Viceroy

A viceroy is a regal official who runs a country, colony, city, province, or sub-national state, in the name of and as the representative of the monarch of the territory. The term derives from the Latin prefix vice-, meaning "in the place of" and the French word roy, meaning "king". A viceroy's territory may be called a viceroyalty, though this term is not always applied. The adjectival form is viceregal,[1] less often viceroyal.[2] The term vicereine is sometimes used to indicate a female viceroy suo jure, although viceroy can serve as a gender-neutral term.[3] Vicereine is more commonly used to indicate a viceroy's wife.[3]

Spanish Empire

The title was originally used by the Crown of Aragon; where beginning in the 14th century, it referred to the Spanish governors of Sardinia and Corsica. After the unification, at the end of the 15th century, later kings of Spain came to appoint numerous viceroys to rule over various parts of the increasingly vast Spanish Empire in Europe, the Americas, and overseas elsewhere.

In Europe

In Europe, until the 18th century, the Habsburg crown appointed viceroys of Aragon, Valencia, Catalonia, Navarre, Portugal, Sardinia, Sicily, and Naples. With the ascension of the House of Bourbon to the Spanish throne, the historic Aragonese viceroyalties were replaced by new captaincies general. At the end of War of the Spanish Succession, the Spanish monarchy was shorn of its Italian possessions. These Italian territories, however, continued to have viceroys under their new rulers for some time; Sardinia would have a viceroy until 1848.

See also:
In the Americas

The Americas were incorporated into the Crown of Castile. With the Spanish colonization of the Americas, the institution of viceroys was adapted to govern the highly populated and wealthy regions of the north overseas: New Spain (Mexico and Philippines) and the south overseas: Peru and South America. The viceroys of these two areas had oversight over the other provinces, with most of the North American, Central American, Caribbean and East Indian areas supervised by the viceroy in Mexico City and the South American ones by the viceroy in Lima, (with the exception of most of today's Venezuela, which was overseen by the high court, or Audiencia of Santo Domingo on the island of Hispaniola for most of the colonial period). These large administrative territories became known as Viceroyalties (Spanish term: Virreinatos). There were only two New World viceroyalties until the 18th century, when the new Bourbon Dynasty established two additional viceroyalties to promote economic growth and new settlements on South America. New viceroyalties were created for New Granada in 1717 (capital, Bogotá) and the Río de la Plata in 1776 (capital, Buenos Aires).

The viceroyalties of the Spanish Americas and the Spanish East Indies were subdivided into smaller, autonomous units, the Audiencias (tribunal with the authority to judge), and the Captaincies General (military districts), which in most cases became the bases for the independent countries of modern Hispanic America. These units gathered the local provinces which could be governed by either a crown official, a corregidor (sometimes alcalde mayor) or by a cabildo or town council. Audiencias primarily functioned as superior judicial tribunals, but unlike their European counterparts, the New World audiencias were granted by law both administrative and legislative powers. Captaincies General were primarily military districts set up in areas with a risk of foreign or Indian attack, but the captains general were usually given political powers over the provinces under their command. Because the long distances to the viceregal capital would hamper effective communication, both audiencias and captains general were authorized to communicate directly with the crown through the Council of the Indies. The Bourbon Reforms introduced the new office of the intendant, which was appointed directly by the crown and had broad fiscal and administrative powers in political and military issues.

See also:

Portuguese Empire India

The title of Viceroy being awarded to members of the nobility, Viceroys, Governors and Governing Commissions were many times interleaved until the last Viceroy Afonso, Prince Royal of Portugal, in 1896. From 1505 to 1896 Portuguese India – the name "India" and the official name "Estado da India" (State of India) including all Portuguese possessions in the Indian Ocean, from southern Africa to Southeast Asia and Australasia, until 1752- was governed either by a Viceroy (Portuguese Vice-Rei) or Governor from its headquarters, in Goa since 1510. The government started six years after the discovery of sea route to India by Vasco da Gama, in 1505, under first Viceroy Francisco de Almeida (b.1450–d.1510). Initially, King Manuel I of Portugal tried a power distribution with three governors in different areas of jurisdiction: a government covering the area and possessions in East Africa, Arabian Peninsula and Persian Gulf, overseeing up Cambay (Gujarat); a second one ruling the possessions in India (Hindustan) and Ceylon, and a third one from Malacca to the Far East.[4] However the post was centered by governor Afonso de Albuquerque (1509–1515), who became plenipotentiary, and remained so. The duration in office was usually three years, possibly longer, given the power represented: of the thirty-four governors of India in the 16th century, only six had longer mandates.[5]

Portugal

During some periods of the Iberian Union, between 1580 and 1640, the King of Spain, who was also King of Portugal, appointed Viceroys to govern Portugal itself, as the king had multiple realms throughout Europe and delegated his powers to various viceroys.

Brazil

After the end of the Iberian Union in 1640, the governors of Brazil that were members of the Portuguese high nobility started to use the title of Viceroy.[6] Brazil became a permanent Viceroyalty in 1763, when the capital of the State of Brazil (Estado do Brasil) was transferred from Salvador to Rio de Janeiro.[7]

British EmpireBritish India

Following adoption of the Government of India Act 1858, which transferred control of India from the British East India Company to the British Crown, the Governor-General as representing the Crown became known as the Viceroy. The designation "Viceroy," although it was most frequently used in ordinary parlance, had no statutory authority, and was never employed by Parliament. Although the Proclamation of 1858 announcing the assumption of the government of India by the Crown referred to Lord Canning as "first Viceroy and Governor-General," none of the Warrants appointing his successors referred to them as "viceroys," and the title, which was frequently used in warrants dealing with precedence and in public notifications, was basically one of ceremony used in connection with the state and social functions of the sovereign's representative. The Governor-General continued to be the sole representative of the Crown, and the Government of India continued to be vested in the Governor-General-in-Council.[8]

The viceroys reported directly to the Secretary of State for India in London and were advised by the Council of India. They were largely unencumbered in the exercise of their authority and were among the most powerful men on earth in the Victorian and Edwardian eras, ruling over an entire subcontinent with a large military force at their disposal in the form of the British Indian Army. Under the terms of the Government of India Act 1919, viceroys shared some limited aspects of their authority with the Central Legislative Assembly, one of the first steps in the establishment of Indian home rule. This process was accelerated by the Government of India Act 1935 and ultimately led to the independence of India and Pakistan as dominions in 1947. Both countries finally severed complete ties with Britain when they became republics – India as a secular republic in 1950 and Pakistan as an Islamic republic in 1956.

Alongside the Commander-in-Chief, India, the viceroy was the public face of the British presence in India, attending to many ceremonial functions as well as political affairs. As the representative of the Emperors and Empresses of India, who were also the kings and queens of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland, the viceroy served as the grand master of the two principal chivalric orders of British India: the Order of the Star of India and the Order of the Indian Empire.

Louis Mountbatten, last viceroy of India

During the office's history, the Governors-General of India were based in two cities: Calcutta during the 19th century and New Delhi during the 20th century. Additionally, whilst Calcutta was the capital of British India, the viceroys spent the summer months at Simla. The two historic residences of the viceroys still stand: the Viceroy's House in New Delhi and Government House in Calcutta. They are used today as the official residences of the President of India and the Governor of West Bengal, respectively. The portraits of the Governors-General still hang in a room on the ground floor of the Presidential Palace, one of the last vestiges of both the viceroys and the British Raj.[9]

Notable Governors-General of India include Warren Hastings, Lord Cornwallis, Lord Curzon, The Earl of Minto, Lord Chelmsford, and Lord Mountbatten. Lord Mountbatten served as the last Viceroy of British India, but continued on as the first Governor-General of the dominion of India.

Ireland

The Lords Lieutenant of Ireland were often referred to as "Viceroy" after 1700 until 1922, even though the Kingdom of Ireland had been merged in 1801 into the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland.

Commonwealth realms

The term has occasionally been applied to the governors-general of the Commonwealth Realms, for example Gough Whitlam in 1973 told the Australian House of Representatives: 'The Governor-General is the viceroy of the Queen of Australia'.[10]

The governor general of Canada, the lieutenant governors of the Canadian provinces and the governors-general of Australia and governors of the Australian states are viceroys in terms of the Balfour Declaration of 1926. The Australia Act 1986 also provide that all royal powers in Australia, except the actual appointment of the governor-general and the governors are exercisable by the viceregal representatives. The noun 'viceroy' is rarely used but the adjective 'viceregal' is standard usage.

Russian Empire

Namestnik (Russian: наме́стник, Russian pronunciation: ) was an office position in the history of the Russian Empire. It can be translated as "viceroy", "deputy", "lieutenant" (the broader sense of that word) or literally in place appointee. The term has two periods of usage, with different meanings.[11][12][13][14] Namestnik replaced the obsolete position of voyevoda (ruler of krai or uyezd) by Peter I.

  • In the 12th–16th centuries, namestniks (more correctly knyaz namestniks, or "knyaz deputies") were in charge of local administration. In particular, they ruled uyezds.[15]
  • In the 18th–20th centuries, a namestnik was a person in charge of namestnichestvo, with plenipotentiary powers. The latter has traditionally been translated as viceroyalty and "namestnik" as viceroy or vicegerent (or, as a common blunder, "viceregent"). For example, Mikhail Vorontsov was namestnik of Bessarabia (1823–44) and of the Caucasus (1844–1854). Sometimes the term is confused with Governor General (генерал-губернатор). For example, during Vorontsov's term of office in Bessarabia, seven governor-generals were in, and at the same time he held the office of Governor General of New Russia. The following namestnik existed under the Romanov Emperors of Russia:[12][16]

The Tsar Paul I's 1799 formation of the Russian-American Company obviated viceroys in the colonization of the northwestern New World.

Other viceroyalties French colonies

New France, in present Canada, after a single Governor (24 July 1534 – 15 January 1541 Jacques Cartier) had Lieutenants-general and Viceroys 15 January 1541 – September 1543 Jean François de la Rocquet, sieur de Robervalle (c. 1500 – 1560), after September 1543 – 3 January 1578 Abandonment again 3 January 1578 – February 1606 Troilus de Mesgouez, marquis de la Roche-Mesgouez (died 1606) (viceroy and from 12 January 1598, lieutenant-general), February 1606 – 1614 Jean de Biencourt, sieur de Poutrincourt, baron de St. Just (1557–1615); next a series of Viceroys (resident in France) 8 October 1611 – 1672, later Governors and Governors-general.

Italian colonies

In Italian Viceré: The highest colonial representatives in the "federation" of Italian East Africa (six provinces, each under a governor; together Ethiopia, Eritrea and Italian Somaliland) were no longer styled "High Commissioner", but "Viceroy and Governor-general" from 5 May 1936, when Italian forces occupied Ethiopia, until 27 November 1941, when the last Italian administrator surrendered to the Allies. The Italian King Victor Emmanuel claimed the title of "Emperor of Ethiopia" (Nəgusä nägäst, "King of Kings") and declared himself to be a successor to the Nəgusä nägäst, even though Emperor Haile Selassie I continued to hold this title while in exile, and resumed his actual, physical throne on 5 May 1941.

On 7 April 1939, Italy invaded the Kingdom of Albania (today Albania). As Viceré of Albania of Victor Emmanuel III of Italy were the Marchese Francesco Jacomoni di San Savino and after his departure General Alberto Pariani.

Ban of Bosnia

Ban Borić was the first ruler and Viceroy of Bosnia, appointed by Géza II of Hungary by 1154. His war affairs are documented as he fought several notable battles.[19] He also maintained ties with knights Templar and donated lands in Bosnia and Slavonia to their Order.[20] His own biological brother Dominic was on record as a knight Templar.[21]

Ban of Croatia

From the earliest medieval period in the Kingdom of Croatia, the position of viceroy was held by Ban of Croatia who acted as king's representative in Croatian lands and supreme commander of Croatian army. In the 18th century, Croatian bans eventually become chief government officials in Croatia. They were at the head of Ban's Government, effectively the first prime ministers of Croatia. The last ban held his position until 1941 and the collapse of Yugoslavia in World War II.

Ancient antecedents

An equivalent office, called the Exarch, was created in the Byzantine or Eastern Roman Empire towards the end of the sixth century for governors of important areas too far from the imperial capital of Constantinople to receive regular instruction or reinforcement. The chosen governors of these provinces were empowered to act in place of the monarch (hence ex-arch) with more discretion and autonomy than was granted other categories of governor. This was an extraordinary break from the centralized traditions of the Roman Empire and was an early example of the principle of Viceroyalty.

Non-Western counterparts

As with many princely and administrative titles, viceroy is often used, generally unofficially, to render somewhat equivalent titles and offices in non-western cultures.

Africa

In cultures all over the continent of Africa, the role of viceroy has been subsumed into a hereditary noble as opposed to strictly administrative position. In the Arabo-Berber north, for example, the title of Khalifa is often used by individuals who derive their authority to rule from someone else in much the same way as a viceroy would. Elsewhere, subordinate inkosis under the rule of a paramount chief like the King of the Zulu Nation of Southern Africa or subordinate baales in the realms of the reigning obas of West African Yorubaland continue to occupy statutorily recognized positions in the contemporary countries of South Africa and Nigeria as the customary representatives of their respective principals in the various areas that are under their immediate control.

Maratha Empire, India

Marathas from the time of Shivaji sent various empire insiders to run foreign parts such as Tamil Nadu, Gujarat, Madya Pradesh and Andra Paradesh, where the Maratha empire extended.

Ottoman Empire

The Khedive of Egypt, especially during the reign of Muhammad Ali Pasha (1805–1848). This officer established an almost autonomous regime in Egypt, which officially still was under Ottoman rule. Although Mehemet Ali/Muhammad Ali used different symbols to mark his independence from the Sublime Porte, he never openly declared himself independent. Adopting the title of viceroy was yet another way to walk the thin line between challenging the Sultan's power explicitly and respecting his jurisdiction. Muhammad Ali Pasha's grandson, Ismail Pasha, subsequently received the title of Khedive which was almost an equivalent to viceroy.[22]

Vietnamese Empire

The post of Tổng Trấn (governor of all military provinces) was a political post in the early period of the Vietnamese Nguyễn Dynasty (1802–1830). From 1802, under the reign of emperor Gia Long, there were two Tổng Trấn who administered Vietnam's northern part named Bắc thành with administrative center in Hanoi and the southern part Gia Định thành with administrative center in Gia Định, while Nguyen emperors ruled only the central region Kinh Kỳ from capital Phú Xuân. Tổng Trấn is sometimes translated to English as viceroy.[23] In 1830, emperor Minh Mạng abolished the post in order to increase the imperial direct ruling power in all over Vietnam.

Chinese Empires

During the Han, Ming and Qing dynasties, there existed positions of viceroys having control over various provinces (e.g., Liangguang = Guangdong and Guangxi, Huguang = Hubei and Hunan).

Siam

In Siam before 1885, the title was used for the heir-apparent (Thai: กรมพระราชวังบวรสถานมงคล) The title was abolished and replaced with that of the Crown Prince of Siam.

See also Notes
  1. "viceregal". OxfordDictionariesOnline.com. Retrieved 22 November 2014.
  2. "Viceroyal, a", The Oxford English Dictionary, 2nd ed. 1989, OED Online, Oxford University Press, 4 April 2000 http://dictionary.oed.com/cgi/entry/50277245>
  3. "vicereine". OxfordDictionariesOnline.com. Retrieved 22 November 2014.
  4. O Secretário dos despachos e coisas da Índia pero d´Alcáçova Carneiro, p.65, Maria Cecília Costa Veiga de Albuquerque Ramos, Universidade de Lisboa, 2009 (In Portuguese) http://repositorio.ul.pt/bitstream/10451/3387/1/ulfl080844_tm.pdf>
  5. Diffie, Bailey W. and George D. Winius (1977), "Foundations of the Portuguese Empire, 1415–1580", p.323-325, Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press. David Tan ISBN 0-8166-0782-6.
  6. A. J. R. Russell-Wood,"The Portuguese empire, 1415–1808: a world on the move", p. 66, JHU Press, 1998, ISBN 0-8018-5955-7
  7. Boris Fausto, "A concise history of Brazil", p.50, Cambridge University Press, 1999, ISBN 0-521-56526-X
  8. Imperial Gazetteer of India, Clarendon Press, Oxford, New Edition 1909, vol 4, p. 16.
  9. Nath, Aman, "Dome Over India", India Book House Ltd. ISBN 81-7508-352-2.
  10. Gough Whitlam, The Truth of the Matter, (1979)
  11. Public Domain This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domainBrockhaus and Efron Encyclopedic Dictionary (in Russian). 1906.
  12. Kli͡uchevskiĭ, V. O. (Vasiliĭ Osipovich); Duddington, Natalie. (1994). A course in Russian history—the seventeenth century. Armonk, N.Y.: M.E. Sharpe. ISBN 1-56324-317-2.
  13. Larin, A. K. (2004). Gosudarev namestnik : istoricheskai͡a povestʹ o M.N. Krechetnikov. Kaluga: Zolotai͡a allei͡a. ISBN 5-7111-0347-4.
  14. "hrono.ru: namestnik". Retrieved 19 January 2010.
  15. (in Russian) Тархов, Сергей, "Изменение административно-территориального деления России в XIII-XX в." (pdf), Логос, #1 2005 (46), ISSN 0869-5377
  16. Ledonne, John P. (January–March 2002). "Administrative Regionalization in the Russian Empire 1802–1826". Cahiers du Monde russe. pp. 5–33. Retrieved 19 January 2010.
  17. Thomas Mitchell, Handbook for Travellers in Russia, Poland, and Finland, 1888, p. 460. Google Print [1]
  18. КАВКАЗ
  19. The Late Medieval Balkans: A Critical Survey from the Late Twelfth Century
  20. Judith Mary Upton-Ward, H.J.A. Sire. "24. The Priory of Vrana". The Military Orders: On Land and by Sea. p. 221.
  21. Magyar Országos Levéltár
  22. Encyclopædia Britannica: Ismail Pasha, Ottoman Viceroy of Egypt and New Spain
  23. Philip Taylor (2004), Goddess on the rise: pilgrimage and popular religion in Vietnam, University of Hawaii Press, p. 36.
Sources
  • Aznar, Daniel/Hanotin, Guillaume/May, Niels F. (dir.), À la place du roi. Vice-rois, gouverneurs et ambassadeurs dans les monarchies française et espagnole (XVIe-XVIIIe siècles). Madrid: Casa de Velázquez, 2014.
  • Elliott, J. H., Imperial Spain, 1469–1716. London: Edward Arnold, 1963.
  • Fisher, Lillian Estelle. Viceregal Administration in the Spanish American Colonies. Berkeley, University of California Press, 1926.
  • Harding, C. H., The Spanish Empire in America. New York: Oxford University Press, 1947.
  • Public Domain This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domainBrockhaus and Efron Encyclopedic Dictionary (in Russian). 1906.
Further reading
  • Andrada (undated). The Life of Dom John de Castro: The Fourth Vice Roy of India. Jacinto Freire de Andrada. Translated into English by Peter Wyche. (1664) Henry Herrington, New Exchange, London. Facsimile edition (1994) AES Reprint, New Delhi. ISBN 81-206-0900-X.
  • (in Russian) hrono.ru: namestnik
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Viceroy

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Viceroy

A viceroy is a regal official who runs a country, colony, city, province, or sub-national state, in the name of and as the representative of the monarch of the territory. The term derives from the Latin prefix vice-, meaning "in the place of" and the French word roy, meaning "king". A viceroy's territory may be called a viceroyalty, though this term is not always applied. The adjectival form is viceregal,[1] less often viceroyal.[2] The term vicereine is sometimes used to indicate a female viceroy suo jure, although viceroy can serve as a gender-neutral term.[3] Vicereine is more commonly used to indicate a viceroy's wife.[3] Spanish Empire The title was originally used by the Crown of Aragon; where beginning in the 14th century, it referred to the Spanish governors of Sardinia and Corsica. After the unification, at the end of the 15th century, later kings of Spain came to appoint numerous viceroys to rule over various parts of the increasingly vast Spanish Empire in Europe, the Americas, and overseas elsew ...more...

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Spanish colonization of the Americas

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Governor-General of India

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Governor-General of India

The Governor-General of India (or, from 1858 to 1947, officially the Viceroy and Governor-General of India, commonly shortened to Viceroy of India) was originally the head of the British administration in India and, later, after Indian independence in 1947, the representative of the Indian head of state. The office was created in 1773, with the title of Governor-General of the Presidency of Fort William. The officer had direct control only over Fort William, but supervised other British East India Company officials in India. Complete authority over all of British India was granted in 1833, and the official came to be known as the "Governor-General of India". In 1858, the territories of the East India Company came under the direct control of the British government; see British Raj. The governor-general (now also the viceroy) headed the central government of India, which administered the provinces of British India, including the Punjab, Bengal, Bombay, Madras, the United Provinces, and others.[1] However, much ...more...

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Viceroy (butterfly)

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Viceroy (butterfly)

The viceroy (Limenitis archippus) is a North American butterfly that ranges through most of the contiguous United States as well as parts of Canada and Mexico. The westernmost portion of its range extends from the Northwest Territories along the eastern edges of the Cascade Range and Sierra Nevada mountains, southwards into central Mexico. Its easternmost range extends along the Atlantic and Gulf coasts of North America from Nova Scotia into Texas.[2] It was long been thought to be a Batesian mimic of the monarch butterfly, but since the viceroy is also distasteful to predators, it is now considered a Müllerian mimic instead. The viceroy was named the state butterfly of Kentucky in 1990.[3] Description Its wings feature an orange and black pattern, and over most of its range it is a Müllerian mimic[4] with the monarch butterfly (Danaus plexippus). The viceroy's wingspan is between 53 and 81 mm.[5] It can be distinguished from the monarch by its smaller size and the postmedian black line that runs across th ...more...

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Viceroy (cigarette)

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Viceroy (cigarette)

Viceroy is an American brand of cigarettes, currently owned and manufactured by R. J. Reynolds Tobacco Company in the United States and British American Tobacco outside of the United States. History Viceroy was introduced by Brown & Williamson in 1936 and was the world's first cork-tipped filter cigarette.[1] It was a mid-priced brand at the time, equivalent to B&W's Raleigh cigarettes flagship brand, but more expensive than Wings cigarettes introduced by B&W in 1929.[1] In 1952 Viceroy was the first brand to add a cellulose acetate filter which established a new industry standard. In 1953, Viceroy Filter Kings were introduced. In 1990, Viceroy Box Kings and Lights Box Kings were introduced on the U.S. market, followed by Viceroy Ultra Lights Kings and Ultra Lights 100's in 1992. New Viceroy 100's box styles changed in the 1990s, and Viceroy Menthol was introduced in 2000. All Viceroy styles changed to a more contemporary packaging on packs and cartons without changes to the product blend. ...more...

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Lord Mountbatten: The Last Viceroy

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Lord Mountbatten: The Last Viceroy

Lord Mountbatten: The Last Viceroy was a British television series which first aired on ITV in 1986. It depicts Lord Mountbatten's time as Supreme Commander, South-East Asia in the Second World War, and then as Viceroy of India shortly after the war in the days leading up to Indian independence.[1] The Film was shot in Sri Lanka. Main cast Nicol Williamson ... Lord Louis Mountbatten Janet Suzman ... Edwina Mountbatten Dreya Weber ... Pamela Mountbatten Wendy Hiller ... Princess Victoria of Hesse and by Rhine A.K. Hangal ... Sardar Vallabhbhai Patel Owen Holder ... King George VI David Lyon ... Lt Col Vernon Erskine-Crum Patrick Allen ... Claude Auchinleck Michael Byrne ... George Abell Sam Dastor ... Mahatma Gandhi Derek Reed ... Patrick Spens Nigel Davenport ... Hastings Ismay, 1st Baron Ismay David Quilter ... Alan Campbell Johnson Ian Richardson ... Jawaharlal Nehru Nadim Sawalha ... Liaquat Ali Khan Tony Wredden ... Maulana Abul Kalam Azad Saloni Kaur ... ...more...

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Viceroy (disambiguation)

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Viceroy (disambiguation)

Viceroy may refer to: Places Viceroy, Saskatchewan, a small hamlet located in the Canadian province of Saskatchewan Icon Brickell, a skyscraper complex in Miami, Florida, USA has a building known as Viceroy Titles Viceroy, a gubernatorial title for the monarch-appointed governor of a country or province Viceroy of Kush, an official serving the Pharaoh of Egypt Arts, entertainment, and media I Viceré, an 1894 novel by Federico De Roberto, translated to English as The Viceroys I Viceré (film), a 2007 film based on the De Roberto novel by director Roberto Faenza The Viceroys, a Jamaican rocksteady/reggae vocal trio Brands and enterprises Viceroy (cigarette), a cigarette brand Vauxhall Viceroy, a large car sold in the United Kingdom Ships HMS Viceroy (D91), a British destroyer in commission in the Royal Navy from 1918 until the mid-1930s and from 1941 to 1945 RMS Viceroy of India, a British ocean liner and later troop transport in service from 1929 until it sunk in 1942 Other u ...more...



Viceroy Special

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Viceroy Special

The Viceroy Special is a special passenger train service operated by J.F. Tours & Travels (Ceylon) Ltd.[2] Powered by the sole steam locomotive kept in operation in Sri Lanka, it is operated as a private train on all railway lines in the island. The 75-year-old luxury train has two air-conditioned observation saloons and a restaurant car. History The launch of the Viceroy Special was spearheaded by Hemasiri Fernando and Cliff Jones.[3] The idea of re-introducing steam to Sri Lanka rails was inspired by a tourism promotional visit to Sri Lanka in 1984 by Cliff Jones who, returning from a day trip to Kandy, called at Dematagoda loco sheds and saw, what he later described a graveyard of 'veritable massive tourism potential' and put the proposition to the then Minister of State Ananda de Tissa de Alweis who was wildly enthusiastic and with the tremendous help of GMR Manager and Hemasiri Fernando it came to fruition 2 years later. During the Second World War, Lord Louis Mountbatten, the last Viceroy of India ...more...

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List of viceroys of New Spain

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List of viceroys of New Spain

The following is a list of Viceroys of New Spain. In addition to viceroys, the following lists the highest Spanish governors of the colony of New Spain, before the appointment of the first viceroy or when the office of viceroy was vacant. Most of these individuals exercised most or all of the functions of viceroy, usually on an interim basis. Governor of the Indies This office covered the territories that were discovered by Christopher Columbus. 1492–1499 – Christopher Columbus, as governor and viceroy of the Indies 1499–1502 – Francisco de Bobadilla, as governor of the Indies 1502–1509 – Nicolás de Ovando y Cáceres, as governor of the Indies 1509–1518 – Diego Columbus, as governor of the Indies until 1511, thereafter as viceroy 1518–1524 – Diego Velázquez de Cuéllar, as adelantado (governor-general) of Cuba Governor of New Spain This office covered the territories that were claimed by Hernán Cortés. The office covered the territories that were under the control of the Governor of the Indies after 1524. ...more...

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Order of the British Empire

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Order of the British Empire

MBE (civil division) as awarded in 1918 Grand Cross star of the Order of the British Empire Close-up of an MBE from 1945 showing the "For God and the Empire" Lieutenant General Sir Robert Fulton, KBE The Most Excellent Order of the British Empire is a British order of chivalry, rewarding contributions to the arts and sciences, work with charitable and welfare organisations, and public service outside the Civil service.[2] It was established on 4 June 1917 by King George V, and comprises five classes across both civil and military divisions, the most senior two of which make the recipient either a knight if male or dame if female.[3] There is also the related British Empire Medal, whose recipients are affiliated with, but not members of, the order. Recommendations for appointments to the Order of the British Empire were originally made on the nomination of the United Kingdom, the self-governing Dominions of the Empire (later Commonwealth) and the Viceroy of India. Nominations continue toda ...more...

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Started in 1917 in the United Kingdom

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The Viceroy of Ouidah

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The Viceroy of Ouidah

The Viceroy of Ouidah is a novel published in 1980 by Bruce Chatwin, a British author. Summary Chatwin's novel portrays the life of a fictional slave trader named Francisco Manuel da Silva, who is loosely based on a historical white Brazilian, Francisco Félix de Sousa. He became powerful in Ouidah, on the so-called Slave Coast of West Africa, now Benin, Togo, and parts of the Volta Region in Ghana. Chatwin was caught up in the violence of a coup in Dahomey (now Benin), where Ouidah is located, when he was researching the book. Film adaptation The novel was adapted for the 1987 film Cobra Verde, directed by Werner Herzog and starring Klaus Kinski as Francisco Manuel da Silva. Reception The novel received mixed reviews. In The New York Times, John Thompson compared The Viceroy to other about-Africa prose works: "One could mention Graham Greene's Journey Without Maps or, for a work of the imagination based on somewhat less horrendous events, Chinua Achebe's Arrow of God. That novel of West Africa has viole ...more...

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The Viceroys

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The Viceroys

The Viceroys, also known as The Voiceroys, The Interns, The Inturns, The Brothers, and The Hot Tops, are a reggae vocal group who first recorded in 1967. After releasing several albums in the late 1970s and early 1980s, they split up in the mid-1980s. They reformed and recorded a new album in 2006. History The group was formed in Kingston, Jamaica by Wesley Tinglin, along with Daniel Bernard and Bunny Gayle, and after auditioning unsuccessfully for Duke Reid, the trio made their debut recording for producer Clement "Coxsone" Dodd in the middle of the rocksteady era in 1967.[1][2] The group recorded several singles for Dodd's Studio One label, including "Ya Ho", "Fat Fish", and "Love & Unity", and these tracks were collected together by Heartbeat Records for a 1995 compilation album.[3] They went on to record for several other producers in the late 1960s and 1970s, including Derrick Morgan, Winston Riley (who produced their hit "Mission Impossible"), Lee "Scratch" Perry (including "Babylon Deh Pon Fire", ...more...

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Queen Victoria

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Queen Victoria

Victoria (Alexandrina Victoria; 24 May 1819 – 22 January 1901) was Queen of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland from 20 June 1837 until her death. On 1 May 1876, she adopted the additional title of Empress of India. Victoria was the daughter of Prince Edward, Duke of Kent and Strathearn, the fourth son of King George III. Both the Duke and the King died in 1820, and Victoria was raised under close supervision by her mother, Princess Victoria of Saxe-Coburg-Saalfeld. She inherited the throne at the age of 18, after her father's three elder brothers had all died, leaving no surviving legitimate children. The United Kingdom was already an established constitutional monarchy, in which the sovereign held relatively little direct political power. Privately, Victoria attempted to influence government policy and ministerial appointments; publicly, she became a national icon who was identified with strict standards of personal morality. Victoria married her first cousin Prince Albert of Saxe-Coburg and G ...more...

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Saudi Arabia

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Saudi Arabia

Saudi Arabia[c] ( ( listen),  ( listen)), officially the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA),[d] is a sovereign Arab state in Western Asia constituting the bulk of the Arabian Peninsula. With a land area of approximately 2,150,000 km2 (830,000 sq mi), Saudi Arabia is geographically the fifth-largest state in Asia and second-largest state in the Arab world after Algeria. Saudi Arabia is bordered by Jordan and Iraq to the north, Kuwait to the northeast, Qatar, Bahrain and the United Arab Emirates to the east, Oman to the southeast and Yemen to the south. It is separated from Israel and Egypt by the Gulf of Aqaba. It is the only nation with both a Red Sea coast and a Persian Gulf coast and most of its terrain consists of arid desert and mountains. The area of modern-day Saudi Arabia formerly consisted of four distinct regions: Hejaz, Najd and parts of Eastern Arabia (Al-Ahsa) and Southern Arabia ('Asir).[9] The Kingdom of Saudi Arabia was founded in 1932 by Ibn Saud. He united the four regions into a single state thr ...more...

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United Arab Emirates

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United Arab Emirates

The United Arab Emirates ( ( listen); UAE; Arabic: دولة الإمارات العربية المتحدة‎ Dawlat al-Imārāt al-'Arabīyah al-Muttaḥidah), sometimes simply called the Emirates (Arabic: الإمارات‎ al-Imārāt), is a federal absolute monarchy sovereign state in Western Asia at the southeast end of the Arabian Peninsula on the Persian Gulf, bordering Oman to the east and Saudi Arabia to the south, as well as sharing maritime borders with Qatar to the west and Iran to the north. In 2013, the UAE's population was 9.2 million, of which 1.4 million are Emirati citizens and 7.8 million are expatriates.[8][9][10] The country is a federation of seven emirates, and was established on 2 December 1971. The constituent emirates are Abu Dhabi (which serves as the capital), Ajman, Dubai, Fujairah, Ras al-Khaimah, Sharjah and Umm al-Quwain. Each emirate is governed by an absolute monarch; together, they jointly form the Federal Supreme Council. One of the monarchs (traditionally always the Emir of Abu Dhabi) is selected as the President o ...more...

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Viceroy of Liangjiang

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Viceroy of Liangjiang

Map of viceroys in Qing Dynasty of China The Viceroy of Liangjiang or Viceroy of the Two Jiangs, fully referred to in Chinese as the Governor-General of the Two Yangtze Provinces and Surrounding Areas Overseeing Military Affairs, Provisions and Funds, Manager of Waterways, Director of Civil Affairs, was one of eight regional Viceroys in China proper during the Qing dynasty. The Viceroy of Liangjiang had jurisdiction over Jiangsu, Jiangxi and Anhui provinces. Because Jiangsu and Anhui were previously part of a single province, Jiangnan ("south of the Yangtze"), they were thus known, along with Jiangxi ("west of the Yangtze"), as the two jiangs, hence the name "Liangjiang" ("two Jiangs"). History The office of Viceroy of Liangjiang originated in 1647 during the reign of the Shunzhi Emperor. It was called "Viceroy of the Three Provinces of Jiangdong, Jiangxi and Henan" (江東江西河南三省總督) and headquartered in Jiangning (江寧; present-day Nanjing, Jiangsu). In 1652, the office was renamed "Viceroy of Jiangxi" (江西總督) an ...more...

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List of governors-general of India

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List of governors-general of India

The Regulating Act of 1773 created the office with the title of Governor-General of the Presidency of Fort William, or Governor-General of Bengal to be appointed by the Court of Directors of the East India Company (EIC). The Court of Directors assigned a Council of Four (based in India) to assist The Governor General, and decision of council was binding on Governor General during 1773-1784. The Saint Helena Act 1833 (or Government of India Act 1833) re-designated the office with the title of Governor-General of India. After the Indian Rebellion of 1857, the company rule was brought to an end, and the British India along with princely states came under the direct rule of the Crown. The Government of India Act 1858 created the office of Secretary of State for India in 1858 to oversee the affairs of India, which was advised by a new Council of India with 15 members (based in London). The existing Council of Four was formally renamed as the Council of Governor General of India or Executive Council of India. The ...more...

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Gujarat under Aurangzeb

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Gujarat under Aurangzeb

The Mughal Empire's province Gujarat (now in India) was managed by the Viceroys appointed by the emperors. After defeating all his brothers, Aurangzeb ascended the Mughal throne in 1658. He rewarded people who had helped him in his succession war. He forgave Jaswant Singh with whom he had faught in the battle and appointed him as the viceroy of Gujarat. Mahabat Khan succeeded him who annexed Nawanagar under the Mughal control. During his time, Aurangzeb decreed some administrative reforms, ordered curbs on Hindu customs and festivals and enforced Islamic religious law. In 1664, Maratha leader Shivaji plundered Surat and emptied its riches. Under next viceroy Khan Jehan, Shivaji again attacked Surat and Janjira. Jaswant Singh was appointed the viceroy again and the Nawanagar was partially restored to its ruler. During the next viceroy Amin Khan, there was disorder in the province due to imposition of jizya tax and other discrimination and Idar revolted in 1679 but soon contained.[1] During next viceroy, Mukht ...more...

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Charles, Prince of Wales

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Charles, Prince of Wales

Charles, Prince of Wales (Charles Philip Arthur George;[fn 1] born 14 November 1948) is the heir apparent to the British throne as the eldest child of Queen Elizabeth II. He has been Duke of Cornwall and Duke of Rothesay since 1952, and is the oldest and longest-serving heir apparent in British history.[2] He is also the longest-serving Prince of Wales, having held that title since 1958.[3] Charles was born at Buckingham Palace as the first grandchild of King George VI and Queen Elizabeth. He was educated at Cheam and Gordonstoun Schools, which his father, Prince Philip, Duke of Edinburgh, had attended as a child, as well as the Timbertop campus of Geelong Grammar School in Victoria, Australia. After earning a bachelor of arts degree from Trinity College, Cambridge, Charles served in the Royal Air Force and Royal Navy from 1971 to 1976. In 1981, he married Lady Diana Spencer and they had two sons: Prince William (b. 1982)—later to become Duke of Cambridge and Prince Harry (b. 1984)—later to become Duke of S ...more...

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Famous Fathers

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Islam

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Islam

Islam ()[note 1] is an Abrahamic monotheistic religion teaching that there is only one God (Allah)[1] and that Muhammad is the messenger of God.[2][3] It is the world's second-largest religion[4] and the fastest-growing major religion in the world,[5][6][7] with over 1.8 billion followers or 24.1% of the global population,[8] known as Muslims.[9] Muslims make up a majority of the population in 50 countries.[4] Islam teaches that God is merciful, all-powerful, unique[10] and has guided mankind through prophets, revealed scriptures and natural signs.[3][11] The primary scriptures of Islam are the Quran, viewed by Muslims as the verbatim word of God, and the teachings and normative example (called the sunnah, composed of accounts called hadith) of Muhammad (c. 570–8 June 632 CE). Muslims believe that Islam is the complete and universal version of a primordial faith that was revealed many times before through prophets including Adam, Abraham, Moses and Jesus.[12][13][14] As for the Quran, Muslims consider it to ...more...

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Velocette Viceroy

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Velocette Viceroy

The Viceroy was a scooter introduced by the British motorcycle manufacturer Velocette in 1960.[1] Only 700 were sold before the model was discontinued in 1964. [2] The Viceroy was considered an unusual design, as the two-stroke 250cc engine was placed at the front of the scooter.[3] References "Ugly Black Beast Velocette Viceroy". Scootering.com. Retrieved 22 June 2015. "Five classic scooter rides from the 60s". Stuff.co.nz. Retrieved 22 June 2015. "Velocette Viceroy 1960". Auto Evolution. Retrieved 22 June 2015. ...more...

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Gujarat under Akbar

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Gujarat under Akbar

In 1573, Mughal Emperor Akbar conquered Gujarat Sultanate (now Gujarat, India) taking advantage of young Gujarat Sultan Muzaffar Shah III and his quarrelling nobles. Muzaffar was held captive at Agra. He appointed his foster brother Mírza Âzíz Kokaltásh as the first viceroy who faced an insurrection by the rebel nobles of the former Sultanate. Akbar quickly came to aid and ended the insurrection. He soon appointed Mírza Khán who managed to set revenue system and quelled attack by the Mirzas with help of Mughal minister Todar Mal. The next viceroy Shaháb-ud-dín strengthened the military. Soon Sultan Muzaffar escaped, returned to Gujarat and led an attack on Ahmedabad and recaptured it before his former noble and now viceroy Itimad Khan reach the city. Soon Mirza Khan was reappointed as the viceroy who defeated Muzaffar in the battle of Fatehwadi in 1584. Soon Kokaltásh returned as the viceroy and defeated Muzaffar and combined Kathiawad forces in battle of Bhuchar Mori. Later Muzaffar was captured but he commi ...more...

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Alexander the Great

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Alexander the Great

Alexander III of Macedon (20/21 July 356 BC – 10/11 June 323 BC), commonly known as Alexander the Great (Ancient Greek: Ἀλέξανδρος ὁ Μέγας, translit. Aléxandros ho Mégas, Koine Greek: ), was a king (basileus) of the ancient Greek kingdom of Macedon[a] and a member of the Argead dynasty. He was born in Pella in 356 BC and succeeded his father Philip II to the throne at the age of twenty. He spent most of his ruling years on an unprecedented military campaign through Asia and northeast Africa, and he created one of the largest empires of the ancient world by the age of thirty, stretching from Greece to northwestern India.[1][2] He was undefeated in battle and is widely considered one of history's most successful military commanders.[3] During his youth, Alexander was tutored by Aristotle until age 16. After Philip's assassination in 336 BC, he succeeded his father to the throne and inherited a strong kingdom and an experienced army. Alexander was awarded the generalship of Greece and used this authority to lau ...more...

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Diana, Princess of Wales

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Diana, Princess of Wales

Diana, Princess of Wales (born Diana Frances Spencer; 1 July 1961 – 31 August 1997) was a member of the British royal family. She was the first wife of Charles, Prince of Wales, the heir apparent to the British throne, and the mother of Prince William, Duke of Cambridge, and Prince Harry, Duke of Sussex. Diana was born into the Spencer family, a family of British nobility with royal ancestry and was the youngest daughter of John Spencer, Viscount Althorp, and Frances Roche. She grew up in Park House, situated on the Sandringham estate, and was educated in England and Switzerland. In 1975—after her father inherited the title of Earl Spencer—she became known as Lady Diana Spencer. She came to prominence in February 1981 when her engagement to Prince Charles was announced to the world. Diana's wedding to the Prince of Wales took place at St Paul's Cathedral on 29 July 1981 and reached a global television audience of over 750 million people. During her marriage, Diana was Princess of Wales, Duchess of Cornwall, ...more...

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Gujarat under Muhammad Shah

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Gujarat under Muhammad Shah

The Mughal Empire's province Gujarat (now in India) was managed by the viceroys appointed by the emperors. The emperor Farrukhsiyar was deposed by influential Sayad brothers in 1719. He was succeeded by the short reigns of Rafi ud-Darajat and Shah Jahan II. Finally Muhammad Shah was raised to the throne by them. To make peace with powerful vassal, he appointed Ajítsingh of Márwár as a viceroy. The Maratha incursions continued and Píláji Gáikwár established himself at Songad near southern border of Gujarat. Ajit Singh had appointed Anopsingh Bhandari as his deputy. For helping to depose the influential Sayad brothers, Haidar Kúli Khán was appointed the next viceroy. People discontent with Anopsingh rejoiced his appointment but he tried to make himself free so he was recalled. Nizám-ul-Mulk took over who had to face the Maratha incursion again. The Marathas taking advantage of weakening Mughal Empire started extracting tribute from Gujarat regularly. The next viceroy Sarbuland Khan came in conflict with the Mar ...more...

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Viceroy of Liangguang

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Viceroy of Liangguang

Map of viceroys in Qing Dynasty of China The Viceroy of Liangguang or Viceroy of the Two Guangs, fully referred to in Chinese as the Governor-General, Commander and Quartermaster, Supervisor of Waterways, and Inspector-General of the Two Expanses and Surrounding Areas, was one of eight regional Viceroys in China proper during the Ming and Qing dynasties. The two Guangs referred to Guangdong and Guangxi provinces. The areas under the Viceroy's jurisdiction included present-day Guangdong and Guangxi provinces, as well as Hainan Province. HistoryMing dynasty The office of the Viceroy of Liangguang originated in 1452 during the Ming dynasty. The Jingtai Emperor accepted Yu Qian's proposal to create the office and appointed Wang Ao (王翱) as the first viceroy. In 1465, the Chenghua Emperor appointed Han Yong (韓雍) as Left Censor-in-Chief and Viceroy of Liangguang. The office was formalised in 1469, with the administrative headquarters fixed in Wuzhou, Guangxi. In 1536, during the reign of the Jiajing Emperor, th ...more...

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Ignition (Remix)

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Ignition (Remix)

"Ignition (Remix)" is a song written and produced by American R&B singer R. Kelly. It was released in 2002 as the lead single from his sixth studio album Chocolate Factory (2003). It is viewed as one of his most well-known songs and has been popular in the United States, Europe and Oceania. "Ignition (Remix)" peaked at number two on the Billboard Hot 100. Outside the United States, the song topped the charts in Australia, New Zealand, the Republic of Ireland and the United Kingdom.[2] It was later included on the updated version of Rolling Stone's 500 greatest songs of all time in 2010 at number 494. The song was listed at #19 on Pitchfork Media's top 500 songs of the 2000s. Background The original song "Ignition" was first recorded in 2002 after the alleged statutory rape tape was a hot topic in the media. The original "Ignition" was originally going to be one of the songs on his forthcoming album at that time called Loveland; the album got leaked later on, and Kelly decided to turn Loveland to Chocol ...more...

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Viceroy's Executive Council

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Viceroy's Executive Council

The Viceroy's Executive Council was the cabinet of the government of British India headed by the Viceroy of India. It was transformed from an advisory council into a cabinet run by the portfolio system by the Indian Councils Act 1861. History The Government of India Act 1858 transferred the power of the East India Company to the British Crown which was empowered to appoint a Viceroy and Governor-General of India to head the government in India. The advisory council of the Governor-General was based in the capital Calcutta and consisted of four members, three of which were appointed by the Secretary of State for India and one by the Sovereign. The Indian Councils Act 1861 transformed the Viceroy of India's advisory council into a cabinet run on the portfolio system and increased the number of members by one. Three members were to be appointed by the Secretary of State for India, and two by the Sovereign. The five ordinary members took charge of a separate department: home, revenue, military, law and finance. ...more...

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Canada

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Canada

Canada ( ( listen) KAN-ə-də; French: ) is a country located in the northern part of North America. Its ten provinces and three territories extend from the Atlantic to the Pacific and northward into the Arctic Ocean, covering 9.98 million square kilometres (3.85 million square miles), making it the world's second-largest country by total area. Canada's southern border with the United States is the world's longest bi-national land border. As a whole, Canada is sparsely populated, the majority of its land area being dominated by forest and tundra. Consequently, its population is highly urbanized, with 82 percent of the 35.15 million people concentrated in large and medium-sized cities, many near the southern border. Its capital is Ottawa, and its three largest metropolitan areas are Toronto, Montreal, and Vancouver. Canada's climate varies widely across its vast area, ranging from arctic weather in the north, to hot summers in the southern regions, with four distinct seasons. Various indigenous peoples have inh ...more...

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Peru

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Peru

Peru ( ( listen); Spanish: Perú ; Quechua: Piruw Republika ;[7] Aymara: Piruw Suyu ), officially the Republic of Peru (Spanish:  República del Perú ), is a country in western South America. It is bordered in the north by Ecuador and Colombia, in the east by Brazil, in the southeast by Bolivia, in the south by Chile, and in the west by the Pacific Ocean. Peru is an extremely biodiverse country with habitats ranging from the arid plains of the Pacific coastal region in the west to the peaks of the Andes mountains vertically extending from the north to the southeast of the country to the tropical Amazon Basin rainforest in the east with the Amazon river.[8] Peruvian territory was home to several ancient cultures, ranging from the Norte Chico civilization in the 32nd century BC, the oldest civilization in the Americas, to the Inca Empire, the largest and most sophisticated state in pre-Columbian America. The Spanish Empire conquered the region in the 16th century and established a Viceroyalty that encompassed mo ...more...

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List of governors of Portuguese India

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List of governors of Portuguese India

Map of Portuguese India, 1923. Coat of arms of Portuguese India. The government of Portuguese India started in 1505, six years after the discovery of the sea route to India by Vasco da Gama, with the nomination of the first Viceroy Francisco de Almeida, then settled at Kochi. Until 1752, the name "India" included all Portuguese possessions in the Indian Ocean, from southern Africa to Southeast Asia, governed - either by a Viceroy or Governor - from its headquarters, established in Goa since 1510. In 1752 Portuguese Mozambique got its own government and in 1844 the Portuguese Government of India stopped administering the territory of Portuguese Macau, Solor and Portuguese Timor, seeing itself thus confined to a reduced territorial entity in Malabar: Goa, Daman, Diu, Dadra and Nagar Haveli. Portuguese control ceased in the last two enclaves in 1954, and finally ceased in the remaining three pockets in 1961, when they were occupied by the Republic of India (although Portugal only recognized the occupatio ...more...

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Gujarat under Shah Jahan

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Gujarat under Shah Jahan

The Mughal Empire's province Gujarat (now in India) was managed by the Viceroys appointed by the emperors. On the death of the emperor Jehangir, his son Shah Jahan ascended the to throne in 1627. His Gujarat viceroy Sher Khán Túar worked for relief in 1631-31 femine in the province. Shah Jahan sent his men to expand its territories further south. Between 1632 to 1635, four viceroys were appointed due to their precious gift to the emperor and they could not manage the province well. Kolis of Kankrej in north Gujarat committed excesses and the Jam of Nawanagar did not paid the tribute. Soon Azam Khan was appointed who put the province in order by subdueing Kolis in north and Kathis in Kathiawad. He also made the Jam of Nawanagar surrender. The next viceroy Ísa Tarkhán carried out financial reforms. In 1644, the Mughal prince Aurangzeb was appointed as the viceroy who was engaged in relious disputes for destroying a Jain temple in Ahmedabad. Due to his disputes, he was replaced by Sháistah Khán who failed to sub ...more...

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Mahatma Gandhi

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Mahatma Gandhi

Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi (;[3] Hindustani:  ( listen); 2 October 1869 – 30 January 1948) was an Indian activist who was the leader of the Indian independence movement against British rule. Employing nonviolent civil disobedience, Gandhi led India to independence and inspired movements for civil rights and freedom across the world. The honorific Mahātmā (Sanskrit: "high-souled", "venerable")[4]—applied to him first in 1914 in South Africa[5]—is now used worldwide. In India, he is also called Bapu (Gujarati: endearment for father,[6] papa[6][7]) and Gandhi ji, and known as the Father of the Nation.[8][9] Born and raised in a Hindu merchant caste family in coastal Gujarat, India, and trained in law at the Inner Temple, London, Gandhi first employed nonviolent civil disobedience as an expatriate lawyer in South Africa, in the resident Indian community's struggle for civil rights. After his return to India in 1915, he set about organising peasants, farmers, and urban labourers to protest against excessive land- ...more...

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Hong Kong

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Hong Kong

Hong Kong (Cantonese:  ( listen)), officially the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region of the People's Republic of China, is an autonomous territory on the eastern side of the Pearl River estuary in South China. Along with Macau, Guangzhou, Shenzhen, Zhuhai, and several other major cities in Guangdong, the territory forms a core part of the Pearl River Delta metropolitan region, the most populated area in the world. With over 7.4 million Hongkongers of various nationalities[note 1] in a territory of 1,104 square kilometres (426 sq mi), Hong Kong is the fourth-most densely populated region in the world. Hong Kong was formerly a colony of the British Empire, after the perpetual cession of Hong Kong Island from Qing China at the conclusion of the First Opium War in 1842. Originally a lightly populated area of farming and fishing villages,[13] the territory has become one of the most significant financial centres and trade ports in the world.[14] With the exception of the Second World War, during which the co ...more...

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Italy

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Italy

Italy (Italian: Italia  ( listen)), officially the Italian Republic (Italian: Repubblica Italiana ),[10][11][12][13] is a sovereign state in Europe. Located in the heart of the Mediterranean Sea, Italy shares open land borders with France, Switzerland, Austria, Slovenia, San Marino and Vatican City. Italy covers an area of 301,338 km2 (116,347 sq mi) and has a largely temperate seasonal and Mediterranean climate. With around 61 million inhabitants, it is the fourth-most populous EU member state and the most populous in southern Europe. Since classical times, ancient Phoenicians, Carthaginians and Greeks established settlements in the south of Italy, with Etruscans and Celts inhabiting the centre and the north of Italy respectively, and various ancient Italian tribes and Italic peoples dispersed throughout the Italian Peninsula and insular Italy. The Italic tribe known as the Latins formed the Roman Kingdom in the 8th century BC, which eventually became a republic that conquered and assimilated its neighbours ...more...

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Race 3

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Race 3

Race 3 is a 2018 Indian action thriller film directed by Remo D'Souza and produced under Tips Films and Salman Khan Films. The film features Anil Kapoor, Salman Khan, Bobby Deol, Jacqueline Fernandez, Daisy Shah, Saqib Saleem and Freddy Daruwala. It is the third installment of Race film series, and the film has a different plot than previous films of the franchise. The film released on 15 June 2018 coinciding with Eid and received generally negative reviews from the critics. Plot Shamsher Singh (Anil Kapoor) runs a big empire in Middle East in arms trading and narcotics. Sikander Singh (Salman Khan) is his adopted son, while Sanjana (Daisy Shah) and Suraj (Saqib Saleem) are his twin children. Yash (Bobby Deol) is the a close associate of Shamsher's empire and is close confidante of Sikander. In the flashback it is revealed that Rana Vijay (Freddy Daruwala) is Shamsher's business rival and he creates problems for Shamsher's family business. As both Sanjana and Suraj gets 25 years old, their family lawyer come ...more...

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Winston Churchill

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Winston Churchill

Sir Winston Leonard Spencer-Churchill[1] (30 November 1874 – 24 January 1965) was a British politician, army officer, and writer, who was Prime Minister of the United Kingdom from 1940 to 1945 and again from 1951 to 1955. As Prime Minister, Churchill led Britain to victory in the Second World War. Ideologically an economic liberal and British imperialist, he was a Conservative until 31 May 1904 when he crossed the floor, defecting from the Conservatives to sit as a member of the Liberal Party in the House of Commons [2] where he was a member of the Liberal Party from 1904 to 1924 before defecting to the Conservative Party, which he led from 1940 to 1955. Churchill represented five constituencies during his career as Member of Parliament (MP). Born in Oxfordshire to an aristocratic family, Churchill was a son of Lord Randolph Churchill and Jennie Jerome. Joining the British Army, he saw action in British India, the Anglo–Sudan War, and the Second Boer War, gaining fame as a war correspondent and writing books ...more...

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Gujarat under Jehangir

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Gujarat under Jehangir

The Mughal Empire's province Gujarat (now in India) was managed by the Viceroys appointed by the emperors. The emperor Jehangir continued Mírza Âzíz Kokaltásh as the viceroy when he ascended to the throne in 1605. He continued to manage the province even though Khalij Khan was appointed as the new viceroy. He was succeeded by Sayad Murtaza who controlled the rebellions in north and south Gujarat. Mírza Âzíz Kokaltásh again returned as the viceroy and successfully averted invasion of Malik Ambar from Daulatabad in south. The next viceroy Abdulláh Khán Fírúz Jang made expedition to south and subdued the Ahmednagar. During his time, in 1611, Jehangir permitted the British East India Company to establish factories in Surat and elsewhere in Gujarat. During reign of the next viceroy Mukarrab Khán, Jehangir toured Gujarat and received several local rulers. In 1618, he appointed his son prince Shah Jahan as the next viceroy. He rebelled in 1622-23 and he was replced by Sultán Dáwar Baksh. Shah Jahan resisted but late ...more...

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Governor General of Canada

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Governor General of Canada

The Governor General of Canada (French: Gouverneure générale du Canada[n 1]) is the federal viceregal representative of the Canadian monarch, currently Queen Elizabeth II. The person of the sovereign is shared equally both with the 15 other Commonwealth realms and the 10 provinces of Canada, but resides predominantly in her oldest realm, the United Kingdom. The Queen, on the advice of her Canadian prime minister,[1] appoints a governor general to carry out most of her constitutional and ceremonial duties. The commission is for an unfixed period of time—known as serving at Her Majesty's pleasure—though five years is the normal convention. Beginning in 1959, it has also been traditional to rotate between anglophone and francophone incumbents—although many recent governors general have been bilingual. Once in office, the governor general maintains direct contact with the Queen, wherever she may be at the time.[2] The office began in the 16th and 17th centuries with the Crown-appointed governors of the French co ...more...

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Egypt

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Egypt

Egypt ( ( listen) EE-jipt; Arabic: مِصر‎ Miṣr, Egyptian Arabic: مَصر‎ Maṣr, Coptic: Ⲭⲏⲙⲓ Khēmi), officially the Arab Republic of Egypt, is a transcontinental country spanning the northeast corner of Africa and southwest corner of Asia by a land bridge formed by the Sinai Peninsula. Egypt is a Mediterranean country bordered by the Gaza Strip and Israel to the northeast, the Gulf of Aqaba to the east, the Red Sea to the east and south, Sudan to the south, and Libya to the west. Across the Gulf of Aqaba lies Jordan, and across from the Sinai Peninsula lies Saudi Arabia, although Jordan and Saudi Arabia do not share a land border with Egypt. Egypt emerged as one of the world's first nation states in the tenth millennium BC.[13] Considered a cradle of civilisation, Ancient Egypt saw some of the earliest developments of writing, agriculture, urbanisation, organised religion and central government. Iconic monuments such as the Giza Necropolis and its Great Sphinx, as well the ruins of Memphis, Thebes, Karnak, and t ...more...

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Viceroyalty

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Viceroyalty

A viceroyalty is an entity headed by a viceroy. France Viceroyalty of New France Portuguese Empire In the scope of the Portuguese Empire, the term "Viceroyalty of Brazil" is also occasionally used to designate the colonial State of Brazil, in the historic period while its governors had the title of "Viceroy". Viceroyalty of Brazil Russian Empire List of viceroyalties of the Russian Empire Spanish Empire The viceroyalty was a local, political, social, and administrative institution, created by the Spanish monarchy in the 15th century, for ruling in its overseas territories.[1] The administration over the vast territories of the Spanish Empire was carried out by viceroys, who became governors of an area, which was considered not as a colony but as a province of the empire, with the same rights as any other province in Peninsular Spain.[2] The Spanish Americas had four viceroyalties: Viceroyalty of New Spain Viceroyalty of Peru Viceroyalty of the Río de la Plata Viceroyalty of New Granada Bri ...more...

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Michael (archangel)

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Michael (archangel)

Michael (Hebrew pronunciation: ; Hebrew: מִיכָאֵל‎, translit. Mîkhā'ēl, lit. 'Who is like God?'; Greek: Μιχαήλ, translit. Mikhaḗl; Latin: Michahel;Coptic: ⲙⲓⲭⲁⲏⲗ, Arabic: ميخائيل‎, translit. Mīkhā'īl) is an archangel in Judaism, Christianity, and Islam. In Roman Catholic, Eastern Orthodox, Anglican, and Lutheran traditions, he is called "Saint Michael the Archangel" and "Saint Michael". In the Oriental Orthodox and Eastern Orthodox traditions, he is called "Taxiarch Archangel Michael" or simply "Archangel Michael". Michael is mentioned three times in the Book of Daniel. The idea that Michael was the advocate of the Jews became so prevalent that, in spite of the rabbinical prohibition against appealing to angels as intermediaries between God and his people, Michael came to occupy a certain place in the Jewish liturgy. In the New Testament Michael leads God's armies against Satan's forces in the Book of Revelation, where during the war in heaven he defeats Satan. In the Epistle of Jude Michael is specifically ...more...

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Charles I of England

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Charles I of England

Charles I (19 November 1600 – 30 January 1649)[a] was monarch of the three kingdoms of England, Scotland, and Ireland from 27 March 1625 until his execution in 1649. Charles was born into the House of Stuart as the second son of King James VI of Scotland, but after his father inherited the English throne in 1603, he moved to England, where he spent much of the rest of his life. He became heir apparent to the thrones of England, Scotland and Ireland on the death of his elder brother, Henry Frederick, Prince of Wales, in 1612. An unsuccessful and unpopular attempt to marry him to the Spanish Habsburg princess Maria Anna culminated in an eight-month visit to Spain in 1623 that demonstrated the futility of the marriage negotiations. Two years later, he married the Bourbon princess Henrietta Maria of France instead. After his succession, Charles quarrelled with the Parliament of England, which sought to curb his royal prerogative. Charles believed in the divine right of kings and thought he could govern accordin ...more...

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Pakistan

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Pakistan

Pakistan[b] (Urdu: پاکِستان‬‎), officially the Islamic Republic of Pakistan (Urdu: اِسلامی جمہوریہ پاکِستان‬‎), is a country in South Asia. It is the fifth-most populous country with a population exceeding 212,742,631 people.[18] In area, it is the 33rd-largest country, spanning 881,913 square kilometres (340,509 square miles). Pakistan has a 1,046-kilometre (650-mile) coastline along the Arabian Sea and Gulf of Oman in the south and is bordered by India to the east, Afghanistan to the west, Iran to the southwest, and China in the far northeast. It is separated narrowly from Tajikistan by Afghanistan's Wakhan Corridor in the northwest, and also shares a maritime border with Oman. The territory that now constitutes Pakistan was the site of several ancient cultures, including the Mehrgarh of the Neolithic and the Bronze Age Indus Valley Civilisation, and was later home to kingdoms ruled by people of different faiths and cultures, including Hindus, Indo-Greeks, Muslims, Turco-Mongols, Afghans, and Sikhs. The ar ...more...

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Philippines

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Philippines

The Philippines ( ( listen); Filipino: Pilipinas or Filipinas ), officially the Republic of the Philippines (Filipino: Republika ng Pilipinas),[a] is a unitary sovereign and archipelagic country in Southeast Asia. Situated in the western Pacific Ocean, it consists of about 7,641 islands[18] that are categorized broadly under three main geographical divisions from north to south: Luzon, Visayas, and Mindanao. The capital city of the Philippines is Manila and the most populous city is Quezon City, both part of Metro Manila.[19] Bounded by the South China Sea on the west, the Philippine Sea on the east and the Celebes Sea on the southwest, the Philippines shares maritime borders with Taiwan to the north, Vietnam to the west, Palau to the east and Malaysia and Indonesia to the south. The Philippines' location on the Pacific Ring of Fire and close to the equator makes the Philippines prone to earthquakes and typhoons, but also endows it with abundant natural resources and some of the world's greatest biodiversity ...more...

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RMS Viceroy of India

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RMS Viceroy of India

RMS Viceroy of India was an ocean liner of the Peninsular and Oriental Steam Navigation Company (P&O). She was a British Royal Mail Ship on the Tilbury–Bombay route[2] and was named after the Viceroy of India. In World War II she was converted to and used as a troopship. She was sunk in the Mediterranean in November 1942 by German submarine U-407. Building Viceroy of India's indoor swimming pool P&O ordered the ship from Alexander Stephen and Sons of Glasgow in 1927. She was originally to be called Taj Mahal,[3] after the 17th-century mausoleum of Mumtaz Mahal in Agra. She was laid down in April 1927, launched in September 1928 and completed in March 1929. She cost £1,090,987[7] She had six water-tube boilers with a combined heating surface of 32,500 square feet (3,019 m2) that supplied steam at 400 lb/in2 to two turbo generators.[1] These supplied current to electric motors with a combined rating of 3,565 NHP that drove twin screw propellers.[1] British Thomson-Houston (BT-H) of Rugby, Warw ...more...

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Viceroy's House (film)

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Viceroy's House (film)

Viceroy's House is a 2017 British-Indian historical drama film directed by Gurinder Chadha and written by Paul Mayeda Berges, Moira Buffini, and Chadha.[2] The film stars Hugh Bonneville, Gillian Anderson, Manish Dayal, Huma Qureshi, and Michael Gambon.[3] It has been selected to be screened out of competition at the 67th Berlin International Film Festival.[4] The film was released in the United Kingdom on 3 March 2017,[5] while the Hindi dubbed version titled Partition: 1947 was released in India on 18 August 2017, 3 days after its 70th Independence Day. It was released worldwide on 1 September 2017.[6] Plot Lord Louis Mountbatten (Hugh Bonneville) arrives at Viceroy's House in Delhi in 1947 with his strong-willed wife Edwina (Gillian Anderson) and daughter Pamela. As the final Viceroy of India, he is in charge of overseeing the dissolution of the British Raj and the establishment of an independent Indian nation. Mountbatten attempts to mediate a disagreement between the two major Indian political leaders, ...more...

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Argentina

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Argentina

Argentina ( ( listen); Spanish: ), officially the Argentine Republic[A] (Spanish: República Argentina), is a federal republic located mostly in the southern half of South America. Sharing the bulk of the Southern Cone with Chile to the west, the country is also bordered by Bolivia and Paraguay to the north, Brazil to the northeast, Uruguay and the South Atlantic Ocean to the east, and the Drake Passage to the south. With a mainland area of 2,780,400 km2 (1,073,500 sq mi),[B] Argentina is the eighth-largest country in the world, the second largest in Latin America, and the largest Spanish-speaking nation. It is subdivided into twenty-three provinces (Spanish: provincias, singular provincia) and one autonomous city (ciudad autónoma), Buenos Aires, which is the federal capital of the nation (Spanish: Capital Federal) as decided by Congress.[11] The provinces and the capital have their own constitutions, but exist under a federal system. Argentina claims sovereignty over part of Antarctica, the Falkland Islands ( ...more...

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United States Constitution

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United States Constitution

The United States Constitution is the supreme law of the United States.[1] The Constitution, originally comprising seven articles, delineates the national frame of government. Its first three articles embody the doctrine of the separation of powers, whereby the federal government is divided into three branches: the legislative, consisting of the bicameral Congress; the executive, consisting of the President; and the judicial, consisting of the Supreme Court and other federal courts. Articles Four, Five and Six embody concepts of federalism, describing the rights and responsibilities of state governments and of the states in relationship to the federal government. Article Seven establishes the procedure subsequently used by the thirteen States to ratify it. It is regarded as the oldest written and codified constitution in force of the world.[2] Since the Constitution came into force in 1789, it has been amended 27 times, including an amendment to repeal a previous one[3], in order to meet the changing needs o ...more...

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Indian National Congress

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Indian National Congress

The Indian National Congress ( pronunciation ) (INC, often called Congress) is a broadly based political party in India.[11] Founded in 1885, it was the first modern nationalist movement to emerge in the British Empire in Asia and Africa.[a][12] From the late 19th century, and especially after 1920, under the leadership of Mahatma Gandhi, Congress became the principal leader of the Indian independence movement, with over 15 million members and over 70 million participants.[13] Congress led India to independence from Great Britain,[b][14][c][15] and powerfully influenced other anti-colonial nationalist movements in the British Empire.[d][12] Congress is a secular party whose social liberal platform is generally considered to be on the centre-left of Indian politics.[16] Congress' social policy is based upon the Gandhian principle of Sarvodaya—the lifting up of all sections of society—which involves the improvement of the lives of economically underprivileged and socially marginalised people.[17] The party pri ...more...

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Viceroys in China

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Viceroys in China

Map of viceroys in Qing Dynasty of China Shang Kexi, known to the Dutch as the "Old Viceroy" of Guangdong, drawn by Johan Nieuhof in 1655 Zongdu (Tsung-tu; simplified Chinese: 总督; traditional Chinese: 總督; pinyin: Zǒngdū; Wade–Giles: Tsung3-tu1; Manchu: Uheri kadalara amban), usually translated as Viceroy or Governor-General, governed one or more provinces of China during the Ming and Qing dynasties. The title was first used use during the Ming dynasty (1368–1644). One of the most important was the Viceroy of Zhili (Chihli), since it encompassed the imperial capital. Yuan Shikai, later president of Republican China, held this office. Ming Dynasty During the Ming Dynasty, the post of zongdu was originally an ad hoc appointment for military inspectors, especially along the northern border. As a temporary appointment, it had no fixed rank within the nine-rank system. It was during the Chenghua era, in 1469, that the Viceroy of Liangguang first became a regular appointment; subsequently the post gained ...more...

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