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Viceroy

A viceroy is a regal official who runs a country, colony, city, province, or sub-national state, in the name of and as the representative of the monarch of the territory. The term derives from the Latin prefix vice-, meaning "in the place of" and the French word roi, meaning "king". A viceroy's territory may be called a viceroyalty, though this term is not always applied. The adjectival form is viceregal,[1] less often viceroyal.[2] The term vicereine is sometimes used to indicate a female viceroy suo jure, although viceroy can serve as a gender-neutral term.[3] Vicereine is more commonly used to indicate a viceroy's wife.[3]

Spanish Empire

The title was originally used by the Crown of Aragon; where beginning in the 14th century, it referred to the Spanish governors of Sardinia and Corsica. After the unification, at the end of the 15th century, later kings of Spain came to appoint numerous viceroys to rule over various parts of the increasingly vast Spanish Empire in Europe, the Americas, and overseas elsewhere.

In Europe

In Europe, until the 18th century, the Habsburg crown appointed viceroys of Aragon, Valencia, Catalonia, Navarre, Portugal, Sardinia, Sicily, and Naples. With the ascension of the House of Bourbon to the Spanish throne, the historic Aragonese viceroyalties were replaced by new captaincies general. At the end of War of the Spanish Succession, the Spanish monarchy was shorn of its Italian possessions. These Italian territories, however, continued to have viceroys under their new rulers for some time; Sardinia would have a viceroy until 1848.

In the Americas

The Americas were incorporated into the Crown of Castile. With the Spanish colonization of the Americas, the institution of viceroys was adapted to govern the highly populated and wealthy regions of the north overseas: New Spain (Mexico and Philippines) and the south overseas: Peru and South America. The viceroys of these two areas had oversight over the other provinces, with most of the North American, Central American, Caribbean and East Indian areas supervised by the viceroy in Mexico City and the South American ones by the viceroy in Lima, (with the exception of most of today's Venezuela, which was overseen by the high court, or Audiencia of Santo Domingo on the island of Hispaniola for most of the colonial period). These large administrative territories became known as Viceroyalties (Spanish term: Virreinatos). There were only two New World viceroyalties until the 18th century, when the new Bourbon Dynasty established two additional viceroyalties to promote economic growth and new settlements on South America. New viceroyalties were created for New Granada in 1717 (capital, Bogotá) and the Río de la Plata in 1776 (capital, Buenos Aires).

The viceroyalties of the Spanish Americas and the Spanish East Indies were subdivided into smaller, autonomous units, the Audiencias (tribunal with the authority to judge), and the Captaincies General (military districts), which in most cases became the bases for the independent countries of modern Hispanic America. These units gathered the local provinces which could be governed by either a crown official, a corregidor (sometimes alcalde mayor) or by a cabildo or town council. Audiencias primarily functioned as superior judicial tribunals, but unlike their European counterparts, the New World audiencias were granted by law both administrative and legislative powers. Captaincies General were primarily military districts set up in areas with a risk of foreign or Indian attack, but the captains general were usually given political powers over the provinces under their command. Because the long distances to the viceregal capital would hamper effective communication, both audiencias and captains general were authorized to communicate directly with the crown through the Council of the Indies. The Bourbon Reforms introduced the new office of the intendant, which was appointed directly by the crown and had broad fiscal and administrative powers in political and military issues.

See also:

Portuguese Empire
India

The title of Viceroy being awarded to members of the nobility, Viceroys, Governors and Governing Commissions were many times interleaved until the last Viceroy Afonso, Prince Royal of Portugal, in 1896. From 1505 to 1896 Portuguese India – the name "India" and the official name "Estado da India" (State of India) including all Portuguese possessions in the Indian Ocean, from southern Africa to Southeast Asia and Australasia, until 1752- was governed either by a Viceroy (Portuguese Vice-Rei) or Governor from its headquarters, in Goa since 1510. The government started six years after the discovery of sea route to India by Vasco da Gama, in 1505, under first Viceroy Francisco de Almeida (b.1450–d.1510). Initially, King Manuel I of Portugal tried a power distribution with three governors in different areas of jurisdiction: a government covering the area and possessions in East Africa, Arabian Peninsula and Persian Gulf, overseeing up Cambay (Gujarat); a second one ruling the possessions in India (Hindustan) and Ceylon, and a third one from Malacca to the Far East.[4] However the post was centered by governor Afonso de Albuquerque (1509–1515), who became plenipotentiary, and remained so. The duration in office was usually three years, possibly longer, given the power represented: of the thirty-four governors of India in the 16th century, only six had longer mandates.[5]

Portugal

During some periods of the Iberian Union, between 1580 and 1640, the King of Spain, who was also King of Portugal, appointed Viceroys to govern Portugal itself, as the king had multiple realms throughout Europe and delegated his powers to various viceroys.

Brazil

After the end of the Iberian Union in 1640, the governors of Brazil that were members of the Portuguese high nobility started to use the title of Viceroy.[6] Brazil became a permanent Viceroyalty in 1763, when the capital of the State of Brazil (Estado do Brasil) was transferred from Salvador to Rio de Janeiro.[7]

British Empire
British India

Following the adoption of the Act that transferred the government of India from the East India Company to the Crown in 1858, the Governor-General as representing the Crown became known as the Viceroy. The designation "Viceroy", although it was most frequently used in ordinary parlance, had no statutory authority, and was never employed by Parliament. Although the Proclamation of 1858 announcing the assumption of the government of India by the Crown referred to Lord Canning as "first Viceroy and Governor-General", none of the Warrants appointing his successors referred to them as 'viceroys', and the title, which was frequently used in warrants dealing with precedence and in public notifications, was basically one of ceremony used in connection with the state and social functions of the sovereign's representative. The Governor-General continued to be the sole representative of the Crown, and the Government of India continued to be vested in the Governor-General-in-Council.[8]

The viceroys reported directly to the Secretary of State for India in London and were advised by the Council of India. They were largely unencumbered in the exercise of their authority and were among the most powerful men on earth in the Victorian and Edwardian eras, ruling over an entire subcontinent and with a large military force at their disposal in the form of the British Indian Army. Under the terms of the Government of India Act 1919, viceroys shared some limited aspects of their authority with the Central Legislative Assembly, one of the first steps of reform as India progressed towards home rule under the Government of India Act 1935, independence as a Dominion in 1947, and ultimately the establishment of a republic in 1950.

Alongside the Commander-in-Chief, India, the viceroy was the public face of the British presence in India, attending to many ceremonial functions as well as political affairs. As the representative of the Emperors and Empresses of India, who were also the kings and queens of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland, the viceroy served as the grand master of the two principal chivalric orders of British India: the Order of the Star of India and the Order of the Indian Empire.

Louis Mountbatten, last viceroy of India

During the office's history, the Governors-General of India were based in two cities: Calcutta during the 19th century and New Delhi during the 20th century. Additionally, whilst Calcutta was the capital of British India, the viceroys spent the summer months at Simla. The two historic residences of the viceroys still stand: the Viceroy's House in New Delhi and Government House in Calcutta. They are used today as the official residences of the President of India and the Governor of West Bengal, respectively. The portraits of the Governors-General still hang in a room on the ground floor of the Presidential Palace, one of the last vestiges of both the viceroys and the British Raj.[9]

Notable Governors-General of India include Warren Hastings, Lord Cornwallis, Lord Curzon, The Earl of Minto, Lord Chelmsford, and Lord Mountbatten. Lord Mountbatten served as the last Viceroy of British India, but continued on as the first Governor-General of the dominion of India.

Ireland

The Lords Lieutenant of Ireland were often referred to as "Viceroy" after 1700 until 1922, even though the Kingdom of Ireland had been merged in 1801 into the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland.

Commonwealth realms

The term has occasionally been applied to the governors-general of the Commonwealth Realms, for example Gough Whitlam in 1973 told the Australian House of Representatives: 'The Governor-General is the viceroy of the Queen of Australia'.[10]

The governor general of Canada, the lieutenant governors of the Canadian provinces and the governors-general of Australia and governors of the Australian states are viceroys in terms of the Balfour Declaration of 1926. The Australia Act 1986 also provide that all royal powers in Australia, except the actual appointment of the governor-general and the governors are exercisable by the viceregal representatives. The noun 'viceroy' is rarely used but the adjective 'viceregal' is standard usage.

Russian Empire

Namestnik (Russian: наме́стник, Russian pronunciation: ) was an office position in the history of the Russian Empire. It can be translated as "viceroy", "deputy", "lieutenant" (the broader sense of that word) or literally in place appointee. The term has two periods of usage, with different meanings.[11] [12] [13] [14] Namestnik replaced the obsolete position of voyevoda (ruler of krai or uyezd) by Peter I.

  • In the 12th–16th centuries, namestniks (more correctly knyaz namestniks, or "knyaz deputies") were in charge of local administration. In particular, they ruled uyezds.[15]
  • In the 18th–20th centuries, a namestnik was a person in charge of namestnichestvo, with plenipotentiary powers. The latter has traditionally been translated as viceroyalty and "namestnik" as viceroy or vicegerent (or, as a common blunder, "viceregent"). For example, Mikhail Vorontsov was namestnik of Bessarabia (1823–44) and of the Caucasus (1844–1854). Sometimes the term is confused with Governor General (генерал-губернатор). For example, during Vorontsov's term of office in Bessarabia, seven governor-generals were in, and at the same time he held the office of Governor General of New Russia. The following namestnik existed under the Romanov Emperors of Russia:[12] [16]

The Tsar Paul I's 1799 formation of the Russian-American Company obviated viceroys in the colonization of the northwestern New World.

Other viceroyalties
French colonies

New France, in present Canada, after a single Governor (24 July 1534 – 15 January 1541 Jacques Cartier) had Lieutenants-general and Viceroys 15 January 1541 – September 1543 Jean François de la Rocquet, sieur de Robervalle (c. 1500 – 1560), after September 1543 – 3 January 1578 Abandonment again 3 January 1578 – February 1606 Troilus de Mesgouez, marquis de la Roche-Mesgouez (died 1606) (viceroy and from 12 January 1598, lieutenant-general), February 1606 – 1614 Jean de Biencourt, sieur de Poutrincourt, baron de St. Just (1557–1615); next a series of Viceroys (resident in France) 8 October 1611 – 1672, later Governors and Governors-general.

Italian colonies

In Italian Viceré: The highest colonial representatives in the "federation" of Italian East Africa (six provinces, each under a governor; together Ethiopia, Eritrea and Italian Somaliland) were no longer styled "High Commissioner", but "Viceroy and Governor-general" from 5 May 1936, when Italian forces occupied Ethiopia, until 27 November 1941, when the last Italian administrator surrendered to the Allies. The Italian King Victor Emmanuel claimed the title of "Emperor of Ethiopia" (Nəgusä nägäst, "King of Kings") and declared himself to be a successor to the Nəgusä nägäst, even though Emperor Haile Selassie I continued to hold this title while in exile, and resumed his actual, physical throne on 5 May 1941.

On 7 April 1939, Italy invaded the Kingdom of Albania (today Albania). As Viceré of Albania of Victor Emmanuel III of Italy were the Marchese Francesco Jacomoni di San Savino and after his departure General Alberto Pariani.

Ban of Bosnia

Ban Borić was the first ruler and Viceroy of Bosnia, appointed by Géza II of Hungary by 1154. His war affairs are documented as he fought several notable battles.[19] He also maintained ties with knights Templar and donated lands in Bosnia and Slavonia to their Order.[20] His own biological brother Dominic was on record as a knight Templar.[21]

Ban of Croatia

From the earliest medieval period in the Kingdom of Croatia, the position of viceroy was held by Ban of Croatia who acted as king's representative in Croatian lands and supreme commander of Croatian army. In the 18th century, Croatian bans eventually become chief government officials in Croatia. They were at the head of Ban's Government, effectively the first prime ministers of Croatia. The last ban held his position until 1941 and the collapse of Yugoslavia in World War II.

Ancient antecedents

An equivalent office, called the Exarch, was created in the Byzantine or Eastern Roman Empire towards the end of the sixth century for governors of important areas too far from the imperial capital of Constantinople to receive regular instruction or reinforcement. The chosen governors of these provinces were empowered to act in place of the monarch (hence ex-arch) with more discretion and autonomy than was granted other categories of governor. This was an extraordinary break from the centralized traditions of the Roman Empire and was an early example of the principle of Viceroyalty.

Non-Western counterparts

As with many princely and administrative titles, viceroy is often used, generally unofficially, to render somewhat equivalent titles and offices in non-western cultures.

Africa

In cultures all over the continent of Africa, the role of viceroy has been subsumed into a hereditary noble as opposed to strictly administrative position. In the Arabo-Berber north, for example, the title of Khalifa is often used by individuals who derive their authority to rule from someone else in much the same way as a viceroy would. Elsewhere, subordinate inkosis under the rule of a paramount chief like the King of the Zulu Nation of Southern Africa or subordinate baales in the realms of the reigning obas of West African Yorubaland continue to occupy statutorily recognized positions in the contemporary countries of South Africa and Nigeria as the customary representatives of their respective principals in the various areas that are under their immediate control.

Maratha Empire, India

Marathas from the time of Shivaji sent various empire insiders to run foreign parts such as Tamil Nadu, Gujarat, Madya Pradesh and Andra Paradesh, where the Maratha empire extended.

Ottoman Empire

The Khedive of Egypt, especially during the reign of Muhammad Ali Pasha (1805–1848). This officer established an almost autonomous regime in Egypt, which officially still was under Ottoman rule. Although Mehemet Ali/Muhammad Ali used different symbols to mark his independence from the Sublime Porte, he never openly declared himself independent. Adopting the title of viceroy was yet another way to walk the thin line between challenging the Sultan's power explicitly and respecting his jurisdiction. Muhammad Ali Pasha's grandson, Ismail Pasha, subsequently received the title of Khedive which was almost an equivalent to viceroy.[22]

Vietnamese Empire

The post of Tổng Trấn (governor of all military provinces) was a political post in the early period of the Vietnamese Nguyễn Dynasty (1802–1830). From 1802, under the reign of emperor Gia Long, there were two Tổng Trấn who administered Vietnam's northern part named Bắc thành with administrative center in Hanoi and the southern part Gia Định thành with administrative center in Gia Định, while Nguyen emperors ruled only the central region Kinh Kỳ from capital Phú Xuân. Tổng Trấn is sometimes translated to English as viceroy.[23] In 1830, emperor Minh Mạng abolished the post in order to increase the imperial direct ruling power in all over Vietnam.

Chinese Empires

During the Han, Ming and Qing dynasties, there existed positions of viceroys having control over various provinces (e.g., Liangguang = Guangdong and Guangxi, Huguang = Hubei and Hunan).

Siam

In Siam before 1885, the title was used for the heir-apparent (Thai: กรมพระราชวังบวรสถานมงคล) The title was abolished and replaced with that of the Crown Prince of Siam.

See also
Notes
  1. "viceregal". OxfordDictionariesOnline.com. Retrieved 22 November 2014.
  2. "Viceroyal, a", The Oxford English Dictionary, 2nd ed. 1989, OED Online, Oxford University Press, 4 April 2000 http://dictionary.oed.com/cgi/entry/50277245>
  3. "vicereine". OxfordDictionariesOnline.com. Retrieved 22 November 2014.
  4. O Secretário dos despachos e coisas da Índia pero d´Alcáçova Carneiro, p.65, Maria Cecília Costa Veiga de Albuquerque Ramos, Universidade de Lisboa, 2009 (In Portuguese) http://repositorio.ul.pt/bitstream/10451/3387/1/ulfl080844_tm.pdf>
  5. Diffie, Bailey W. and George D. Winius (1977), "Foundations of the Portuguese Empire, 1415–1580", p.323-325, Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press. David Tan ISBN 0-8166-0782-6.
  6. A. J. R. Russell-Wood,"The Portuguese empire, 1415–1808: a world on the move", p. 66, JHU Press, 1998, ISBN 0-8018-5955-7
  7. Boris Fausto, "A concise history of Brazil", p.50, Cambridge University Press, 1999, ISBN 0-521-56526-X
  8. Imperial Gazetteer of India, Clarendon Press, Oxford, New Edition 1909, vol 4, p. 16.
  9. Nath, Aman, "Dome Over India", India Book House Ltd. ISBN 81-7508-352-2.
  10. Gough Whitlam, The Truth of the Matter, (1979)
  11. Public Domain This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domainBrockhaus and Efron Encyclopedic Dictionary (in Russian). 1906.
  12. Kli͡uchevskiĭ, V. O. (Vasiliĭ Osipovich); Duddington, Natalie. (1994). A course in Russian history—the seventeenth century. Armonk, N.Y.: M.E. Sharpe. ISBN 1-56324-317-2.
  13. Larin, A. K. (2004). Gosudarev namestnik : istoricheskai͡a povestʹ o M.N. Krechetnikov. Kaluga: Zolotai͡a allei͡a. ISBN 5-7111-0347-4.
  14. "hrono.ru: namestnik". Retrieved 19 January 2010.
  15. (in Russian) Тархов, Сергей, "Изменение административно-территориального деления России в XIII-XX в." (pdf), Логос, #1 2005 (46), ISSN 0869-5377
  16. Ledonne, John P. (January–March 2002). "Administrative Regionalization in the Russian Empire 1802–1826". Cahiers du Monde russe. pp. 5–33. Retrieved 19 January 2010.
  17. Thomas Mitchell, Handbook for Travellers in Russia, Poland, and Finland, 1888, p. 460. Google Print [1]
  18. КАВКАЗ
  19. The Late Medieval Balkans: A Critical Survey from the Late Twelfth Century
  20. Judith Mary Upton-Ward, H.J.A. Sire. "24. The Priory of Vrana". The Military Orders: On Land and by Sea. p. 221.
  21. Magyar Országos Levéltár
  22. Encyclopædia Britannica: Ismail Pasha, Ottoman Viceroy of Egypt and New Spain
  23. Philip Taylor (2004), Goddess on the rise: pilgrimage and popular religion in Vietnam, University of Hawaii Press, p. 36.
Sources
  • Aznar, Daniel/Hanotin, Guillaume/May, Niels F. (dir.), À la place du roi. Vice-rois, gouverneurs et ambassadeurs dans les monarchies française et espagnole (XVIe-XVIIIe siècles). Madrid: Casa de Velázquez, 2014.
  • Elliott, J. H., Imperial Spain, 1469–1716. London: Edward Arnold, 1963.
  • Fisher, Lillian Estelle. Viceregal Administration in the Spanish American Colonies. Berkeley, University of California Press, 1926.
  • Harding, C. H., The Spanish Empire in America. New York: Oxford University Press, 1947.
  • Public Domain This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domainBrockhaus and Efron Encyclopedic Dictionary (in Russian). 1906.
Further reading
  • Andrada (undated). The Life of Dom John de Castro: The Fourth Vice Roy of India. Jacinto Freire de Andrada. Translated into English by Peter Wyche. (1664) Henry Herrington, New Exchange, London. Facsimile edition (1994) AES Reprint, New Delhi. ISBN 81-206-0900-X.
  • (in Russian) hrono.ru: namestnik
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Viceroy's commissioned officer

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A viceroy's commissioned officer (VCO) was a senior Indian member of the British Indian Army. VCOs were senior in rank to warrant officers in the British Army, and held a commission issued by the viceroy. Also known as "Indian officers" or "native officers", they were treated in almost all respects as commissioned officers, but only had authority over Indian troops and were subordinate to all British King's (and Queen's) commissioned officers and King's commissioned Indian officers. These ranks were created to facilitate effective liaison between the British officers and their native troops. The soldiers who were promoted to VCO rank had long service and good service records, spoke reasonably fluent English, and could act as a common liaison point between officers and men and as advisers to the British officers on Indian affairs. VCOs were treated and addressed with respect. Even a British officer would address a VCO as, for instance, "subedar sahib" or "sahib". Ranks held by VCOs were: Cavalry regiment ...more...



Thutmose

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or or Thutmose in hieroglyphs Thutmose (also rendered Thutmoses , Thutmosis , Tuthmose , Tutmosis , Thothmes , Tuthmosis , Djhutmose , etc.) is an Anglicization of the Egyptian name d hwty-ms, usually translated as "Born of the god Thoth ". It may refer to several individuals from the 18th Dynasty: Thutmose I (16th-century–c. 1490 BC), third pharaoh of the Eighteenth Dynasty Thutmose II (fl. 1493–1479 BC), fourth pharaoh Thutmose III (fl. 1479–1425 BC), sixth pharaoh Thutmose IV (died 14th-century BC), eighth pharaoh Thutmose (18th-dynasty vizier) , Vizier during the reign of Thutmose IV Crown Prince Thutmose , the elder brother of Pharaoh Akhenaten Thutmose (sculptor) (fl. 1350 BC), Akhenaten's court sculptor at Amarna, to whom is attributed the famous Berlin bust of Nefertiti Thutmose (19th-dynasty vizier) , Vizier during the latter part of the reign of Ramesses II during the 19th dynasty Tuthmose (Viceroy of Kush) , the Viceroy of Kush during the reign of Akhenaten or or Thutmose in hieroglyphs Thutmose (a ...more...



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Blasco Núñez Vela

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Blasco Núñez Vela y Villalba (c. 1490 – January 18, 1546) was the first Spanish viceroy of Peru . Serving from May 15, 1544 to January 18, 1546, he was charged by Charles V with the enforcement of the controversial New Laws , which dealt with the failure of the encomienda system to protect the indigenous people of America from the rapacity of the conquistadors and their descendants. Origins Núñez Vela was a native of Ávila , born into an ancient and noble family. The Núñez Vela family, lords of Tabadillo, lived in this area from at least 1403. He was a descendant of Don Pedro Nuñez de la Fuente Almexir (Fuentearmegil) the loyal, who saved the life of the King of Castile , Alfonso VIII in 1163. He was a knight of the Order of Santiago and corregidor of Málaga and Cuenca , Spain, and devoted to the service of the king. One of his brothers was lord of the bedchamber to the king, and another was archbishop of Burgos. Although honest, loyal and courageous, Núñez was also very hot headed. Appointment as viceroy In ...more...



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Minister of the Crown is a formal constitutional term used in Commonwealth realms to describe a minister to the reigning sovereign or their viceroy . The term indicates that the minister serves at His/Her Majesty's pleasure , and advises the sovereign or viceroy on how to exercise the Crown prerogatives relative to the minister's department or ministry . Ministries In Commonwealth realms, the sovereign or viceroy is formally advised by a larger body known as a privy council or executive council , though, in practice, they are advised by a subset of such councils: the collective body of ministers of the Crown called the ministry . The ministry should not be confused with the cabinet, as ministers of the Crown may be outside a cabinet. The following is a list of the present ministries or ministers of the Crown of several Commonwealth realms: 71st Australian Ministry 6th Barbadian Ministry 97th British Ministry 29th Canadian Ministry 14th New Zealand Government History Ministers of the Crown in Commonwealth real ...more...



Tuthmose (Viceroy of Kush)

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Tuthmose was the Viceroy of Kush during the reign of Akhenaten. Tuthmose was given the titles King’s Son of Kush, Overseer of the Gold Lands of Amun, Overseer of masons, Overseer of the borderlands of His Majesty, and Fan-bearer on the King's right. In year 12 of Akhenaten, Tuthmose was ordered to put down a rebellion by some of the Nubians, according to a stela set up at Buhen. Here were found the fragments of the stela. mentioning this rebellion and a viceroy of Kush. The latters name is lost but it seems likely that it was Tuthmose as he is so far the only known viceroy of Kush datable under Akhenaten. References George A. Reisner, "The Viceroys of Ethiopia", Journal of Egyptian Archaeology 6, No. 1. (Jan., 1920), pp. 38-39. H. S. Smith: The Fortress of Buhen, The Inscriptions, London 1976, ISBN 0307-5109, pp. 124-129, plates XXIX, LXXV, 3,4 Tuthmose was the Viceroy of Kush during the reign of Akhenaten. Tuthmose was given the titles King’s Son of Kush, Overseer of the Gold Lands of Amun, Ove ...more...



Francisco de Almeida

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Gujarat under Muhammad Shah

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The Mughal Empire 's province Gujarat (now in India) was managed by the viceroys appointed by the emperors. The emperor Farrukhsiyar was deposed by influential Sayad brothers in 1719. He was succeeded by the short reigns of Rafi ud-Darajat and Shah Jahan II . Finally Muhammad Shah was raised to the throne by them. To make peace with powerful vassal, he appointed Ajítsingh of Márwár as a viceroy. The Maratha incursions continued and Píláji Gáikwár established himself at Songad near southern border of Gujarat. Ajit Singh had appointed Anopsingh Bhandari as his deputy. For helping to depose the influential Sayad brothers, Haidar Kúli Khán was appointed the next viceroy. People discontent with Anopsingh rejoiced his appointment but he tried to make himself free so he was recalled. Nizám-ul-Mulk took over who had to face the Maratha incursion again. The Marathas taking advantage of weakening Mughal Empire started extracting tribute from Gujarat regularly. The next viceroy Sarbuland Khan came in conflict with the M ...more...



Edwina Mountbatten, Countess Mountbatten of Burma

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Edwina Cynthia Annette Mountbatten, Countess Mountbatten of Burma, CI, GBE, DCVO, GCStJ (née Ashley; 28 November 1901 – 21 February 1960) was an English heiress, socialite, relief worker and the last Vicereine of India as wife of Louis Mountbatten, 1st Earl Mountbatten of Burma. Lineage and wealth She was born in 1901, the elder daughter of Wilfred William Ashley, later 1st Baron Mount Temple (of the 1932 creation), who was a Conservative Member of Parliament. Edwina Ashley was patrilineally descended from the Earls of Shaftesbury who had been ranked as baronets since 1622 and ennobled as barons in 1661. She was a great-granddaughter of the reformist 7th Earl of Shaftesbury through his younger son, The Hon. Evelyn Melbourne Ashley (1836–1907) and his wife, Sybella Farquhar (d. 1886), a granddaughter of the 6th Duke of Beaufort. From this cadet branch, the Ashley-Cooper peers would inherit the estates of Broadlands (Hampshire, England) and Classiebawn Castle (County Sligo, Ireland). Ashley's mother was A ...more...



Tulip mania

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A tulip, known as "the Viceroy" (viseroij), displayed in the 1637 Dutch catalog Verzameling van een Meenigte Tulipaanen. Its bulb was offered for sale between 3,000 and 4,200 guilders (florins) depending on size (aase). A skilled craftsworker at the time earned about 300 guilders a year. Tulip mania (Dutch: tulpenmanie) was a period in the Dutch Golden Age during which contract prices for some bulbs of the recently introduced and fashionable tulip reached extraordinarily high levels and then dramatically collapsed in February 1637. It is generally considered the first recorded speculative bubble; although some researchers have noted that the Kipper und Wipper (literally Tipper and See-saw) episode in 1619–1622, a Europe-wide chain of debasement of the metal content of coins to fund warfare featured mania-like similarities to a bubble. In many ways, the tulip mania was more of a hitherto unknown socio-economic phenomenon than a significant economic crisis. And historically, it had no critical influence on t ...more...



Gaspar de Zúñiga, 5th Count of Monterrey

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Gaspar de Zúñiga Acevedo y Fonseca, 5th Count of Monterrey ( Spanish : Gaspar de Zúñiga Acevedo y Fonseca, quinto conde de Monterrey ) (1560 – March 16, 1606, Peru ), Spanish nobleman, the ninth viceroy of New Spain . He governed from November 5, 1595 to October 26, 1603. From January 18, 1604 until his death in 1606, he was viceroy of Peru. Early service De Zúñiga y Acevedo was born the eldest son of the fourth Count of Monterrei, Géronimo de Acevedo y Zúñiga . He studied in Monterrei under the direction of Jesuit priests. In 1578 he entered the service of King Philip II . He participated in the Portuguese campaign, where he led the Galician militia, paying them out of his own pocket. De Zúñiga y Acevedo also took part in the defense of the port of A Coruña when it was attacked by the English corsair Francis Drake in 1589. As viceroy of New Spain On May 28, 1595, de Zúñiga y Acevedo was nominated viceroy of New Spain. He arrived in the colony, at Veracruz , in mid-September, as the successor to Viceroy Luis ...more...



Opel Commodore

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The Opel Commodore was an executive car ( E-segment ) produced by Opel from 1967 to 1982. It is the six-cylinder variant of the Rekord with styling differences. The Commodore nameplate was used by Opel from 1967 to 1982. However, its nameplate /lineage continues with the Australian Holden Commodore . The last generation was sold in the United Kingdom primarily as the Vauxhall Viceroy although Opel models were also sold. Commodore A (1967–1971) The Opel Commodore A was manufactured from 1967 to 1971, based on the Rekord C. After having offered a Rekord-6 powered by a 2.6 L 6-cylinder engine since March 1964, Opel in February 1967 launched the Commodore as a faster up-market version of the Rekord . The Commodore was initially available with the known A 2.2-litre six or a larger 2.5 L engine developing 115 PS (85 kW) with a single carburettor. Body styles comprised a two-door or four-door notchback saloon and a two-door hardtop / fastback coupé . In September 1967 the sporty Commodore GS offering 130 hp (96 kW ...more...



Viceroyalty of Peru

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The Viceroyalty of Peru (Spanish: Virreinato del Perú ) was a Spanish colonial administrative district, created in 1542, that originally contained most of Spanish-ruled South America, governed from the capital of Lima . The Viceroyalty of Peru was one of the two Spanish Viceroyalties in the Americas from the sixteenth to the eighteenth centuries. The Spanish did not resist the Portuguese expansion of Brazil across the meridian established by the Treaty of Tordesillas . The treaty was rendered meaningless between 1580 and 1640 while Spain controlled Portugal . The creation during the 18th century of Viceroyalties of New Granada and Rio de la Plata (at the expense of Peru's territory) reduced the importance of Lima and shifted the lucrative Andean trade to Buenos Aires , while the fall of the mining and textile production accelerated the progressive decay of the Viceroyalty of Peru. Eventually, the viceroyalty would dissolve, as with much of the Spanish empire, when challenged by national independence movements ...more...



Zuo Zongtang

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Zuo Zongtang, Marquis Kejing (also romanised as Tso Tsung-t'ang ; ; 10 November 1812 – 5 September 1885), sometimes referred to as General Tso , was a Chinese statesman and military leader of the late Qing dynasty . Born in Xiangyin County , Hunan Province , Zuo sat for the imperial examination in his youth but obtained only a juren degree . He then spent his time studying agriculture, geography and military strategy. In 1851, he started his career in the Qing military by participating in the campaign against the Taiping Rebellion . In 1862, he was recommended by Zeng Guofan to serve as the provincial governor of Zhejiang Province . During his term, he coordinated Qing forces to attack the Taiping rebels with support from British and French forces. For this success, he was promoted to Viceroy of Min-Zhe . After capturing Hangzhou from the Taiping rebels in 1864, he was enfeoffed as a first class count . In 1866, as part of the Qing government's Self-Strengthening Movement , Zuo oversaw the construction of the ...more...



List of viceroys of Portugal

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This is a list of the Viceroys of Portugal during the Iberian Union (1580–1640). According to what was established in the Cortes of Tomar in 1581, the regency of the Kingdom of Portugal always had to be trusted by the king to a Portuguese, or in alternative to a member of the Royal Family. This was, in a general way, fulfilled, having during two periods the regency been trusted to a governmental council called Government Junta of the Kingdom of Portugal. 1580 : Fernando Álvarez de Toledo, 3rd Duke of Alba 1583 : Albert VII, Archduke of Austria 1593 : First Government Junta: Miguel de Castro, Archbishop of Lisbon João da Silva, Count of Portalegre Francisco de Mascarenhas Duarte Castelo-Branco, Count of Sabugal Miguel de Moura 1600 : Cristóvão de Moura, 1st Marquis of Castelo Rodrigo (1st time) 1603 : Afonso Castelo-Branco, Bishop of Coimbra 1605 : Pedro Castilho, Bishop of Leiria 1608 : Cristóvão de Moura, Marquess of Castelo Rodrigo (2nd time) 1612 : Aleixo de Meneses, Bishop of Guarda 1615 : ...more...



Governor General of Canada

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The Governor General of Canada ( French : Gouverneure générale du Canada ) is the federal viceregal representative of the Canadian monarch , currently Queen   Elizabeth II . The person of the sovereign is shared equally both with the 15 other Commonwealth realms and the 10 provinces of Canada , but resides predominantly in her oldest realm, the United Kingdom . Because of this, the Queen, on the advice of her Canadian prime minister , appoints a governor general to carry out most of her constitutional and ceremonial duties . The commission is for an unfixed period of time—known as serving at Her Majesty's pleasure —though five years is the normal convention. Beginning in 1959, it has also been traditional to rotate between anglophone and francophone incumbents —although many recent governors general have been bilingual. Once in office, the governor general maintains direct contact with the Queen, wherever she may be at the time. The office began in the 16th and 17th centuries with the Crown-appointed governo ...more...



Li Hongzhang

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Nanjing Jinling Arsenal (金陵造局), built by Li Hongzhang in 1865, during the Self-Strengthening Movement Portrait of Li Hongzhang, 1871 Li Hongzhang with Lord Salisbury and Lord Curzon Photographic portrait of Li Hongzhang by Baoji Studio, Shanghai. Date unknown. Woodcut of Li Hongzhang with Otto von Bismarck in Friedrichsruh in 1896. Li Hongzhang, Marquis Suyi (also romanised as Li Hung-chang ) (15 February 1823 – 7 November 1901), GCVO , was a Chinese politician, general and diplomat of the late Qing dynasty . He quelled several major rebellions and served in important positions in the Qing imperial court, including the Viceroy of Zhili , Huguang and Liangguang . Although he was best known in the West for his generally pro-modern stance and importance as a negotiator, Li antagonised the British with his support of Russia as a foil against Japanese expansionism in Manchuria and fell from favour with the Chinese after their defeat in the First Sino-Japanese War . His image in China remains controversial, with cr ...more...



Sher Ali Afridi

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Sher Ali Afridi also called Shere Ali , was the murderer of Lord Mayo , Viceroy of India on 8 February 1872. He was a prisoner at Andaman and Nicobar Islands at the time. Early life Sher Ali worked for the British administration in the Punjab Mounted Police during the 1860s. He came from the Tirah valley in Khyber Agency (now a Federally Administered Tribal Area) and worked for the Commissioner of Peshawar. He served the British in Ambala in a cavalry regiment He served in the Indian army in Rohilkhand and Oudh during the Indian Rebellion of 1857 , that is, the Indian Soldiers serving the East India Company). He worked under Major Hugh James as a cavalry trooper in Peshawar and as a mounted orderly for Reynell Taylor , who awarded Sher Ali with a horse, pistol and certificate. Due to his good character, Sher Ali was popular among Europeans and was taking care of Taylor's children. In a family feud, he killed one of his relatives named Hydur at Peshawar in broad daylight and although he pleaded innocenc ...more...



Indian Councils Act 1861

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The Indian Councils Act 1861 was an Act of the Parliament of the United Kingdom that transformed the Viceroy of India 's executive council into a cabinet run on the portfolio system. This cabinet had six "ordinary members", who each took charge of a separate department in Calcutta 's government: home, revenue, military, law, finance, and (after 1874) public works. The military Commander-in-Chief sat in with the council as an extraordinary member. The Executive Council was enlarged by addition of fifth member. The Viceroy was allowed, under the provisions of the Act, to overrule the council on affairs if he deemed it necessary, as was the case in 1879, during the tenure of Lord Lytton . The Viceroy was allowed to issue ordinances lasting six months if the Legislative Council is not in session in an emergency. The Secretary of State for India , Sir Charles Wood , believed that the Act was of immense importance: "the act is a great experiment. That everything is changing in India is obvious enough, and that the ...more...



List of viceroys of Sicily

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This is a list of viceroys of Sicily: Aragonese direct rule 1409–1516 John of Aragon, Duke of Peñafiel, later king John II of Aragon, 1458–1479, acted 1409 -1416. Domingo Ram y Lanaja, Bishop of Lleida 1416–1419 Antoni de Cardona 1419–1421 (1st term) Giovanni de Podio 1421–1422 Niccolò Speciale 1423–1424 (1st term) Peter, infans of Aragón 1424–1425 Giovanni I Ventimiglia, count-marquis of Geraci 1430 - 1432 Niccolò Speciale 1425–1431 (2nd term subordinately at Peter of Aragon and Giovanni Ventimiglia) Pedro Felice 1432–1433 direct rule of King Alfonso V 1433–1435 Ruggero Paruta 1435–1439 Bernat de Requesens 1439–1440 (1st term) Gilabert de Centelles y de Cabrera 1440–1441 Raimundo Perellós 1441–1443 Lope Ximénez de Urrea y de Bardaixi 1443–1459 (1st term) Juan de Moncayo 1459–1463 Bernat de Requesens 1463–1465 (2nd term) Lope Ximénez de Urrea y de Bardaixi 1465–1475 (2nd term) Guillermo Pujades 1475–1477 Juan Ramón Folch de Cardona y Ximenez de Arenós, Count of Pradés 1477–1479 Gaspar ...more...



Viceroyalty of the Río de la Plata

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The Viceroyalty of the Río de la Plata ( Spanish : Virreinato del Río de la Plata , also called Viceroyalty of the River Plate in some scholarly writings) was the last to be organized and also the shortest-lived of the Viceroyalties of the Spanish Empire in the Americas . The Viceroyalty was established in 1776 from several former Viceroyalty of Perú dependencies that mainly extended over the Río de la Plata Basin , roughly the present-day territories of Argentina , Bolivia , Paraguay and Uruguay , extending inland from the Atlantic Coast. Buenos Aires , located on the western shore of the Río de la Plata estuary flowing into the Atlantic Ocean, opposite the Portuguese outpost of Colonia del Sacramento , was chosen as the capital. Usually considered one of the late Bourbon Reforms , the organization of this viceroyalty was motivated on both commercial grounds (Buenos Aires was by then a major spot for illegal trade ), as well as on security concerns brought about by the growing interest of competing foreign p ...more...



Victor Hope, 2nd Marquess of Linlithgow

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Victor Alexander John Hope, 2nd Marquess of Linlithgow, KG, KT, FRSE, GCSI, GCIE, OBE (24 September 1887 – 5 January 1952) was a Scottish Unionist politician, agriculturalist and colonial administrator. He served as Governor-General and Viceroy of India from 1936 to 1943. He was usually referred to simply as Linlithgow. He served as vice president of the Royal Society of Edinburgh, Chancellor of the University of Edinburgh and Lord High Commissioner to the General Assembly of the Church of Scotland. Early life and family Hope was born at Hopetoun House, South Queensferry, Linlithgowshire, Scotland, on 24 September 1887. He was the eldest son of John Adrian Louis Hope, 7th Earl of Hopetoun, later 1st Marquess Linlithgow, and Hersey Everleigh-de-Moleyns, Countess of Hopetoun and later Marchioness of Linlithgow, daughter of the fourth Baron Ventry. His godmother was Queen Victoria. He was educated at Eton College and on 29 February 1908 succeeded his father as 2nd Marquess Linlithgow. In 1912, aged only ...more...



Project Tiger

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Logo of National Tiger Conservation Authority Project Tiger is a tiger conservation programme launched on 1 April 1973 by the Government of India during Prime Minister Indira Gandhi's tenure. The project aims at ensuring a viable population of Bengal tigers in their natural habitats and also to protect them from extinction, and preserving areas of biological importance as a natural heritage forever represented as close as possible the diversity of ecosystems across the tiger's distribution in the country. The project's task force visualized these tiger reserves as breeding nuclei, from which surplus animals would migrate to adjacent forests. The Funds and commitment were mastered to support the intensive program of habitat protection and rehabilitation under the project. The government has set up a Tiger Protection Force to combat poachers and funded relocation of villagers to minimize human-tiger conflicts. During the tiger census of 2006, a new methodology was used extrapolating site-specific den ...more...



List of viceroys of Sardinia

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This is a list of viceroys of Sardinia. Aragonese Viceroys From 1418 to 1516 Sardinia was ruled by viceroys from the Crown of Aragon, which merged into the Monarchy of Spain in 1516. 1. Lluís de Pontons (1418-1419) 2. Joan de Corbera (1419-1420) 3. Riambau de Corbera (1420-1421) 4. Bernat de Centelles (1421-1437) 5. Francesc d'Erill i de Centelles (1437-1448) 6. Nicolás Carroz de Arborea (1460-1479) 7. Pere Maça de Liçana i de Rocafull (1479) 8. Ximén Pérez Escrivá de Romaní (1479-1483) (first time) 9. Guillem de Peralta (1483-1484) Ximén Pérez Escrivá de Romaní (1484-1487) (second time) 10. Iñigo Lopez de Mendoza y Quiñones (1440 - 1515) 11. Juan Dusay (1491-1501) (first time) 12. Benito Gualbes (Interino) (1501-1502) Juan Dusay (1502-1507) (second time) 13. Jaume Amat i Tarré (1507-1508) 14. Fernando Girón de Rebolledo (1508-1515) 15. Àngel de Vilanova (1515-1529) Spanish direct rule, 1516–1714 Martín de Cabrera (1529-1532) Jaime de Aragall (interim) (1533) Francisco de Serra (inter ...more...



Yekatit 12

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Yekatit 12 is a date in the Ethiopian calendar, equivalent to 19 February in the Gregorian calendar, which is commonly used to refer to the indiscriminate massacre, known as the Addis Ababa massacre, and imprisonment of Ethiopians by elements of the Italian occupation forces following an attempted assassination of Marshal Rodolfo Graziani, Marchese di Neghelli, Viceroy of Italian East Africa, on 19 February 1937. Marshal The Marchese di Neghelli had led the Italian forces to victory over their Ethiopian opponents in the Second Italian invasion of Ethiopia and was supreme governor of Italian East Africa. This was one of the worst atrocities committed by the Italian occupation forces and has been described as the worst massacre in Ethiopian history. Estimates of the number of people killed in the three days that followed the attempt on the Marchese di Neghelli's life vary. Ethiopian sources afterwards estimated as many as 30,000 people were killed by the Italians, while Italian sources claimed only a few hund ...more...



Lin Zexu

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Lin Zexu (30 August 1785 – 22 November 1850), courtesy name Yuanfu , was a Chinese scholar-official of the Qing dynasty best known for his role in the First Opium War of 1839–42. He was from Fuzhou , Fujian Province . Lin's forceful opposition to the opium trade was a primary catalyst for the First Opium War. He is praised for his constant position on the "moral high ground" in his fight, but he is also blamed for a rigid approach which failed to account for the domestic and international complexities of the problem. The Daoguang Emperor endorsed the hardline policies advocated by Lin, but then blamed Lin for the resulting disastrous war. Early life and career Lin was born in Houguan (侯官; modern Fuzhou , Fujian Province ) towards the end of the Qianlong Emperor 's reign. His father, Lin Binri (林賓日), served as an official under the Qing government. He was the second son in the family. As a child, he was already "unusually brilliant". In 1811, he obtained the position of a jinshi in the imperial examination , ...more...



Eugène de Beauharnais

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Eugène Rose de Beauharnais, Duke of Leuchtenberg (3 September 1781 – 21 February 1824) was the first child and only son of Alexandre de Beauharnais and Joséphine Tascher de la Pagerie , first wife of Napoleon I . He was born in Paris , France , and became the stepson and adopted child (but not the heir to the imperial throne) of Napoleon I. His biological father was executed during the revolutionary Reign of Terror . He commanded the Army of Italy and was Viceroy of Italy under his stepfather. Historians consider him one of the ablest of Napoleon's relatives. Career Eugène c. 1800, Andrea Appiani . Napoleonic Italy c. 1810. Eugène's first campaign was in the Vendée , where he fought at Quiberon. However, within a year his mother Joséphine had arranged his return to Paris. In the Italian campaigns of 1796–1797, Eugène served as aide-de-camp to his stepfather, whom he also accompanied to Egypt . In Egypt, Eugène was wounded during the Siege of Acre (1799) and returned to France with Napoleon in the autumn of 17 ...more...



Gujarat under Mughal Empire

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In 1573, Akbar (1573-1605), the emperor of the Mughal Empire captured Gujarat (now a state in western India) by defeating Gujarat Sultanate under Muzaffar Shah III . Muzaffar tried to regain the Sultanate in 1584 but failed. Gujarat remained the Mughal province ( subah ) governed by the viceroys and officers appointed by the Mughal emperors from Delhi . Akbar's foster brother Mirza Aziz Kokaltash was appointed as the viceroy who strengthened Mughal hold over the region. The nobles of former Sultanate continued to resist and rebel during the reign of the next emperor Jehangir (1605-1627) but Kokaltash and his successor viceroys subdued them. Jehangir also permitted the British East India Company to establish factories in Surat and elsewhere in Gujarat. The next emperor Shah Jahan (1627-1658) expanded his terrotories in south and his viceroys made hold over Kathiawar peninsula including Nawanagar . Shah Jahan had also appointed his prince Aurangzeb , who was involved in religious disputes, prince Dara Shikoh an ...more...



Viceroy L'Ermitage Beverly Hills

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Viceroy L'Ermitage Beverly Hills is a luxury boutique hotel in Beverly Hills , California . The hotel is housed in what was formerly a condominium complex that was built in the 1970s, and provides 675-square-foot (62.7 m ) standard guestrooms. The hotel consists of 117 guest rooms and suites. The hotel offers a restaurant, bar, lounge and the services of The Spa at Viceroy L'Ermitage. External links Viceroy L'Ermitage Beverly Hills official website Viceroy Hotels and Resorts website Viceroy L'Ermitage Beverly Hills is a luxury boutique hotel in Beverly Hills , California . The hotel is housed in what was formerly a condominium complex that was built in the 1970s, and provides 675-square-foot (62.7 m ) standard guestrooms. The hotel consists of 117 guest rooms and suites. The hotel offers a restaurant, bar, lounge and the services of The Spa at Viceroy L'Ermitage. External links Viceroy L'Ermitage Beverly Hills official website Viceroy Hotels and Resorts website ...more...



Simla Conference

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At the Conference: Rajendra Prasad , Jinnah , C. Rajagopalachari and Maulana Azad The Shimla Conference 1945 was a meeting between the Viceroy and the major political leaders of British India at Simla , India . Convened to agree on and approve the Wavell Plan for Indian self-government, it reached a potential agreement for the self-rule of India that provided separate representation for Muslims and reduced majority powers for both communities in their majority regions. Talks, however, stalled on the issue of selection of Muslim representatives. Seeking to assert itself and its claim to be the sole representative of Indian Muslims, the All-India Muslim League refused to back any plan in which the Indian National Congress , the dominant party in the talks, appointed Muslim representatives. This scuttled the conference, and perhaps the last viable opportunity for a united, independent India. When the Indian National Congress and All India Muslim League reconvened under the Cabinet Mission the next year, the Ind ...more...



Mexican War of Independence

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The Mexican War of Independence (Spanish: Guerra de Independencia de México) was an armed conflict, and the culmination of a political and social process which ended the rule of Spain in 1821 in the territory of New Spain. The war had its antecedent in Napoleon's French invasion of Spain in 1808; it extended from the Grito de Dolores by Father Miguel Hidalgo y Costilla on September 16, 1810, to the entrance of the Army of the Three Guarantees led by Agustín de Iturbide to Mexico City on September 27, 1821. September 16 is celebrated as Mexican Independence Day. The movement for independence was inspired by the Age of Enlightenment and the American and French Revolutions. By that time the educated elite of New Spain had begun to reflect on the relations between Spain and its colonial kingdoms. Changes in the social and political structure occasioned by Bourbon Reforms and a deep economic crisis in New Spain caused discomfort among the native-born Creole elite. The dramatic political events in Europe, the F ...more...



Pietro Badoglio

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Marshal Pietro Badoglio, 1st Duke of Addis Abeba, 1st Marquess of Sabotino (Italian pronunciation: ; 28 September 1871 – 1 November 1956), was an Italian general during both World Wars and a Prime Minister of Italy, as well as the first viceroy of Italian East Africa. Early life and career Badoglio was born in 1871. His father, Mario Badoglio, was a modest landowner, and his mother, Antoinetta Pittarelli, was of wealthy bourgeois background. On October 5, 1888, he was admitted to the Royal Military Academy in Turin. He received the rank of Second Lieutenant in 1890. In 1892, he finished his studies and was promoted to Lieutenant. After completing his studies, he served with the Italian Army from 1892, at first as a Lieutenant (Tenente) in artillery, taking part in the early Italian colonial wars in Eritrea (1896), and in Libya (1912). World War I At the beginning of Italian participation in World War I, he was a Lieutenant Colonel (Tenente Colonnello); he rose to the rank of Major General following hi ...more...



Government of India Act, 1935

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The Government of India Act, 1935 was originally passed in August 1935 (25 & 26 Geo. 5 c. 42), and is said to be the longest Act (British) of Parliament ever enacted by that time. Because of its length, the Act was retroactively split by the Government of India Act, 1935 (Re-printed) (26 Geo. 5 & 1 Edw. 8 c. 1) into two separate Acts: The Government of India Act, 1935 (26 Geo. 5 & 1 Edw. 8 c. 2), having 321 sections and 10 schedules. The Government of Burma Act, 1935 (26 Geo. 5 & 1 Edw. 8 c. 3), having 159 sections and 6 schedules. References in the literature on Indian political and constitutional history are usually to the shortened Government of India Act, 1935 (i.e. 26 Geo. 5 & 1 Edw. 8 c. 2), rather than to the text of the Act as originally enacted. Overview The most significant aspects of the Act were: the grant of a large measure of autonomy to the provinces of British India (ending the system of diarchy introduced by the Government of India Act, 1919) provision for the ...more...



List of Viceroys of New Granada

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Spanish viceroys of the colonial Viceroyalty of New Granada (1717−1819) located in northern South America. Introduction The former territory within the Viceroyalty of New Granada corresponds to present day Colombia , Ecuador , Panama , and Venezuela . It also encompassed areas of present-day Guyana , southwestern Suriname , northwestern Brazil , northern Peru , Costa Rica , and Nicaragua . From the initial Spanish colonization of northern South American in the 1540s to the Viceroyalty of New Granada's establishment in 1718, the territories were governed by the Viceroyalty of Peru (1542–1824). They included the included smaller colonial Audiencia Real of Bogotá and New Kingdom of Granada . In 1777 the provinces of Venezuela were assigned to the new colonial Captaincy General of Venezuela (1777–1821), governed by Captains General . The territories of the viceroyalty gained independence from Spain between 1819 and 1822 after a series of military and political struggles, uniting in the republic of Gran Colombia ( ...more...



Caucasus Viceroyalty (1801–1917)

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The Caucasus Viceroyalty was the Imperial Russian administrative and political authority in the Caucasus region exercised through the offices of glavnoupravlyayushchiy ( Russian : главноуправляющий ) (1801–1844, 1882–1902) and namestnik (наместник) (1844–1882, 1904–1917). These two terms are commonly, but imprecisely, translated into English as viceroy , which is frequently used interchangeably with governor general . More accurately, glavnoupravljajuçij is referred to as High Commissioner of the Caucasus, and namestnik as Viceroy. Over more than a century of tsarist rule of the Caucasus, the structure of the viceroyalty underwent a number of changes with the addition or removal of administrative positions and redrawing of provincial divisions. History The authority was established after the Russian annexation of the Kingdom of Kartli-Kakheti (eastern Georgia ) in 1801. General Karl von Knorring was first to assume its governorship, being officially titled as the Commander-in-Chief in Georgia and Governor Gen ...more...



Juan Ortega y Montañés

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Don Juan Ortega y Montañés (also Juan de Ortega Cano Montañez y Patiño) (July 3, 1627 in Siles, Spain – December 16, 1708 in Mexico City ) was a Roman Catholic bishop and colonial administrator in Guatemala and New Spain . He was successively bishop of Durango (1670 to 1681), of Guatemala (1681 to 1684) and of Michoacán (1684 to March 24, 1700), and then archbishop of Mexico (June 21, 1700 to December 16, 1708). He also served as interim viceroy of New Spain from February 27, 1696 to December 18, 1696 and again from November 4, 1701 to November 27, 1702. Education and ecclesiastical career Ortega y Montañés was a native of Cartagena . Some sources give a different birth date: June 23, 1627. He studied at Cartagena , at Málaga, and at Alcalá de Henares, where he graduated with a doctorate in jurisprudence. He was named inquisitor for New Spain, and it was there that he entered the service of the Church. He was bishop of Durango , then Guatemala , then Michoacán ( Valladolid ). He was known for his opposition t ...more...



Amenemopet (Viceroy of Kush)

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Amenemopet served as Viceroy of Kush during the reign of Seti I . Amenemopet was the son of the Viceroy of Kush named Paser I and thus the grandson of the Viceroy Amenhotep-Huy and his wife Taemwadjsy. Amenemopet had a distinguished career. He served as the first charioteer of His Majesty, Fan-bearer on the Right Side of the King , governor of the Southern Lands, and King's son of Kush. Amenemopet is attested in texts on the road from Assuan to Philae , at Buhen , in Sehel and in the temple at Beit el-Wali . Amenemopet followed in his father's footsteps and became Viceroy of Kush during the final years of Horemheb or the early years of Seti I . References The Viceroys of Ethiopia by George A. Reisner The Journal of Egyptian Archaeology, Vol. 6, No. 1. (Jan., 1920), pp. 38-39. The Viceroys of Ethiopia by George A. Reisner The Journal of Egyptian Archaeology, Vol. 6, No. 1. (Jan., 1920), pp. 38-39. Amenemopet served as Viceroy of Kush during the reign of Seti I . Amenemopet was the son of the Viceroy of Kush na ...more...



Michael (archangel)

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Michael (Hebrew pronunciation: ; Hebrew: מִיכָאֵל‎, translit. Mîkhā'ēl, lit. 'Who is like God?'; Greek: Μιχαήλ, translit. Mikhaḗl; Latin: Michahel;Coptic: ⲙⲓⲭⲁⲏⲗ, Arabic: ميخائيل‎, translit. Mīkhā'īl) is an archangel in Judaism, Christianity, and Islam. In Roman Catholic, Eastern Orthodox, Anglican, and Lutheran traditions, he is called "Saint Michael the Archangel" and "Saint Michael". In the Oriental Orthodox and Eastern Orthodox traditions, he is called "Taxiarch Archangel Michael" or simply "Archangel Michael". Michael is mentioned three times in the Book of Daniel. The idea that Michael was the advocate of the Jews became so prevalent that, in spite of the rabbinical prohibition against appealing to angels as intermediaries between God and his people, Michael came to occupy a certain place in the Jewish liturgy. In the New Testament Michael leads God's armies against Satan's forces in the Book of Revelation, where during the war in heaven he defeats Satan. In the Epistle of Jude Michael is specifical ...more...



Order of the Crown of India

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The Imperial Order of the Crown of India is an order in the British honours system. The Order was established by Queen Victoria in 1878, when she became Empress of India. The Order is open only to women; no new appointments have been made after the Partition of India in 1947. The Order was limited to British princesses, wives or female relatives of Indian princes and wives or female relatives of any person who held the office of: Viceroy of India, Governor-General of India, Governor of Madras, Governor of Bombay, Governor of Bengal, Secretary of State for India, Commander-in-Chief in India. Description The members of the Order could use the post-nominals "CI," but did not acquire any special precedence or status due to it. Furthermore, they were entitled to wear the badge of the Order, which included Queen Victoria's Imperial Cypher, VRI (Victoria Regina Imperatrix). The letters were set in diamonds, pearls and turquoises and were together surrounded by a border of pearls surmounted by a figure the ...more...



Gujarat under Farrukhsiyar

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The Mughal Empire 's province Gujarat (now in India) was managed by the viceroys appointed by the emperors. The emperor Jahandar Shah who had came to power in 1712 was defeated by his nephew Farrukhsiyar in put to death in 1713. As he was helped by noble Sayad brothers, he was under their influence. He concluded treaty with Ajitsingh of Jodhpur . Daud Khan Panni , the powerful general, was appointed as the viceroy but there were riots in Ahmedabad in 1714. Ajitsingh was appointed as the next viceroy who had disputes with other noble Haidar Kúli Khán. After some reluctance, Ajitsingh let Khán Daurán Nasrat Jang Bahádur to be apponted as the next viceroy. In 1719, the emperor Farrukhsiyar was deposed by influential Sayad brothers in 1719. He was succeeded by short reigns of Rafi ud-Darajat and Shah Jahan II . Finally Muhammad Shah was raised to the throne by them. Viceroys under Farrukhsiyar (1713–1719) This expedition of Farrukhsiyar was successful. He put Jahandar Shah to death and mounted the throne in 1713. ...more...



Lord Lieutenant of Ireland

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Lord Lieutenant of Ireland (UK: ; Irish: Tiarna Leifteanant na hÉireann ) was the title of the chief governor of Ireland from the Williamite Wars of 1690 till the Partition of Ireland in 1922. This spanned the Kingdom of Ireland (1541–1800) and the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland (1801–1922). The office, under its various names, was often more generally known as the viceroy (Irish: an Leasrí ), and his wife was known as the vicereine. The government of Ireland in practice was usually in the hands of the Lord Deputy up to the 17th century, and later of the Chief Secretary for Ireland. Although in the Middle Ages some Lords Deputy were Irish noblemen, only men from Great Britain, usually peers, were appointed to the office of Lord Lieutenant. Role The Lord Lieutenant of Ireland was the ex officio Grand Master of the Order of St Patrick (uniform shown here worn by William Ward, 2nd Earl of Dudley, Lord Lieutenant from 1902 to 1905). The Lord Lieutenant possessed a number of overlapping role ...more...



García Sarmiento de Sotomayor, 2nd Count of Salvatierra

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Don Diego García Sarmiento de Sotomayor, Marquis of Sobroso and 2nd Count of Salvatierra (Spanish: Don García Sarmiento de Sotomayor, Marqués de Sobroso y segundo Conde de Salvatierra) (c. 1595, Spain – June 26, 1659, Lima) was a Spanish viceroy of New Spain (November 23, 1642 to May 13, 1648) and of Peru (1648 to 1655). Early life García Sarmiento de Sotomayor was born in Spain in the last decade of the Sixteenth Century. He was a descendant of Don Diego de Sarmiento, a knight commander of the Order of Alcántara and gentleman in waiting to the king. He married the noble woman Doña Antonia de Acuña y de Guzmán, who accompanied him to New Spain as the virreina. As Viceroy of New Spain When New Spain Viceroy Diego López Pacheco, 7th Duke of Escalona, a first cousin of King John IV of Portugal, fell under suspicion at the Spanish Court for possible links to the Portuguese, King Philip IV of Spain gave orders to Visitor-general and Bishop of Puebla Don Juan de Palafox y Mendoza to remove the viceroy from of ...more...



Diego Columbus

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Diego Columbus (Portuguese: Diogo Colombo; Spanish: Diego Colón; also, in Italian: Diego Colombo) (1479/1480-1526) was a Portuguese navigator and explorer under the Kings of Castile and Aragón. He served as the 2nd Admiral of the Indies, 2nd Viceroy of the Indies and 4th Governor of the Indies as a vassal to the Kings of Castile and Aragón. He was the eldest son of Christopher Columbus and wife Filipa Moniz Perestrelo. He was born in Portugal, either in Porto Santo in 1479/1480, or in Lisbon in 1474. He spent most of his adult life trying to regain the titles and privileges granted to his father for his explorations and then denied him in 1500. He was greatly aided in this goal by his marriage to María de Toledo y Rojas, niece of the 2nd Duke of Alba, who was the cousin of King Ferdinand. Life Tierra Firme (1513) - Castilla de Oro Diego was made a page at the Spanish court in 1492, the year his father embarked on his first voyage. Diego had a younger half-brother, Fernando, by Beatriz Enríquez de A ...more...



Steward (office)

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A steward is an official who is appointed by the legal ruling monarch to represent them in a country, and may have a mandate to govern it in their name; in the latter case, synonymous with the position of regent, vicegerent, viceroy (for Romance languages), governor, or deputy (the Roman rector, praefectus or vicarius). Etymology From Old English stíweard, stiȝweard, from stiȝ "hall, household" + weard "warden, keeper"; corresponding to Dutch: stadhouder, German Statthalter "place holder", a Germanic parallel to French lieutenant. The Old English term stíweard is attested from the 11th century. Its first element is most probably stiȝ- "house, hall" (attested only in composition; its cognate stiȝu is the ancestor of Modern English sty). Old French estuard and Old Norse stívarðr are adopted from the Old English. The German and Dutch term (Middle High German stat-halter) is a parallel but independent formation (a calque of lieutenant) corresponding to obsolete English stead holder (stede haldare 1456; also ...more...



List of monarchs of Naples

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The following is a list of rulers of the Kingdom of Naples, from its first separation from the Kingdom of Sicily to its merger with the same into the Kingdom of the Two Sicilies. Kingdom of Naples (1282–1501) House of Anjou In 1382, the Kingdom of Naples was heired by Charles III, King of Hungary, Great grandson of King Charles II of Naples After this, the House of Anjou of Naples was renamed House of Anjou-Durazzo, like Charles III married his first cousin Margaret of Durazzo, member of a prominent Neapolitan noble family. Portrait Coat of Arms Name Reign Relationship with Predecessor(s) Title Charles I(Carlo I) 30 March 1282 7 January 1285  • Son of Louis VIII of France King of Sicily, Naples and Albania(Re di Sicilia, Napoli e Albania) Charles II, the Lame(Carlo II, lo Zoppo) 7 January 1285 5 May 1309  • Son of Charles I King of Naples(Re di Napoli) Robert I, the Wise(Roberto I, il Saggio) 5 May 1309 20 January 1343  • Son of Charles II King of Naples(Re di Napoli) Joanna I(Giovanna I) 20 Jan ...more...



Bail Organa

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Senator Bail Prestor Organa of Alderaan , is a fictional character in the Star Wars franchise , portrayed by actor Jimmy Smits in Attack of the Clones (2002), Revenge of the Sith (2005), and Rogue One (2016). He is the senator from the planet Alderaan , one of the founding members of the Rebel Alliance , and the adoptive father of Leia Organa , a main character in the franchise. Character Creation and development A 1974 script draft of the 1977 film Star Wars by George Lucas contains a character named Bail Antilles, a galactic trader who is first introduced on the planet Alderaan. Princess Leia's father, named "Prestor", was introduced in the 1981 Star Wars radio drama and voiced by Stephen Elliott . The character is named Bail Prestor Organa in the 1997 novel The Paradise Snare by A. C. Crispin . Portrayal Jimmy Smits reprised the role of Bail for Rogue One in 2016. Bail was portrayed by Jimmy Smits in Attack of the Clones, Revenge of the Sith, and Rogue One. The character is voiced by Phil LaMarr in the 3 ...more...



John Lawrence, 1st Baron Lawrence

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John Laird Mair Lawrence, 1st Baron Lawrence GCB GCSI PC (4 March 1811 – 27 June 1879), known as Sir John Lawrence, Bt. , between 1858 and 1869, was an Englishman who became a prominent British Imperial statesman who served as Viceroy of India from 1864 to 1869. Early life Lawrence came from Richmond , North Yorkshire. Lawrence spent his early years in Derry , part of the Province of Ulster in the northern part of Ireland, and was educated at Foyle College (now Foyle and Londonderry College ). After attending the East India Company College , Lawrence went to India in 1829 along with his older brother, Sir Henry Montgomery Lawrence . He soon became a magistrate and tax collector in Delhi , where he was known for his concern for the plight of the peasantry as long as they did not question British rule. Career John as Viceroy of India, sitting middle, with his Executive Council members and Secretaries During the First Sikh War of 1845 to 1846, Lawrence organized the supplying of the British army in the Punjab a ...more...



Bhagat Singh

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Bhagat Singh (Punjabi pronunciation:  ( listen) 1907  – 23 March 1931) was an Indian socialist revolutionary Nationalist whose two acts of dramatic violence against the British in India and execution at age 23 made him a folk hero of the Indian independence movement. In December 1928, Bhagat Singh and an associate, Shivaram Rajguru, fatally shot a 21-year-old British police officer, John Saunders, in Lahore, British India, mistaking Saunders, who was still on probation, for the British police superintendent, James Scott, whom they had intended to assassinate. They believed Scott was responsible for the death of popular Indian nationalist leader Lala Lajpat Rai, by having ordered a lathi charge in which Rai was injured, and, two weeks after which, died of a heart attack. Saunders was felled by a single shot from Rajguru, a marksman. He was then shot several times by Singh, the postmortem report showing eight bullet wounds. Another associate of Singh, Chandra Shekhar Azad, shot dead an Indian police constabl ...more...




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