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Viceroy

A viceroy is a regal official who runs a country, colony, city, province, or sub-national state, in the name of and as the representative of the monarch of the territory. The term derives from the Latin prefix vice-, meaning "in the place of" and the French word roi, meaning "king". A viceroy's territory may be called a viceroyalty, though this term is not always applied. The adjectival form is viceregal,[1] less often viceroyal.[2] The term vicereine is sometimes used to indicate a female viceroy suo jure, although viceroy can serve as a gender-neutral term.[3] Vicereine is more commonly used to indicate a viceroy's wife.[3]

Spanish Empire

The title was originally used by the Crown of Aragon; where beginning in the 14th century, it referred to the Spanish governors of Sardinia and Corsica. After the unification, at the end of the 15th century, later kings of Spain came to appoint numerous viceroys to rule over various parts of the increasingly vast Spanish Empire in Europe, the Americas, and overseas elsewhere.

In Europe

In Europe, until the 18th century, the Habsburg crown appointed viceroys of Aragon, Valencia, Catalonia, Navarre, Portugal, Sardinia, Sicily, and Naples. With the ascension of the House of Bourbon to the Spanish throne, the historic Aragonese viceroyalties were replaced by new captaincies general. At the end of War of the Spanish Succession, the Spanish monarchy was shorn of its Italian possessions. These Italian territories, however, continued to have viceroys under their new rulers for some time; Sardinia would have a viceroy until 1848.

In the Americas

The Americas were incorporated into the Crown of Castile. With the Spanish colonization of the Americas, the institution of viceroys was adapted to govern the highly populated and wealthy regions of the north overseas: New Spain (Mexico and Philippines) and the south overseas: Peru and South America. The viceroys of these two areas had oversight over the other provinces, with most of the North American, Central American, Caribbean and East Indian areas supervised by the viceroy in Mexico City and the South American ones by the viceroy in Lima, (with the exception of most of today's Venezuela, which was overseen by the high court, or Audiencia of Santo Domingo on the island of Hispaniola for most of the colonial period). These large administrative territories became known as Viceroyalties (Spanish term: Virreinatos). There were only two New World viceroyalties until the 18th century, when the new Bourbon Dynasty established two additional viceroyalties to promote economic growth and new settlements on South America. New viceroyalties were created for New Granada in 1717 (capital, Bogotá) and the Río de la Plata in 1776 (capital, Buenos Aires).

The viceroyalties of the Spanish Americas and the Spanish East Indies were subdivided into smaller, autonomous units, the Audiencias (tribunal with the authority to judge), and the Captaincies General (military districts), which in most cases became the bases for the independent countries of modern Hispanic America. These units gathered the local provinces which could be governed by either a crown official, a corregidor (sometimes alcalde mayor) or by a cabildo or town council. Audiencias primarily functioned as superior judicial tribunals, but unlike their European counterparts, the New World audiencias were granted by law both administrative and legislative powers. Captaincies General were primarily military districts set up in areas with a risk of foreign or Indian attack, but the captains general were usually given political powers over the provinces under their command. Because the long distances to the viceregal capital would hamper effective communication, both audiencias and captains general were authorized to communicate directly with the crown through the Council of the Indies. The Bourbon Reforms introduced the new office of the intendant, which was appointed directly by the crown and had broad fiscal and administrative powers in political and military issues.

See also:

Portuguese Empire
India

The title of Viceroy being awarded to members of the nobility, Viceroys, Governors and Governing Commissions were many times interleaved until the last Viceroy Afonso, Prince Royal of Portugal, in 1896. From 1505 to 1896 Portuguese India – the name "India" and the official name "Estado da India" (State of India) including all Portuguese possessions in the Indian Ocean, from southern Africa to Southeast Asia and Australasia, until 1752- was governed either by a Viceroy (Portuguese Vice-Rei) or Governor from its headquarters, in Goa since 1510. The government started six years after the discovery of sea route to India by Vasco da Gama, in 1505, under first Viceroy Francisco de Almeida (b.1450–d.1510). Initially, King Manuel I of Portugal tried a power distribution with three governors in different areas of jurisdiction: a government covering the area and possessions in East Africa, Arabian Peninsula and Persian Gulf, overseeing up Cambay (Gujarat); a second one ruling the possessions in India (Hindustan) and Ceylon, and a third one from Malacca to the Far East.[4] However the post was centered by governor Afonso de Albuquerque (1509–1515), who became plenipotentiary, and remained so. The duration in office was usually three years, possibly longer, given the power represented: of the thirty-four governors of India in the 16th century, only six had longer mandates.[5]

Portugal

During some periods of the Iberian Union, between 1580 and 1640, the King of Spain, who was also King of Portugal, appointed Viceroys to govern Portugal itself, as the king had multiple realms throughout Europe and delegated his powers to various viceroys.

Brazil

After the end of the Iberian Union in 1640, the governors of Brazil that were members of the Portuguese high nobility started to use the title of Viceroy.[6] Brazil became a permanent Viceroyalty in 1763, when the capital of the State of Brazil (Estado do Brasil) was transferred from Salvador to Rio de Janeiro.[7]

British Empire
British India

Following the adoption of the Act that transferred the government of India from the East India Company to the Crown in 1858, the Governor-General as representing the Crown became known as the Viceroy. The designation 'Viceroy', although it was most frequently used in ordinary parlance, had no statutory authority, and was never employed by Parliament. Although the Proclamation of 1858 announcing the assumption of the government of India by the Crown referred to Lord Canning as "first Viceroy and Governor-General", none of the Warrants appointing his successors referred to them as 'viceroys', and the title, which was frequently used in warrants dealing with precedence and in public notifications, was basically one of ceremony used in connection with the state and social functions of the sovereign's representative. The Governor-General continued to be the sole representative of the Crown, and the Government of India continued to be vested in the Governor-General-in-Council.[8]

The viceroys reported directly to the Secretary of State for India in London and were advised by the Council of India. They were largely unencumbered in the exercise of their authority and were among the most powerful men on earth in the Victorian and Edwardian eras, ruling over an entire subcontinent and with a large military force at their disposal in the form of the British Indian Army. Under the terms of the Government of India Act 1919, viceroys shared some limited aspects of their authority with the Central Legislative Assembly, one of the first steps of reform as India progressed towards home rule under the Government of India Act 1935, independence as a Dominion in 1947, and ultimately the establishment of a republic in 1950.

Alongside the Commander-in-Chief, India, the viceroy was the public face of the British presence in India, attending to many ceremonial functions as well as political affairs. As the representative of the Emperors and Empresses of India, who were also the kings and queens of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland, the viceroy served as the grand master of the two principal chivalric orders of British India: the Order of the Star of India and the Order of the Indian Empire.

Louis Mountbatten, last viceroy of India

During the office's history, the Governors-General of India were based in two cities: Calcutta during the 19th century and New Delhi during the 20th century. Additionally, whilst Calcutta was the capital of British India, the viceroys spent the summer months at Simla. The two historic residences of the viceroys still stand: the Viceroy's House in New Delhi and Government House in Calcutta. They are used today as the official residences of the President of India and the Governor of West Bengal, respectively. The portraits of the Governors-General still hang in a room on the ground floor of the Presidential Palace, one of the last vestiges of both the viceroys and the British Raj.[9]

Notable Governors-General of India include Warren Hastings, Lord Cornwallis, Lord Curzon, The Earl of Minto, Lord Chelmsford, and Lord Mountbatten. Lord Mountbatten served as the last Viceroy of British India, but continued on as the first Governor-General of the dominion of India.

Ireland

The Lords Lieutenant of Ireland were often referred to as "Viceroy" after 1700 until 1922, even though the Kingdom of Ireland had been merged in 1801 into the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland.

Commonwealth realms

The term has occasionally been applied to the governors-general of the Commonwealth Realms, for example Gough Whitlam in 1973 told the Australian House of Representatives: 'The Governor-General is the viceroy of the Queen of Australia'.[10]

The governor general of Canada, the lieutenant governors of the Canadian provinces and the governors-general of Australia and governors of the Australian states are viceroys in terms of the Balfour Declaration of 1926. The Australia Act 1986 also provide that all royal powers in Australia, except the actual appointment of the governor-general and the governors are exercisable by the viceregal representatives. The noun 'viceroy' is rarely used but the adjective 'viceregal' is standard usage.

Russian Empire

Namestnik (Russian: наме́стник, Russian pronunciation: ) was an office position in the history of the Russian Empire. It can be translated as "viceroy", "deputy", "lieutenant" (the broader sense of that word) or literally in place appointee. The term has two periods of usage, with different meanings.[11] [12] [13] [14] Namestnik replaced the obsolete position of voyevoda (ruler of krai or uyezd) by Peter I.

  • In the 12th–16th centuries, namestniks (more correctly knyaz namestniks, or "knyaz deputies") were in charge of local administration. In particular, they ruled uyezds.[15]
  • In the 18th–20th centuries, a namestnik was a person in charge of namestnichestvo, with plenipotentiary powers. The latter has traditionally been translated as viceroyalty and "namestnik" as viceroy or vicegerent (or, as a common blunder, "viceregent"). For example, Mikhail Vorontsov was namestnik of Bessarabia (1823–44) and of the Caucasus (1844–1854). Sometimes the term is confused with Governor General (генерал-губернатор). For example, during Vorontsov's term of office in Bessarabia, seven governor-generals were in, and at the same time he held the office of Governor General of New Russia. The following namestnik existed under the Romanov Emperors of Russia:[12] [16]

The Tsar Paul I's 1799 formation of the Russian-American Company obviated viceroys in the colonization of the northwestern New World.

Other viceroyalties
French colonies

New France, in present Canada, after a single Governor (24 July 1534 – 15 January 1541 Jacques Cartier) had Lieutenants-general and Viceroys 15 January 1541 – September 1543 Jean François de la Rocquet, sieur de Robervalle (c. 1500 – 1560), after September 1543 – 3 January 1578 Abandonment again 3 January 1578 – February 1606 Troilus de Mesgouez, marquis de la Roche-Mesgouez (died 1606) (viceroy and from 12 January 1598, lieutenant-general), February 1606 – 1614 Jean de Biencourt, sieur de Poutrincourt, baron de St. Just (1557–1615); next a series of Viceroys (resident in France) 8 October 1611 – 1672, later Governors and Governors-general.

Italian colonies

In Italian Viceré: The highest colonial representatives in the "federation" of Italian East Africa (six provinces, each under a governor; together Ethiopia, Eritrea and Italian Somaliland) were no longer styled "High Commissioner", but "Viceroy and Governor-general" from 5 May 1936, when Italian forces occupied Ethiopia, until 27 November 1941, when the last Italian administrator surrendered to the Allies. The Italian King Victor Emmanuel claimed the title of "Emperor of Ethiopia" (Nəgusä nägäst, "King of Kings") and declared himself to be a successor to the Nəgusä nägäst, even though Emperor Haile Selassie I continued to hold this title while in exile, and resumed his actual, physical throne on 5 May 1941.

On 7 April 1939, Italy invaded the Kingdom of Albania (today Albania). As Viceré of Albania of Victor Emmanuel III of Italy were the Marchese Francesco Jacomoni di San Savino and after his departure General Alberto Pariani.

Ban of Bosnia

Ban Borić was the first ruler and Viceroy of Bosnia, appointed by Géza II of Hungary by 1154. His war affairs are documented as he fought several notable battles.[19] He also maintained ties with knights Templar and donated lands in Bosnia and Slavonia to their Order.[20] His own biological brother Dominic was on record as a knight Templar.[21]

Ban of Croatia

From the earliest medieval period in the Kingdom of Croatia, the position of viceroy was held by Ban of Croatia who acted as king's representative in Croatian lands and supreme commander of Croatian army. In the 18th century, Croatian bans eventually become chief government officials in Croatia. They were at the head of Ban's Government, effectively the first prime ministers of Croatia. The last ban held his position until 1941 and the collapse of Yugoslavia in WWII.

Ancient antecedents

An equivalent office, called the Exarch, was created in the Byzantine or Eastern Roman Empire towards the end of the sixth century for governors of important areas too far from the imperial capital of Constantinople to receive regular instruction or reinforcement. The chosen governors of these provinces were empowered to act in place of the monarch (hence ex-arch) with more discretion and autonomy than was granted other categories of governor. This was an extraordinary break from the centralized traditions of the Roman Empire and was an early example of the principle of Viceroyalty.

Non-Western counterparts

As with many princely and administrative titles, viceroy is often used, generally unofficially, to render somewhat equivalent titles and offices in non-western cultures.

Africa

In cultures all over the continent of Africa, the role of viceroy has been subsumed into a hereditary noble as opposed to strictly administrative position. In the Arabo-Berber north, for example, the title of Khalifa is often used by individuals who derive their authority to rule from someone else in much the same way as a viceroy would. Elsewhere, subordinate inkosis under the rule of a paramount chief like the King of the Zulu Nation of Southern Africa or subordinate baales in the realms of the reigning obas of West African Yorubaland continue to occupy statutorily recognized positions in the contemporary countries of South Africa and Nigeria as the customary representatives of their respective principals in the various areas that are under their immediate control.

Ottoman empire

The khedive of Egypt, especially in the dynasty initiated by Muhammad Ali Pasha (1805–1848). This officer established an almost autonomous regime in Egypt, which officially still was under Ottoman rule. Although Mehemet Ali/Muhammad Ali used different symbols to mark his independence from the Sublime Porte, he never openly declared himself independent. Adopting the title of viceroy was yet another way to walk the thin line between challenging the Sultan's power explicitly and respecting his jurisdiction. Muhammad Ali Pasha's grandson, Ismail Pasha, subsequently received the title of Khedive which was almost an equivalent to viceroy.[22]

Vietnamese empire

The post of Tổng Trấn (governor of all military provinces) was a political post in the early of Vietnamese Nguyễn Dynasty (1802–1830). From 1802, under the reign of emperor Gia Long, there were always two Tổng Trấn who directly ruled Vietnam's northern part named Thành Long (Hanoi and surrounding territories) and the southern part named Gia Định (Saigon and surrounding territories) while Nguyen emperors ruled only the middle part named Vùng Kinh Kỳ (Huế and surrounding territories). Tổng Trấn is sometimes translated to English as viceroy.[23] In 1830, emperor Minh Mạng abolished the post in order to increase the imperial direct ruling power in all over Vietnam.

Chinese empires

During the Han, Ming and Qing dynasties, there existed positions of viceroys having control over various provinces (e.g., Liangguang = Guangdong and Guangxi, Huguang = Hubei and Hunan).

See also
Notes
  1. "viceregal". OxfordDictionariesOnline.com. Retrieved 22 November 2014.
  2. "Viceroyal, a", The Oxford English Dictionary, 2nd ed. 1989, OED Online, Oxford University Press, 4 April 2000 http://dictionary.oed.com/cgi/entry/50277245>
  3. "vicereine". OxfordDictionariesOnline.com. Retrieved 22 November 2014.
  4. O Secretário dos despachos e coisas da Índia pero d´Alcáçova Carneiro, p.65, Maria Cecília Costa Veiga de Albuquerque Ramos, Universidade de Lisboa, 2009 (In Portuguese) http://repositorio.ul.pt/bitstream/10451/3387/1/ulfl080844_tm.pdf>
  5. Diffie, Bailey W. and George D. Winius (1977), "Foundations of the Portuguese Empire, 1415–1580", p.323-325, Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press. David Tan ISBN 0-8166-0782-6.
  6. A. J. R. Russell-Wood,"The Portuguese empire, 1415–1808: a world on the move", p. 66, JHU Press, 1998, ISBN 0-8018-5955-7
  7. Boris Fausto, "A concise history of Brazil", p.50, Cambridge University Press, 1999, ISBN 0-521-56526-X
  8. Imperial Gazetteer of India, Clarendon Press, Oxford, New Edition 1909, vol 4, p. 16.
  9. Nath, Aman, "Dome Over India", India Book House Ltd. ISBN 81-7508-352-2.
  10. Gough Whitlam, The Truth of the Matter, (1979)
  11. Public Domain This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domainBrockhaus and Efron Encyclopedic Dictionary (in Russian). 1906.
  12. Kli͡uchevskiĭ, V. O. (Vasiliĭ Osipovich); Duddington, Natalie. (1994). A course in Russian history—the seventeenth century. Armonk, N.Y.: M.E. Sharpe. ISBN 1-56324-317-2.
  13. Larin, A. K. (2004). Gosudarev namestnik : istoricheskai͡a povestʹ o M.N. Krechetnikov. Kaluga: Zolotai͡a allei͡a. ISBN 5-7111-0347-4.
  14. "hrono.ru: namestnik". Retrieved 19 January 2010.
  15. (in Russian) Тархов, Сергей, "Изменение административно-территориального деления России в XIII-XX в." (pdf), Логос, #1 2005 (46), ISSN 0869-5377
  16. Ledonne, John P. (January–March 2002). "Administrative Regionalization in the Russian Empire 1802–1826". Cahiers du Monde russe. pp. 5–33. Retrieved 19 January 2010.
  17. Thomas Mitchell, Handbook for Travellers in Russia, Poland, and Finland, 1888, p. 460. Google Print [1]
  18. КАВКАЗ
  19. The Late Medieval Balkans: A Critical Survey from the Late Twelfth Century
  20. Judith Mary Upton-Ward, H.J.A. Sire. "24. The Priory of Vrana". The Military Orders: On Land and by Sea. p. 221.
  21. Magyar Országos Levéltár
  22. Encyclopædia Britannica: Ismail Pasha, Ottoman Viceroy of Egypt and New Spain
  23. Philip Taylor (2004), Goddess on the rise: pilgrimage and popular religion in Vietnam, University of Hawaii Press, p. 36.
Sources
  • Aznar, Daniel/Hanotin, Guillaume/May, Niels F. (dir.), À la place du roi. Vice-rois, gouverneurs et ambassadeurs dans les monarchies française et espagnole (XVIe-XVIIIe siècles). Madrid: Casa de Velázquez, 2014.
  • Elliott, J. H., Imperial Spain, 1469–1716. London: Edward Arnold, 1963.
  • Fisher, Lillian Estelle. Viceregal Administration in the Spanish American Colonies. Berkeley, University of California Press, 1926.
  • Harding, C. H., The Spanish Empire in America. New York: Oxford University Press, 1947.
  • Public Domain This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domainBrockhaus and Efron Encyclopedic Dictionary (in Russian). 1906.
Further reading
  • Andrada (undated). The Life of Dom John de Castro: The Fourth Vice Roy of India. Jacinto Freire de Andrada. Translated into English by Peter Wyche. (1664) Henry Herrington, New Exchange, London. Facsimile edition (1994) AES Reprint, New Delhi. ISBN 81-206-0900-X.
  • (in Russian) hrono.ru: namestnik
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Zhao Erxun

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Zhao Erxun (23 May 1844 – 3 September 1927), courtesy name Cishan and pseudonym Wubu , was a Chinese political and military officeholder who lived in the late Qing dynasty . He served in numerous high-ranking positions under the Qing government, including Viceroy of Sichuan , Viceroy of Huguang , and Viceroy of the Three Northeast Provinces . After the fall of the Qing dynasty, he became a historian and was the lead editor of the Draft History of Qing (Qing Shi Gao). Life Early career Zhao's ancestral roots were in Tieling , Fengtian Province (present-day Liaoning Province ). His family was under the Plain Blue Banner of the Han Chinese Eight Banners . He sat for the provincial-level imperial examination in 1867 and obtained the position of a juren . In 1874, he sat for the palace-level examination and emerged as a jinshi , after which he was admitted to the Hanlin Academy as a bianxiu (編修; compiler and editor). The first position Zhao held was an assistant examiner for the provincial-level imperial examinati



Diego Carrillo de Mendoza, 1st Marquis of Gelves

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Don Diego Carrillo de Mendoza y Pimentel, 1st Marquis of Gélves ( Spanish : Diego Pimentel y Toledo, primer marqués de Gélves y conde consorte de Priego, capitán-general de la caballería de Milán, Asistente de Sevilla, caballero de Santiago y comendador de Villanueva de la Fuente ) (unknown year, Aragon – 1631) was a Spanish cavalry general, viceroy of Aragon, and viceroy of New Spain . He held the latter position from September 21, 1621 to January 15, 1624 or November 1, 1624. Early career Carrillo de Mendoza was born in Valladolid . He joined the army at an early age, where he was distinguished by his energy, valor and intelligence. He rose to the rank of cavalry general, and was made lord of the bedchamber for the king. He served as viceroy of Aragon before being sent to the Americas. Viceroy of New Spain Arriving in New Spain in 1621, he found the administration in a bad state and immediately took steps to improve the moral standards of the functionaries. He organized detachments of armed highway patrolme



List of viceroys of Valencia

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This is a list of viceroys of the Kingdom of Valencia from 1520 to 1707. 1520 : Diego Hurtado de Mendoza, 1st Count of Melito 1523 : Germaine of Foix and Johann of Brandenburg-Ansbach 1526 : Germaine of Foix and Ferdinand of Aragon, Duque de Calabria 1537 : Ferdinand of Aragón, Duke of Calabria 1550 : Lorenzo de Villarrasa (Interim) (1st time) 1553 : Bernardino de Cárdenas y Pacheco, Duque de Maqueda 1558 : Alfonso de Aragón, Duque de Segorbe 1563 : Lorenzo de Villarrasa (2nd time) 1566 : Antonio Alfonso Pimentel de Herrera, Conde de Benavente 1572 : Íñigo López de Hurtado de Mendoza, Marqués de Mondéjar 1575 : Vespasiano Gonzaga y Colonna , Prínce of Sabbioneta 1578 : Pedro Manrique de Lara , Duque de Nájera 1580 : Francisco de Moncada y Folc de Cardona , Marqués de Aytona 1595 : Francisco Gómez de Sandoval y Rojas , Marqués de Denia 1598 : Juan Alfonso Pimentel de Herrera, Conde de Benavente 1602 : Juan de Ribera , Archbishop of Valencia 1604 : Juan de Sandoval y Rojas, Marqués de Villamizar 1606 : Luis Car



Nehi (Viceroy of Kush)

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Nehi in hieroglyphs Nehi (or Nehy ) was an Ancient Egyptian official with the titles of a viceroy of Kush - the governor of the Nubian provinces which were under Egyptian control. Nehy was in office under Thutmose III . In the 23rd year of Thutmose III he followed the king on his campaign to Syria . There are several inscriptions of Nehy found in Nubia, attesting building activity at several places. Nehy was buried at Thebes although the exact location of his tomb is lost. However, in the Egyptian Museum of Berlin is preserved his monumental sarcophagus made of limestone. Sarcophagi for officials are rare in this period providing evidence for the high social status of Nehy in his time. Literature Christian Leblanc : Nehy, prince et premiere rapporteur du roi, In: Isabelle Regen, Frédéric Servajan (Hrsg): Verba manent, Recueil d'etudes dédiées à Dimitri Meeks par ses collègues et amis. Montpellier 2009 (Cahiers Égypte Nilotique et Méditerranéenne. 2. ISSN   2102-6637 ), S. 241-251. Labib Habachi , in: Lexikon



Gaspar de Zúñiga, 5th Count of Monterrey

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Gaspar de Zúñiga Acevedo y Fonseca, 5th Count of Monterrey ( Spanish : Gaspar de Zúñiga Acevedo y Fonseca, quinto conde de Monterrey ) (1560 – March 16, 1606, Peru ), Spanish nobleman, the ninth viceroy of New Spain . He governed from November 5, 1595 to October 26, 1603. From January 18, 1604 until his death in 1606, he was viceroy of Peru. Early service De Zúñiga y Acevedo was born the eldest son of the fourth Count of Monterrei, Géronimo de Acevedo y Zúñiga . He studied in Monterrei under the direction of Jesuit priests. In 1578 he entered the service of King Philip II . He participated in the Portuguese campaign, where he led the Galician militia, paying them out of his own pocket. De Zúñiga y Acevedo also took part in the defense of the port of A Coruña when it was attacked by the English corsair Francis Drake in 1589. As viceroy of New Spain On May 28, 1595, de Zúñiga y Acevedo was nominated viceroy of New Spain. He arrived in the colony, at Veracruz , in mid-September, as the successor to Viceroy Luis



List of vicereines in Canada

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A total of twenty women have served, or are currently serving, as vicereine in Canada . An additional seven women have performed as territorial commissioners similar function to the monarch and viceroys. Canada is a constitutional monarchy with Queen Elizabeth II as the reigning Canadian monarch . As the Queen does not always reside in Canada, her daily responsibilities in the country are in the federal jurisdiction undertaken by the Governor General of Canada and by a lieutenant governor in each of the ten provincial jurisdictions. Collectively, these individuals are the Queen's official viceregal representatives; as women, they are described as vicereine, the female variant of viceroy . Governors general A total of three women have served as the Governor General of Canada . Name Home Province Start of Mandate End of Mandate Notes Jeanne Sauvé Saskatchewan 14 May 1984 28 January 1990 First female governor general in Canadian history; appointed by Queen Elizabeth II on the advice of Prime Minister Pierre Trud



Martín Enríquez de Almanza

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Don Martín Enríquez de Almanza Don Martín Enríquez de Almanza (died ca. March 13, 1583) was the fourth viceroy of New Spain , who ruled in the name of Philip II from November 5, 1568 until October 3, 1580. He was from a noble family of Castile , but did not inherit a title. Enríquez was 60 when he was appointed viceroy in New Spain. He brought strength and stability in the wake of the encomenderos' conspiracy of the son of conqueror Hernán Cortés , Don Martín Cortés and other encomenderos who challenged the crown's power. He was subsequently viceroy of Peru , from September 23, 1581 until his death in 1583, a post he reluctantly accepted at age 72. His birthplace and origins are uncertain. Some historians speculate on possible Sephardic origins of this viceroy, but that has not been confirmed. Government and actions Having been chosen by the Council of the Indies (Consejo de Indias) as viceroy, his first actions upon arrival in New Spain, at Veracruz , were to dislodge the English pirates from the Isla de Sa



Juan de Mendoza, 3rd Marquis of Montesclaros

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Don Juan de Mendoza y Luna, 3rd Marquis of Montesclaros ( Spanish : Juan de Mendoza y Luna, marqués de Montesclaros , or sometimes marqués de Montes Claros) (January, 1571, Guadalajara, Spain – October 9, 1628, Madrid ), Spanish nobleman, man of letters, and the tenth viceroy of New Spain . He governed from October 27, 1603 to July 2, 1607. Thereafter he was viceroy of Peru , from December 21, 1607 to December 18, 1615. After returning to Spain, he became advisor to the king and a high official in the Court. Youth and early career Juan de Mendoza y Luna was the posthumous son of the second Marqués de Montesclaros. He was raised by his mother, Isabel Manrique de Padilla. He served with distinction in the army of the Duke of Alba in the Portuguese campaign, as a captain of lancers. For his service, he was awarded the Order of Caballero de Santiago in 1591. Later he was governor of Seville , where he first became acquainted with the affairs of the Indies. On May 19, 1603 the Crown named him viceroy of New Spain.



Juan Ortega y Montañés

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Don Juan Ortega y Montañés (also Juan de Ortega Cano Montañez y Patiño) (July 3, 1627 in Siles, Spain – December 16, 1708 in Mexico City ) was a Roman Catholic bishop and colonial administrator in Guatemala and New Spain . He was successively bishop of Durango (1670 to 1681), of Guatemala (1681 to 1684) and of Michoacán (1684 to March 24, 1700), and then archbishop of Mexico (June 21, 1700 to December 16, 1708). He also served as interim viceroy of New Spain from February 27, 1696 to December 18, 1696 and again from November 4, 1701 to November 27, 1702. Education and ecclesiastical career Ortega y Montañés was a native of Cartagena . Some sources give a different birth date: June 23, 1627. He studied at Cartagena , at Málaga, and at Alcalá de Henares, where he graduated with a doctorate in jurisprudence. He was named inquisitor for New Spain, and it was there that he entered the service of the Church. He was bishop of Durango , then Guatemala , then Michoacán ( Valladolid ). He was known for his opposition t



Viceroy's House (film)

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Viceroy's House is British-Indian historical drama film directed by Gurinder Chadha and written by Paul Mayeda Berges , Moira Buffini , and Chadha. The film stars Hugh Bonneville , Gillian Anderson , Manish Dayal , Huma Qureshi , and Michael Gambon . It has been selected to be screened out of competition at the 67th Berlin International Film Festival . The film was released in the United Kingdom on 3 March 2017. Plot About the inside life of the Viceroy's House in 1947 during the Partition of India . The final Viceroy of India, Lord Mountbatten, is tasked with overseeing the transition of British India to independence, but meets with conflict as different sides clash in the face of monumental change. Downstairs in the servants quarters, Mountbatten's new manservant, Jeet falls for the daughter's assistant, Alia and all manner of obstacles are put in their way. Cast Hugh Bonneville as Lord Mountbatten Gillian Anderson as Lady Mountbatten Manish Dayal as Jeet Huma Qureshi as Aalia Michael Gambon as General Hast



Diego López Pacheco, 7th Duke of Escalona

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Don Diego Roque López Pacheco Cabrera y Bobadilla, 7th Duke of Escalona, 7th Marquis of Villena and 7th Count of Xiquena (16 August 1599, La Mancha , Spain – 27 February 1653, Pamplona , Spain) was a Spanish nobleman and, from August 28, 1640 to June 10, 1642, viceroy of New Spain . Early life López Pacheco was born into one of the most aristocratic families of Iberia. His father was Juan Fernandez Pacheco, 5th Duke of Escalona , and his mother Serafina de Portugal Bragança, daughter of John I, 6th Duke of Braganza . He was educated at the University of Salamanca , where he became rector. He made a name for himself as a man of letters and a man of arms. He served in the Tercios (Spanish infantry), where he rose to the rank of colonel. Viceroy of New Spain On January 22, 1640, López Pacheco was named viceroy, under King Philip IV of Spain . He arrived in Veracruz on June 24 of that year, together with Juan de Palafox y Mendoza , bishop of Puebla. The bishop had been commissioned visitador general to begin proc



Gabriel de Avilés, 2nd Marquis of Avilés

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Gabriel de Avilés Itúrbide y del Fierro, 2nd Marquis of Avilés ( Spanish : Gabriel de Avilés Itúrbide y del Fierro, segundo Marqués de Avilés ) (c. 1735 – September 19, 1810) was a Spanish military officer and colonial administrator in the Americas. He was governor of Chile, viceroy of Río de la Plata , and viceroy of Peru . Early life Gabriel de Avilés was born in Vic in the province of Barcelona , the son of José de Avilés, 1st Marquis of Avilés , intendente of Aragon and Valencia , and of Carmen del Fierro. He entered the military at a young age. He was sent to Chile as a cavalry instructor in 1768. After two years at Arauco , he was sent to Peru as subinspector general of the army. He married Mercedes del Risco y Ciudad, a Peruvian woman with a reputation for such kindness that she is known to history as la santa virreina. In Peru In 1780 the anti-Spanish revolt of Túpac Amaru II erupted. The rebels had initial successes, and there were fears that the insurrection would engulf the entire viceroyalty. Avil



Viceroyalty of the Río de la Plata

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The Viceroyalty of the Río de la Plata ( Spanish : Virreinato del Río de la Plata ) was the last to be organized and also the shortest-lived of the Viceroyalties of the Spanish Empire in the Americas . The Viceroyalty was established in 1776 from several former Viceroyalty of Perú dependencies that mainly extended over the Río de la Plata Basin , roughly the present-day territories of Argentina , Bolivia , Paraguay and Uruguay , extending inland from the Atlantic Coast. Buenos Aires , located on the western shore of the Río de la Plata estuary flowing into the Atlantic Ocean, opposite the Portuguese outpost of Colonia del Sacramento , was chosen as the capital. Usually considered one of the late Bourbon Reforms , the organization of this viceroyalty was motivated on both commercial grounds (Buenos Aires was by then a major spot for illegal trade ), as well as on security concerns brought about by the growing interest of competing foreign powers in the area. The Spanish Crown wanted to protect its territory ag



Pedro Fajardo, 5th Marquis of Los Vélez

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Armory of the Marquis of los Vélez Pedro Fajardo de Zúñiga y Requesens (1602 – Palermo , Sicily , 3 November 1647) was a Spanish soldier and aristocrat notable for his command of Spanish forces during the Catalan Revolt after 1640. He was Viceroy of Valencia , 1631–1635, Viceroy of Navarre , 1638–1640, Viceroy of Catalonia , 1640–1642, Spanish Ambassador to Rome , and Viceroy of Sicily , 1644-1647. He was 5th Marqués de los Vélez from 1631, and Grandee of Spain . He was born in Mula , region of Murcia , a great-grandson of Luis de Zúñiga y Requesens and the son of Luis Fajardo Requesens y Zúñiga, Marqués de los Vélez , (1576–1631), the preceding Viceroy of Valencia , 1628–1631, deceased 1631, 4th Marqués de los Vélez . Vélez Blanco Castle is located in the Province of Almería , Spain , 37° 41′ 27″ N, 2° 05′ 54″ W He joined the Spanish army and rose up the ranks to General. He was Viceroy of Valencia , 1631–1636, Viceroy of Navarre , 1638–1640. In 1641 when the Catalan Revolt broke out, he led a Spanish force



Eugène de Beauharnais

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Eugène Rose de Beauharnais (3 September 1781 – 21 February 1824) was the first child and only son of Alexandre de Beauharnais and Joséphine Tascher de la Pagerie , first wife of Napoleon I . He was born in Paris , France , and became the stepson and adopted child (but not the heir to the imperial throne) of Napoleon I. His biological father was executed during the revolutionary Reign of Terror . He commanded the Army of Italy and was Viceroy of Italy under his stepfather. Historians have looked upon him as one of the ablest of Napoleon's relatives. Career Eugène c. 1800, Andrea Appiani . Napoleonic Italy c. 1810. Eugène's first campaign was in the Vendée , where he fought at Quiberon. However, within a year his mother Joséphine had arranged his return to Paris. In the Italian campaigns of 1796–1797, Eugène served as aide-de-camp to his stepfather, whom he also accompanied to Egypt . In Egypt, Eugène was wounded during the Siege of Acre (1799) and returned to France with Napoleon in the autumn of 1799, helping



Tomás de la Cerda, 3rd Marquis of la Laguna

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Tomás de la Cerda, 3rd Marquis of la Laguna , Grandee of Spain , (in full, Spanish : Don Tomás Antonio Manuel Lorenzo de la Cerda y Aragón, tercer marqués de la Laguna de Camero Viejo, Grande de España, caballero de la orden de Alcántara, comendador de la Moraleja, maestre de campo del Tercio Provincial de las Milicias de Sevilla, ministro del Consejo y Cámara de Indias, capitán general de mar Océano, del Ejército y Costas de Andalucía, Virrey de Galicia, Virrey gobernador y capitán general de Nueva España y presidente de su Real Audiencia, Mayordomo mayor de la reina Mariana de Baviera ), (24 December 1638 – 22 April 1692), was a Spanish nobleman, viceroy of Galicia and of New Spain from 1680 to 1686. He is better known as the Count of Paredes , though he held this title only as consort . Early life Don Tomás de la Cerda was born in Cogolludo , Spain , to an illustrious Spanish family with longstanding military and political connections. He was the 4th child of Don Antonio de la Cerda, 7th Duke of Medinaceli



Baltasar de Zúñiga, 1st Duke of Arión

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Baltasar de Zúñiga y Guzmán, duque de Arión y marqués de Valero (1658, Spain – December 26, 1727, Madrid ) was Spanish viceroy of New Spain from August 16, 1716 to October 14, 1722 and later president of the Council of the Indies . Early life Zúñiga y Guzmán was born in Spain in 1658, second son of Juan Manuel de Manrique y Zúñiga , and thus of royal blood. With his elder brother he participated in the Great Turkish War and fought the Battle of Buda (1686) , in which he was slightly wounded, but his brother killed. Between 1692 and 1697, he was Viceroy of Navarre . At the start of the Spanish Succession War , he chose the side of Philip V and became Viceroy of Sardinia between 1704 and 1707. As viceroy of New Spain He made his formal entrance into Mexico City on August 16, 1716 and received his office from the previous viceroy, Fernando de Alencastre, 1st Duke of Linares . Zúñiga was the first bachelor to be viceroy of New Spain. He was soon informed of famine in Texas, which was causing colonists to abandon



Diego Fernández de Córdoba, Marquis of Guadalcázar

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Diego Fernández de Córdoba, Marquis of Guadalcázar Diego Fernández de Córdoba y López de las Roelas, Marquis of Guadalcázar and Count of Posadas (1578 – 6 October 1630), was Viceroy of Mexico from October 18, 1612 to March 14, 1621 and Viceroy of Peru from July 25, 1622 to January 14, 1629. Early life He was born in Seville . In 1598, aged 20, he was in Central Europe as an ambassador with a mandate to travel and bring back to Spain the 13- to 14-year-old orphaned bride Margaret of Austria (daughter of Archduke Charles II of Austria and Maria Anna of Bavaria ), the first, and unique, wife of king Philip III of Spain , being awarded the title of marquis of Guadalcázar , in 1609. Viceroy of New Spain Fernández de Córdoba was named viceroy of New Spain by King Philip III of Spain , for whom he had served as lord of the bedchamber. Early in his mandate in New Spain, he sent Captain Diego Martínez de Hurdáiz to suppress an uprising of the Tehuecos , an ethnic subgroup of the Cahuitas of Sinaloa . Martínez de Hurdá



Opel Commodore

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The Opel Commodore was an executive car ( E-segment ) produced by Opel from 1967 to 1982. It is the six-cylinder variant of the Rekord with styling differences. The Commodore nameplate was used by Opel from 1967 to 1982. However, its nameplate /lineage continues with the Australian Holden Commodore . The last generation was sold in the United Kingdom primarily as the Vauxhall Viceroy although Opel models were also sold. Commodore A (1967–1971) The Opel Commodore A was manufactured from 1967 to 1971, based on the Rekord C. After having offered a Rekord-6 powered by a 2.6 L 6-cylinder engine since March 1964, Opel in February 1967 launched the Commodore as a faster up-market version of the Rekord . The Commodore was initially available with the known A 2.2-litre six or a larger 2.5 L engine developing 115 PS (85 kW) with a single carburettor. Body styles comprised a two-door or four-door notchback saloon and a two-door hardtop / fastback coupé . In September 1967 the sporty Commodore GS offering 130 hp (96 kW



Johann of Brandenburg-Ansbach, Viceroy of Valencia

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Margrave Johann of Brandenburg-Ansbach Johann of Brandenburg-Ansbach (January 9, 1493 in Plassenburg – July 5, 1525 in Valencia ) was the second husband of Germaine de Foix and viceroy of Valencia from 1523 until his death in 1525. He was a son of Frederick I, Margrave of Brandenburg-Ansbach and his wife Sophia of Poland . He married on June 17, 1519 with Germaine de Foix (1490–1538), second wife and widow of King Ferdinand II of Aragon . In 1523 the couple was appointed Viceroys of Valencia by King Ferdinand's grandson Charles V, Holy Roman Emperor . The marriage remained childless. After his death Germaine of Foix remarried Ferdinand of Aragón, Duke of Calabria . Johann of Brandenburg-Ansbach became in 1516 a knight in the Order of the Golden Fleece . Margrave Johann of Brandenburg-Ansbach Johann of Brandenburg-Ansbach (January 9, 1493 in Plassenburg – July 5, 1525 in Valencia ) was the second husband of Germaine de Foix and viceroy of Valencia from 1523 until his death in 1525. He was a son of Frederick I,



Luis de Velasco, marqués de Salinas

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Luis de Velasco II, Marqués de Salinas, Viceroy of New Spain and of Peru Luis de Velasco y Castilla, marqués de Salinas (known as Luis de Velasco, hijo to distinguish him from his father) (c. 1534, Carrión de los Condes , Spain – September 7, 1617, Seville ), Spanish nobleman, son of the second viceroy of New Spain , and himself the eighth viceroy. He governed from January 27, 1590 to November 4, 1595, and again from July 2, 1607 to June 10, 1611. In between he was viceroy of Peru for eight years (July 24, 1596 to January 18, 1604). Early life Born in Spain, Luis de Velasco remained in Spain with his mother and siblings when his father was appointed Viceroy of New Spain. His brother, don Antonio de Velasco, was a "gentilhombre de la boca" to Prince Philip. The two brothers accompanied Philip to England when he married Queen Mary. They traveled on with the court to Brussels, where young don Luis was admitted to the military-religious order of Santiago. In about 1560 he joined his father in Mexico City where he



Juan de Leyva de la Cerda, conde de Baños

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Juan de Leyva de la Cerda, conde de Baños y marqués de Leyva y de Ladrada (February 2, 1604, Alcalá de Henares – March 27, 1678, Guadalajara, Spain ) was a Spanish nobleman and viceroy of New Spain from September 16, 1660 to June 28, 1664. Early career De Leyva de la Cerda was a member of the old nobility of Spain. He was a descendant of King Alfonso X of Castile . At the side of his maternal grandfather, Pedro de Leyva y Mendoza, capitan general of the galleys of Spain, Naples and Sicily, he entered the service of the Crown at a young age in the navy. He fought against Algerian pirates and later, in 1626, Catalan rebels of Tarragona. He was named viceroy of New Spain under King Philip IV of Spain on February 26, 1660, at the age of 56. He entered the capital of the viceroyalty on September 16, 1660, accompanied by his family. Leyva de la Cerda had a reputation for arrogance, rudeness and unlimited cupidity, as did members of his family. His term as viceroy was not a success. Abuses as viceroy Shortly after h



List of viceroys of Aragon

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This is a list of viceroys (or lieutenants ) of the Kingdom of Aragon . Alonso de Aragón , bishop of Zaragoza 1517-1520 Juan de Lanuza y Torrellas 1520-1535 Beltrán de la Cueva, 3rd Duke of Alburquerque 1535-1539 Pedro Manrique de Luna y de Urrea , count of Morata de Jalón 1539-1554 Diego Hurtado de Mendoza y de la Cerda , prince of Melito 1554-1564 Ferran d'Aragón i de Gurrea , Bishop of Zaragoza 1566-1575 Artal de Alagón y Luna , count of Sástago 1575-1588 Iñigo de Mendoza y de la Cerda y Manrique de Luna , marquis of Almenara 1588 Miguel Martinez de Luna y Mendoza , count of Morata de Jalón 1592-1593 Diego Fernández de Cabrera Bobadilla y Mendoza , count of Chincón 1593-1601 Beltrán de la Cueva y Castilla , duke of Alburquerque 1601-1602 Ascanio Colonna , cardinal 1602-1604 Gastón de Moncada, 2nd Marquis of Aitona 1604-1610 Diego Carrillo de Mendoza, 1st Marquis of Gelves 1617-1620 Fernando de Borja y Aragón , count of Mayalde 1621-1632 Girolamo Carraffa e Carrascciolo , marquis de Montenegro 1632-1636 Ped



Pedro Cebrián, 5th Count of Fuenclara

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Pedro Cebrián y Agustín, 5th Count of Fuenclara , Grandee of Spain , (April 30, 1687 in Luceni , Spain – August 22, 1752 in Madrid ) was a Spanish diplomat and viceroy of New Spain , from November 3, 1742 to July 8, 1746. Early life He was Spanish ambassador extraordinary to the courts of Vienna , Dresden and Naples . He was majordomo and equerry to the Infante Don Felipe. He was honored with membership in the orders of the Golden Fleece , 1738, and San Gennaro . On January 31, 1742, King Philip V of Spain personally named Cebrián viceroy of New Spain. As Viceroy of New Spain He arrived in Veracruz on October 5, 1742. He made his solemn entry into the capital on November 3, 1742 and took up his office. He replaced Pedro Malo de Villavicencio , president of the royal Audiencia , who had been filling in since the death of the previous viceroy, Pedro de Castro y Figueroa, Duke of la Conquista . As viceroy, he repaired the aqueduct from Chapultepec to Salta del Agua and paved many streets in Mexico City . He rep



Diego López de Zúñiga, 4th Count of Nieva

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Diego López de Zúñiga y Velasco, 4th Count of Nieva ( Spanish : Diego López de Zúñiga y Velasco, cuarto conde de Nieva ) (ca. 1510 – February 20, 1564 in Lima , Peru ) was the sixth viceroy of Peru, from April 17, 1561 to his death on February 20, 1564. Early career López de Zúñiga was a knight of the military Order of Santiago , and from 1553 to 1559, governor of Galicia . He was named Peruvian viceroy in late 1560 by King Philip II to replace Andrés Hurtado de Mendoza, 3rd Marquis of Cañete , who had been recalled. López de Zúñiga arrived in Lima and took up the office on February 20, 1561. After his arrival in Peru but before reaching the capital, he sent impertinent messages to his predecessor, just before the death of the latter. Some said that the recall and the insulting communications from López de Zúñiga had brought about the death of Hurtado de Mendoza. Viceroy of Peru Viceroy López de Zúñiga On December 14, 1561 he ordered Gómez de Tordoya to explore the River Tono , and on December 24, 1561 he com



Lope Díez de Armendáriz, marqués de Cadereyta

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Don Lope Díez de Aux de Armendáriz, Marquis of Cadereyta (sometimes Lope Díaz de Armendáriz) (1575, Quito , Viceroyalty of Peru – died after 1639) was a Spanish nobleman and the first Criollo to be viceroy of New Spain . He served as viceroy from September 16, 1635 to August 27, 1640. Early life Born in Peru, Lope Díez de Armendáriz was to become the first New World-born viceroy of New Spain. His father, president of the Real Audiencia of Quito, had his son educated for a naval career. The son had a distinguished career in command of the convoys escorting merchant ships and treasure ships from the Indies to Spain. Viceroy of New Spain On April 19, 1635 King Philip IV named him viceroy of New Spain. He made his formal entry into Mexico City on September 16, 1635 and took up his duties. His first concern was to continue the construction of drainage works to safeguard the city from the perennial floods, and to repair damage from recent flooding. On January 17, 1637 an earthquake destroyed some of the constructio



Teodoro de Croix

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Teodoro de Croix (June 20, 1730, Prévoté Castle, near Lille , France – 1792, Madrid ) was a Spanish soldier and colonial official in New Spain and Peru . From April 6, 1784 to March 25, 1790 he was viceroy of Peru . Background Teodoro de Croix was born in France. He entered the Spanish army at age 17 and was sent to Italy as an ensign of grenadiers of the Royal Guard. In 1750 he transferred to the Walloon Guards , bodyguards of the Bourbon kings of Spain. In 1756 he was promoted to lieutenant and was made a knight in the Teutonic Order . He became a colonel (still in the Walloon Guards) in 1760. In 1766 he came to New Spain as a captain in the guard of Viceroy Carlos Francisco de Croix, marqués de Croix . He subsequently served as commandant of the fortress in Acapulco and as inspector of all troops in the viceroyalty. He served in this capacity until 1770. In 1771 the term of Viceroy Croix ended, and both Francisco and Teodoro returned to Spain. Visitador José de Gálvez returned with them. Provincias Interna



Francisco de Almeida

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Dom Francisco de Almeida ( Portuguese pronunciation:  ), also known as "the Great Dom Francisco" (c. 1450–1 March 1510), was a Portuguese nobleman, soldier and explorer . He distinguished himself as a counsellor to King John II of Portugal and later in the wars against the Moors and in the conquest of Granada in 1492. In 1503 he was appointed as the first governor and viceroy of the Portuguese State of India (Estado da Índia). Almeida is credited with establishing Portuguese hegemony in the Indian Ocean, with his victory at the naval Battle of Diu in 1509. Before Almeida could return to Portugal, he lost his life in 1510. His son Lourenço de Almeida too was killed in the Battle of Chaul in 1508. Exploits as soldier Almeida was born at Lisbon . As was customary for men in his social circle, he joined the military at an early age. In 1476 he took part in the Battle of Toro . Then he fought in conflicts in different parts of Morocco and in 1492 participated in the Christian conquest of Granada on the side of the



José de Iturrigaray

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José de Iturrigaray (in full, José Joaquín Vicente de Iturrigaray y Aróstegui) (1742, Cádiz , Spain – 1815, Madrid ) was a Spanish military officer and viceroy of New Spain , from January 4, 1803 to September 16, 1808, during a period of turbulence. Origins and military career Iturrigaray was born of a family of wealthy Vizcaíno ( Basque ) merchants in Cádiz . His parents were José Yturrigaray y Gainza, born in Pamplona , Navarre , and María Manuela de Aróstegui y Larrea, born in Aranaz , Navarre. Under Charles III in 1762 he took part in the Spanish invasion of Portugal and in Gibraltar . In 1793, now under Charles IV , he earned fame for the courage shown in the War of the Pyrenees with Republican France . He was known to be ambitious, and could be predatory. In 1801 he was commander in chief of the army of Andalucía in the so-called War of the Oranges with Portugal, under the command of Generalissimo Manuel de Godoy . As viceroy of New Spain Godoy named him viceroy of New Spain . Iturrigaray arrived in the



Manuel de Guirior

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Manuel de Guirior (in full, Manuel de Guirior y Portal de Huarte y Edozain, marqués de Guirior) (1708 – November 25, 1788 ) was a Spanish naval officer and colonial administrator. He was viceroy of New Granada from 1772 to 1776 and of Peru from July 17, 1776 to July 21, 1780. Guirior was born into a noble family of Navarre . He entered the navy in 1733 as a lieutenant. He fought in the Seven Years' War against the English, and also against the Berbers in the Mediterranean. He was a knight of the Order of St. John . As viceroy of New Granada In 1772 he was named viceroy of New Granada. As viceroy, he tried to reform the religious communities, revitalize the missions, and insure more humanitarian treatment of the Indigenous. He worked to improve the economy and stimulate industry. He divided the city of Bogotá into barrios (boroughs). He also improved the defenses of the colony, especially on the coast. He founded the Real Universidad de Santafé , as well as a hospital and a hospice. On July 20, 1773 he founded



JW Marriott Chennai

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JW Marriott Chennai is a five-star luxury hotel under construction in Chennai , India . The 357-room hotel, being built at MRC Nagar on the seafront of Chennai facing the Bay of Bengal near the Adyar Estuary , is being developed at a cost of ₹ 6,200 million and forms part of Marriott International Inc . Initially planned to open in 2005, the project was delayed due to lack of funds and regulatory issues. History The hotel was planned in 1998. The design consultant of the project was BBG, based in New York City . C. R. Narayana Rao (CRN) Group was the local architect and structural and civil engineers group for the project. The hotel group initially announced to start the construction of the luxury hotel, promoted by Hyderabad-based Viceroy Hotels Ltd, in late 2002 and complete the project by 2005. However, construction work started in 2005 at an initial cost of ₹ 4,900 million. The project was then delayed for several reasons including obtaining permissions from the local administrative bodies. By March 20



Gaspar de la Cerda, 8th Count of Galve

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Gaspar Melchor Baltasar de la Cerda Silva Sandoval y Mendoza, 8th Count of Gelve, Lord of Salcedón and Tortola (in full, Spanish : Don Gaspar Melchor Baltasar de la Cerda Silva Sandoval y Mendoza, Conde de Gelve y Señor de Salcedón y Tortola ) (11 June 1653 – 12 March 1697) was viceroy of New Spain from November 20, 1688 to February 26, 1696. As viceroy of New Spain Cerda Sandoval Silva was only 35 years old when he was named viceroy of New Spain, in May 1688. He arrived in Veracruz in the middle of October. On the road from there to Mexico City he met with his predecessor, Melchor Portocarrero, 3rd Count of Monclova , on November 8, 1688. He arrived at Chapultepec on November 11 and took the oath of office before the Audiencia on November 20, 1688. His solemn entry into Mexico City was December 4, 1688, but his term of office is dated from the earlier swearing-in ceremony. Shortly after his arrival, the viceroy received a message from the governor of New Mexico that three Frenchmen from the French colony in



Francisco Javier de Elío

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Francisco Javier de Elío ( Pamplona , 1767 – Valencia , 1822), was a Spanish soldier, governor of Montevideo and the last Viceroy of the Río de la Plata . He was also instrumental in the Absolutist repression after the restoration of Ferdinand VII as King of Spain. For this, he was executed during the Trienio Liberal . Viceroy of Río de la Plata Francisco Javier de Elío was governor of Montevideo between 1807 and 1809, when he plotted with Martín de Álzaga against his superior Santiago de Liniers , Viceroy of the Río de la Plata . This failed because Liniers was supported by Cornelio Saavedra and criollo militias. In May 1810, Liniers' successor Baltasar Hidalgo de Cisneros was deposed by the May Revolution . Elío remained in control of Montevideo and the Banda Oriental and declared himself Viceroy of Río de la Plata, which was confirmed by the Junta of Cádiz on January 19, 1811. One month later the rural population of the Banda Oriental under José Gervasio Artigas also rebelled against Spain, and in May the



Juan Francisco de Güemes, 1st Count of Revillagigedo

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Juan Francisco de Güemes y Horcasitas ( Spanish : Juan Francisco de Güemes y Horcasitas, primer conde de Revillagigedo ) (1681, Reinosa , Cantabria – 1766, Spain ) was a Spanish general, governor of Havana , captain general of Cuba , and viceroy of New Spain (from 9 July 1746 to 9 November 1755). Early career Juan Francisco de Güemes y Horcasitas was the first count of Revillagigedo (sometimes spelled Revilla Gigedo) and a lieutenant general in the army. He participated in the siege of Gibraltar and the conquest of Oran . In 1734 he was named captain general of Havana, where he repulsed the attacks of the English, organized the cavalry, and improved the fortifications. While serving in this position, he was named viceroy of New Spain. As viceroy of New Spain In New Spain, he presided at the funeral honors of the old king, Philip V , and proclaimed the new king, Ferdinand VI . He encouraged the colonization of Nuevo Santander (now Tamaulipas ). Under his authority Colonel José de Escandón established eleven to



Luís de Velasco

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Luís de Velasco (1511 – July 31, 1564) was the second viceroy of New Spain during the Spanish colonization of the Americas in the mid-sixteenth century. Biography Velasco was born in the town of Carrión de los Condes , in the province of Palencia , in 1511. The son of a wealthy nobleman, Velasco received formal education at a young age. By 1547, he had become viceroy and leader of Spain's armed forces in the Kingdom of Navarre . Impressed with Velasco's achievements and loyalty to the Spanish crown, Emperor Charles V (King Charles I of Spain) sent him to New Spain, in 1550, to deal with problems in the Spanish colonies, among them slavery and the encomienda system. He was accompanied by his son, Luis de Velasco, marqués de Salinas , himself a future viceroy of New Spain. Velasco replaced the previous viceroy, Antonio de Mendoza . Mendoza had been given his choice of the Viceroyalty of Mexico or of Peru, with Velasco to fill the other office. Velasco arrived at San Juan de Ulúa , New Spain on August 23, 1550.



Namiestnik of Poland

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The Namiestnik (or Viceroy ) of the Kingdom of Poland ( Polish : namiestnik Królestwa Polskiego , Russian : наместник Царства Польского ) was the deputy of the King of Poland (Tsar of Poland)—i.e., the deputy of the Emperor of Russia who, under Congress Poland (1815–74), styled himself "King of Poland." Between 1874 and 1914, when the former Congress Poland was known as the Vistula Country , the title Namiestnik was replaced by that of Governor-General of Warsaw ( Polish : Generał-gubernator warszawski ). History The office of Namiestnik was introduced in Poland by the Constitution of Congress Poland (1815), in its Article 3 (On the Namiestnik and Council of State). The namiestnik was chosen by the Tsar from among the noble citizens of the Russian Empire or the Kingdom of Poland, excluding naturalized citizens. The namiestnik supervised the entire public administration and, in the monarch's absence, chaired the Council of State of Congress Poland , as well as the Administrative Council of Congress Poland . He



Blasco Núñez Vela

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Blasco Núñez Vela y Villalba (c. 1490 – January 18, 1546) was the first Spanish viceroy of Peru . Serving from May 15, 1544 to January 18, 1546, he was charged by King Charles I with the enforcement of the controversial New Laws , which dealt with the failure of the encomienda system to protect the indigenous people of America from the rapacity of the conquistadors and their descendants. Origins Núñez Vela was a native of Ávila , born into an ancient and noble family. The Núñez Vela family, lords of Tabadillo, lived in this area from at least 1403. He was a descendant of Don Pedro Nuñez de la Fuente Almexir (Fuentearmegil) the loyal, who saved the life of the King of Castile , Alfonso VIII in 1163. He was a knight of the Order of Santiago and corregidor of Málaga and Cuenca , Spain, and devoted to the service of the king. One of his brothers was lord of the bedchamber to the king, and another was archbishop of Burgos. Although honest, loyal and courageous, Núñez was also very hot headed. Appointment as vicer



Victor Hope, 2nd Marquess of Linlithgow

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Victor Alexander John Hope, 2nd Marquess of Linlithgow , KG , KT , FRSE , GCSI , GCIE , OBE (24 September 1887 – 5 January 1952) was a Scottish Unionist politician, agriculturalist and colonial administrator. He served as Governor-General and Viceroy of India from 1936 to 1943. He was usually referred to simply as Linlithgow . He served as vice president of the Royal Society of Edinburgh , Chancellor of the University of Edinburgh and Lord High Commissioner to the General Assembly of the Church of Scotland . Early life and family Hope was born at Hopetoun House , South Queensferry , Linlithgowshire , Scotland, on 24 September 1887. He was the eldest son of John Adrian Louis Hope, 7th Earl of Hopetoun , later 1st Marquess Linlithgow, and Hersey Everleigh-de-Moleyns , Countess of Hopetoun and later Marchioness of Linlithgow, daughter of the fourth Baron Ventry . His godmother was Queen Victoria . He was educated at Eton College and on 29 February 1908 succeeded his father as 2nd Marquess Linlithgow. In 1912, a



Marcos de Torres y Rueda

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Marcos de Torres y Rueda (April 25, 1591, Almazán, Spain – April 22, 1649, Mexico City ) was bishop of Yucatan (1646–1649), interim viceroy of New Spain , and president of the Audiencia of New Spain. He served in office from May 13, 1648 to April 22, 1649. His name is sometimes given as Marcos Torres y Rueda. In Spain Marcos de Torres y Rueda was born in Spain in 1591 (some sources say 1588). He studied at the University of Alcalá de Henares, with much distinction, graduating as licenciado in arts. Thereafter he occupied the chair of theology at Alcalá, and also at the University of Valladolid. He was canon of the cathedral of Burgos and rector of the College of San Nicolás in Burgos when King Philip IV of Spain nominated him for bishop of Yucatan. Pope Innocent X named him to fill the position on December 18, 1645. In the New World He arrived in New Spain the following year, was consecrated a bishop in Puebla , and took up his position as bishop November 9, 1646. Only a few months later, on July 10, 1647, Ki



Juan Antonio de Vizarrón y Eguiarreta

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Juan Antonio de Vizarrón y Eguiarreta (ca. 1685, El Puerto de Santa María , Spain – January 25, 1747, Mexico City , Spain ) was archbishop of Mexico from March 21, 1731 to January 25, 1747 and Spanish viceroy of New Spain from March 17, 1734 to August 17, 1740. Early career He studied in the College of San Clemente in Rome. At the time he was named archbishop of Mexico (January 13, 1730), he was archdeacon in the patriarchal church in Seville . He was also chaplain to the king. He was consecrated archbishop in Mexico City on May 13, 1730, and took formal possession of the archdiocese on March 21, 1731. Actions as viceroy In 1734 he took over the government of the viceroyalty in conformity with sealed orders from the Crown. These orders were to be opened by the Audiencia in the event of the death of the previous viceroy, Juan de Acuña, marqués de Casafuerte . They named Vizarrón y Eguiarreta as his successor. As viceroy, he confiscated the property of the Duke of Monteleone, a descendant of Hernán Cortés , bec



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