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Viceroy

A viceroy is a regal official who runs a country, colony, city, province, or sub-national state, in the name of and as the representative of the monarch of the territory. The term derives from the Latin prefix vice-, meaning "in the place of" and the French word roi, meaning "king". A viceroy's territory may be called a viceroyalty, though this term is not always applied. The adjectival form is viceregal,[1] less often viceroyal.[2] The term vicereine is sometimes used to indicate a female viceroy suo jure, although viceroy can serve as a gender-neutral term.[3] Vicereine is more commonly used to indicate a viceroy's wife.[3]

Spanish Empire

The title was originally used by the Crown of Aragon; where beginning in the 14th century, it referred to the Spanish governors of Sardinia and Corsica. After the unification, at the end of the 15th century, later kings of Spain came to appoint numerous viceroys to rule over various parts of the increasingly vast Spanish Empire in Europe, the Americas, and overseas elsewhere.

In Europe

In Europe, until the 18th century, the Habsburg crown appointed viceroys of Aragon, Valencia, Catalonia, Navarre, Portugal, Sardinia, Sicily, and Naples. With the ascension of the House of Bourbon to the Spanish throne, the historic Aragonese viceroyalties were replaced by new captaincies general. At the end of War of the Spanish Succession, the Spanish monarchy was shorn of its Italian possessions. These Italian territories, however, continued to have viceroys under their new rulers for some time; Sardinia would have a viceroy until 1848.

In the Americas

The Americas were incorporated into the Crown of Castile. With the Spanish colonization of the Americas, the institution of viceroys was adapted to govern the highly populated and wealthy regions of the north overseas: New Spain (Mexico and Philippines) and the south overseas: Peru and South America. The viceroys of these two areas had oversight over the other provinces, with most of the North American, Central American, Caribbean and East Indian areas supervised by the viceroy in Mexico City and the South American ones by the viceroy in Lima, (with the exception of most of today's Venezuela, which was overseen by the high court, or Audiencia of Santo Domingo on the island of Hispaniola for most of the colonial period). These large administrative territories became known as Viceroyalties (Spanish term: Virreinatos). There were only two New World viceroyalties until the 18th century, when the new Bourbon Dynasty established two additional viceroyalties to promote economic growth and new settlements on South America. New viceroyalties were created for New Granada in 1717 (capital, Bogotá) and the Río de la Plata in 1776 (capital, Buenos Aires).

The viceroyalties of the Spanish Americas and the Spanish East Indies were subdivided into smaller, autonomous units, the Audiencias (tribunal with the authority to judge), and the Captaincies General (military districts), which in most cases became the bases for the independent countries of modern Hispanic America. These units gathered the local provinces which could be governed by either a crown official, a corregidor (sometimes alcalde mayor) or by a cabildo or town council. Audiencias primarily functioned as superior judicial tribunals, but unlike their European counterparts, the New World audiencias were granted by law both administrative and legislative powers. Captaincies General were primarily military districts set up in areas with a risk of foreign or Indian attack, but the captains general were usually given political powers over the provinces under their command. Because the long distances to the viceregal capital would hamper effective communication, both audiencias and captains general were authorized to communicate directly with the crown through the Council of the Indies. The Bourbon Reforms introduced the new office of the intendant, which was appointed directly by the crown and had broad fiscal and administrative powers in political and military issues.

See also:

Portuguese Empire
India

The title of Viceroy being awarded to members of the nobility, Viceroys, Governors and Governing Commissions were many times interleaved until the last Viceroy Afonso, Prince Royal of Portugal, in 1896. From 1505 to 1896 Portuguese India – the name "India" and the official name "Estado da India" (State of India) including all Portuguese possessions in the Indian Ocean, from southern Africa to Southeast Asia and Australasia, until 1752- was governed either by a Viceroy (Portuguese Vice-Rei) or Governor from its headquarters, in Goa since 1510. The government started six years after the discovery of sea route to India by Vasco da Gama, in 1505, under first Viceroy Francisco de Almeida (b.1450–d.1510). Initially, King Manuel I of Portugal tried a power distribution with three governors in different areas of jurisdiction: a government covering the area and possessions in East Africa, Arabian Peninsula and Persian Gulf, overseeing up Cambay (Gujarat); a second one ruling the possessions in India (Hindustan) and Ceylon, and a third one from Malacca to the Far East.[4] However the post was centered by governor Afonso de Albuquerque (1509–1515), who became plenipotentiary, and remained so. The duration in office was usually three years, possibly longer, given the power represented: of the thirty-four governors of India in the 16th century, only six had longer mandates.[5]

Portugal

During some periods of the Iberian Union, between 1580 and 1640, the King of Spain, who was also King of Portugal, appointed Viceroys to govern Portugal itself, as the king had multiple realms throughout Europe and delegated his powers to various viceroys.

Brazil

After the end of the Iberian Union in 1640, the governors of Brazil that were members of the Portuguese high nobility started to use the title of Viceroy.[6] Brazil became a permanent Viceroyalty in 1763, when the capital of the State of Brazil (Estado do Brasil) was transferred from Salvador to Rio de Janeiro.[7]

British Empire
British India

Following the adoption of the Act that transferred the government of India from the East India Company to the Crown in 1858, the Governor-General as representing the Crown became known as the Viceroy. The designation 'Viceroy', although it was most frequently used in ordinary parlance, had no statutory authority, and was never employed by Parliament. Although the Proclamation of 1858 announcing the assumption of the government of India by the Crown referred to Lord Canning as "first Viceroy and Governor-General", none of the Warrants appointing his successors referred to them as 'viceroys', and the title, which was frequently used in warrants dealing with precedence and in public notifications, was basically one of ceremony used in connection with the state and social functions of the sovereign's representative. The Governor-General continued to be the sole representative of the Crown, and the Government of India continued to be vested in the Governor-General-in-Council.[8]

The viceroys reported directly to the Secretary of State for India in London and were advised by the Council of India. They were largely unencumbered in the exercise of their authority and were among the most powerful men on earth in the Victorian and Edwardian eras, ruling over an entire subcontinent and with a large military force at their disposal in the form of the British Indian Army. Under the terms of the Government of India Act 1919, viceroys shared some limited aspects of their authority with the Central Legislative Assembly, one of the first steps of reform as India progressed towards home rule under the Government of India Act 1935, independence as a Dominion in 1947, and ultimately the establishment of a republic in 1950.

Alongside the Commander-in-Chief, India, the viceroy was the public face of the British presence in India, attending to many ceremonial functions as well as political affairs. As the representative of the Emperors and Empresses of India, who were also the kings and queens of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland, the viceroy served as the grand master of the two principal chivalric orders of British India: the Order of the Star of India and the Order of the Indian Empire.

Louis Mountbatten, last viceroy of India

During the office's history, the Governors-General of India were based in two cities: Calcutta during the 19th century and New Delhi during the 20th century. Additionally, whilst Calcutta was the capital of British India, the viceroys spent the summer months at Simla. The two historic residences of the viceroys still stand: the Viceroy's House in New Delhi and Government House in Calcutta. They are used today as the official residences of the President of India and the Governor of West Bengal, respectively. The portraits of the Governors-General still hang in a room on the ground floor of the Presidential Palace, one of the last vestiges of both the viceroys and the British Raj.[9]

Notable Governors-General of India include Warren Hastings, Lord Cornwallis, Lord Curzon, The Earl of Minto, Lord Chelmsford, and Lord Mountbatten. Lord Mountbatten served as the last Viceroy of British India, but continued on as the first Governor-General of the dominion of India.

Ireland

The Lords Lieutenant of Ireland were often referred to as "Viceroy" after 1700 until 1922, even though the Kingdom of Ireland had been merged in 1801 into the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland.

Commonwealth realms

The term has occasionally been applied to the governors-general of the Commonwealth Realms, for example Gough Whitlam in 1973 told the Australian House of Representatives: 'The Governor-General is the viceroy of the Queen of Australia'.[10]

The governor general of Canada, the lieutenant governors of the Canadian provinces and the governors-general of Australia and governors of the Australian states are viceroys in terms of the Balfour Declaration of 1926. The Australia Act 1986 also provide that all royal powers in Australia, except the actual appointment of the governor-general and the governors are exercisable by the viceregal representatives. The noun 'viceroy' is rarely used but the adjective 'viceregal' is standard usage.

Russian Empire

Namestnik (Russian: наме́стник, Russian pronunciation: ) was an office position in the history of the Russian Empire. It can be translated as "viceroy", "deputy", "lieutenant" (the broader sense of that word) or literally in place appointee. The term has two periods of usage, with different meanings.[11] [12] [13] [14] Namestnik replaced the obsolete position of voyevoda (ruler of krai or uyezd) by Peter I.

  • In the 12th–16th centuries, namestniks (more correctly knyaz namestniks, or "knyaz deputies") were in charge of local administration. In particular, they ruled uyezds.[15]
  • In the 18th–20th centuries, a namestnik was a person in charge of namestnichestvo, with plenipotentiary powers. The latter has traditionally been translated as viceroyalty and "namestnik" as viceroy or vicegerent (or, as a common blunder, "viceregent"). For example, Mikhail Vorontsov was namestnik of Bessarabia (1823–44) and of the Caucasus (1844–1854). Sometimes the term is confused with Governor General (генерал-губернатор). For example, during Vorontsov's term of office in Bessarabia, seven governor-generals were in, and at the same time he held the office of Governor General of New Russia. The following namestnik existed under the Romanov Emperors of Russia:[12] [16]

The Tsar Paul I's 1799 formation of the Russian-American Company obviated viceroys in the colonization of the northwestern New World.

Other viceroyalties
French colonies

New France, in present Canada, after a single Governor (24 July 1534 – 15 January 1541 Jacques Cartier) had Lieutenants-general and Viceroys 15 January 1541 – September 1543 Jean François de la Rocquet, sieur de Robervalle (c. 1500 – 1560), after September 1543 – 3 January 1578 Abandonment again 3 January 1578 – February 1606 Troilus de Mesgouez, marquis de la Roche-Mesgouez (died 1606) (viceroy and from 12 January 1598, lieutenant-general), February 1606 – 1614 Jean de Biencourt, sieur de Poutrincourt, baron de St. Just (1557–1615); next a series of Viceroys (resident in France) 8 October 1611 – 1672, later Governors and Governors-general.

Italian colonies

In Italian Viceré: The highest colonial representatives in the "federation" of Italian East Africa (six provinces, each under a governor; together Ethiopia, Eritrea and Italian Somaliland) were no longer styled "High Commissioner", but "Viceroy and Governor-general" from 5 May 1936, when Italian forces occupied Ethiopia, until 27 November 1941, when the last Italian administrator surrendered to the Allies. The Italian King Victor Emmanuel claimed the title of "Emperor of Ethiopia" (Nəgusä nägäst, "King of Kings") and declared himself to be a successor to the Nəgusä nägäst, even though Emperor Haile Selassie I continued to hold this title while in exile, and resumed his actual, physical throne on 5 May 1941.

On 7 April 1939, Italy invaded the Kingdom of Albania (today Albania). As Viceré of Albania of Victor Emmanuel III of Italy were the Marchese Francesco Jacomoni di San Savino and after his departure General Alberto Pariani.

Ban of Bosnia

Ban Borić was the first ruler and Viceroy of Bosnia, appointed by Géza II of Hungary by 1154. His war affairs are documented as he fought several notable battles.[19] He also maintained ties with knights Templar and donated lands in Bosnia and Slavonia to their Order.[20] His own biological brother Dominic was on record as a knight Templar.[21]

Ban of Croatia

From the earliest medieval period in the Kingdom of Croatia, the position of viceroy was held by Ban of Croatia who acted as king's representative in Croatian lands and supreme commander of Croatian army. In the 18th century, Croatian bans eventually become chief government officials in Croatia. They were at the head of Ban's Government, effectively the first prime ministers of Croatia. The last ban held his position until 1941 and the collapse of Yugoslavia in World War II.

Ancient antecedents

An equivalent office, called the Exarch, was created in the Byzantine or Eastern Roman Empire towards the end of the sixth century for governors of important areas too far from the imperial capital of Constantinople to receive regular instruction or reinforcement. The chosen governors of these provinces were empowered to act in place of the monarch (hence ex-arch) with more discretion and autonomy than was granted other categories of governor. This was an extraordinary break from the centralized traditions of the Roman Empire and was an early example of the principle of Viceroyalty.

Non-Western counterparts

As with many princely and administrative titles, viceroy is often used, generally unofficially, to render somewhat equivalent titles and offices in non-western cultures.

Africa

In cultures all over the continent of Africa, the role of viceroy has been subsumed into a hereditary noble as opposed to strictly administrative position. In the Arabo-Berber north, for example, the title of Khalifa is often used by individuals who derive their authority to rule from someone else in much the same way as a viceroy would. Elsewhere, subordinate inkosis under the rule of a paramount chief like the King of the Zulu Nation of Southern Africa or subordinate baales in the realms of the reigning obas of West African Yorubaland continue to occupy statutorily recognized positions in the contemporary countries of South Africa and Nigeria as the customary representatives of their respective principals in the various areas that are under their immediate control.

Ottoman empire

The khedive of Egypt, especially in the dynasty initiated by Muhammad Ali Pasha (1805–1848). This officer established an almost autonomous regime in Egypt, which officially still was under Ottoman rule. Although Mehemet Ali/Muhammad Ali used different symbols to mark his independence from the Sublime Porte, he never openly declared himself independent. Adopting the title of viceroy was yet another way to walk the thin line between challenging the Sultan's power explicitly and respecting his jurisdiction. Muhammad Ali Pasha's grandson, Ismail Pasha, subsequently received the title of Khedive which was almost an equivalent to viceroy.[22]

Vietnamese empire

The post of Tổng Trấn (governor of all military provinces) was a political post in the early of Vietnamese Nguyễn Dynasty (1802–1830). From 1802, under the reign of emperor Gia Long, there were always two Tổng Trấn who directly ruled Vietnam's northern part named Thành Long (Hanoi and surrounding territories) and the southern part named Gia Định (Saigon and surrounding territories) while Nguyen emperors ruled only the middle part named Vùng Kinh Kỳ (Huế and surrounding territories). Tổng Trấn is sometimes translated to English as viceroy.[23] In 1830, emperor Minh Mạng abolished the post in order to increase the imperial direct ruling power in all over Vietnam.

Chinese empires

During the Han, Ming and Qing dynasties, there existed positions of viceroys having control over various provinces (e.g., Liangguang = Guangdong and Guangxi, Huguang = Hubei and Hunan).

Siam

In Siam until 1885, the title was used for heir-apparent (Thai: กรมพระราชวังบวรสถานมงคล) The title was abolished and replaced to Crown Prince of Siam.

See also
Notes
  1. "viceregal". OxfordDictionariesOnline.com. Retrieved 22 November 2014.
  2. "Viceroyal, a", The Oxford English Dictionary, 2nd ed. 1989, OED Online, Oxford University Press, 4 April 2000 http://dictionary.oed.com/cgi/entry/50277245>
  3. "vicereine". OxfordDictionariesOnline.com. Retrieved 22 November 2014.
  4. O Secretário dos despachos e coisas da Índia pero d´Alcáçova Carneiro, p.65, Maria Cecília Costa Veiga de Albuquerque Ramos, Universidade de Lisboa, 2009 (In Portuguese) http://repositorio.ul.pt/bitstream/10451/3387/1/ulfl080844_tm.pdf>
  5. Diffie, Bailey W. and George D. Winius (1977), "Foundations of the Portuguese Empire, 1415–1580", p.323-325, Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press. David Tan ISBN 0-8166-0782-6.
  6. A. J. R. Russell-Wood,"The Portuguese empire, 1415–1808: a world on the move", p. 66, JHU Press, 1998, ISBN 0-8018-5955-7
  7. Boris Fausto, "A concise history of Brazil", p.50, Cambridge University Press, 1999, ISBN 0-521-56526-X
  8. Imperial Gazetteer of India, Clarendon Press, Oxford, New Edition 1909, vol 4, p. 16.
  9. Nath, Aman, "Dome Over India", India Book House Ltd. ISBN 81-7508-352-2.
  10. Gough Whitlam, The Truth of the Matter, (1979)
  11. Public Domain This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domainBrockhaus and Efron Encyclopedic Dictionary (in Russian). 1906.
  12. Kli͡uchevskiĭ, V. O. (Vasiliĭ Osipovich); Duddington, Natalie. (1994). A course in Russian history—the seventeenth century. Armonk, N.Y.: M.E. Sharpe. ISBN 1-56324-317-2.
  13. Larin, A. K. (2004). Gosudarev namestnik : istoricheskai͡a povestʹ o M.N. Krechetnikov. Kaluga: Zolotai͡a allei͡a. ISBN 5-7111-0347-4.
  14. "hrono.ru: namestnik". Retrieved 19 January 2010.
  15. (in Russian) Тархов, Сергей, "Изменение административно-территориального деления России в XIII-XX в." (pdf), Логос, #1 2005 (46), ISSN 0869-5377
  16. Ledonne, John P. (January–March 2002). "Administrative Regionalization in the Russian Empire 1802–1826". Cahiers du Monde russe. pp. 5–33. Retrieved 19 January 2010.
  17. Thomas Mitchell, Handbook for Travellers in Russia, Poland, and Finland, 1888, p. 460. Google Print [1]
  18. КАВКАЗ
  19. The Late Medieval Balkans: A Critical Survey from the Late Twelfth Century
  20. Judith Mary Upton-Ward, H.J.A. Sire. "24. The Priory of Vrana". The Military Orders: On Land and by Sea. p. 221.
  21. Magyar Országos Levéltár
  22. Encyclopædia Britannica: Ismail Pasha, Ottoman Viceroy of Egypt and New Spain
  23. Philip Taylor (2004), Goddess on the rise: pilgrimage and popular religion in Vietnam, University of Hawaii Press, p. 36.
Sources
  • Aznar, Daniel/Hanotin, Guillaume/May, Niels F. (dir.), À la place du roi. Vice-rois, gouverneurs et ambassadeurs dans les monarchies française et espagnole (XVIe-XVIIIe siècles). Madrid: Casa de Velázquez, 2014.
  • Elliott, J. H., Imperial Spain, 1469–1716. London: Edward Arnold, 1963.
  • Fisher, Lillian Estelle. Viceregal Administration in the Spanish American Colonies. Berkeley, University of California Press, 1926.
  • Harding, C. H., The Spanish Empire in America. New York: Oxford University Press, 1947.
  • Public Domain This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domainBrockhaus and Efron Encyclopedic Dictionary (in Russian). 1906.
Further reading
  • Andrada (undated). The Life of Dom John de Castro: The Fourth Vice Roy of India. Jacinto Freire de Andrada. Translated into English by Peter Wyche. (1664) Henry Herrington, New Exchange, London. Facsimile edition (1994) AES Reprint, New Delhi. ISBN 81-206-0900-X.
  • (in Russian) hrono.ru: namestnik
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Tewfik Pasha

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Muhammed Tewfik Pasha ( Arabic : محمد توفيق باشا ‎‎, Turkish : Muhammed Tevfik Paşa ; April 30 or November 15, 1852 – January 7, 1892), also known as Tawfiq of Egypt , was khedive of Egypt and the Sudan between 1879 and 1892 and the sixth ruler from the Muhammad Ali Dynasty . Early life He was the eldest son of Khedive Ismail , and was born on November 15, 1852. His mother was Princess Shafiq-Nur. He was not sent to Europe to be educated like his younger brothers, but grew up in Egypt. In 1866 Ismail succeeded in his endeavor to alter the order of succession to the Khedivate of Egypt . The title, instead of passing to the eldest living male descendant of Muhammad Ali , was now to descend from father to son. Ismail sought this alteration mainly because he disliked his uncle, Halim Pasha , who was his heir-presumptive , and he had imagined that he would be able to select whichever of his sons he pleased for his successor. But he found, after the change had been made, that the Great Powers (Britain, Germany, Aus



Ghazan

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Mahmud Ghazan (1271– 11 May 1304) ( Mongolian : Газан хаан , sometimes referred to as Casanus by Westerners ) was the seventh ruler of the Mongol Empire 's Ilkhanate division in modern-day Iran from 1295 to 1304. He was the son of Arghun and Quthluq Khatun, continuing a long line of rulers who were direct descendants of Genghis Khan . Considered the most prominent of the Ilkhans, he is best known for making a political conversion to Islam in 1295 when he took the throne, marking a turning point for the dominant religion of Mongols in West Asia (Iran, Iraq, Anatolia and Trans-Caucassia). His principal wife was Kököchin , a Mongol princess (originally betrothed to Ghazan's father Arghun before his death) sent by his Khagan Kublai Khan , and escorted from the Mongol capital to the Ilkhanate by Marco Polo . Military conflicts during Ghazan's reign included war with the Egyptian Mamluks for control of Syria , and battles with the Turko-Mongol Chagatai Khanate . Ghazan also pursued diplomatic contacts with Europe,



Parliament House (India)

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The Sansad Bhawan (Parliament Building) is the house of the Parliament of India , located in New Delhi . History Originally called the House of Parliament, it was designed by the British architect Edwin Lutyens and Herbert Baker in 1912-1913 and construction began in 1921 and ended in 1927. The opening ceremony of the Parliament House, then called the Central Legislative Assembly, was performed on 18 January 1927 by Lord Irwin , the Viceroy of India . The third session of Central Legislative Assembly was held in this house on 19 January 1927. The Parliament Museum , opened in 2006, stands next to the Parliament House. Building The shape is circular, which is based on the Ashoka Chakra . Separate halls were constructed for the sessions of the Chamber of Princes , the State Council , and the Central Legislative Assembly . The building is surrounded by large gardens and the perimeter is fenced off by sandstone railings (jali) modeled after the Great Stupa of Sanchi . Proposal for a new building A new Parliament



Viceroy of Min-Zhe

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The Viceroy of Min-Zhe , fully referred to in Chinese as the Governor-General of Taiwan, Fujian and Zhejiang Provinces and Surrounding Areas Overseeing Military Affairs and Food Production, Manager of Waterways, Director of Civil Affairs , was one of eight Viceroys in China proper during the Qing dynasty . The "Zhe" refers to Zhejiang Province while "Min" is the abbreviation of Fujian Province . Taiwan was also under the Viceroy's control until after the 1895 Treaty of Shimonoseki . History The office of Viceroy of Min-Zhe was created under the name "Viceroy of Zhe-Min" in 1645 during the reign of the Shunzhi Emperor . At the time of its creation, its headquarters were in Fuzhou , Fujian Province. In 1648, the headquarters shifted to Quzhou , Zhejiang Province. About 10 years later, the office split into the Viceroy of Fujian and Viceroy of Zhejiang, which were respectively based in Zhangzhou and Wenzhou . In 1672, during the reign of the Kangxi Emperor , the office of the Viceroy of Fujian shifted from Zhang



Viceroyalty of Peru

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The Viceroyalty of Peru (Spanish: Virreinato del Perú ) was a Spanish colonial administrative district, created in 1542, that originally contained most of Spanish-ruled South America, governed from the capital of Lima . The Viceroyalty of Peru was one of the two Spanish Viceroyalties in the Americas from the sixteenth to the eighteenth centuries. The Spanish did not resist the Portuguese expansion of Brazil across the meridian established by the Treaty of Tordesillas . The treaty was rendered meaningless between 1580 and 1640 while Spain controlled Portugal . The creation during the 18th century of Viceroyalties of New Granada and Rio de la Plata (at the expense of Peru's territory) reduced the importance of Lima and shifted the lucrative Andean trade to Buenos Aires , while the fall of the mining and textile production accelerated the progressive decay of the Viceroyalty of Peru. Eventually, the viceroyalty would dissolve, as with much of the Spanish empire, when challenged by national independence movements



Bernardo de Gálvez

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Bernardo Vicente de Gálvez y Madrid, Viscount of Galveston and Count of Gálvez ( Macharaviaya , Málaga , Spain 25 July 1746 – 30 November 1786) was a Spanish military leader and colonial administrator who served as colonial governor of Spanish Louisiana and Cuba , and later as Viceroy of New Spain . Gálvez aided the American Thirteen Colonies in their quest for independence and led Spanish forces against Britain in the Revolutionary War , defeating the British at the Siege of Pensacola (1781) and reconquering Florida for Spain. He spent the last two years of his life as Viceroy of New Spain, succeeding his father Matías de Gálvez y Gallardo . The city of Galveston, Texas , was named after him. Gálvez is one of only eight people to be awarded honorary United States citizenship . Origins and military career Bernardo de Gálvez was born in Macharaviaya , a mountain village in the province of Málaga , Spain , on 25 July 1746. He studied military sciences at the Academia de Ávila and at the age of 16 participat



List of viceroys of Navarre

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This is a list of Spanish Viceroys of Navarre from 1512 to 1840, when the function was abolished. 1512 : Diego Fernández de Córdoba y Arellano, marqués de Comares 1515 : Fadrique de Acuña, Conde de Buendía 1516 : Antonio Manrique de Lara, Duque de Nájera 1521 : Francisco López de Zúñiga, Conde de Miranda 1524 : Diego de Avellaneda, Bishop of Tuy 1527 : Martín Alfonso Fernández de Córdoba, Conde de Alcaudete 1534 : Diego Hurtado de Mendoza, 2nd Marquis of Cañete 1542 : Juan de Vega, Señor de Grajal 1543 : Luis Hurtado de Mendoza y Pacheco, 2nd Marquis of Mondejar 1546 : Álvar Gómez Manrique de Mendoza, Conde de Castrogeriz 1547 : Luis de Velasco , Señor de Salinas 1549 : Bernardino de Cárdenas y Pacheco, Duque de Maqueda 1552 : Beltrán de la Cueva, 3rd Duke of Alburquerque 1560 : Gabriel de la Cueva, 5th Duke of Alburquerque 1564 : Alfonso de Córdoba y Velasco, Conde de Alcaudete 1565 : José de Guevara y Tovar, Señor de Escalante 1567 : Juan de la Cerda y Silva, 4th Duke of Medinaceli 1572 : Vespasiano Gonzaga



The Spanish Viceroy

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The Spanish Viceroy is a problem play of English Renaissance drama . Originally a work by Philip Massinger dating from 1624 , it was controversial in its own era, and may or may not exist today in altered form. History 1624 In December 1624, the King's Men got into trouble with Sir Henry Herbert , the Master of the Revels , because they performed a play, The Spanish Viceroy, without first obtaining Herbert's license. This step was bound to get them into trouble: Herbert's job was to oversee and censor every play acted in the London theatres, and he was zealous in doing his job, maintaining his authority, and collecting his fees. The outcome was unsurprising, given the way the system of control worked. On 20 December 1624, the King's Men provided Herbert with a "submission", a written apology, signed by each actor who had taken part in the offending performance. The cast included Robert Benfield , George Birch , John Lowin , Thomas Pollard , John Rice , Richard Robinson , William Rowley , John Shank , Richard



RMS Viceroy of India

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RMS Viceroy of India was an ocean liner of the Peninsular and Oriental Steam Navigation Company (P&O). She was a British Royal Mail Ship on the Tilbury – Bombay route and was named after the Viceroy of India . In World War II she was converted to and used as a troopship. She was sunk in the Mediterranean in November 1942 by German submarine U-407 . Building Viceroy of India ' s indoor swimming pool P&O ordered the ship from Alexander Stephen and Sons of Glasgow in 1927. She was originally to be called Taj Mahal, after the 17th-century mausoleum of Mumtaz Mahal in Agra . She was laid down in April 1927, launched in September 1928 and completed in March 1929. She cost £1,090,987 She had six water-tube boilers with a combined heating surface of 32,500 square feet (3,019 m ) that supplied steam at 400 lb/in to two turbo generators . These supplied current to electric motors with a combined rating of 3,565 NHP that drove twin screw propellers . British Thomson-Houston (BT-H) of Rugby, Warwickshire bui



Edwina Mountbatten, Countess Mountbatten of Burma

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Edwina Cynthia Annette Mountbatten, Countess Mountbatten of Burma , CI , GBE , DCVO , GCStJ (née Ashley ; 28 November 1901 – 21 February 1960) was an English heiress, socialite, relief worker and the last Vicereine of India as wife of Louis Mountbatten, 1st Earl Mountbatten of Burma . Lineage and wealth She was born in 1901, the elder daughter of Wilfred William Ashley , later 1st Baron Mount Temple (of the 1932 creation), who was a Conservative Member of Parliament. Edwina Ashley was patrilineally descended from the Earls of Shaftesbury who had been ranked as baronets since 1622 and ennobled as barons in 1661. She was a great-granddaughter of the reformist 7th Earl of Shaftesbury through his younger son, The Hon. Evelyn Melbourne Ashley (1836–1907) and his wife, Sybella Farquhar (d. 1886), a granddaughter of the 6th Duke of Beaufort . From this cadet branch , the Ashley-Cooper peers would inherit the estates of Broadlands ( Hampshire , England) and Classiebawn Castle ( County Sligo , Ireland). Ashley's moth



List of Governors-General of Italian East Africa

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Coat of arms of Italian East Africa. This article lists the Governors-General of Italian East Africa , a colony of the Italian Empire from 1936 to 1941. The Governor-General of Italian East Africa was also Viceroy of Ethiopia . List Tenure Portrait Incumbent Notes Italian East Africa (Africa Orientale Italiana) 9 May 1936 to 11 June 1936 Marshal The 1st Duca di Addis Abeba, 1st Marchese di Sabotino , Viceroy and Governor-General For Victor Emmanuel III 11 June 1936 to 21 December 1937 Marshal The 1st Marchese di Neghelli , Governor-General For Victor Emmanuel III 21 December 1937 to 19 May 1941 General The 3rd Duca di Aosta , Viceroy and Governor-General For Victor Emmanuel III 23 May 1941 to 6 July 1941 General Pietro Gazzera , Acting Viceroy and Governor-General For Victor Emmanuel III 6 July 1941 to 27 November 1941 General Guglielmo Nasi , Acting Viceroy and Governor-General For Victor Emmanuel III See also Italian East Africa List of Italian Governors of Addis Ababa List of Italian Governors of Amhara Li



Prince Adolphus, Duke of Cambridge

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Prince Adolphus, Duke of Cambridge , KG , GCB , GCMG , GCH , PC (Adolphus Frederick; 24 February 1774 – 8 July 1850) was the tenth child and seventh son of the British king George III and Charlotte of Mecklenburg-Strelitz . He held the title of Duke of Cambridge from 1801 until his death. He also served as Viceroy of Hanover on behalf of his brothers George IV and William IV . He is a great-great-grandfather of the current monarch, Elizabeth II . Early life Prince Adolphus was born in February 1774 at Buckingham House , then known as the "Queen's House", in the City and Liberty of Westminster , now within Greater London. He was the youngest son of George and Charlotte to survive childhood. On 24 March 1774, the young prince was christened in the Great Council Chamber at St James's Palace by Frederick Cornwallis , Archbishop of Canterbury . His godparents were Prince John Adolphus of Saxe-Gotha-Altenburg (his great-uncle, for whom the Earl of Hertford , Lord Chamberlain , stood proxy), Landgrave Charles of He



List of viceroys of Portugal

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This is a list of the Viceroys of Portugal during the Iberian Union (1580–1640). According to what was established in the Cortes of Tomar in 1581, the regency of the Kingdom of Portugal always had to be trusted by the king to a Portuguese, or in alternative to a member of the Royal Family. This was, in a general way, fulfilled, having during two periods the regency been trusted to a governmental council called Government Junta of the Kingdom of Portugal. 1580 : Fernando Álvarez de Toledo, 3rd Duke of Alba 1583 : Albert VII, Archduke of Austria 1593 : First Government Junta: Miguel de Castro, Archbishop of Lisbon João da Silva, Count of Portalegre Francisco de Mascarenhas Duarte Castelo-Branco, Count of Sabugal Miguel de Moura 1600 : Cristóvão de Moura, 1st Marquis of Castelo Rodrigo (1st time) 1603 : Afonso Castelo-Branco, Bishop of Coimbra 1605 : Pedro Castilho, Bishop of Leiria 1608 : Cristóvão de Moura, Marquess of Castelo Rodrigo (2nd time) 1612 : Aleixo de Meneses, Bishop of Guarda 1615 : Miguel de Castr



Gujarat under Alamgir II

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The Mughal Empire 's province Gujarat (now in India) was under attack of the Marathas since last half century. The chief Maratha houses, Gaikwar and Peshwa had made peace with each other and driven out the Mughal nobles under the emperor Alamgir II . One such noble, Momin Khan, had countered their advances and recovered Ahmedabad in 1756 lost to the Marathas few years ago. After a long siege, Ahmedabad fell again in hands of the Marathas. The Marathas levied tributes across Gujarat. In 1759, the English of the British East India Company captured Surat . Sadashiv Ramchandra was appointed as a viceroy by Peshwa in 1760 followed by Apa Ganesh in 1761. Following defeat of Marathas in the Third Battle of Panipat (1761), the nobles briefly recovered towns from the Marathas but soon had to surrender. Thus the Marathas firmly established themselves in Gujarat. Gujarat under Alamgir II (1754–1759) At Delhi, during 1754, the emperor Ahmad Shah Bahadur was deposed, and Âzíz-ud-dín, son of Jahándár Sháh, was raised to th



Gandhi–Irwin Pact

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The Gandhi–Irwin Pact was a political agreement signed by Mahatma Gandhi and the then Viceroy of India , Lord Irwin on 5 March 1931 before the second Round Table Conference in London . Before this, the viceroy Lord Irwin announced in October 1929, a vague offer of 'dominion status' for India in an unspecified future and a Round Table Conference to discuss a future constitution. The second round table conference which was held in 1931. "The Two Mahatmas"—as Sarojini Naidu described Gandhi and Irwin—had eight meetings that totaled 24 hours. Gandhi was impressed by Irwin’s sincerity. The terms of the "Gandhi-Irwin Pact" fell manifestly short of those Gandhi prescribed as the minimum for a truce. Below are the proposed conditions. Discontinuation of the civil disobedience movement by the Indian National Congress Participation by the Indian National Congress in the Round Table Conference Withdrawal of all ordinances issued by the British Government imposing curbs on the activities of the Indian National Congress



Project Tiger

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Logo of National Tiger Conservation Authority Project Tiger is a tiger conservation programme launched in 1973 by the Government of India during Prime Minister Indira Gandhi 's tenure. The project aims at ensuring a viable population of Bengal tigers in their natural habitats and also to protect them from extinction, and preserving areas of biological importance as a natural heritage forever represented as close as possible the diversity of ecosystems across the tiger's distribution in the country. The project's task force visualized these tiger reserves as breeding nuclei, from which surplus animals would migrate to adjacent forests. The Funds and commitment were mastered to support the intensive program of habitat protection and rehabilitation under the project. The government has set up a Tiger Protection Force to combat poachers and funded relocation of villagers to minimize human-tiger conflicts. During the tiger census of 2006, a new methodology was used extrapolating site-specific densities of tigers,



Gilbert Elliot-Murray-Kynynmound, 4th Earl of Minto

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Gilbert John Elliot-Murray-Kynynmound, 4th Earl of Minto KG GCSI GCMG GCIE PC (9 July 1845 – 1 March 1914) was a British aristocrat and politician who served as Governor General of Canada , the eighth since Canadian Confederation , and as Viceroy and Governor-General of India , the country's 17th. Early life and career Minto was born in London, the son of William Elliot-Murray-Kynynmound, 3rd Earl of Minto , and Emma, daughter of General Sir Thomas Hislop, 1st Baronet . After completing his education at Eton College and Trinity College, Cambridge , he was commissioned Lieutenant in the Scots Guards in 1867, but left in 1870. He joined the 1st Roxburghshire Mounted Rifle Volunteer Corps as a Captain in 1872. In 1874, in the capacity of a newspaper correspondent, he witnessed the operations of the Carlists in Spain; he took service with the Turkish army in the war with Russia in 1877 and served under Lord Roberts in the second Afghan War (1878–1879), having narrowly escaped accompanying Sir Louis Cavagnari on



Indian Councils Act 1861

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The Indian Councils Act 1861 was an Act of the Parliament of the United Kingdom that transformed the Viceroy of India 's executive council into a cabinet run on the portfolio system. This cabinet had six "ordinary members", who each took charge of a separate department in Calcutta 's government: home, revenue, military, law, finance, and (after 1874) public works. The military Commander-in-Chief sat in with the council as an extraordinary member. The Executive Council was enlarged by addition of fifth member as Jurist. The Viceroy was allowed, under the provisions of the Act, to overrule the council on affairs if he deemed it necessary, as was the case in 1879, during the tenure of Lord Lytton . The Viceroy was allowed to issue ordinances lasting six months if the Legislative Council is not in session in an emergency. The Secretary of State for India , Sir Charles Wood , believed that the Act was of immense importance: "the act is a great experiment. That everything is changing in India is obvious enough, an



Viceroy of Yun-Gui

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The Viceroy of Yun-Gui , fully referred to in Chinese as the Governor-General of Yunnan and Guizhou Provinces and the Surrounding Areas Overseeing Military Affairs and Food Production, Director of Civil Affairs , was one of eight regional viceroys in China proper during the Qing dynasty . The Viceroy controlled Yunnan and Guizhou (Kweichow) provinces. History The Viceroy of Yun-Gui was created in 1659, during the reign of the Shunzhi Emperor , as a jinglue (經略; military governor) office before it was converted to a Viceroy. In 1662, during the reign of the Kangxi Emperor , the Viceroy of Yun-Gui split into the Viceroy of Yunnan and Viceroy of Guizhou, which were respectively headquartered in Qujing and Anshun . Two years later, the two viceroys were merged and the headquarters shifted to Guiyang . In 1673, the Kangxi Emperor restored the Viceroy of Yunnan, with its headquarters in Qujing. Between 1673 and 1681, the Revolt of the Three Feudatories broke out in Yunnan, Guangdong and Fujian provinces. The Vicero



List of Prime Ministers of Iran

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This is a list of Prime Ministers of Iran from the creation of the office in 1906 during the Persian Constitutional Revolution , until 1989 when the post was abolished after the constitutional referendum . Prime Minister was the head of government of Iran . After the Constitutional Revolution, Nasrullah Moshir al-Dowleh was the first and Mir-Hossein Mousavi was the last Prime Minister of Iran . Before the Constitutional Revolution, the head of government was called Grand Vizier (Sadr-e A'zam or Vazir-e A'zam). Colour key (for political parties)     Moderate Socialists     Democrats     Reformers' Party     Revival Party     Democratic Party of Iran     National Front     Nationalists' Party     People's Party     New Iran Party     Rastakhiz Party     Freedom Movement of Iran     Islamic Republican Party     Combatant Clergy Association     Independent     Military List Name Portrait Birth–Death Entered office Left office Political party Head of State (Reign / Term) • Sublime State of Persia (1907–1925) • 1 N



Li Hongzhang

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Nanjing Jinling Arsenal (金陵造局), built by Li Hongzhang in 1865, during the Self-Strengthening Movement Portrait of Li Hongzhang, 1871 Li Hongzhang with Lord Salisbury and Lord Curzon Photographic portrait of Li Hongzhang by Baoji Studio, Shanghai. Date unknown. Woodcut of Li Hongzhang with Otto von Bismarck in Friedrichsruh in 1896. Li Hongzhang, Marquis Suyi (also romanised as Li Hung-chang ) (15 February 1823 – 7 November 1901), GCVO , was a Chinese politician, general and diplomat of the late Qing dynasty . He quelled several major rebellions and served in important positions in the Qing imperial court, including the Viceroy of Zhili , Huguang and Liangguang . Although he was best known in the West for his generally pro-modern stance and importance as a negotiator, Li antagonised the British with his support of Russia as a foil against Japanese expansionism in Manchuria and fell from favour with the Chinese after their defeat in the First Sino-Japanese War . His image in China remains controversial, with cr



Zuo Zongtang

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Zuo Zongtang, Marquis Kejing (also romanised as Tso Tsung-t'ang ; ; 10 November 1812 – 5 September 1885), sometimes referred to as General Tso , was a Chinese statesman and military leader of the late Qing dynasty . Born in Xiangyin County , Hunan Province , Zuo sat for the imperial examination in his youth but obtained only a juren degree . He then spent his time studying agriculture, geography and military strategy. In 1851, he started his career in the Qing military by participating in the campaign against the Taiping Rebellion . In 1862, he was recommended by Zeng Guofan to serve as the provincial governor of Zhejiang Province . During his term, he coordinated Qing forces to attack the Taiping rebels with support from British and French forces. For this success, he was promoted to Viceroy of Min-Zhe . After capturing Hangzhou from the Taiping rebels in 1864, he was enfeoffed as a first class count . In 1866, as part of the Qing government's Self-Strengthening Movement , Zuo oversaw the construction of the



Juan Manuel Fernández Pacheco, 8th Duke of Escalona

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Juan Manuel Fernández Pacheco Juan Manuel María de la Aurora Fernández Pacheco Acuña Girón y Portocarrero, grandee of Spain , 8th Duke of Escalona, 8th Marquis of Villena, 12th Count of San Esteban de Gormaz and 8th Count of Xiquena (Marcilla, Navarra, 7 September 1650 – Madrid, 29 June 1725), was a Spanish aristocrat, politician and academician. He was the son of Diego López Pacheco, 7th Duke of Escalona (1599–1653). He served as viceroy and captain-general of the Kingdoms of Navarre , Aragon , Catalonia , Sicily and Naples . He was awarded the title of Knight of Order of the Golden Fleece on 9 October 1687. In 1694 he lost the Battle of Torroella against the invading French. During the War of the Spanish Succession , he was imprisoned in Gaeta , Naples , by the Austrian empire after losing the Siege of Gaeta (1707) . Upon his release and return to Spain, he founded (under orders of King Philip V ) the Royal Spanish Academy or Real Academia Española (RAE). He was elected its 1st lifetime Director in 1713. He



Viceroy of Huguang

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The Viceroy of Huguang , fully referred to in Chinese as the Governor-General of Hubei and Hunan Provinces and the Surrounding Areas; Overseeing Military Affairs, Food Production; Director of Civil Affairs , was one of eight regional Viceroys in China proper during the Qing dynasty . The Viceroy of Huguang had jurisdiction over Hubei and Hunan provinces, which were previously a single province called "Huguang Province" in the Ming dynasty , hence the name "Huguang". History The office was created in 1644 as the "Viceroy of Huguang" during the reign of the Shunzhi Emperor . Its headquarters were in Wuchang (present-day Wuchang District , Wuhan , Hubei). It was abolished in 1668 during the reign of the Kangxi Emperor but was restored in 1670 as the "Viceroy of Chuan-Hu" (川湖總督; "Viceroy of (Si)chuan and Hu(guang)"), with its headquarters in Chongqing . In 1674, the office of Viceroy of Chuan-Hu was split into the Viceroy of Sichuan and Viceroy of Huguang, and had remained as such until 1904. In 1904, during the



Indian Summers

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Indian Summers is a British drama series that began airing on Channel 4 on 15 February 2015. The show details the events of summers spent at Simla , in the foothills of the Himalayas , by a group of the British governing and trading community at the time of the British Raj . The first series is set in 1932. It was broadcast in several countries subsequently. The show was renewed for a second and final series on 1 March 2015. The second and final series is set in 1935 and began airing on 13 March 2016. Although initially planned by producers for five series, on 25 April 2016 it was announced that the show would not be renewed for a third series due to poor ratings and strong competition in its timeslot. Cast Henry Lloyd-Hughes as Ralph Whelan Nikesh Patel as Aafrin Dalal Julie Walters as Cynthia Coffin Patrick Malahide as Lord Willingdon Jemima West as Alice Whelan Roshan Seth as Darius Dalal Lillete Dubey as Roshana Dalal Aysha Kala as Sooni Dalal Alexander Cobb as Ian McLeod Fiona Glascott as Sarah Raworth



Christopher Columbus

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Christopher Columbus ( Italian : Cristoforo Colombo ; c.  1451  – 20 May 1506) was an Italian explorer, navigator, and colonizer . Born in the Republic of Genoa , under the auspices of the Catholic Monarchs of Spain he completed four voyages across the Atlantic Ocean. Those voyages and his efforts to establish settlements on the island of Hispaniola initiated the permanent European colonization of the New World . At a time when European kingdoms were beginning to establish new trade routes and colonies, motivated by imperialism and economic competition , Columbus proposed to reach the East Indies ( South and Southeast Asia ) by sailing westward. This eventually received the support of the Spanish Crown, which saw a chance to enter the spice trade with Asia through this new route. During his first voyage in 1492, he reached the New World instead of arriving in Japan as he had intended, landing on an island in the Bahamas archipelago that he named San Salvador . Over the course of three more voyages, he visite



Charles, Prince of Wales

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Charles, Prince of Wales (Charles Philip Arthur George; born 14 November 1948) is the eldest child and heir apparent of Queen Elizabeth II . Known alternatively in Cornwall as Duke of Cornwall and in Scotland as Duke of Rothesay , he is the longest-serving heir apparent in British history, having held the position since 1952. He is also the oldest person to be next in line to the throne since Sophia of Hanover (the heir presumptive to Queen Anne ), who died in 1714 at the age of 83. Charles was born at Buckingham Palace as the first grandchild of King George VI and Queen Elizabeth . He was educated at Cheam and Gordonstoun Schools, which his father, Prince Philip, Duke of Edinburgh , had attended as a child, as well as the Timbertop campus of Geelong Grammar School in Victoria , Australia . After earning a bachelor of arts degree from Trinity College, Cambridge , Charles served in the Royal Navy from 1971 to 1976. In 1981, he married Lady Diana Spencer and they had two sons: Prince William (born 1982), lat



Diana, Princess of Wales

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Diana, Princess of Wales (Diana Frances; née Spencer ; 1 July 1961 – 31 August 1997), was a member of the British royal family as the first wife of Charles, Prince of Wales , who is the eldest child and heir apparent of Queen Elizabeth II . Diana was born into the Spencer family , a family of British nobility with royal ancestry and was the fourth child and third daughter of John Spencer, Viscount Althorp , and Frances Roche . She grew up in Park House, situated on the Sandringham estate , and was educated in England and Switzerland. In 1975—after her father inherited the title of Earl Spencer —she became known as Lady Diana Spencer. She came to prominence in February 1981 when her engagement to Prince Charles was announced to the world. Diana's wedding to the Prince of Wales took place at St Paul's Cathedral on 29 July 1981 and reached a global television audience of over 750 million people. During her marriage, Diana was Princess of Wales , Duchess of Cornwall , Duchess of Rothesay , and Countess of Chester

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Viceroy of Southern Rivers

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The Viceroy of Rivers and Waterways in Jiangnan Overseeing Military Affairs , better known simply as the Viceroy of Southern Rivers or Viceroy of Southern Rivers and Waterways , was a government office in China proper during the Qing dynasty . The office was based in Qingjiangpu (清江浦), which is now a district of Huai'an City , Jiangsu Province . The Viceroy usually held the rank of a deputy first-grade official or a regular second-grade official. The Viceroy was in charge of dredging and embankment projects in the waterways of Jiangsu Province. History The office of Viceroy of Rivers and Waterways was created in the early Qing dynasty. In 1677, during the reign of the Kangxi Emperor , Jin Fu (靳輔) served as the Viceroy of Rivers and Waterways and his headquarters were in Jining , Shandong Province . As Huai'an , Jiangsu Province was near the intersection of the Yellow River , Huai River and Grand Canal , the waterworks in that area became of prime importance. Since the Viceroy's office was too far away from Hu



Minister of the Crown

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Minister of the Crown is a formal constitutional term used in Commonwealth realms to describe a minister to the reigning sovereign or their viceroy . The term indicates that the minister serves at His/Her Majesty's pleasure , and advises the sovereign or viceroy on how to exercise the Crown prerogatives relative to the minister's department or ministry . Ministries In Commonwealth realms, the sovereign or viceroy is formally advised by a larger body known as a privy council or executive council , though, in practice, they are advised by a subset of such councils: the collective body of ministers of the Crown called the ministry . The ministry should not be confused with the cabinet, as ministers of the Crown may be outside a cabinet. The following is a list of the present ministries or ministers of the Crown of several Commonwealth realms: 71st Australian Ministry 6th Barbadian Ministry 97th British Ministry 29th Canadian Ministry 14th New Zealand Government History Ministers of the Crown in Commonwealth real



Logan (film)

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Logan is a 2017 American superhero film produced by Marvel Entertainment , TSG Entertainment and The Donners' Company, and distributed by 20th Century Fox . It is the tenth installment in the X-Men film series , as well as the third Wolverine solo film following X-Men Origins: Wolverine (2009) and The Wolverine (2013). The film, which takes inspiration from the Old Man Logan comic-book series by Mark Millar and Steve McNiven , follows an aged Wolverine defending his daughter Laura Kinney from the villainous Reavers led by Zander Rice and Donald Pierce . The film is directed by James Mangold , who co-wrote the screenplay with Scott Frank and Michael Green , from a story by Mangold. Hugh Jackman stars as Logan in his final portrayal of the character after having played the role for 17 years, with Patrick Stewart co-starring as Charles Xavier . Richard E. Grant , Boyd Holbrook , Stephen Merchant , Dafne Keen (in her first film role), Eriq La Salle , Elise Neal and Elizabeth Rodriguez are all featured in suppor



Francesco d'Aquino, Prince of Caramanico

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Francesco Maria Venanzio Aquino, prince of Caramanico (27 February 1738, Naples - 9 January 1795, Palermo ) was ambassador to London and Paris for the Kingdom of Naples and later viceroy of Sicily . Life Family He was the son of prince Antonio and of Ippolita Pignatelli, his mother being from the line of princes of Monteroduni. In 1767 he married Vittoria de Guevara, from the family of the dukes of Bovino - she was the widow of Carlo Carafa, duke of Maddaloni. On his father's death in 1775, Francesco succeeded to the titles prince of Caramanico, duke of Casoli, marquess (marchese) of Francolise and count (conte) of Palena. Early career A supporter of Freemasonry in Naples, in 1769 he was elected Grand Master of the 'loggia della Vittoria' (Victory Lodge). In 1776 Bernardo Tanucci had several supporters of Freemasonry arrested to thwart an attempt by them and the queen Maria Carolina of Austria to withdraw Naples from the Spanish sphere of influence. However, Albert Casimir, Duke of Teschen and Louise Marie Ad



New Spain

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New Spain ( Spanish : Nueva España ) was a colonial territory of the Spanish Empire in the New World north of the Isthmus of Panama . It was established following the Spanish conquest of the Aztec Empire in 1521, and following additional conquests, it was made a viceroyalty (Spanish: virreinato) in 1535. The first of four viceroyalties Spain created in the Americas , it comprised Mexico , Central America , much of the Southwestern and Central United States , and Spanish Florida as well as the Philippines, Guam, Mariana and Caroline Islands . After 1535 the colony was governed by the Viceroy of New Spain , an appointed minister of the King of Spain , who ruled as monarch over the colony from its capital, Mexico City . New Spain lost parts of its territory to other European powers and independence, but the core area remained under Spanish control until 1821, when it achieved independence as the Mexican Empire – when the latter dissolved, it became modern Mexico and Central America. New Spain developed highly



Robert Bulwer-Lytton, 1st Earl of Lytton

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Robert Bulwer-Lytton, 1st Earl of Lytton GCB GCSI GCIE PC (8 November 1831 – 24 November 1891) was an English statesman and poet. He served as Viceroy of India between 1876 and 1880, during which time Queen Victoria was proclaimed Empress of India . An accomplished and popular diplomat, Lytton was afforded the rare tribute – especially for an Englishman – of a state funeral in Paris, although as Viceroy of India he has been criticised for his handling of the Great Famine of 1876–78 and the Second Anglo-Afghan War . His son Victor Bulwer-Lytton, 2nd Earl of Lytton , who was born in India, returned as Governor of Bengal and was briefly acting Viceroy. Background and education He was a son of the novelists Edward Bulwer-Lytton, 1st Baron Lytton and Rosina Doyle Wheeler (the daughter of the early women's rights advocate Anna Wheeler ). His parents split up when he was a small boy, and the separation was acrimonious. His mother, who under the laws of the time lost access to her children, caricatured his father in



Wang Ao (Ming dynasty)

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Wang Ao (1384–1467) was a Chinese politician of the Ming Dynasty . He was the 1st Viceroy of Liangguang , covering the provinces of Guangdong , Guangxi and Hainan . Preceded by New creation Viceroy of Liangguang 1452–1453 Succeeded by Han Yong Preceded by Che Wen-jüan Minister of Personnel 1453–1467 Succeeded by Li Ping External links 明代五朝廉吏王翱 Wang Ao (1384–1467) was a Chinese politician of the Ming Dynasty . He was the 1st Viceroy of Liangguang , covering the provinces of Guangdong , Guangxi and Hainan . Preceded by New creation Viceroy of Liangguang 1452–1453 Succeeded by Han Yong Preceded by Che Wen-jüan Minister of Personnel 1453–1467 Succeeded by Li Ping External links 明代五朝廉吏王翱



John Lawrence, 1st Baron Lawrence

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John Laird Mair Lawrence, 1st Baron Lawrence GCB GCSI PC (4 March 1811 – 27 June 1879), known as Sir John Lawrence, Bt. , between 1858 and 1869, was an Englishman who became a prominent British Imperial statesman who served as Viceroy of India from 1864 to 1869. Early life Lawrence came from Richmond , North Yorkshire. Lawrence spent his early years in Derry , part of the Province of Ulster in the northern part of Ireland, and was educated at Foyle College (now Foyle and Londonderry College ). After attending the East India Company College , Lawrence went to India in 1829 along with his older brother, Sir Henry Montgomery Lawrence . He soon became a magistrate and tax collector in Delhi , where he was known for his concern for the plight of the peasantry as long as they did not question British rule. Career John as Viceroy of India, sitting middle, with his Executive Council members and Secretaries During the First Sikh War of 1845 to 1846, Lawrence organized the supplying of the British army in the Punjab a



Rakesh Jhunjhunwala

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Rakesh Jhunjhunwala (born 5 July 1960) is an Indian Investor and Trader . He is a qualified Chartered Accountant . He manages his own portfolio as a partner in his asset management firm, Rare Enterprises. Jhunjhunwala has been described by India Today magazine as the "pin-up boy of the current bull run" and by The Economic Times as "Pied Piper of Indian bourses". As per Forbes , he is the 53rd richest person in India, with net worth of USD 2.4 Billion (as on July 2017). Early life Jhunjhunwala grew in a Marwari family in Mumbai , India where his father is posted as an Income Tax Officer. He graduated from Sydenham College and thereafter enrolled at the Institute of Chartered Accountants of India . Career Jhunjhunwala is the chairman of Aptech Limited and Hungama Digital Media Entertainment Pvt. Ltd. and sits on the board of directors of various Indian companies such as Prime Focus Limited, Geojit BNP Paribas Financial Services Limited, Bilcare Limited, Praj Industries Limited, Provogue India Limited , Conc



Pietro Badoglio

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Marshal Pietro Badoglio, 1st Duke of Addis Abeba , 1st Marquess of Sabotino ( Italian pronunciation:  ; 28 September 1871 – 1 November 1956), was an Italian general during both World Wars and a Prime Minister of Italy , as well as the first viceroy of Italian East Africa . Early life and career Badoglio was born in 1871. His father, Mario Badoglio, was a modest landowner, and his mother, Antoinetta Pittarelli, was of wealthy bourgeois background. On October 5, 1888, he was admitted to the Royal Military Academy in Turin . He received the rank of Second Lieutenant in 1890. In 1892, he finished his studies and was promoted to Lieutenant. After completing his studies, he served with the Italian Army from 1892, at first as a Lieutenant ( Tenente ) in artillery , taking part in the early Italian colonial wars in Eritrea (1896), and in Libya (1912). World War I At the beginning of Italian participation in World War I , he was a Lieutenant Colonel ( Tenente Colonnello ); he rose to the rank of General following his



Viceroyalty of the Río de la Plata

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The Viceroyalty of the Río de la Plata ( Spanish : Virreinato del Río de la Plata ) was the last to be organized and also the shortest-lived of the Viceroyalties of the Spanish Empire in the Americas . The Viceroyalty was established in 1776 from several former Viceroyalty of Perú dependencies that mainly extended over the Río de la Plata Basin , roughly the present-day territories of Argentina , Bolivia , Paraguay and Uruguay , extending inland from the Atlantic Coast. Buenos Aires , located on the western shore of the Río de la Plata estuary flowing into the Atlantic Ocean, opposite the Portuguese outpost of Colonia del Sacramento , was chosen as the capital. Usually considered one of the late Bourbon Reforms , the organization of this viceroyalty was motivated on both commercial grounds (Buenos Aires was by then a major spot for illegal trade ), as well as on security concerns brought about by the growing interest of competing foreign powers in the area. The Spanish Crown wanted to protect its territory ag



Francisco de Almeida

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Dom Francisco de Almeida ( Portuguese pronunciation:  ), also known as "the Great Dom Francisco" (c. 1450–1 March 1510), was a Portuguese nobleman, soldier and explorer . He distinguished himself as a counsellor to King John II of Portugal and later in the wars against the Moors and in the conquest of Granada in 1492. In 1505 he was appointed as the first governor and viceroy of the Portuguese State of India (Estado da Índia). Almeida is credited with establishing Portuguese hegemony in the Indian Ocean, with his victory at the naval Battle of Diu in 1509. Before Almeida could return to Portugal, he lost his life in 1510. His son Lourenço de Almeida too was killed in a Fracas with the local KhoiKhoi inhabitants in Table Bay, in 1508. Exploits as soldier Almeida was born at Lisbon . As was customary for men in his social circle, he joined the military at an early age. In 1476 he took part in the Battle of Toro . Then he fought in conflicts in different parts of Morocco and in 1492 participated in the Christian




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