Ascensus spiritalis, HS4 Vocatus spiritalis, HS5 Illuminatio spiritalis, НS6 Creatio spiritalis, and HS7 Servitus spiritalis.[73]

Literary and publishing activities

Skumin wrote several books of fiction, and also essays.[74] [75] [76] [77] [78] [79] [80]

He is the author of music and lyrics of several songs.[81] [82] Among them:

  1. Anthem "The Heart". In Agni Yoga and Rerikhism the heart is the main organ of the human body, his spiritual Sun.[83] Helena Roerich special emphasis is placed on the fires in the heart center and the Chalice, or the Anahata chakra, which is behind the heart.[82] [84]
  2. Anthem "To Health via Culture". The anthem consists of four stanzas. The capital letters each of the four stanzas form the word AGNI. (Anthem "To Health via Culture." on YouTube)[82]
  3. Anthem "Urusvati". Helena Roerich, known as the Tara Urusvati in Agni Yoga and Rerikhism. The hymn begins with the phrase: "the fire of the heart ignites Urusvati, she teaches the spirit take-off on the wings of the grace".[82]
  4. Anthem "Shambhala". In Tibetan Buddhism and Living Ethics Shambhala is a kingdom hidden somewhere in Inner Asia. It is mentioned in various ancient texts, including the Kalachakra Tantra[85] and the ancient texts of the Zhang Zhung culture which predated Tibetan Buddhism in western Tibet.[82]
  5. Anthem "Morya". Morya is one of the "Masters of the Ancient Wisdom" within modern Theosophical beliefs.[86] He is one of the Mahatmas who inspired the founding of the Theosophical Society and was engaged in a correspondence with two English Theosophists living in India, Alfred Sinnett and Allan Hume. The Master Morya will physically incarnate in order to be the Manu ("progenitor") of the new root race.[82] [87]
  6. Anthem "Ur". In the Vedas, and Living Ethics Ur or Aditi ("limitless")[88] is mother of the gods and all twelve zodiacal spirits from whose cosmic matrix the heavenly bodies were born. As celestial mother of every existing form and being, the synthesis of all things, she is associated with space and with mystic speech.
  7. Anthem "Agni". Agni, the Vedic and Living Ethics God of Fire, one marks immortality and the symbol of life. Agni is one of the supreme gods in the Rigveda.[89] In Agni Yoga it is the Creative Fire of the Universe, the root of the "Fire of Space"; and "psychic energy", the powers of the human mind and heart, particularly those manifesting in love, thought, and creativity.[82] [90]
  8. Anthem "The Sun". In the Skumin's doctrine of the culture of health and in the Agni Yoga, the Sun has a wealth of potential for spiritual, mental and physical evolution of human society and all other kingdoms of nature in the Solar System.[82]

In 1995, Skumin became the first editor-in-chief (EIC) of the journal To Health via Culture. This journal of the World Organisation of Culture of Health (″World Health Culture Organization″) received an International Standard Serial Number (ISSN) 0204-3440. The main topics of the magazine are the dissemination of ideas of Culture of Health, holistic medicine, and Rerikhism.[91]

The Organization also has its own publishing house ("To Health via Culture"), who has the right to publish the books with the International Standard Book Number (ISBN).[92]

Skumin wrote many books and articles on a variety medical and spiritual topics advocating a holistic approach to health. He is the author or co-author of a series illustrated books on the culture of health, yoga, and Rerikhism. He extols the value of spirituality.[93] [94]

Selected bibliography
Trivia
Skumin at Prielbrusye National Park in 2017
Skumin at the grave of George de Roerich at the Novodevichy Cemetery in 2014
See also
References
  1. "How To Pronounce Victor Skumin". pronouncekiwi. Retrieved 12 October 2016.
  2. "Professor Victor A. Skumin". Kult-zdor.ru. Retrieved 5 June 2017.
  3. "Victor Skumin". biblmdkz.ru. Retrieved 4 June 2017.
  4. Litvin, Alter (2002). "Японские военнопленные: спецлагерь на Каме" [Japanese prisoners of war: special camp on the Kama river]. Gasyrlar avazy=Ėkho vekov. 3/4. ISSN 2073-7483. OCLC 33252147. Archived from the original on 12 October 2015. Retrieved 19 November 2014.
  5. "Современная история Челябинского гарнизонного военного суда (военного трибунала)" [The modern history of the Chelyabinsk garrison military court (military tribunal)]. chgvs.chel.sudrf.ru. Archived from the original on 2 February 2016. Retrieved 14 December 2014.
  6. "Скумин Виктор Андреевич" [Skumin Victor Andreevich]. birthdays.ru. Retrieved 4 June 2017.
  7. "Kharkov National University (Official Site)". Univer. Kharkov.en. Archived from the original on 17 April 2016. Retrieved 6 December 2014.
  8. "Kharkov National Medical University". Knmu.kharkov.ua. Archived from the original on 17 April 2016. Retrieved 19 November 2014.
  9. Kovaleva E. A. (2009). "Педагогический совет. Культура здоровья учащихся как фактор здоровьесберегающей среды школы. Слайд 6" [Pedagogical Council. Slide 6 of the presentation "culture of health" to the lessons of physical education on the theme the "Health"]. 900igr.net. Archived from the original on 18 April 2016. Retrieved 19 November 2014.
  10. "Культура здоровья" [Culture of health]. ru.science.wikia.com. Retrieved 12 June 2017.
  11. "The Culture of Health". thecultureofhealth.org. Archived from the original on 17 April 2016. Retrieved 14 July 2015.
  12. "Culture of Health". Unsystem.edu. Archived from the original on 17 April 2016. Retrieved 14 July 2015.
  13. Mojseûk V. P. (2012). "Современные подходы к изучению феномена культуры здоровья" [Modern approach to the study of the phenomenon of Culture of Health]. intkonf.org. Archived from the original on 3 October 2012. Retrieved 29 January 2015.)
  14. "Culture of Health". Jnj.com. Archived from the original on 17 April 2016. Retrieved 19 November 2014.
  15. "Ukrainian doctors which changed the world". Ukraine-in.ua. Archived from the original on 2 February 2016. Retrieved 20 June 2017.
  16. "History of the Institute". Amosovinstitute.org.ua. Archived from the original on 17 April 2016. Retrieved 19 November 2014.
  17. "Амосов первым провёл протезирование клапана сердца" [Amosov was the first Soviet surgeon, who held heart valve replacement]. Kiev: Телеканал «24»: Tell about Ukraine. 7 December 2013. Archived from the original on 11 October 2015. Retrieved 23 January 2015.
  18. Kondyukova N.V.; Rutkovskaya N.V.; Barbarash O.L. (2015). "Качество жизни – интегральный показатель эффективности лечения, возможности его использования у пациентов с пороками клапанов сердца" [Quality of life as an integral indicator of successful treatment, opportunities of its use in patients with valvular heart disease]. Siberian Medical Journal (Irkutsk). p. 38. ISSN 1815-7572. Archived from the original on 14 March 2016. Retrieved 1 July 2017.
  19. Sundt, Thoralf M. "Mitral Valve Repair". The Society of Thoracic Surgeons. Archived from the original on 17 April 2016. Retrieved 10 October 2015.
  20. "История психиатрии" [History of psychiatry]. info-farm.ru. Retrieved 6 July 2017.
  21. Bobina, L. A. (2010). "Синдром Скумина как нозологическая форма" [The Skumin syndrome as a nosological form]. To Health via Culture. 18: 22–36. ISSN 0204-3440. OCLC 70966742. Archived from the original on 18 April 2016. Retrieved 3 January 2015.
  22. "Skumin syndrome". Kult-zdor.ru. Archived from the original on 18 April 2016. Retrieved 19 November 2014.
  23. Ruzza, Andrea (16 October 2013). "Nonpsychotic mental disorder after open heart surgery. Asian Cardiovascular and Thoracic Annals". Aan.sagepub.com. Archived from the original on 4 October 2015. Retrieved 19 November 2014.
  24. Skumin, V. A. (1982). Nepsikhoticheskie narusheniia psikhiki u bol'nykh s priobretennymi porokami serdtsa do i posle operatsii (obzor) [Nonpsychotic mental disorders in patients with acquired heart defects before and after surgery (review)]. Zhurnal nevropatologii i psikhiatrii imeni S.S. Korsakova. 82. OCLC 112979417. Archived from the original on 18 April 2016. Retrieved 3 July 2017.
  25. "Syndrome de Skoumine" [Skumin syndrome] (in French). wikimonde.com. Retrieved 6 June 2017.
  26. "Искусственные сердца. Почему они так быстро останавливаются?" [Artificial hearts. Why are they stops so quick?]. progavrichenko.ru. 7 March 2014. Archived from the original on 18 April 2016. Retrieved 20 December 2014.
  27. "Искусственное сердце" [Artificial heart]. fsds.org.ua. 16 November 2010. Archived from the original on 18 April 2016. Retrieved 8 January 2015.
  28. Petukhov, Sergei (2014). Почему останавливаются искусственные сердца [Why the artificial hearts to doing the stops] (in Russian). Moscow: RIA Novosti: Legal alert. Archived from the original on 12 October 2015. Retrieved 22 January 2015.
  29. Skumin, V. A. (1980). Психотерапия и психопрофилактика в системе реабилитации больных с протезами клапанов сердца: Методические рекомендации [Psychotherapy and psychoprophylaxis in the rehabilitation of the patients with prosthetic heart valves: Methodical recommendations]. Kiev: Ministry of Healthcare of Ukrainian SSR. Archived from the original on 21 April 2016. Retrieved 27 October 2015.
  30. Filatov, A. T.; Skumin, V. A. (1985). Психопрофилактика и психотерапия в кардиохирургии [Psychoprophylaxis and psychotherapy in cardiac surgery]. Kiev: Zdorovja: Medical Practitioners Library. Archived from the original on 21 April 2016. Retrieved 27 October 2015.
  31. Sergeeva NL (2015). "Микстура Скумина" [Skumin’s mixture]. To Health via Culture. 24: 14–38. ISSN 0204-3440. Retrieved 3 August 2017.
  32. "Микстура Скумина" [Skumin’s mixture]. oriur.ru. Archived from the original on 21 April 2016. Retrieved 11 January 2015.
  33. Bendet, Ya. A.; Morozov, S. M.; Skumin, V. A. (1980). "Psychological aspects of the rehabilitation of patients after the surgical treatment of heart defects" Psikhologicheskie aspekty reabilitatsii bol'nykh posle khirurgicheskogo lecheniia porokov serdtsa [Psychological aspects of the rehabilitation of patients after the surgical treatment of heart defects]. Kardiologiia. 20 (6): 45–51. OCLC 114137678. PMID 7392405.
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Victor Skumin

topic

Victor Andreevich Skumin ( Russian : Ви́ктор Андре́евич Ску́мин , born 30 August 1948) is a Russian and Soviet scientist , psychiatrist , psychotherapist and psychologist . After graduating from the Kharkiv National Medical University in 1973, in 1976, he became a psychotherapist in Kiev Institute of Cardiovascular Surgery . In 1978, he described a new disease , the Skumin syndrome . He introduced a method of psychotherapy and self-improvement based on optimistic autosuggestion for psychological rehabilitation of cardiosurgical patients (1979). From 1980 to 1990, he was professor of psychotherapy at the Kharkiv Medical Academy of Post-graduate Education . The main result of his scientific activity was the discovery of the "syndrome of the neurotic phantom of somatic disease" and a "concept of the mental constituent of a chronic somatic disease". From 1990 to 1994, Skumin held positions as Professor by the Chair of Psychology and Pedagogy , and Professor by the Chair of Physical Education and Health life at th



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topic

Skumin ( Russian : Скумин ) is a Belarusians , Lithuanians , Poles and Russians masculine nobleman surname, its feminine counterpart is Skumina . People with the last name Alexander Skumin (1748–1775), statesman of the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth Andrew N. Skumin (1909–1984), WWII Veteran, officer of MGB of the USSR , Chairman of the Military Tribunal of the Internal Troops of the Volga Military District Anna Skumina (1730–1772) Anthony Skumin (1899–1965), WWI Veteran US Army Edward A Skumin (1898–1935), WWI Veteran US Army Ivan Skumin (?–1566) Janusz Skumin (1570–1642), Polish nobleman and politician Jerzy Skumin (1596–1656), religious leader and statesman of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania John Skumin Sr (1935–2014) was a graduate of Berkshire Community College with an Associate Degree in Criminal Justice. He served in the Massachusetts National Guard . Józef Skumin (1716–1790), knight of the Order of the White Eagle (Poland) Katarzyna Eugenia Skumina (1610–1648), Polish noble lady Ludwik Skumin (1748–180



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Victor (name)

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Victor is Latin in origin meaning "winner" or "conqueror". Translations Albanian : Viktor Arabic : ڤيكتور Armenian : Վիկտոր (Viktor) Asturian : Vítor Basque : Bittor Belarusian : Віктар (Viktar) Bulgarian : Виктор (Viktor) Catalan : Víctor Chinese : 维克托 , Wéi Kètuō Czech : Viktor Danish : Viktor, Victor Dutch : Viktor, Victor English : Victor, Vic Estonian : Viktor Filipino : Biktor Finnish : Vihtori, Viktor French : Victor, Victoir Galician : Vítor German : Viktor, Victor Greek : Βίκτωρας (Viktoras) Gujarati : વિક્ટર (Vikṭara) Hebrew : ויקטור ‎ (Viktor), אביגדור ‎ ( Avigdor ) Hindi : विजेता , Vijētā, Abhijeet Hungarian : Viktor, Győző Ibibio : Àkàn Igbo : Ùgò Irish : Buadhach Italian : Vittorio , Vittore, Vittorino, Rino Japanese : ビクター (Bikutā) Kannada : ಜಯಶಾಲಿ , Jayaśāli Korean : 빅토르 (Biktoreu), 빅터 (Bikteo) Late Roman: Victorinus, Victorius Latvian : Viktors Lithuanian : Viktoras Macedonian: Виктор (Viktor) Marathi : विजेता (Vijētā) Mongolian : Виктор (Viktor) Nepali: विक्टर (Vikṭara) Norwegian: Viktor Per



Kharkiv State Academy of Culture

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Kharkiv State Academy of Culture ( Ukrainian : Харківська державна академія культури ) is a Ukrainian public academy in Kharkiv . History The academy was created on September 10, 1929 as the Institute of Political Education out of the Kharkiv Institute of National Education (1921-1933) which was a temporary school in place of University of Kharkiv . In a year the school was renamed into the Kharkiv Institute of Political Education and next year - the All-Ukrainian Institute of Communist Education . During that time the institute had seven departments: librarian, book marketing, scholar, museum, tourist, atheistic, and mass-agitation. In July 1935 the institute was transformed into the Ukrainian Library Institute that included just two librarian departments. In 1939 the school was renamed into the Ukrainian State Library Institute . During World War II the institute folded and once again became department of the University of Kharkiv which was evacuated to Kyzylorda in the Kazakh SSR . After the war it was onc



Kharkiv National Medical University

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Kharkiv National Medical University ( Ukrainian : Харківський національний медичний університет ), formerly known as Kharkiv Medical Institute and Kharkiv State Medical University , is a medical university in Kharkiv , Ukraine . It was first known as Kharkiv state medical university . Post addresse: Prospekt Lenina, 4, Kharkiv, 61022, Ukraine. At present, over 700 teachers work at the departments of the university. Staff capacity is 5 corresponding members NAMN Ukraine , 17 Honoured Scientist of Ukraine, 2 Honored high school Ukraine, 13 distinguished doctors of Ukraine, 8 winners of the State Prize of Ukraine in Science and Engineering, 28 academicians of the public academies of Ukraine, 28 employees - Member of International Medical Associations;. Since 1951, the University has been training medical personnel for countries of the Eastern Europe, China and Mongolia, and since 1961 it has been training students from other countries of Asia, Africa and Latin America. At present, there are about 3400 foreign st



Rerikhism

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Rerikhism or Roerichism ( Russian : Рерихи́зм, Рерихиа́нство, Ре́риховское движе́ние) is a spiritual and cultural movement centered on the teachings transmitted by Helena and Nicholas Roerich . It draws ideas from Theosophy , Eastern and Western religions , and Vedic and Buddhist traditions, molding them into the Russian culture and Russian cosmism . Teachers and their teachings Helena Roerich Helena Roerich. 1909. Valentin Serov Helena Roerich (1879–1955) was a Russian philosopher, writer, and public figure . In the 20th century, she created, in cooperation with the Teachers of the East ( Masters of the Ancient Wisdom ), a philosophic teaching of Living Ethics ( Agni Yoga ). Helena was born in the family of Ivan Shaposhnikov , a well-known Saint-Petersburg architect. Helena’s mother, belonged to an ancient Golenischev-Kutuzov family, which originated from Novgorod at the end of the 13th century. Significant members of this family included knyaz Mikhail Kutuzov , field marshal of the Russian Empire ; Arseny



Mitral valve replacement

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Mitral valve replacement is a cardiac surgical procedure in which a patient’s diseased mitral valve is replaced by either a mechanical or bioprosthetic valve. Mitral valve replacement is performed when the valve becomes too tight ( mitral valve stenosis ) for blood to flow into the left ventricle , or too loose ( mitral valve regurgitation ) in which case blood can leak back into the left atrium and thereby back into the lung . Mitral valve disease can occur from infection , calcification , inherited collagen disease , or other causes. Since a mitral valve replacement is an open heart surgical procedure, it requires placing the patient on cardiopulmonary bypass . Options Many mitral valves can be repaired instead of replaced, especially for minimally damaged valves. Advantages to valve repair instead of replacement include lower surgical mortality (1-2% for repair versus 6-8% for replacement), lower risk of stroke , lower rate of endocardial infection, and improved long-term survival. Patients who recei



Penza Oblast

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Penza Oblast ( Russian : Пе́нзенская о́бласть , Penzenskaya oblast) is a federal subject of Russia (an oblast ). Its administrative center is the city of Penza . As of the 2010 Census , its population was 1,386,186. Geography Main rivers The Sura River Penza Oblast has over 3000 rivers; the overall length is 15,458 km. The biggest rivers are: Sura ; Moksha ; Khopyor . Penza River gave its name to the city of Penza . Fauna There are 316 species of vertebrates within the region, including: about 10 species of amphibians; about 200 species of birds; about 8 species of reptiles; about 68 species of mammals ( fox , rabbit , ferret , badger , squirrel ). Seven existing species of mammals were already acclimatized on land: the American mink , muskrat , raccoon dog , wild boar , Siberian roe deer , red deer and Sika deer . In parallel, work has been carried out to reintroduce the Forest-steppe marmot , the Eurasian beaver and the Russian desman (a species of mole that resembles a muskrat). In the waters of Penza Obla



List of clinical psychologists

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This list includes notable clinical psychologists and contributors to clinical psychology , some of whom may not have thought of themselves primarily as clinical psychologists but are included here because of their important contributions to the discipline. A Lauren Alloy B Richard Bandler , co-founder of neuro-linguistic programming (NLP) Albert Bandura , behavior theorist Deirdre Barrett , researcher on dreams and hypnosis Aaron T. Beck , founder of cognitive therapy Larry E. Beutler , systematic treatment selection Theodore H. Blau Nathaniel Branden , notable as a clinician for sentence stems technique, style of group therapy, clinical approaches to self-esteem work David D. Burns , cognitive-behavioral therapy/theory C Robert Cialdini Stephen Connor , psychologist D Daniel O David Arthur A. Dole E Steve Eichel Albert Ellis , founder of rational-emotive therapy (RET) Hans Eysenck F Edna B Foa Anna Freud Sigmund Freud G Hans-Werner Gessmann , founder of humanistic psychodrama H Steven C. Hayes Clark Hull J



List of Russian physicians and psychologists

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Vladimir Bekhterev , neuropathologist and psychologist This list of Russian physicians and psychologists includes the famous physicians and psychologists, medical scientists and medical doctors from the Russian Federation , the Soviet Union , the Russian Empire and other predecessor states of Russia. Physicians of all specialties may be listed here. Alphabetical list A Nikolai Amosov , prominent cardiovascular surgery developer, best-selling author Burdenko B Aleksandr Bakulev , prominent cardiovascular surgery developer Vladimir Bekhterev , neuropathologist, founder of objective psychology , noted the role of the hippocampus in memory, major contributor to reflexology , studied the Bekhterev’s Disease Vladimir Betz , discovered Betz cells of primary motor cortex Peter Borovsky , described the causative agent of Oriental sore Sergey Botkin , major therapist and court physician Nikolay Burdenko , major developer of neurosurgery Konstantin Buteyko , developed the Buteyko method for the treatment of asthma and o



List of educational psychologists

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The following is a list of academicians , both past and present, who are widely renowned for their groundbreaking contributions to the field of educational psychology . A Patricia Alexander John Robert Anderson (born 1947) Richard C. Anderson (born 1934) Chris Argyris (born 1923) Elliot Aronson Richard C. Atkinson (born 1929) David Ausubel (born 1918) B Albert Bandura (born 1925) Russell Barkley Carl Bereiter David Berliner Ellen Bialystok John B. Biggs Alfred Binet (1857–1911) Benjamin Bloom (1913–1999) Guy Bond Hilda Borko Ann Brown (1943–1999) Jerome Bruner (born 1915) C Donald T. Campbell (1916–1996) Idit Harel Caperton (born 1958) John Bissell Carroll (1916–2003) Nancy Cole Allan Collins Lee Cronbach (1916–2001) D John Dewey (1859–1952) Andrea diSessa Stewart Donaldson E Robert L. Ebel (born 1942) Kieran Egan Noel Entwistle Dorothy Espelage (born 1968) F Jose Fadul (born 1961) Charles Ferster (1922–1981) Reuven Feuerstein (born 1921) John H. Flavell (born 1928) G Nathaniel Gage (born 1917) Robert M. Gagn



Cardiac surgery

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Cardiac surgery , or cardiovascular surgery , is surgery on the heart or great vessels performed by cardiac surgeons . It is often used to treat complications of ischemic heart disease (for example, with coronary artery bypass grafting ); to correct congenital heart disease ; or to treat valvular heart disease from various causes, including endocarditis , rheumatic heart disease , and atherosclerosis . It also includes heart transplantation . History 19th century The earliest operations on the pericardium (the sac that surrounds the heart) took place in the 19th century and were performed by Francisco Romero (1801), Dominique Jean Larrey (1810), Henry Dalton (1891), and Daniel Hale Williams (1893). The first surgery on the heart itself was performed by Axel Cappelen on 4 September 1895 at Rikshospitalet in Kristiania, now Oslo . Cappelen ligated a bleeding coronary artery in a 24-year-old man who had been stabbed in the left axilla and was in deep shock upon arrival. Access was through a left thoracotomy . T



Kharkiv Medical Academy of Post-graduate Education

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Kharkiv Medical Academy of Post-graduate Education is a Ukrainian university in Kharkiv . History The Kharkiv Medical Academy of Postgraduate Education was established on 11 November 1923 and was called “ Ukrainian State Institute for Advanced Training of Physicians”. In 1931 the department of postgraduate education and internship was established at the institute. Since 1991 the Institute was subordinated to the Ministry of Health of Ukraine and it was renamed in “Kharkiv Institute for Doctors’ Improvement”. Under the resolution of The Cabinet of Ministers of Ukraine from 15 March 1999 № 379 it was renamed to “Kharkiv Medical Academy of Post-graduate Education”. Campuses and buildings Academy has 4 hostels with general area of 17438 square meters, 9321 square meters from them is housing area (3 hostels of flat system and one hostel of corridor system) intended for 1600 persons. The wealth of listeners reaches to 100%. There is a study room, branch of the library, café intended for 100 persons, cooking room, o



Nikolai Amosov

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Nikolai Mikhailovich Amosov , Doctor of Science , Professor (December 6, 1913, Olkhovo , Novgorod Governorate , Russian Empire – December 12, 2002, Kiev , Ukraine ) was a Soviet and Ukrainian doctor, heart surgeon , inventor , best-selling author , and exercise enthusiast, known for his inventions of several surgical procedures for treating heart defects . Born to Russian peasants, Nikolai fought in World War II . After the war he moved to Kiev and in 1965 wrote The Thoughts and the Heart , selling millions of copies. He was the recipient of multiple awards. In 2008 Amosov was placed second in their ranking of "our greatest compatriots " by the viewers of the TV show The Greatest Ukrainians . Biography Amosov was born December 6, 1913. in the village Olkhovo of Vologda Governorate , Russia to Russian peasants. In 1932 he graduated from Cherepovets Mechanical College, followed by 3 years of work as a shift mechanic at the Arkhangelsk electric power station. In 1939 he graduated from the Arkhangelsk Medical In



List of Russian philosophers

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Russian philosophy includes a variety of philosophical movements. Authors who developed them are listed below sorted by movement. While most authors listed below are primarily philosophers, also included here are some Russian fiction writers, such as Tolstoy and Dostoyevsky , who are also known as philosophers. Russian philosophy as a separate entity started its development in the 19th century, defined initially by the opposition of Westernizers , advocating Russia's following the Western political and economical models, and Slavophiles , insisting on developing Russia as a unique civilization. The latter group included Nikolai Danilevsky and Konstantin Leontiev , the early founders of eurasianism . The discussion of Russia's place in the world has since become the most characteristic feature of Russian philosophy. In its further development, Russian philosophy was also marked by deep connection to literature and interest in creativity , society , politics and nationalism ; cosmos and religion were other nota



Theosophical Society

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The Theosophical Society was an organization formed in 1875 to advance Theosophy . The original organization, after splits and realignments, currently has several successors. History Formation Notes of the meeting proposing the formation of the Theosophical Society, New York City, 8 September 1875 The Society's seal incorporated the Swastika , Star of David , Ankh , Aum and Ouroboros symbols. The Theosophical Society was officially formed in New York City , United States, on 17 November 1875 by Helena Petrovna Blavatsky , Colonel Henry Steel Olcott , William Quan Judge , and others. It was self-described as "an unsectarian body of seekers after Truth, who endeavour to promote Brotherhood and strive to serve humanity." Olcott was its first president, and remained president until his demise in 1907. In the early months of 1875, Olcott and Judge had come to realize that, if Blavatsky was a spiritualist , she was no ordinary one. The society's initial objective was the "study and elucidation of Occultism , the



Root race

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Root races are stages in human evolution in the esoteric cosmology of theosophist Helena Petrovna Blavatsky , as described in her book The Secret Doctrine (1888). These races existed mainly on now-lost continents . Blavatsky's model was developed by later theosophists, most notably William Scott-Elliot in The Story of Atlantis (1896) and The Lost Lemuria (1904). Annie Besant further developed the model in Man: Whence, How and Whither (1913). Both Besant and Scott-Elliot relied on information from Charles Webster Leadbeater obtained by "astral clairvoyance". Further elaboration was provided by Rudolf Steiner in Atlantis and Lemuria (1904). Rudolf Steiner, and subsequent theosophist authors, have called the time periods associated with these races, Epochs (Steiner felt that the term "race" was not adequate anymore for modern humanity). Sources According to historian James Webb , the occult concept of succeeding prehistoric races, as later adopted by Blavatsky, was first introduced by the French author Antoine



List of psychologists

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This list includes notable psychologists and contributors to psychology , some of whom may not have thought of themselves primarily as psychologists but are included here because of their important contributions to the discipline. Specialized lists of psychologists can be found at the articles on comparative psychology , list of clinical psychologists , list of developmental psychologists , list of educational psychologists , list of evolutionary psychologists , list of social psychologists , and list of cognitive scientists . Many psychologists included in those lists are also listed below: A Haly Abbas (Ali ibn Abbas al-Majusi) Alfred Adler Mary Ainsworth George Albee Jüri Allik Lauren Alloy Gordon Allport , personality psychology Adelbert Ames, Jr. Harlene Anderson John R. Anderson Ernst Angel Heinz Ansbacher Michael Argyle Magda B. Arnold Solomon Asch Roberto Assagioli John William Atkinson Aušra Augustinavičiūtė Averroes (Ibn Rushd) Virginia Axline , play therapy B Arthur J. Bachrach , underwater and ext



List of physicians

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This is a list of famous physicians in history. Chronological list of physicians Ancient world 460-370 BC Hippocrates , is considered the most outstanding figure in the history of medicine . 129 AD – c.  200 / c.  216 ), Galen , the most accomplished of all medical researchers of antiquity , d.260 - Gargilius Martialis , short Latin handbook on Medicines from Vegetables and Fruits 325-400 - Oribasius 70 volume encyclopedia 369 Basil of Caesarea founded at Caesarea in Cappadocia an institution (hospital) called Basilias , with several buildings for patients, nurses, physicians, workshops, and schools 375 - Ephrem the Syrian opened a hospital at Edessa They spread out and specialized nosocomia for the sick, brephotrophia for foundlings, orphanotrophia for orphans, ptochia for the poor, xenodochia for poor or infirm pilgrims, and gerontochia for the old. 400 - The first hospital in Latin Christendom was founded by Fabiola at Rome 420 - Caelius Aurelianus a doctor from Sicca Veneria (El-Kef, Tunisia) handbook On



Spiritual evolution

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Spiritual evolution is the philosophical , theological , esoteric or spiritual idea that nature and human beings and/or human culture evolve: either extending from an established cosmological pattern (ascent), or in accordance with certain pre-established potentials. The phrase "spiritual evolution" can occur in the context of " higher evolution ", a term used to differentiate psychological, mental, or spiritual evolution from the "lower" or biological evolution of physical form. The concept of spiritual evolution is also complemented by the idea of a creative impulse in human beings, known as epigenesis . Within this broad definition, theories of spiritual evolution are very diverse. They may be cosmological (describing existence at large), personal (describing development of an individual), or both. They can be holistic (holding that higher realities emerge from and are not reducible to the lower), idealist (holding that reality is primarily mental or spiritual) or nondual (holding that there is no ultimate



Holism

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Holism (from Greek ὅλος holos "all, whole, entire") is the idea that systems (physical, biological, chemical, social, economic, mental, linguistic , etc.) and their properties should be viewed as wholes, not just as a collection of parts. The term Holism was coined by J C Smuts in Holism and Evolution. It was Smuts' opinion that Holism is a concept that represents all of the wholes in the universe, and these wholes are the real factors in the universe. Further, that Holism also denoted a theory of the universe in the same vein as Materialism and Spiritualism. The derived adjective holistic has been applied to a wide range of fields where they incorporate the concept of holism. Synopsis of Holism and Evolution After identifying the need for reform in the fundamental concepts of matter, life and mind (chapter 1) Smuts examines the reformed concepts (as of 1926) of space and time (chapter 2), matter (chapter 3) and biology (chapter 4) and concludes that the close approach to each other of the concepts of matte



List of Russian scientists

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Polymaths Baer Karl Ernst von Baer , polymath naturalist, formulated the geological Baer's law on river erosion and embryological Baer's laws , founder of the Russian Entomological Society , co-founder of the Russian Geographical Society Alexander Borodin , chemist and composer, author of the famous opera Prince Igor , discovered Borodin reaction , co-discovered Aldol reaction Alexander Chizhevsky , interdisciplinary scientist, biophysicist, philosopher and artist, founder of heliobiology and modern air ionification , Russian cosmist Johann Gottlieb Georgi , naturalist, chemist, mineralogist, ethnographer and explorer, the first to describe omul fish of Baikal , published the first full-scale work on ethnography of indigenous peoples of Russia Lvov Mikhail Lomonosov , polymath scientist, artist and inventor; founder of the Moscow State University ; proposed the law of conservation of matter ; disproved the phlogiston theory ; invented coaxial rotor and the first helicopter ; invented the night vision telescop



List of Russian people

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Men of enlightenment at the Millennium of Russia Statesmen at the Millennium of Russia Military men and heroes at the Millennium of Russia Writers and artists at the Millennium of Russia This is a list of people associated with the modern Russian Federation , the Soviet Union , Imperial Russia , Russian Tsardom , the Grand Duchy of Moscow , and other predecessor states of Russia. Regardless of ethnicity or emigration, the list includes famous natives of Russia and its predecessor states, as well as people who were born elsewhere but spent most of their active life in Russia. For more information, see the articles Rossiyane , Russians and Demographics of Russia . For specific lists of Russians, see Category:Lists of Russian people and Category:Russian people . Statesmen Monarchs Rurik , ruler of Novgorod , progenitor of the Rurikid Dynasty , traditionally the first ruler of Russia Vladimir the Great Oleg "the Seer", conqueror of Kiev and founder of Kievan Rus' , famous for his wars with Byzantium Igor "the Old



List of psychiatrists

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This list is of notable psychiatrists . Additional lists of psychiatrists can be found at the articles Famous figures in psychiatry (though not all individuals at that list are psychiatrists and medical doctors), Fictional psychiatrists , and List of physicians . Medical doctors who are psychiatrists and included in those lists and are also listed below. Some psychiatrists are also in the list of neurologists . Letter Name Lifespan Nationality Notes A Ahmed Okasha Egyptian President of World Psychiatric Association from 2002 to 2005 A Keith Ablow 1961 - American American television A Alfred Adler 1870–1937 Individual psychology A Jill Afrin 1962- Telepsychiatrist for deaf people A Leo Alexander 1905–1985 Austrian–American Author A Alois Alzheimer 1864–1915 German Alzheimer's disease A Daniel Amen 1954- American Psychiatrist and brain-disorder specialist A Nancy C. Andreasen American 2000 National Medal of Science recipient, professor of psychiatry at the University of Iowa College of Medicine B Dame Susan Bai



Order of the White Eagle (Poland)

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The Order of the White Eagle ( Polish : Order Orła Białego ) is Poland 's highest order awarded to both civilians and the military for their merits. It was officially instituted on 1 November 1705 by Augustus II the Strong and bestowed on eight of his closest, diplomatic and political supporters. It is awarded to the most distinguished Poles and the highest-ranking representatives of foreign countries. The Order of the White Eagle is attached to a blue ribbon slung over the left shoulder to the right side. The star of the Order, once embroidered, is worn on the left side of the chest. History The badge Order of the White Eagle was originally a red enamel oval gold medal with an image of the Polish white eagle on its front side and bearing Augustus II's royal cypher over crossed swords on its reverse side worn on a light blue ribbon. This was replaced by a Maltese cross in 1709. By 1713 it was worn from the neck, with a blue sash , and a star . Although Augustus the Strong limited the number of knights to seve



List of Russian-language writers

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This is a list of authors who have written works of prose and poetry in the Russian language . For separate lists by literary field: List of Russian-language novelists List of Russian-language playwrights List of Russian-language poets A Alexander Ablesimov (1742–1783), opera librettist, poet, dramatist, satirist and journalist Fyodor Abramov (1920–1983), novelist and short story writer, Two Winters and Three Summers Grigory Adamov (1886–1945) science fiction writer, The Mystery of the Two Oceans Georgy Adamovich (1892–1972), poet, critic, memoirist, tanslator Alexander Afanasyev (1826–1871), folklorist who recorded and published over 600 Russian folktales and fairytales, Russian Fairy Tales Alexander Afanasyev-Chuzhbinsky (1816–1875), poet, writer, ethnographer and translator Alexander Afinogenov (1904–1941), playwright, A Far Place M. Ageyev (1898–1973), pseudonymous writer, Cocain Romance Chinghiz Aitmatov (1928–2008), Kyrgyz novelist and short story writer, Jamilya , The Day Lasts More Than a Hundred Year



Novocheboksarsk

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Novocheboksarsk ( Russian : Новочебокса́рск ; Chuvash : Çӗнӗ Шупашкар , Śĕnĕ Šupaškar) is a city in the Chuvash Republic , Russia , located on the southern bank of the Volga River , about 3 kilometers (1.9 mi) east of Cheboksary , the capital of the republic. Population: 124,097 ( 2010 Census ) ; 125,857 ( 2002 Census ) ; 114,760 ( 1989 Census ) . History It was founded in 1960 when a trend of building satellite cities started. Starting from barren land, the growing town absorbed surrounding villages, such as Yelnikovo , Urakovo , Yandashevo , Anatkasy , and Tsygankasy . November 18, 1960 is customarily considered to be the city's birthday. City status was granted in 1971. The city grew at a rapid rate; in 1978 it covered 1 square kilometer (0.39 sq mi), and on October 29, 1983 it passed 100,000 inhabitants. Construction began on vacant land. Expanding, it incorporated the neighboring villages of Yelnikovo , Yandashevo , Anatkasy , Tsygankasy , etc. On December 27, 1971 the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet



August 30

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August 30 is the 242nd day of the year (243rd in leap years ) in the Gregorian calendar . There are 123 days remaining until the end of the year. This date is slightly more likely to fall on a Tuesday, Thursday or Sunday (58 in 400 years each) than on Friday or Saturday (57), and slightly less likely to occur on a Monday or Wednesday (56). Events 526 – King Theoderic the Great dies of dysentery at Ravenna ; his daughter Amalasuntha takes power as regent for her 10-year-old son Athalaric . 1282 – Peter III of Aragon lands at Trapani to intervene in the War of the Sicilian Vespers . 1363 – The five-week Battle of Lake Poyang begins, in which the forces of two Chinese rebel leaders ( Chen Youliang and Zhu Yuanzhang ) meet to decide who will supplant the Yuan dynasty . 1464 – Pope Paul II succeeds Pope Pius II as the 211th pope . 1574 – Guru Ram Das becomes the Fourth Sikh Guru / Master . 1590 – Tokugawa Ieyasu enters Edo Castle . (Traditional Japanese date : August 1, 1590) 1727 – Anne , eldest daughter of King





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