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Viceroy

A viceroy is a regal official who runs a country, colony, city, province, or sub-national state, in the name of and as the representative of the monarch of the territory. The term derives from the Latin prefix vice-, meaning "in the place of" and the French word roi, meaning "king". A viceroy's territory may be called a viceroyalty, though this term is not always applied. The adjectival form is viceregal,[1] less often viceroyal.[2] The term vicereine is sometimes used to indicate a female viceroy suo jure, although viceroy can serve as a gender-neutral term.[3] Vicereine is more commonly used to indicate a viceroy's wife.[3]

Spanish Empire

The title was originally used by the Crown of Aragon; where beginning in the 14th century, it referred to the Spanish governors of Sardinia and Corsica. After the unification, at the end of the 15th century, later kings of Spain came to appoint numerous viceroys to rule over various parts of the increasingly vast Spanish Empire in Europe, the Americas, and overseas elsewhere.

In Europe

In Europe, until the 18th century, the Habsburg crown appointed viceroys of Aragon, Valencia, Catalonia, Navarre, Portugal, Sardinia, Sicily, and Naples. With the ascension of the House of Bourbon to the Spanish throne, the historic Aragonese viceroyalties were replaced by new captaincies general. At the end of War of the Spanish Succession, the Spanish monarchy was shorn of its Italian possessions. These Italian territories, however, continued to have viceroys under their new rulers for some time; Sardinia would have a viceroy until 1848.

In the Americas

The Americas were incorporated into the Crown of Castile. With the Spanish colonization of the Americas, the institution of viceroys was adapted to govern the highly populated and wealthy regions of the north overseas: New Spain (Mexico and Philippines) and the south overseas: Peru and South America. The viceroys of these two areas had oversight over the other provinces, with most of the North American, Central American, Caribbean and East Indian areas supervised by the viceroy in Mexico City and the South American ones by the viceroy in Lima, (with the exception of most of today's Venezuela, which was overseen by the high court, or Audiencia of Santo Domingo on the island of Hispaniola for most of the colonial period). These large administrative territories became known as Viceroyalties (Spanish term: Virreinatos). There were only two New World viceroyalties until the 18th century, when the new Bourbon Dynasty established two additional viceroyalties to promote economic growth and new settlements on South America. New viceroyalties were created for New Granada in 1717 (capital, Bogotá) and the Río de la Plata in 1776 (capital, Buenos Aires).

The viceroyalties of the Spanish Americas and the Spanish East Indies were subdivided into smaller, autonomous units, the Audiencias (tribunal with the authority to judge), and the Captaincies General (military districts), which in most cases became the bases for the independent countries of modern Hispanic America. These units gathered the local provinces which could be governed by either a crown official, a corregidor (sometimes alcalde mayor) or by a cabildo or town council. Audiencias primarily functioned as superior judicial tribunals, but unlike their European counterparts, the New World audiencias were granted by law both administrative and legislative powers. Captaincies General were primarily military districts set up in areas with a risk of foreign or Indian attack, but the captains general were usually given political powers over the provinces under their command. Because the long distances to the viceregal capital would hamper effective communication, both audiencias and captains general were authorized to communicate directly with the crown through the Council of the Indies. The Bourbon Reforms introduced the new office of the intendant, which was appointed directly by the crown and had broad fiscal and administrative powers in political and military issues.

See also:

Portuguese Empire
India

The title of Viceroy being awarded to members of the nobility, Viceroys, Governors and Governing Commissions were many times interleaved until the last Viceroy Afonso, Prince Royal of Portugal, in 1896. From 1505 to 1896 Portuguese India – the name "India" and the official name "Estado da India" (State of India) including all Portuguese possessions in the Indian Ocean, from southern Africa to Southeast Asia and Australasia, until 1752- was governed either by a Viceroy (Portuguese Vice-Rei) or Governor from its headquarters, in Goa since 1510. The government started six years after the discovery of sea route to India by Vasco da Gama, in 1505, under first Viceroy Francisco de Almeida (b.1450–d.1510). Initially, King Manuel I of Portugal tried a power distribution with three governors in different areas of jurisdiction: a government covering the area and possessions in East Africa, Arabian Peninsula and Persian Gulf, overseeing up Cambay (Gujarat); a second one ruling the possessions in India (Hindustan) and Ceylon, and a third one from Malacca to the Far East.[4] However the post was centered by governor Afonso de Albuquerque (1509–1515), who became plenipotentiary, and remained so. The duration in office was usually three years, possibly longer, given the power represented: of the thirty-four governors of India in the 16th century, only six had longer mandates.[5]

Portugal

During some periods of the Iberian Union, between 1580 and 1640, the King of Spain, who was also King of Portugal, appointed Viceroys to govern Portugal itself, as the king had multiple realms throughout Europe and delegated his powers to various viceroys.

Brazil

After the end of the Iberian Union in 1640, the governors of Brazil that were members of the Portuguese high nobility started to use the title of Viceroy.[6] Brazil became a permanent Viceroyalty in 1763, when the capital of the State of Brazil (Estado do Brasil) was transferred from Salvador to Rio de Janeiro.[7]

British Empire
British India

Following the adoption of the Act that transferred the government of India from the East India Company to the Crown in 1858, the Governor-General as representing the Crown became known as the Viceroy. The designation 'Viceroy', although it was most frequently used in ordinary parlance, had no statutory authority, and was never employed by Parliament. Although the Proclamation of 1858 announcing the assumption of the government of India by the Crown referred to Lord Canning as "first Viceroy and Governor-General", none of the Warrants appointing his successors referred to them as 'viceroys', and the title, which was frequently used in warrants dealing with precedence and in public notifications, was basically one of ceremony used in connection with the state and social functions of the sovereign's representative. The Governor-General continued to be the sole representative of the Crown, and the Government of India continued to be vested in the Governor-General-in-Council.[8]

The viceroys reported directly to the Secretary of State for India in London and were advised by the Council of India. They were largely unencumbered in the exercise of their authority and were among the most powerful men on earth in the Victorian and Edwardian eras, ruling over an entire subcontinent and with a large military force at their disposal in the form of the British Indian Army. Under the terms of the Government of India Act 1919, viceroys shared some limited aspects of their authority with the Central Legislative Assembly, one of the first steps of reform as India progressed towards home rule under the Government of India Act 1935, independence as a Dominion in 1947, and ultimately the establishment of a republic in 1950.

Alongside the Commander-in-Chief, India, the viceroy was the public face of the British presence in India, attending to many ceremonial functions as well as political affairs. As the representative of the Emperors and Empresses of India, who were also the kings and queens of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland, the viceroy served as the grand master of the two principal chivalric orders of British India: the Order of the Star of India and the Order of the Indian Empire.

Louis Mountbatten, last viceroy of India

During the office's history, the Governors-General of India were based in two cities: Calcutta during the 19th century and New Delhi during the 20th century. Additionally, whilst Calcutta was the capital of British India, the viceroys spent the summer months at Simla. The two historic residences of the viceroys still stand: the Viceroy's House in New Delhi and Government House in Calcutta. They are used today as the official residences of the President of India and the Governor of West Bengal, respectively. The portraits of the Governors-General still hang in a room on the ground floor of the Presidential Palace, one of the last vestiges of both the viceroys and the British Raj.[9]

Notable Governors-General of India include Warren Hastings, Lord Cornwallis, Lord Curzon, The Earl of Minto, Lord Chelmsford, and Lord Mountbatten. Lord Mountbatten served as the last Viceroy of British India, but continued on as the first Governor-General of the dominion of India.

Ireland

The Lords Lieutenant of Ireland were often referred to as "Viceroy" after 1700 until 1922, even though the Kingdom of Ireland had been merged in 1801 into the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland.

Commonwealth realms

The term has occasionally been applied to the governors-general of the Commonwealth Realms, for example Gough Whitlam in 1973 told the Australian House of Representatives: 'The Governor-General is the viceroy of the Queen of Australia'.[10]

The governor general of Canada, the lieutenant governors of the Canadian provinces and the governors-general of Australia and governors of the Australian states are viceroys in terms of the Balfour Declaration of 1926. The Australia Act 1986 also provide that all royal powers in Australia, except the actual appointment of the governor-general and the governors are exercisable by the viceregal representatives. The noun 'viceroy' is rarely used but the adjective 'viceregal' is standard usage.

Russian Empire

Namestnik (Russian: наме́стник, Russian pronunciation: ) was an office position in the history of the Russian Empire. It can be translated as "viceroy", "deputy", "lieutenant" (the broader sense of that word) or literally in place appointee. The term has two periods of usage, with different meanings.[11] [12] [13] [14] Namestnik replaced the obsolete position of voyevoda (ruler of krai or uyezd) by Peter I.

  • In the 12th–16th centuries, namestniks (more correctly knyaz namestniks, or "knyaz deputies") were in charge of local administration. In particular, they ruled uyezds.[15]
  • In the 18th–20th centuries, a namestnik was a person in charge of namestnichestvo, with plenipotentiary powers. The latter has traditionally been translated as viceroyalty and "namestnik" as viceroy or vicegerent (or, as a common blunder, "viceregent"). For example, Mikhail Vorontsov was namestnik of Bessarabia (1823–44) and of the Caucasus (1844–1854). Sometimes the term is confused with Governor General (генерал-губернатор). For example, during Vorontsov's term of office in Bessarabia, seven governor-generals were in, and at the same time he held the office of Governor General of New Russia. The following namestnik existed under the Romanov Emperors of Russia:[12] [16]

The Tsar Paul I's 1799 formation of the Russian-American Company obviated viceroys in the colonization of the northwestern New World.

Other viceroyalties
French colonies

New France, in present Canada, after a single Governor (24 July 1534 – 15 January 1541 Jacques Cartier) had Lieutenants-general and Viceroys 15 January 1541 – September 1543 Jean François de la Rocquet, sieur de Robervalle (c. 1500 – 1560), after September 1543 – 3 January 1578 Abandonment again 3 January 1578 – February 1606 Troilus de Mesgouez, marquis de la Roche-Mesgouez (died 1606) (viceroy and from 12 January 1598, lieutenant-general), February 1606 – 1614 Jean de Biencourt, sieur de Poutrincourt, baron de St. Just (1557–1615); next a series of Viceroys (resident in France) 8 October 1611 – 1672, later Governors and Governors-general.

Italian colonies

In Italian Viceré: The highest colonial representatives in the "federation" of Italian East Africa (six provinces, each under a governor; together Ethiopia, Eritrea and Italian Somaliland) were no longer styled "High Commissioner", but "Viceroy and Governor-general" from 5 May 1936, when Italian forces occupied Ethiopia, until 27 November 1941, when the last Italian administrator surrendered to the Allies. The Italian King Victor Emmanuel claimed the title of "Emperor of Ethiopia" (Nəgusä nägäst, "King of Kings") and declared himself to be a successor to the Nəgusä nägäst, even though Emperor Haile Selassie I continued to hold this title while in exile, and resumed his actual, physical throne on 5 May 1941.

On 7 April 1939, Italy invaded the Kingdom of Albania (today Albania). As Viceré of Albania of Victor Emmanuel III of Italy were the Marchese Francesco Jacomoni di San Savino and after his departure General Alberto Pariani.

Ban of Bosnia

Ban Borić was the first ruler and Viceroy of Bosnia, appointed by Géza II of Hungary by 1154. His war affairs are documented as he fought several notable battles.[19] He also maintained ties with knights Templar and donated lands in Bosnia and Slavonia to their Order.[20] His own biological brother Dominic was on record as a knight Templar.[21]

Ban of Croatia

From the earliest medieval period in the Kingdom of Croatia, the position of viceroy was held by Ban of Croatia who acted as king's representative in Croatian lands and supreme commander of Croatian army. In the 18th century, Croatian bans eventually become chief government officials in Croatia. They were at the head of Ban's Government, effectively the first prime ministers of Croatia. The last ban held his position until 1941 and the collapse of Yugoslavia in World War II.

Ancient antecedents

An equivalent office, called the Exarch, was created in the Byzantine or Eastern Roman Empire towards the end of the sixth century for governors of important areas too far from the imperial capital of Constantinople to receive regular instruction or reinforcement. The chosen governors of these provinces were empowered to act in place of the monarch (hence ex-arch) with more discretion and autonomy than was granted other categories of governor. This was an extraordinary break from the centralized traditions of the Roman Empire and was an early example of the principle of Viceroyalty.

Non-Western counterparts

As with many princely and administrative titles, viceroy is often used, generally unofficially, to render somewhat equivalent titles and offices in non-western cultures.

Africa

In cultures all over the continent of Africa, the role of viceroy has been subsumed into a hereditary noble as opposed to strictly administrative position. In the Arabo-Berber north, for example, the title of Khalifa is often used by individuals who derive their authority to rule from someone else in much the same way as a viceroy would. Elsewhere, subordinate inkosis under the rule of a paramount chief like the King of the Zulu Nation of Southern Africa or subordinate baales in the realms of the reigning obas of West African Yorubaland continue to occupy statutorily recognized positions in the contemporary countries of South Africa and Nigeria as the customary representatives of their respective principals in the various areas that are under their immediate control.

Maratha Empire, India

Marathas from the time Shivaji was in power used the viceroy trend of sending various emipre insiders to run foreign parts such as Tamil Nadu, Gujarat, Madya Pradesh, Andra Paradesh, Etc where the Maratha empire extended.

Ottoman Empire

The Khedive of Egypt, especially in the dynasty initiated by Muhammad Ali Pasha (1805–1848). This officer established an almost autonomous regime in Egypt, which officially still was under Ottoman rule. Although Mehemet Ali/Muhammad Ali used different symbols to mark his independence from the Sublime Porte, he never openly declared himself independent. Adopting the title of viceroy was yet another way to walk the thin line between challenging the Sultan's power explicitly and respecting his jurisdiction. Muhammad Ali Pasha's grandson, Ismail Pasha, subsequently received the title of Khedive which was almost an equivalent to viceroy.[22]

Vietnamese Empire

The post of Tổng Trấn (governor of all military provinces) was a political post in the early of Vietnamese Nguyễn Dynasty (1802–1830). From 1802, under the reign of emperor Gia Long, there were always two Tổng Trấn who directly ruled Vietnam's northern part named Thành Long (Hanoi and surrounding territories) and the southern part named Gia Định (Saigon and surrounding territories) while Nguyen emperors ruled only the middle part named Vùng Kinh Kỳ (Huế and surrounding territories). Tổng Trấn is sometimes translated to English as viceroy.[23] In 1830, emperor Minh Mạng abolished the post in order to increase the imperial direct ruling power in all over Vietnam.

Chinese Empires

During the Han, Ming and Qing dynasties, there existed positions of viceroys having control over various provinces (e.g., Liangguang = Guangdong and Guangxi, Huguang = Hubei and Hunan).

Siam

In Siam until 1885, the title was used for heir-apparent (Thai: กรมพระราชวังบวรสถานมงคล) The title was abolished and replaced to Crown Prince of Siam.

See also
Notes
  1. "viceregal". OxfordDictionariesOnline.com. Retrieved 22 November 2014.
  2. "Viceroyal, a", The Oxford English Dictionary, 2nd ed. 1989, OED Online, Oxford University Press, 4 April 2000 http://dictionary.oed.com/cgi/entry/50277245>
  3. "vicereine". OxfordDictionariesOnline.com. Retrieved 22 November 2014.
  4. O Secretário dos despachos e coisas da Índia pero d´Alcáçova Carneiro, p.65, Maria Cecília Costa Veiga de Albuquerque Ramos, Universidade de Lisboa, 2009 (In Portuguese) http://repositorio.ul.pt/bitstream/10451/3387/1/ulfl080844_tm.pdf>
  5. Diffie, Bailey W. and George D. Winius (1977), "Foundations of the Portuguese Empire, 1415–1580", p.323-325, Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press. David Tan ISBN 0-8166-0782-6.
  6. A. J. R. Russell-Wood,"The Portuguese empire, 1415–1808: a world on the move", p. 66, JHU Press, 1998, ISBN 0-8018-5955-7
  7. Boris Fausto, "A concise history of Brazil", p.50, Cambridge University Press, 1999, ISBN 0-521-56526-X
  8. Imperial Gazetteer of India, Clarendon Press, Oxford, New Edition 1909, vol 4, p. 16.
  9. Nath, Aman, "Dome Over India", India Book House Ltd. ISBN 81-7508-352-2.
  10. Gough Whitlam, The Truth of the Matter, (1979)
  11. Public Domain This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domainBrockhaus and Efron Encyclopedic Dictionary (in Russian). 1906.
  12. Kli͡uchevskiĭ, V. O. (Vasiliĭ Osipovich); Duddington, Natalie. (1994). A course in Russian history—the seventeenth century. Armonk, N.Y.: M.E. Sharpe. ISBN 1-56324-317-2.
  13. Larin, A. K. (2004). Gosudarev namestnik : istoricheskai͡a povestʹ o M.N. Krechetnikov. Kaluga: Zolotai͡a allei͡a. ISBN 5-7111-0347-4.
  14. "hrono.ru: namestnik". Retrieved 19 January 2010.
  15. (in Russian) Тархов, Сергей, "Изменение административно-территориального деления России в XIII-XX в." (pdf), Логос, #1 2005 (46), ISSN 0869-5377
  16. Ledonne, John P. (January–March 2002). "Administrative Regionalization in the Russian Empire 1802–1826". Cahiers du Monde russe. pp. 5–33. Retrieved 19 January 2010.
  17. Thomas Mitchell, Handbook for Travellers in Russia, Poland, and Finland, 1888, p. 460. Google Print [1]
  18. КАВКАЗ
  19. The Late Medieval Balkans: A Critical Survey from the Late Twelfth Century
  20. Judith Mary Upton-Ward, H.J.A. Sire. "24. The Priory of Vrana". The Military Orders: On Land and by Sea. p. 221.
  21. Magyar Országos Levéltár
  22. Encyclopædia Britannica: Ismail Pasha, Ottoman Viceroy of Egypt and New Spain
  23. Philip Taylor (2004), Goddess on the rise: pilgrimage and popular religion in Vietnam, University of Hawaii Press, p. 36.
Sources
  • Aznar, Daniel/Hanotin, Guillaume/May, Niels F. (dir.), À la place du roi. Vice-rois, gouverneurs et ambassadeurs dans les monarchies française et espagnole (XVIe-XVIIIe siècles). Madrid: Casa de Velázquez, 2014.
  • Elliott, J. H., Imperial Spain, 1469–1716. London: Edward Arnold, 1963.
  • Fisher, Lillian Estelle. Viceregal Administration in the Spanish American Colonies. Berkeley, University of California Press, 1926.
  • Harding, C. H., The Spanish Empire in America. New York: Oxford University Press, 1947.
  • Public Domain This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domainBrockhaus and Efron Encyclopedic Dictionary (in Russian). 1906.
Further reading
  • Andrada (undated). The Life of Dom John de Castro: The Fourth Vice Roy of India. Jacinto Freire de Andrada. Translated into English by Peter Wyche. (1664) Henry Herrington, New Exchange, London. Facsimile edition (1994) AES Reprint, New Delhi. ISBN 81-206-0900-X.
  • (in Russian) hrono.ru: namestnik
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Viceroy

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A viceroy is a regal official who runs a country , colony , city , province , or sub-national state, in the name of and as the representative of the monarch of the territory . The term derives from the Latin prefix vice-, meaning "in the place of" and the French word roi, meaning "king". A viceroy's territory may be called a viceroyalty , though this term is not always applied. The adjectival form is viceregal , less often viceroyal . The term vicereine is sometimes used to indicate a female viceroy suo jure , although viceroy can serve as a gender-neutral term. Vicereine is more commonly used to indicate a viceroy's wife. Spanish Empire The title was originally used by the Crown of Aragon ; where beginning in the 14th century, it referred to the Spanish governors of Sardinia and Corsica . After the unification, at the end of the 15th century, later kings of Spain came to appoint numerous viceroys to rule over various parts of the increasingly vast Spanish Empire in Europe, the Americas, and overseas elsew ...more...



Viceroy (cigarette)

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Viceroy cigarettes box (Poland) Viceroy is a low-cost cigarette brand owned by London-based British American Tobacco . Viceroy cigarettes are made by Brown & Williamson (B&W), an American tobacco company which was bought by British American Tobacco (BAT) in 1927. Viceroys were first produced in 1936; the first filter cigarettes with a cork tip. Origin 1957 Viceroy ad. Viceroy originated in the U.S. in 1936, produced by B&W as the world's first cork-tipped filter cigarette . It was a mid-priced brand at the time, equivalent to B&W's Raleigh cigarettes flagship brand, but more expensive than Wings cigarettes introduced by B&W in 1929. In 1952 Viceroy was the first brand to add a cellulose acetate filter which established a new industry standard. In 1953, Viceroy Filter Kings were introduced. In 1990, Viceroy Box Kings and Lights Box Kings were introduced on the U.S. market, followed by Viceroy Ultra Lights Kings and Ultra Lights 100's in 1992. In the 1970s, Viceroy was proposed as part ...more...



Viceroy (butterfly)

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The viceroy (Limenitis archippus) is a North American butterfly that ranges through most of the contiguous United States as well as parts of Canada and Mexico. The westernmost portion of its range extends from the Northwest Territories along the eastern edges of the Cascade Range and Sierra Nevada mountains, southwards into central Mexico. Its easternmost range extends along the Atlantic and Gulf coasts of North America from Nova Scotia into Texas. The viceroy was named the state butterfly of Kentucky in 1990. Description Its wings feature an orange and black pattern, and over most of its range it is a Müllerian mimic with the monarch butterfly (Danaus plexippus). The viceroy's wingspan is between 53 and 81 mm. It can be distinguished from the monarch by its smaller size and the postmedian black line that runs across the veins on the hindwing. In Florida, Georgia , and the American Southwest , viceroys share the pattern of the queen (Danaus gilippus) and in Mexico they share the pattern of the soldier (Danau ...more...



Governor-General of India

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The Governor-General of India (or, from 1858 to 1947, officially the Viceroy and Governor-General of India , commonly shortened to Viceroy of India ) was originally the head of the British administration in India and, later, after Indian independence and Pakistani Independence in 1947, the representative of the Indian monarch and head of state. The office was created in 1773, with the title of Governor-General of the Presidency of Fort William . The officer had direct control only over Fort William, but supervised other British East India Company officials in India. Complete authority over all of British India was granted in 1833, and the official came to be known as the "Governor-General of India". In 1858, the territories of the East India Company came under the direct control of the British government; see British Raj . The governor-general (now also the viceroy) headed the central government of India, which administered the provinces of British India , including the Punjab , Bengal , Bombay , Madras , the ...more...



Viceroy of Norway

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The Viceroy of Norway ( Constitutional Danish : Vice-Konge) was the appointed head of the Norwegian Government in the absence of the King, during the era of the Union between Sweden and Norway . The role was essentially the same as that of the Governor-general , which has led to confusion as to who filled which office. Decisive, however, is that the title of Viceroy could only be held by the crown prince , or his oldest son, when he had come of age. Commoners with a similar mandate were merely styled Statholder (Governor-general). History On November 9, 1814, the King appointed Crown Prince Carl Johan to the office, but it was vacated eight days later. Crown Prince Carl was the longest-serving Viceroy, sitting for about a year. The office was vacant most of the time, and it was ultimately abolished on June 30, 1891. List of Viceroys Name Portrait Term start Term end Term length Crown Prince Charles John 9 November 1814 17 November 1814 8 days 10 June 1816 16 July 1816 36 days Crown Prince Oscar 11 April 1824 ...more...



List of viceroys of New Spain

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The following is a list of Viceroys of New Spain . In addition to viceroys , the following lists the highest Spanish governors of the colony of New Spain , before the appointment of the first viceroy or when the office of viceroy was vacant. Most of these individuals exercised most or all of the functions of viceroy, usually on an interim basis. Governor of the Indies This office covered the territories that were discovered by Christopher Columbus. 1499 – 1502 Francisco de Bobadilla , as governor of the Indies 1502 – 1509 Nicolás de Ovando y Cáceres , as governor of the Indies 1509 – 1518 Diego Columbus , as governor of the Indies until 1511, thereafter as viceroy 1518 – 1524 Diego Velázquez de Cuéllar , as adelantado (governor-general) of Cuba Governor of New Spain This office covered the territories that were claimed by Hernán Cortés. The office covered the territories that were under the control of the Governor of the Indies after 1524. 24 December 1521 – 30 December 1521 Cristóbal de Tapia 30 December 152 ...more...



Viceroy (disambiguation)

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Viceroy may refer to: Viceroy, Saskatchewan , a small hamlet located in the Canadian province of Saskatchewan Viceroy , a gubernatorial title for the monarch-appointed governor of a country or province Viceroy (butterfly) , a North American butterfly Viceroy (cigarette) , a cigarette brand The Viceroys , a Jamaican rocksteady/reggae vocal trio Icon Brickell , a skyscraper complex in Miami, Florida, USA has a building known as Viceroy. Vauxhall Viceroy , a large car sold in the United Kingdom Viceroy of Kush , an official serving the Pharaoh of Egypt I Viceré , an 1894 novel by Federico De Roberto , translated to English as The Viceroys I Viceré (film) , a 2007 film based on the De Roberto novel by director Roberto Faenza HMS Viceroy (D91) , a British destroyer in commission in the Royal Navy from 1918 until the mid-1930s and from 1941 to 1945 RMS Viceroy of India , a British ocean liner and later troop transport in service from 1929 until it sunk in 1942 Viceroy may refer to: Viceroy, Saskatchewan , a small h ...more...



Viceroy of Kush

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Amenhotep called Huy King's Son of Kush under Pharaoh Tutankhamun The Kingdom of Kush based in Lower Nubia was a province of Ancient Egypt from the 16th century BCE to eleventh century BCE. During this period, the polity was ruled by a viceroy who reported directly to the Egyptian Pharaoh . It is believed that the Egyptian 25th Dynasty were descendants of these viceroys, and so were the dynasties that ruled independent Kush until the fourth century CE. List of Viceroys Below is a list of viceroys mainly based on a list assembled by George Reisner . Name Dynasty King (Pharaoh) Comment Ahmose called Si-Tayit Eighteenth Dynasty of Egypt Ahmose I Possibly the first Viceroy. Ahmose called Turo Eighteenth Dynasty of Egypt Amenhotep I and Thutmose I Son of Ahmose called Si-Tayit Seni Eighteenth Dynasty of Egypt Thutmose I and Thutmose II Penre Eighteenth Dynasty of Egypt Hatshepsut Inebny called Amenemnekhu Eighteenth Dynasty of Egypt Hatshepsut and Thutmose III First attested in year 18, and serving until about yea ...more...



Lord Mountbatten: The Last Viceroy

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Lord Mountbatten: The Last Viceroy was a British television series which first aired on ITV in 1986. It depicts Lord Mountbatten 's time as Supreme Commander, South-East Asia in the Second World War , and then as Viceroy of India shortly after the war in the days leading up to Indian independence. The Film was shot in Sri Lanka . Main cast Nicol Williamson ... Lord Louis Mountbatten Janet Suzman ... Lady Edwina Mountbatten Dreya Weber ... Pamela Mountbatten Wendy Hiller ... Princess Victoria of Hesse and by Rhine A.K. Hangal ... Sardar Vallabhbhai Patel Owen Holder ... King George VI David Lyon ... Lt Col Vernon Erskine-Crum Patrick Allen ... Claude Auchinleck Michael Byrne ... George Abell Sam Dastor ... Mahatma Gandhi Derek Reed ... Patrick Spens Nigel Davenport ... Hastings Ismay, 1st Baron Ismay David Quilter ... Alan Campbell Johnson Ian Richardson ... Jawaharlal Nehru Nadim Sawalha ... Liaquat Ali Khan Tony Wredden ... Maulana Abul Kalam Azad Saloni Kaur ... Indira Gandhi (née Nehru) Sumant Mastakaa .. ...more...



Viceroy of Liangguang

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The Viceroy of Liangguang or Viceroy of the Two Guangs , fully referred to in Chinese as the Governor-General, Commander and Quartermaster, Supervisor of Waterways, and Inspector-General of the Two Expanses and Surrounding Areas , was one of eight regional Viceroys in China proper during the Qing dynasty . The two Guangs referred to Guangdong and Guangxi provinces. The areas under the Viceroy's jurisdiction included present-day Guangdong and Guangxi provinces, as well as Hainan Province . History Ming dynasty The office of the Viceroy of Liangguang originated in 1452 during the Ming dynasty . The Jingtai Emperor accepted Yu Qian 's proposal to create the office and appointed Wang Ao (王翱) as the first viceroy. In 1465, the Chenghua Emperor appointed Han Yong (韓雍) as Left Censor-in-Chief and Viceroy of Liangguang. The office was formalised in 1469, with the administrative headquarters fixed in Wuzhou , Guangxi . In 1536, during the reign of the Jiajing Emperor , the viceroy Qian Rujing (錢如京) created a separate ...more...



Viceroy of Liangjiang

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The Viceroy of Liangjiang or Viceroy of the Two Jiangs , fully referred to in Chinese as the Governor-General of the Two Yangtze Provinces and Surrounding Areas Overseeing Military Affairs, Provisions and Funds, Manager of Waterways, Director of Civil Affairs , was one of eight regional Viceroys in China proper during the Qing dynasty . The Viceroy of Liangjiang had jurisdiction over Jiangsu , Jiangxi and Anhui provinces. Because Jiangsu and Anhui were previously part of a single province, Jiangnan ("south of the Yangtze"), they were thus known, along with Jiangxi ("west of the Yangtze"), as the two jiangs, hence the name "Liangjiang" ("two Jiangs"). History The office of Viceroy of Liangjiang originated in 1647 during the reign of the Shunzhi Emperor . It was called "Viceroy of the Three Provinces of Jiangdong , Jiangxi and Henan " (江東江西河南三省總督) and headquartered in Jiangning (江寧; present-day Nanjing , Jiangsu ). In 1652, the office was renamed "Viceroy of Jiangxi" (江西總督) and its headquarters shifted to Nanch ...more...



List of governors-general of India

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The Regulating Act of 1773 created the office with the title of Governor-General of the Presidency of Fort William , or Governor-General of Bengal to be appointed by the Court of Directors of the East India Company (EIC). The Court of Directors assigned a Council of Four (based in India) to assist The Governor General, and decision of council was binding on Governor General during 1773-1784. The Saint Helena Act 1833 (or Government of India Act 1833) re-designated the office with the title of Governor-General of India . After the Indian Rebellion of 1857 , the company rule was brought to an end, and the British India along with princely states came under the direct rule of the Crown. The Government of India Act 1858 created the office of Secretary of State for India in 1858 to oversee the affairs of India, which was advised by a new Council of India with 15 members (based in London). The existing Council of Four was formally renamed as the Council of Governor General of India or Executive Council of India. Th ...more...



Viceroy of Zhili

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The Viceroy of Zhili , fully referred to in Chinese as the Governor-General of Zhili and Surrounding Areas Overseeing Military Affairs and Food Production, Manager of Waterways, Director of Civil Affairs , was one of eight regional Viceroys in China proper during the Qing dynasty . The Viceroy of Zhili was an important post because the province of Zhili , which literally means "directly ruled", was the area surrounding the imperial capital, Beijing . The administrative centre was in Tianjin even though the provincial capital was in Baoding . The Viceroy's duties and responsibilities have never been defined entirely. Generally speaking, the Viceroy oversaw the military and civil affairs of Zhili, Shandong and Henan provinces. The Viceroy of Zhili was also highly influential in imperial court politics. History The office was first created on 30 September 1649 during the reign of the Shunzhi Emperor , but was later abolished on 1 June 1658. On 23 November 1661, during the reign of the Kangxi Emperor , the office ...more...



Velocette Viceroy

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The Viceroy was a scooter introduced by the British motorcycle manufacturer Velocette in 1960. Only 700 were sold before the model was discontinued in 1964. The Viceroy was considered an unusual design, as the two-stroke 250cc engine was placed at the front of the scooter. References "Ugly Black Beast Velocette Viceroy" . Scootering.com . Retrieved 22 June 2015 . "Five classic scooter rides from the 60s" . Stuff.co.nz . Retrieved 22 June 2015 . "Velocette Viceroy 1960" . Auto Evolution . Retrieved 22 June 2015 . The Viceroy was a scooter introduced by the British motorcycle manufacturer Velocette in 1960. Only 700 were sold before the model was discontinued in 1964. The Viceroy was considered an unusual design, as the two-stroke 250cc engine was placed at the front of the scooter. References "Ugly Black Beast Velocette Viceroy" . Scootering.com . Retrieved 22 June 2015 . "Five classic scooter rides from the 60s" . Stuff.co.nz . Retrieved 22 June 2015 . "Velocette Viceroy 1960" . Auto Evolution . Retriev ...more...



The Viceroys

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The Viceroys , also known as The Voiceroys , The Interns , The Inturns , The Brothers , and The Hot Tops , are a reggae vocal group who first recorded in 1967. After releasing several albums in the late 1970s and early 1980s, they split up in the mid-1980s. They reformed and recorded a new album in 2006. History The group was formed in Kingston, Jamaica by Wesley Tinglin, along with Daniel Bernard and Bunny Gayle, and after auditioning unsuccessfully for Duke Reid , the trio made their debut recording for producer Clement "Coxsone" Dodd in the middle of the rocksteady era in 1967. The group recorded several singles for Dodd's Studio One label, including "Ya Ho", "Fat Fish", and "Love & Unity", and these tracks were collected together by Heartbeat Records for a 1995 compilation album. They went on to record for several other producers in the late 1960s and 1970s, including Derrick Morgan , Winston Riley (who produced their hit "Mission Impossible"), Lee "Scratch" Perry (including "Babylon Deh Pon Fire" ...more...



Airspeed Viceroy

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The Airspeed AS.8 Viceroy was a British racing version of the Airspeed AS.6 Envoy built by Airspeed (1934) Limited at Portsmouth . The Viceroy was built to order for Captain T. Neville Stack and Sidney Lewis Turner, to compete in the England-Australia MacRobertson Air Race . Only one aircraft, registered G-ACMU, was built. Design and development The Viceroy was a modified Airspeed Envoy. Modifications included: More powerful, supercharged Armstrong-Siddeley Cheetah VI engines in long chord, smooth NACA cowlings Strengthened main landing gear to allow higher weight takeoff An auxiliary petrol tank, capacity was 270  Imp gallon /1,227 litres installed in the aft fuselage Narrowed fuselage without passenger windows Operational history The Airspeed Viceroy started the race from RAF Mildenhall , England , but after several reliability problems including with the mainwheel brakes, it was withdrawn from the race at Athens . The pilots concluded that it would be unsafe to proceed and they would probably be unable to ...more...



The Viceroy of Ouidah

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The Viceroy of Ouidah is a novel published in 1980 by Bruce Chatwin , a British author. Summary Chatwin's novel portrays the life of a fictional slave trader named Francisco Manuel da Silva, who is loosely based on a historical white Brazilian , Francisco Félix de Sousa . He became powerful in Ouidah , on the so-called Slave Coast of West Africa , now Benin , Togo , and parts of the Volta Region in Ghana . Chatwin was caught up in the violence of a coup in Dahomey (now Benin), where Ouidah is located, when he was researching the book. Film adaptation The novel was adapted for the 1987 film Cobra Verde , directed by Werner Herzog and starring Klaus Kinski as Francisco Manuel da Silva. Reception The novel received mixed reviews. In The New York Times , John Thompson compared The Viceroy to other about-Africa prose works: "One could mention Graham Greene 's Journey Without Maps or, for a work of the imagination based on somewhat less horrendous events, Chinua Achebe 's Arrow of God . That novel of West Africa ha ...more...



Viceroy of Sichuan

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The Viceroy of Sichuan , fully referred to in Chinese as the Governor-General of Sichuan Province and the Surrounding Areas Overseeing Military Affairs and Food Production, Director of Civil Affairs , was one of eight regional viceroys in China proper during the Qing dynasty . As its name suggests, the Viceroy of Sichuan had control over Sichuan (Szechuan) Province . History The origins of the Viceroy of Sichuan trace back to 1644, during the reign of the Shunzhi Emperor , with the creation of the office of the Provincial Governor of Sichuan (四川巡撫). Its headquarters were in Chengdu . In 1645, the Qing government created the Viceroy of Huguang-Sichuan with Luo Xiujin (羅繡錦) as the first Viceroy overseeing both Huguang (present-day Hubei and Hunan ) and Sichuan provinces. In 1653, Sichuan was placed under the jurisdiction of the Viceroy of the Three Borders in Shaanxi , which was subsequently renamed "Viceroy of Chuan and the Three Borders in Shaanxi" (川陝三邊總督) with Meng Qiaofang (孟喬芳) as the officeholder. In 165 ...more...



Viceroy Special

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The Viceroy Special is a special passenger train service operated by J.F. Tours & Travels (Ceylon) Ltd. Powered by the sole steam locomotive kept in operation in Sri Lanka, it is operated as a private train on all railway lines in the island. The 75-year-old luxury train has two air-conditioned observation saloons and a restaurant car. History The launch of the Viceroy Special was spearheaded by Hemasiri Fernando and Cliff Jones. The idea of re-introducing steam to Sri Lanka rails was inspired by a tourism promotional visit to Sri Lanka in 1984 by Cliff Jones who, returning from a day trip to Kandy, called at Dematagoda loco sheds and saw, what he later described a graveyard of 'veritable massive tourism potential' and put the proposition to the then Minister of State Ananda de Tissa de Alweis who was wildly enthusiastic and with the tremendous help of GMR Manager and Hemasiri Fernando it came to fruition 2 years later. During the Second World War, Lord Louis Mountbatten, the last Viceroy of India and ...more...



Viceroy, Saskatchewan

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Viceroy is a hamlet in Excel Rural Municipality No. 71 , Saskatchewan , Canada . The population was 25 at the 2011 Census . The hamlet previously held the status of a village until May 10, 2002. Viceroy is located 7 km south of the historic Red Coat Trail on Highway 624 north of Willow Bunch Lake adjacent to Big Muddy Valley . History Viceroy was incorporated in 1912. At its peak in the 1950s it had a population of 250. Prior to May 10, 2002, Viceroy was incorporated as a village , and was restructured as a hamlet under the jurisdiction of the Rural municipality of Excel on that date. Demographics Services Once a bustling community with two schools, two restaurants, Klemenz Poolroom and bowling alley, a theatre and many other businesses. After two fires in the past century the community has shrunk to a much smaller scale. Viceroy still boasts the Viceroy Co-op which in a sense is the local "general store" offering grocery staples, tools, feed, hardware, parts, auto repair and petroleum sales. The RM of Excel ...more...



Viceroys in China

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Map of viceroys in Qing Dynasty of China Shang Kexi , known to the Dutch as the "Old Viceroy" of Guangdong , drawn by Johan Nieuhof in 1655 Zongdu ( Tsung-tu ; simplified Chinese : 总督 ; traditional Chinese : 總督 ; pinyin : Zǒngdū ; Wade–Giles : Tsung -tu ; Manchu : Uheri kadalara amban), usually translated as Viceroy or Governor-General , governed one or more provinces of Qing dynasty China . One of the most important was the Viceroy of Zhili (Chihli), since it encompassed the imperial capital. Yuan Shikai , later president of the Republic of China , held this office. The title was first used use during the Ming dynasty (1368–1644). The regional viceroys during the Qing dynasty were: Viceroy of Zhili Viceroy of Liangjiang : Jiangsu, Jiangxi, Anhui Viceroy of Min-Zhe : Fujian, Zhejiang, Taiwan Viceroy of Huguang : Hunan, Hubei Viceroy of Shaan-Gan : Shaanxi, Gansu, Xinjiang Viceroy of Liangguang : Guangdong, Guangxi Viceroy of Yun-Gui : Yunnan, Guizhou Viceroy of Sichuan Viceroy of the Three Northeast Provinces ...more...



Viceroy of Huguang

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The Viceroy of Huguang , fully referred to in Chinese as the Governor-General of Hubei and Hunan Provinces and the Surrounding Areas; Overseeing Military Affairs, Food Production; Director of Civil Affairs , was one of eight regional Viceroys in China proper during the Qing dynasty . The Viceroy of Huguang had jurisdiction over Hubei and Hunan provinces, which were previously a single province called "Huguang Province" in the Ming dynasty , hence the name "Huguang". History The office was created in 1644 as the "Viceroy of Huguang" during the reign of the Shunzhi Emperor . Its headquarters were in Wuchang (present-day Wuchang District , Wuhan , Hubei). It was abolished in 1668 during the reign of the Kangxi Emperor but was restored in 1670 as the "Viceroy of Chuan-Hu" (川湖總督; "Viceroy of (Si)chuan and Hu(guang)"), with its headquarters in Chongqing . In 1674, the office of Viceroy of Chuan-Hu was split into the Viceroy of Sichuan and Viceroy of Huguang, and had remained as such until 1904. In 1904, during the ...more...



Gujarat under Aurangzeb

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The Mughal Empire 's province Gujarat (now in India) was managed by the Viceroys appointed by the emperors. After defeating all his brothers, Aurangzeb ascended the Mughal throne in 1658. He rewarded people who had helped him in his succession war. He forgave Jaswant Singh with whom he had faught in the battle and appointed him as the viceroy of Gujarat. Mahabat Khan succeeded him who annexed Nawanagar under the Mughal control. During his time, Aurangzeb decreed some administrative reforms, ordered curbs on Hindu customs and festivals and enforced Islamic religious law. In 1664, Maratha leader Shivaji plundered Surat and emptied its riches. Under next viceroy Khan Jehan, Shivaji again attacked Surat and Janjira . Jaswant Singh was appointed the viceroy again and the Nawanagar was partially restored to its ruler. During the next viceroy Amin Khan, there was disorder in the province due to imposition of jizya tax and other discrimination and Idar revolted in 1679 but soon contained. During next viceroy, Mukhtar ...more...



Tulip mania

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A tulip, known as "the Viceroy" (viseroij), displayed in the 1637 Dutch catalog Verzameling van een Meenigte Tulipaanen. Its bulb was offered for sale between 3,000 and 4,200 guilders (florins) depending on size (aase). A skilled craftsworker at the time earned about 300 guilders a year. Tulip mania , tulipmania , or tulipomania ( Dutch names include: tulpenmanie, tulpomanie, tulpenwoede, tulpengekte and bollengekte) was a period in the Dutch Golden Age during which contract prices for some bulbs of the recently introduced and fashionable tulip reached extraordinarily high levels and then dramatically collapsed in February 1637. It is generally considered the first recorded speculative bubble (or economic bubble ); although some researchers have noted that the Kipper- und Wipperzeit (literally Tipper and See-saw ) episode in 1619–1622, a Europe-wide chain of debasement of the metal content of coins to fund warfare, featured mania-like similarities to a bubble. In many ways, the tulip mania was more of a hi ...more...



Blasco Núñez Vela

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Blasco Núñez Vela y Villalba (c. 1490 – January 18, 1546) was the first Spanish viceroy of Peru . Serving from May 15, 1544 to January 18, 1546, he was charged by Charles V with the enforcement of the controversial New Laws , which dealt with the failure of the encomienda system to protect the indigenous people of America from the rapacity of the conquistadors and their descendants. Origins Núñez Vela was a native of Ávila , born into an ancient and noble family. The Núñez Vela family, lords of Tabadillo, lived in this area from at least 1403. He was a descendant of Don Pedro Nuñez de la Fuente Almexir (Fuentearmegil) the loyal, who saved the life of the King of Castile , Alfonso VIII in 1163. He was a knight of the Order of Santiago and corregidor of Málaga and Cuenca , Spain, and devoted to the service of the king. One of his brothers was lord of the bedchamber to the king, and another was archbishop of Burgos. Although honest, loyal and courageous, Núñez was also very hot headed. Appointment as viceroy In ...more...



Antonio de Mendoza

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Antonio de Mendoza y Pacheco (1495 – July 21, 1552) was the first Viceroy of New Spain , serving from April 17, 1535 to November 25, 1550, and the third Viceroy of Peru , from September 23, 1551, until his death on July 21, 1552. Mendoza was born at Alcalá la Real ( Jaén , Spain ), the son of the Second Conde de Tendilla, Íñigo López de Mendoza y Quiñones and Francisca Pacheco. He was married to María Ana de Trujillo de Mendoza. Viceroy of New Spain Mendoza became Viceroy of New Spain in 1535 and governed for 15 years, longer than any subsequent viceroy. On his arrival in New Spain, he found a recently conquered territory beset with Indian unrest and rivalry among the Spanish conquerors and Spanish settlers. His difficult assignment was to govern in the king's name without making an enemy of Hernando Cortés . Cortés himself had expected to be made the permanent ruling crown official of New Spain, since he had led the Spanish conquest of the Aztec Empire . The Emperor Charles V (King Charles I of Spain) and th ...more...



Rashtrapati Bhavan

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The Rashtrapati Bhavan (   pronunciation   , "rásh-tra-pa-ti bha-van" ; Presidential Residence" previously "Viceroy's House") is the official home of the president located at the Western end of Rajpath in New Delhi , India . It may refer to only the mansion (the 340-room main building) that has the president's official residence, halls, guest rooms and offices; it may also refer to the entire 130-hectare (320 acre) President Estate that additionally includes huge presidential gardens ( Mughal Gardens ), large open spaces, residences of bodyguards and staff, stables, other offices and utilities within its perimeter walls. In terms of area, it is one of the largest residences of a head of state in the world. History This decision to build a residence in New Delhi for the British Viceroy was taken after it was decided during the Delhi Durbar in December 1911 that the capital of India would be relocated from Calcutta to Delhi. When the plan for a new city, New Delhi , adjacent to end south of Old Delhi , was deve ...more...



Viceroy Cup

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Hong Kong Viceroy Cup ( Chinese : 總督盃 ) was a football competition in Hong Kong held by British American Tobacco . Started in 1969, it was the first football competition in Hong Kong which allowed commercial sponsorship . Together with First Division League , FA Cup and Senior Shield , they were considered as "Big Four" competitions in Hong Kong football circle. Since July 1999, the Hong Kong government has forbidden the sponsorship of sports events by tobacco firms, although the Chinese name of it suggests " Governor ", which was the leader of British Hong Kong colony before Hong Kong Handover in 1997. The 29th and the last competition was held in 1998. Finals Results Season Winner Score Runners-up Venue Attendance 1969–70 Jardines Fire Services 1970–71 Eastern Rangers 1971–72 South China Rangers 1972–73 Seiko Eastern 1973–74 Rangers South China 1974–75 Rangers South China 1975–76 Happy Valley Seiko 1976–77 Caroline Hill Seiko 1977–78 Seiko Happy Valley 1978–79 Seiko 3–0 Urban Services 1979–80 South China 2– ...more...



List of viceroys of Naples

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This is a list of viceroys of the Kingdom of Naples . Following the conquest of Naples by Louis XII of France in 1501, Naples was subject to the rule of the foreign rulers, the Kings of France, Aragon and Spain and the Habsburg Archdukes of Austria respectively. Commonly staying far from Naples, these rulers governed the Kingdom through a series of viceroys . Name Reign Notes French rule (1501–1504) Louis of Armagnac, Duke of Nemours 1501–1503 Viceroy under King Louis XII of France . Fell in the Battle of Cerignola . Ludovico II, Marquess of Saluzzo 1503–1504 Viceroy of Naples under King Louis XII of France Spanish-Castilian rule (1504–1707) Gonzalo Fernández de Córdoba (1453–1515) 1504–1507 Viceroy under King Ferdinand II of Aragon . Juan de Aragón y de Jonqueras, 2nd count of Ribagorza 1507–1509 Antonio de Guevara 1509 Viceroy under King Ferdinand II of Aragon Ramón de Cardona 1509–1522 Viceroy of Sicily under King Ferdinand II of Aragon , Viceroy of Naples, (1509–1522) Charles de Lannoy , 1522–1527 Viceroy ...more...



RMS Viceroy of India

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RMS Viceroy of India was an ocean liner of the Peninsular and Oriental Steam Navigation Company (P&O). She was a British Royal Mail Ship on the Tilbury – Bombay route and was named after the Viceroy of India . In World War II she was converted to and used as a troopship. She was sunk in the Mediterranean in November 1942 by German submarine U-407 . Building Viceroy of India ' s indoor swimming pool P&O ordered the ship from Alexander Stephen and Sons of Glasgow in 1927. She was originally to be called Taj Mahal, after the 17th-century mausoleum of Mumtaz Mahal in Agra . She was laid down in April 1927, launched in September 1928 and completed in March 1929. She cost £1,090,987 She had six water-tube boilers with a combined heating surface of 32,500 square feet (3,019 m ) that supplied steam at 400 lb/in to two turbo generators . These supplied current to electric motors with a combined rating of 3,565 NHP that drove twin screw propellers . British Thomson-Houston (BT-H) of Rugby, Warwickshire bui ...more...



The Spanish Viceroy

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The Spanish Viceroy is a problem play of English Renaissance drama . Originally a work by Philip Massinger dating from 1624 , it was controversial in its own era, and may or may not exist today in altered form. History 1624 In December 1624, the King's Men got into trouble with Sir Henry Herbert , the Master of the Revels , because they performed a play, The Spanish Viceroy, without first obtaining Herbert's license. This step was bound to get them into trouble: Herbert's job was to oversee and censor every play acted in the London theatres, and he was zealous in doing his job, maintaining his authority, and collecting his fees. The outcome was unsurprising, given the way the system of control worked. On 20 December 1624, the King's Men provided Herbert with a "submission", a written apology, signed by each actor who had taken part in the offending performance. The cast included Robert Benfield , George Birch , John Lowin , Thomas Pollard , John Rice , Richard Robinson , William Rowley , John Shank , Richard ...more...



Viceroy of Min-Zhe

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The Viceroy of Min-Zhe , fully referred to in Chinese as the Governor-General of Taiwan, Fujian and Zhejiang Provinces and Surrounding Areas Overseeing Military Affairs and Food Production, Manager of Waterways, Director of Civil Affairs , was one of eight Viceroys in China proper during the Qing dynasty . The "Zhe" refers to Zhejiang Province while "Min" is the abbreviation of Fujian Province . Taiwan was also under the Viceroy's control until after the 1895 Treaty of Shimonoseki . History The office of Viceroy of Min-Zhe was created under the name "Viceroy of Zhe-Min" in 1645 during the reign of the Shunzhi Emperor . At the time of its creation, its headquarters were in Fuzhou , Fujian Province. In 1648, the headquarters shifted to Quzhou , Zhejiang Province. About 10 years later, the office split into the Viceroy of Fujian and Viceroy of Zhejiang, which were respectively based in Zhangzhou and Wenzhou . In 1672, during the reign of the Kangxi Emperor , the office of the Viceroy of Fujian shifted from Zhang ...more...



Gujarat under Jehangir

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The Mughal Empire 's province Gujarat (now in India) was managed by the Viceroys appointed by the emperors. The emperor Jehangir continued Mírza Âzíz Kokaltásh as the viceroy when he ascended to the throne in 1605. He continued to manage the province even though Khalij Khan was appointed as the new viceroy. He was succeeded by Sayad Murtaza who controlled the rebellions in north and south Gujarat. Mírza Âzíz Kokaltásh again returned as the viceroy and successfully averted invasion of Malik Ambar from Daulatabad in south. The next viceroy Abdulláh Khán Fírúz Jang made expedition to south and subdued the Ahmednagar . During his time, in 1611, Jehangir permitted the British East India Company to establish factories in Surat and elsewhere in Gujarat. During reign of the next viceroy Mukarrab Khán, Jehangir toured Gujarat and received several local rulers. In 1618, he appointed his son prince Shah Jahan as the next viceroy. He rebelled in 1622-23 and he was replced by Sultán Dáwar Baksh . Shah Jahan resisted but l ...more...



Icon Brickell

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The Icon Brickell complex is an urban development center in Miami , Florida , United States . It is located on the south side of the Miami River in Downtown 's northern Brickell Financial District . The complex consists of three skyscrapers and the Icon Brickell Plaza, connecting the towers at their base. The first two towers, the Icon Brickell North Tower and Icon Brickell South Tower , are twin buildings. Each one is 586 feet (179 m) tall with 58 floors. The third phase of the complex is the Viceroy Tower , which is 500 feet (150 m) tall with 50 floors. The complex is on the east side of Brickell Avenue between Southeast 5th and 6th Streets. The architectural firm Arquitectonica worked on the project, while the design was influenced by , Philippe Starck and John Hitchcox's design company. North and south twin towers The Icon Brickell South Tower is adjacent to its twin, the Icon Brickell North Tower. They are the same height and share the same amount of floors. The North Tower is the same height as the Sou ...more...



Viceroy's House (film)

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Viceroy's House is British-Indian historical drama film directed by Gurinder Chadha and written by Paul Mayeda Berges , Moira Buffini , and Chadha. The film stars Hugh Bonneville , Gillian Anderson , Manish Dayal , Huma Qureshi , and Michael Gambon . It has been selected to be screened out of competition at the 67th Berlin International Film Festival . The film was released in the United Kingdom on 3 March 2017, while the Hindi dubbed version titled Partition: 1947 was released in India on 18 August 2017, 3 days after its 70th Independence Day. It was released worldwide on September 1st, 2017. Plot Lord Mountbatten ( Hugh Bonneville ) arrives at Viceroy's House in Delhi in 1947 with his strong-willed wife Edwina ( Gillian Anderson ) and daughter Pamela . As the final Viceroy of India , he is in charge of overseeing the dissolution of the British Raj and the establishment of an independent Indian nation. Mountbatten attempts to mediate a disagreement between the two major Indian political leaders, Jawaharla ...more...



List of governors of Portuguese India

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Map of Portuguese India, 1923. Coat of arms of Portuguese India. The government of Portuguese India started in 1505, six years after the discovery of the sea route to India by Vasco da Gama , with the nomination of the first Viceroy Francisco de Almeida , then settled at Kochi . Until 1752, the name "India" included all Portuguese possessions in the Indian Ocean , from southern Africa to Southeast Asia , governed - either by a Viceroy or Governor - from its headquarters, established in Goa since 1510. In 1752 Portuguese Mozambique got its own government and in 1844 the Portuguese Government of India stopped administering the territory of Portuguese Macau , Solor and Portuguese Timor , seeing itself thus confined to a reduced territorial entity in Malabar: Goa, Daman, Diu, Dadra and Nagar Haveli. Portuguese control ceased in the last two enclaves in 1954 , and finally ceased in the remaining three pockets in 1961 , when they were occupied by the Republic of India (although Portugal only recognized the occupati ...more...



Yas Viceroy Abu Dhabi Hotel

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Yas Viceroy Abu Dhabi Hotel is built across the F1 Yas Marina Circuit in Abu Dhabi. It is known as one of the icons of Abu Dhabi and has a very futuristic design. Design Yas Viceroy Abu Dhabi Hotel is located within the Yas Marina Circuit , Abu Dhabi . It is the first new hotel in the world to be built over an F1 race circuit. The Hotel, designed by Hani Rashid and Lise Anne Couture , principals of New York based Asymptote Architecture , consists of two twelve story hotel towers, one set within the race circuit and another placed in the Marina itself, linked together by a monocoque steel and glass bridge and Grid Shell structure that both cross above and over the Yas Marina Circuit F1 race track. Asymptote created and conceived of the building as an architectural landmark embodying key influences and local and global inspirations ranging from the aesthetics and forms associated with speed and spectacle to the artistry and geometries that form the basis of ancient Islamic art and craft traditions. Of architect ...more...



Gujarat under Akbar

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In 1573, Mughal Emperor Akbar conquered Gujarat Sultanate (now Gujarat , India) taking advantage of young Gujarat Sultan Muzaffar Shah III and his quarelling nobles. Muzaffar was held captive at Agra . He appointed his foster brother Mírza Âzíz Kokaltásh as the first viceroy who faced an insurrection by the rebel nobles of the former Sultanate. Akbar quickly came to aid and ended the insurrection. He soon appointed Mírza Khán who managed to set revenue system and quelled attack by the Mirzas with help of Mughal minister Todar Mal . The next viceroy Shaháb-ud-dín strengthened the military. Soon Sultan Muzaffar escaped, returned to Gujarat and led an attack on Ahmedabad and recaptured it before his former noble and now viceroy Itimad Khan reach the city. Soon Mirza Khan was reappointed as the viceroy who defeated Muzaffar in the battle of Fatehwadi in 1584. Soon Kokaltásh returned as the viceroy and defeated Muzaffar and combined Kathiawad forces in battle of Bhuchar Mori . Later Muzaffar was captured but he co ...more...



HMS Viceroy (D91)

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HMS Viceroy (D91) was a W-class destroyer of the British Royal Navy that saw service in the final months of World War I and in World War II . Construction and commissioning Viceroy, the first Royal Navy ship of the name, was ordered either on 30 June 1916 or in August 1916 (sources differ) as part of the 9th Order of the 1916–1917 Naval Programme and was laid down by John I. Thornycroft & Company at Woolston , Hampshire , England , on 12 December 1916. Launched on 17 November 1917, she was completed on 14 January 1918 and commissioned on 18 January 1918. She was assigned the pennant number F99 in January 1918; it was changed to F38 in April 1918 and to D91 during the interwar period. Service history World War I Upon completion, Viceroy was assigned to the Grand Fleet , based at Scapa Flow in the Orkney Islands , in which she served for the rest of World War I. Interwar After the conclusion of World War I, Viceroy served in the 2nd Destroyer Flotilla in the Atlantic Fleet . In 1921, Viceroy joined ...more...



Gandhi–Irwin Pact

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The Gandhi Irwin Pact was a political agreement signed by Mahatma Gandhi and the then Viceroy of India , Lord Irwin on 5 March 1931 before the second Round Table Conference in London . Before this, the viceroy Lord Irwin announced in October 1929, a vague offer of 'dominion status' for India in an unspecified future and a Round Table Conference to discuss a future constitution. The second round table conference which was held in 1931. "The Two Mahatmas"—as Sarojini Naidu described Gandhi and Irwin—had eight meetings that totaled 24 hours. Gandhi was impressed by Irwin’s sincerity. The terms of the "Gandhi-Irwin Pact" fell manifestly short of those Gandhi prescribed as the minimum for a truce. Below are the proposed conditions. Discontinuation of the civil disobedience movement by the Indian National Congress Participation by the Indian National Congress in the Round Table Conference Withdrawal of all ordinances issued by the British Government imposing curbs on the activities of the Indian National Congress ...more...



Edwina Mountbatten, Countess Mountbatten of Burma

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Edwina Cynthia Annette Mountbatten, Countess Mountbatten of Burma , CI , GBE , DCVO , GCStJ (née Ashley ; 28 November 1901 – 21 February 1960) was an English heiress, socialite, relief worker and the last Vicereine of India as wife of Louis Mountbatten, 1st Earl Mountbatten of Burma . Lineage and wealth She was born in 1901, the elder daughter of Wilfred William Ashley , later 1st Baron Mount Temple (of the 1932 creation), who was a Conservative Member of Parliament. Edwina Ashley was patrilineally descended from the Earls of Shaftesbury who had been ranked as baronets since 1622 and ennobled as barons in 1661. She was a great-granddaughter of the reformist 7th Earl of Shaftesbury through his younger son, The Hon. Evelyn Melbourne Ashley (1836–1907) and his wife, Sybella Farquhar (d. 1886), a granddaughter of the 6th Duke of Beaufort . From this cadet branch , the Ashley-Cooper peers would inherit the estates of Broadlands ( Hampshire , England) and Classiebawn Castle ( County Sligo , Ireland). Ashley's moth ...more...



List of viceroys of Navarre

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This is a list of Spanish Viceroys of Navarre from 1512 to 1840, when the function was abolished. 1512 : Diego Fernández de Córdoba y Arellano, marqués de Comares 1515 : Fadrique de Acuña, Conde de Buendía 1516 : Antonio Manrique de Lara, Duque de Nájera 1521 : Francisco López de Zúñiga, Conde de Miranda 1524 : Diego de Avellaneda, Bishop of Tuy 1527 : Martín Alfonso Fernández de Córdoba, Conde de Alcaudete 1534 : Diego Hurtado de Mendoza, 2nd Marquis of Cañete 1542 : Juan de Vega, Señor de Grajal 1543 : Luis Hurtado de Mendoza y Pacheco, 2nd Marquis of Mondejar 1546 : Álvar Gómez Manrique de Mendoza, Conde de Castrogeriz 1547 : Luis de Velasco , Señor de Salinas 1549 : Bernardino de Cárdenas y Pacheco, Duque de Maqueda 1552 : Beltrán de la Cueva, 3rd Duke of Alburquerque 1560 : Gabriel de la Cueva, 5th Duke of Alburquerque 1564 : Alfonso de Córdoba y Velasco, Conde de Alcaudete 1565 : José de Guevara y Tovar, Señor de Escalante 1567 : Juan de la Cerda y Silva, 4th Duke of Medinaceli 1572 : Vespasiano Gonzaga ...more...



Viceroy of Shaan-Gan

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The Viceroy of Shaan-Gan , fully referred to in Chinese as the Governor-General of Shaanxi and Gansu Provinces and the Surrounding Areas; Overseeing Military Affairs and Food Production, Manager of Waterways, Director of Civil Affairs , was one of eight regional viceroys in China proper during the Qing dynasty . The Viceroy of Shaan-Gan had jurisdiction over Shaanxi and Gansu provinces (hence the name "Shaan(xi)-Gan(su)"), as well as western Inner Mongolia . History Ming dynasty The office of Viceroy of Shaan-Gan originated in the early Ming dynasty with the garrisoning of military forces in three towns along the northern border of Shaanxi Province . The three garrisons were called " Xunfu of Yansui " (延綏巡撫), "Xunfu of Ningxia " (寧夏巡撫) and "Xunfu of Gansu " (甘肅巡撫). In 1497, when the Mongols of the Northern Yuan dynasty made intrusions across the border, the Hongzhi Emperor put Wang Yue (王越) in charge of coordinating military actions in Shaanxi, Yansui, Ningxia and Gansu. In the early reign of the Zhengde Empe ...more...



Gujarat under Shah Jahan

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The Mughal Empire 's province Gujarat (now in India) was managed by the Viceroys appointed by the emperors. On the death of the emperor Jehangir , his son Shah Jahan ascended the to throne in 1627. His Gujarat viceroy Sher Khán Túar worked for relief in 1631-31 femine in the province. Shah Jahan sent his men to expand its territories further south. Between 1632 to 1635, four viceroys were appointed due to their precious gift to the emperor and they could not manage the province well. Kolis of Kankrej in north Gujarat committed excesses and the Jam of Nawanagar did not paid the tribute. Soon Azam Khan was appointed who put the province in order by subdueing Kolis in north and Kathis in Kathiawad . He also made the Jam of Nawanagar surrender. The next viceroy Ísa Tarkhán carried out financial reforms. In 1644, the Mughal prince Aurangzeb was appointed as the viceroy who was engaged in relious disputes for destroying a Jain temple in Ahmedabad . Due to his disputes, he was replaced by Sháistah Khán who failed to ...more...



Viceroy of Yun-Gui

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The Viceroy of Yun-Gui , fully referred to in Chinese as the Governor-General of Yunnan and Guizhou Provinces and the Surrounding Areas Overseeing Military Affairs and Food Production, Director of Civil Affairs , was one of eight regional viceroys in China proper during the Qing dynasty . The Viceroy controlled Yunnan and Guizhou (Kweichow) provinces. History The Viceroy of Yun-Gui was created in 1659, during the reign of the Shunzhi Emperor , as a jinglue (經略; military governor) office before it was converted to a Viceroy. In 1662, during the reign of the Kangxi Emperor , the Viceroy of Yun-Gui split into the Viceroy of Yunnan and Viceroy of Guizhou, which were respectively headquartered in Qujing and Anshun . Two years later, the two viceroys were merged and the headquarters shifted to Guiyang . In 1673, the Kangxi Emperor restored the Viceroy of Yunnan, with its headquarters in Qujing. Between 1673 and 1681, the Revolt of the Three Feudatories broke out in Yunnan, Guangdong and Fujian provinces. The Vicero ...more...



List of Viceroys of Peru

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The following is a list of Viceroys of Peru . The viceroys of Peru ruled the Viceroyalty of Peru from 1544 to 1826 in the name of the King of Spain . The territories under de jure rule by the viceroys included in the 16th and 17th century almost all of South America except eastern Brazil . Governors of New Castile (1528–1544) Picture Governor From Until Monarch Francisco Pizarro 1528 June 26, 1541 Charles I Cristóbal Vaca de Castro 1541 1544 Gonzalo Pizarro Usurper and claimant to the governorship of Peru. Claims not definitively quelled until Battle of Jaquijahuana 1544 1548 Viceroys of Peru (1544–1826) Picture Viceroy From Until Monarch Blasco Núñez Vela May 15, 1544 January 18, 1546 Charles I Pedro de la Gasca , Dean of the Audiencia April 10, 1547 January 27, 1550 Antonio de Mendoza , Marquis of Mondéjar, Count of Tendilla September 23, 1551 July 21, 1552 Melchor Bravo de Saravia , Dean of the Audiencia July 1552 June 1556 Andrés Hurtado de Mendoza , 3rd Marquis of Cañete June 29, 1556 March 30, 1561 Phil ...more...



Waco (Violent Soho album)

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Professional ratings Review scores Source Rating Sputnikmusic Rolling Stone The AU Review TheMusic WACO is the fourth studio album by Australian alternative rock band Violent Soho . It was released on I Oh You Records in March 2016. The album came first in the annual Triple J Top 10 albums of the year poll. Reception The album fared well with critics and came first in Triple Js annual album of the year poll. All six of the albums singles placed in Triple J's Hottest 100 with Like Soda reaching 15 in 2015 and How To Taste, No Shade, So Sentimental, Blanket and Viceroy reaching 92, 73, 69, 53 and 14 respectively in 2016 making Violent Soho the number one act of the year with five songs charting. Track listing All music composed by Violent Soho (Luke Boerdam, James Tidswell, Luke Henery and Michael Richards). No. Title Length 1. "How to Taste" 4:17 2. "Blanket" 3:49 3. "Viceroy" 3:14 4. "So Sentimental" 4:08 5. "Like Soda" 4:02 6. "No Shade" 4:11 7. "Slow Wave" 4:20 8. "Evergreen" 3:54 9. "Holy Cave" 2:59 10. ...more...



Montagu–Chelmsford Reforms

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The Montagu–Chelmsford Reforms or more briefly known as Mont-Ford Reforms were reforms introduced by the British colonial government in India to introduce self-governing institutions gradually to India. The reforms take their name from Edwin Samuel Montagu , the Secretary of State for India during the latter parts of World War I and Lord Chelmsford , Viceroy of India between 1916 and 1921. The reforms were outlined in the Montagu-Chelmsford Report prepared in 1918 and formed the basis of the Government of India Act 1919. Indian nationalists considered that the reforms did not go far enough while British conservatives were critical of them. Background Edwin Montagu became Secretary of State for India in June 1917 after Austen Chamberlain resigned following the capture of Kut by the Turks in 1916 and the capture of an Indian army staged there. He put before the British Cabinet a proposed statement regarding his intention to work towards the gradual development of free institutions in India with a view to ultima ...more...



List of Governors-General of Italian East Africa

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Coat of arms of Italian East Africa. This article lists the Governors-General of Italian East Africa , a colony of the Italian Empire from 1936 to 1941. The Governor-General of Italian East Africa was also Viceroy of Ethiopia . List Tenure Portrait Incumbent Notes Italian East Africa (Africa Orientale Italiana) 9 May 1936 to 11 June 1936 Marshal The 1st Duca di Addis Abeba, 1st Marchese di Sabotino , Viceroy and Governor-General For Victor Emmanuel III 11 June 1936 to 21 December 1937 Marshal The 1st Marchese di Neghelli , Governor-General For Victor Emmanuel III 21 December 1937 to 19 May 1941 General The 3rd Duca di Aosta , Viceroy and Governor-General For Victor Emmanuel III 23 May 1941 to 6 July 1941 General Pietro Gazzera , Acting Viceroy and Governor-General For Victor Emmanuel III 6 July 1941 to 27 November 1941 General Guglielmo Nasi , Acting Viceroy and Governor-General For Victor Emmanuel III See also Italian East Africa List of Italian Governors of Addis Ababa List of Italian Governors of Amhara Li ...more...



Gujarat under Muhammad Shah

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The Mughal Empire 's province Gujarat (now in India) was managed by the viceroys appointed by the emperors. The emperor Farrukhsiyar was deposed by influential Sayad brothers in 1719. He was succeeded by the short reigns of Rafi ud-Darajat and Shah Jahan II . Finally Muhammad Shah was raised to the throne by them. To make peace with powerful vassal, he appointed Ajítsingh of Márwár as a viceroy. The Maratha incursions continued and Píláji Gáikwár established himself at Songad near southern border of Gujarat. Ajit Singh had appointed Anopsingh Bhandari as his deputy. For helping desposing influencial Sayad brothers, Haidar Kúli Khán was appointed the next viceroy. People discontent with Anopsingh rejoiced his appointment but he tried to make himself free so he was recalled. Nizám-ul-Mulk took over who had to face the Maratha incursion again. The Marathas taking advantage of weakening Mughal Empire started extracting tribute from Gujarat regularly. The next viceroy Sarbuland Khan came in conflict with the Marat ...more...




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