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Viceroy

A viceroy is a regal official who runs a country, colony, city, province, or sub-national state, in the name of and as the representative of the monarch of the territory. The term derives from the Latin prefix vice-, meaning "in the place of" and the French word roi, meaning "king". A viceroy's territory may be called a viceroyalty, though this term is not always applied. The adjectival form is viceregal,[1] less often viceroyal.[2] The term vicereine is sometimes used to indicate a female viceroy suo jure, although viceroy can serve as a gender-neutral term.[3] Vicereine is more commonly used to indicate a viceroy's wife.[3]

Spanish Empire

The title was originally used by the Crown of Aragon; where beginning in the 14th century, it referred to the Spanish governors of Sardinia and Corsica. After the unification, at the end of the 15th century, later kings of Spain came to appoint numerous viceroys to rule over various parts of the increasingly vast Spanish Empire in Europe, the Americas, and overseas elsewhere.

In Europe

In Europe, until the 18th century, the Habsburg crown appointed viceroys of Aragon, Valencia, Catalonia, Navarre, Portugal, Sardinia, Sicily, and Naples. With the ascension of the House of Bourbon to the Spanish throne, the historic Aragonese viceroyalties were replaced by new captaincies general. At the end of War of the Spanish Succession, the Spanish monarchy was shorn of its Italian possessions. These Italian territories, however, continued to have viceroys under their new rulers for some time; Sardinia would have a viceroy until 1848.

In the Americas

The Americas were incorporated into the Crown of Castile. With the Spanish colonization of the Americas, the institution of viceroys was adapted to govern the highly populated and wealthy regions of the north overseas: New Spain (Mexico and Philippines) and the south overseas: Peru and South America. The viceroys of these two areas had oversight over the other provinces, with most of the North American, Central American, Caribbean and East Indian areas supervised by the viceroy in Mexico City and the South American ones by the viceroy in Lima, (with the exception of most of today's Venezuela, which was overseen by the high court, or Audiencia of Santo Domingo on the island of Hispaniola for most of the colonial period). These large administrative territories became known as Viceroyalties (Spanish term: Virreinatos). There were only two New World viceroyalties until the 18th century, when the new Bourbon Dynasty established two additional viceroyalties to promote economic growth and new settlements on South America. New viceroyalties were created for New Granada in 1717 (capital, Bogotá) and the Río de la Plata in 1776 (capital, Buenos Aires).

The viceroyalties of the Spanish Americas and the Spanish East Indies were subdivided into smaller, autonomous units, the Audiencias (tribunal with the authority to judge), and the Captaincies General (military districts), which in most cases became the bases for the independent countries of modern Hispanic America. These units gathered the local provinces which could be governed by either a crown official, a corregidor (sometimes alcalde mayor) or by a cabildo or town council. Audiencias primarily functioned as superior judicial tribunals, but unlike their European counterparts, the New World audiencias were granted by law both administrative and legislative powers. Captaincies General were primarily military districts set up in areas with a risk of foreign or Indian attack, but the captains general were usually given political powers over the provinces under their command. Because the long distances to the viceregal capital would hamper effective communication, both audiencias and captains general were authorized to communicate directly with the crown through the Council of the Indies. The Bourbon Reforms introduced the new office of the intendant, which was appointed directly by the crown and had broad fiscal and administrative powers in political and military issues.

See also:

Portuguese Empire
India

The title of Viceroy being awarded to members of the nobility, Viceroys, Governors and Governing Commissions were many times interleaved until the last Viceroy Afonso, Prince Royal of Portugal, in 1896. From 1505 to 1896 Portuguese India – the name "India" and the official name "Estado da India" (State of India) including all Portuguese possessions in the Indian Ocean, from southern Africa to Southeast Asia and Australasia, until 1752- was governed either by a Viceroy (Portuguese Vice-Rei) or Governor from its headquarters, in Goa since 1510. The government started six years after the discovery of sea route to India by Vasco da Gama, in 1505, under first Viceroy Francisco de Almeida (b.1450–d.1510). Initially, King Manuel I of Portugal tried a power distribution with three governors in different areas of jurisdiction: a government covering the area and possessions in East Africa, Arabian Peninsula and Persian Gulf, overseeing up Cambay (Gujarat); a second one ruling the possessions in India (Hindustan) and Ceylon, and a third one from Malacca to the Far East.[4] However the post was centered by governor Afonso de Albuquerque (1509–1515), who became plenipotentiary, and remained so. The duration in office was usually three years, possibly longer, given the power represented: of the thirty-four governors of India in the 16th century, only six had longer mandates.[5]

Portugal

During some periods of the Iberian Union, between 1580 and 1640, the King of Spain, who was also King of Portugal, appointed Viceroys to govern Portugal itself, as the king had multiple realms throughout Europe and delegated his powers to various viceroys.

Brazil

After the end of the Iberian Union in 1640, the governors of Brazil that were members of the Portuguese high nobility started to use the title of Viceroy.[6] Brazil became a permanent Viceroyalty in 1763, when the capital of the State of Brazil (Estado do Brasil) was transferred from Salvador to Rio de Janeiro.[7]

British Empire
British India

Following the adoption of the Act that transferred the government of India from the East India Company to the Crown in 1858, the Governor-General as representing the Crown became known as the Viceroy. The designation 'Viceroy', although it was most frequently used in ordinary parlance, had no statutory authority, and was never employed by Parliament. Although the Proclamation of 1858 announcing the assumption of the government of India by the Crown referred to Lord Canning as "first Viceroy and Governor-General", none of the Warrants appointing his successors referred to them as 'viceroys', and the title, which was frequently used in warrants dealing with precedence and in public notifications, was basically one of ceremony used in connection with the state and social functions of the sovereign's representative. The Governor-General continued to be the sole representative of the Crown, and the Government of India continued to be vested in the Governor-General-in-Council.[8]

The viceroys reported directly to the Secretary of State for India in London and were advised by the Council of India. They were largely unencumbered in the exercise of their authority and were among the most powerful men on earth in the Victorian and Edwardian eras, ruling over an entire subcontinent and with a large military force at their disposal in the form of the British Indian Army. Under the terms of the Government of India Act 1919, viceroys shared some limited aspects of their authority with the Central Legislative Assembly, one of the first steps of reform as India progressed towards home rule under the Government of India Act 1935, independence as a Dominion in 1947, and ultimately the establishment of a republic in 1950.

Alongside the Commander-in-Chief, India, the viceroy was the public face of the British presence in India, attending to many ceremonial functions as well as political affairs. As the representative of the Emperors and Empresses of India, who were also the kings and queens of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland, the viceroy served as the grand master of the two principal chivalric orders of British India: the Order of the Star of India and the Order of the Indian Empire.

Louis Mountbatten, last viceroy of India

During the office's history, the Governors-General of India were based in two cities: Calcutta during the 19th century and New Delhi during the 20th century. Additionally, whilst Calcutta was the capital of British India, the viceroys spent the summer months at Simla. The two historic residences of the viceroys still stand: the Viceroy's House in New Delhi and Government House in Calcutta. They are used today as the official residences of the President of India and the Governor of West Bengal, respectively. The portraits of the Governors-General still hang in a room on the ground floor of the Presidential Palace, one of the last vestiges of both the viceroys and the British Raj.[9]

Notable Governors-General of India include Warren Hastings, Lord Cornwallis, Lord Curzon, The Earl of Minto, Lord Chelmsford, and Lord Mountbatten. Lord Mountbatten served as the last Viceroy of British India, but continued on as the first Governor-General of the dominion of India.

Ireland

The Lords Lieutenant of Ireland were often referred to as "Viceroy" after 1700 until 1922, even though the Kingdom of Ireland had been merged in 1801 into the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland.

Commonwealth realms

The term has occasionally been applied to the governors-general of the Commonwealth Realms, for example Gough Whitlam in 1973 told the Australian House of Representatives: 'The Governor-General is the viceroy of the Queen of Australia'.[10]

The governor general of Canada, the lieutenant governors of the Canadian provinces and the governors-general of Australia and governors of the Australian states are viceroys in terms of the Balfour Declaration of 1926. The Australia Act 1986 also provide that all royal powers in Australia, except the actual appointment of the governor-general and the governors are exercisable by the viceregal representatives. The noun 'viceroy' is rarely used but the adjective 'viceregal' is standard usage.

Russian Empire

Namestnik (Russian: наме́стник, Russian pronunciation: ) was an office position in the history of the Russian Empire. It can be translated as "viceroy", "deputy", "lieutenant" (the broader sense of that word) or literally in place appointee. The term has two periods of usage, with different meanings.[11] [12] [13] [14] Namestnik replaced the obsolete position of voyevoda (ruler of krai or uyezd) by Peter I.

  • In the 12th–16th centuries, namestniks (more correctly knyaz namestniks, or "knyaz deputies") were in charge of local administration. In particular, they ruled uyezds.[15]
  • In the 18th–20th centuries, a namestnik was a person in charge of namestnichestvo, with plenipotentiary powers. The latter has traditionally been translated as viceroyalty and "namestnik" as viceroy or vicegerent (or, as a common blunder, "viceregent"). For example, Mikhail Vorontsov was namestnik of Bessarabia (1823–44) and of the Caucasus (1844–1854). Sometimes the term is confused with Governor General (генерал-губернатор). For example, during Vorontsov's term of office in Bessarabia, seven governor-generals were in, and at the same time he held the office of Governor General of New Russia. The following namestnik existed under the Romanov Emperors of Russia:[12] [16]

The Tsar Paul I's 1799 formation of the Russian-American Company obviated viceroys in the colonization of the northwestern New World.

Other viceroyalties
French colonies

New France, in present Canada, after a single Governor (24 July 1534 – 15 January 1541 Jacques Cartier) had Lieutenants-general and Viceroys 15 January 1541 – September 1543 Jean François de la Rocquet, sieur de Robervalle (c. 1500 – 1560), after September 1543 – 3 January 1578 Abandonment again 3 January 1578 – February 1606 Troilus de Mesgouez, marquis de la Roche-Mesgouez (died 1606) (viceroy and from 12 January 1598, lieutenant-general), February 1606 – 1614 Jean de Biencourt, sieur de Poutrincourt, baron de St. Just (1557–1615); next a series of Viceroys (resident in France) 8 October 1611 – 1672, later Governors and Governors-general.

Italian colonies

In Italian Viceré: The highest colonial representatives in the "federation" of Italian East Africa (six provinces, each under a governor; together Ethiopia, Eritrea and Italian Somaliland) were no longer styled "High Commissioner", but "Viceroy and Governor-general" from 5 May 1936, when Italian forces occupied Ethiopia, until 27 November 1941, when the last Italian administrator surrendered to the Allies. The Italian King Victor Emmanuel claimed the title of "Emperor of Ethiopia" (Nəgusä nägäst, "King of Kings") and declared himself to be a successor to the Nəgusä nägäst, even though Emperor Haile Selassie I continued to hold this title while in exile, and resumed his actual, physical throne on 5 May 1941.

On 7 April 1939, Italy invaded the Kingdom of Albania (today Albania). As Viceré of Albania of Victor Emmanuel III of Italy were the Marchese Francesco Jacomoni di San Savino and after his departure General Alberto Pariani.

Ban of Bosnia

Ban Borić was the first ruler and Viceroy of Bosnia, appointed by Géza II of Hungary by 1154. His war affairs are documented as he fought several notable battles.[19] He also maintained ties with knights Templar and donated lands in Bosnia and Slavonia to their Order.[20] His own biological brother Dominic was on record as a knight Templar.[21]

Ban of Croatia

From the earliest medieval period in the Kingdom of Croatia, the position of viceroy was held by Ban of Croatia who acted as king's representative in Croatian lands and supreme commander of Croatian army. In the 18th century, Croatian bans eventually become chief government officials in Croatia. They were at the head of Ban's Government, effectively the first prime ministers of Croatia. The last ban held his position until 1941 and the collapse of Yugoslavia in World War II.

Ancient antecedents

An equivalent office, called the Exarch, was created in the Byzantine or Eastern Roman Empire towards the end of the sixth century for governors of important areas too far from the imperial capital of Constantinople to receive regular instruction or reinforcement. The chosen governors of these provinces were empowered to act in place of the monarch (hence ex-arch) with more discretion and autonomy than was granted other categories of governor. This was an extraordinary break from the centralized traditions of the Roman Empire and was an early example of the principle of Viceroyalty.

Non-Western counterparts

As with many princely and administrative titles, viceroy is often used, generally unofficially, to render somewhat equivalent titles and offices in non-western cultures.

Africa

In cultures all over the continent of Africa, the role of viceroy has been subsumed into a hereditary noble as opposed to strictly administrative position. In the Arabo-Berber north, for example, the title of Khalifa is often used by individuals who derive their authority to rule from someone else in much the same way as a viceroy would. Elsewhere, subordinate inkosis under the rule of a paramount chief like the King of the Zulu Nation of Southern Africa or subordinate baales in the realms of the reigning obas of West African Yorubaland continue to occupy statutorily recognized positions in the contemporary countries of South Africa and Nigeria as the customary representatives of their respective principals in the various areas that are under their immediate control.

Ottoman empire

The khedive of Egypt, especially in the dynasty initiated by Muhammad Ali Pasha (1805–1848). This officer established an almost autonomous regime in Egypt, which officially still was under Ottoman rule. Although Mehemet Ali/Muhammad Ali used different symbols to mark his independence from the Sublime Porte, he never openly declared himself independent. Adopting the title of viceroy was yet another way to walk the thin line between challenging the Sultan's power explicitly and respecting his jurisdiction. Muhammad Ali Pasha's grandson, Ismail Pasha, subsequently received the title of Khedive which was almost an equivalent to viceroy.[22]

Vietnamese empire

The post of Tổng Trấn (governor of all military provinces) was a political post in the early of Vietnamese Nguyễn Dynasty (1802–1830). From 1802, under the reign of emperor Gia Long, there were always two Tổng Trấn who directly ruled Vietnam's northern part named Thành Long (Hanoi and surrounding territories) and the southern part named Gia Định (Saigon and surrounding territories) while Nguyen emperors ruled only the middle part named Vùng Kinh Kỳ (Huế and surrounding territories). Tổng Trấn is sometimes translated to English as viceroy.[23] In 1830, emperor Minh Mạng abolished the post in order to increase the imperial direct ruling power in all over Vietnam.

Chinese empires

During the Han, Ming and Qing dynasties, there existed positions of viceroys having control over various provinces (e.g., Liangguang = Guangdong and Guangxi, Huguang = Hubei and Hunan).

Siam

In Siam until 1885, the title was used for heir-apparent (Thai: กรมพระราชวังบวรสถานมงคล) The title was abolished and replaced to Crown Prince of Siam.

See also
Notes
  1. "viceregal". OxfordDictionariesOnline.com. Retrieved 22 November 2014.
  2. "Viceroyal, a", The Oxford English Dictionary, 2nd ed. 1989, OED Online, Oxford University Press, 4 April 2000 http://dictionary.oed.com/cgi/entry/50277245>
  3. "vicereine". OxfordDictionariesOnline.com. Retrieved 22 November 2014.
  4. O Secretário dos despachos e coisas da Índia pero d´Alcáçova Carneiro, p.65, Maria Cecília Costa Veiga de Albuquerque Ramos, Universidade de Lisboa, 2009 (In Portuguese) http://repositorio.ul.pt/bitstream/10451/3387/1/ulfl080844_tm.pdf>
  5. Diffie, Bailey W. and George D. Winius (1977), "Foundations of the Portuguese Empire, 1415–1580", p.323-325, Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press. David Tan ISBN 0-8166-0782-6.
  6. A. J. R. Russell-Wood,"The Portuguese empire, 1415–1808: a world on the move", p. 66, JHU Press, 1998, ISBN 0-8018-5955-7
  7. Boris Fausto, "A concise history of Brazil", p.50, Cambridge University Press, 1999, ISBN 0-521-56526-X
  8. Imperial Gazetteer of India, Clarendon Press, Oxford, New Edition 1909, vol 4, p. 16.
  9. Nath, Aman, "Dome Over India", India Book House Ltd. ISBN 81-7508-352-2.
  10. Gough Whitlam, The Truth of the Matter, (1979)
  11. Public Domain This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domainBrockhaus and Efron Encyclopedic Dictionary (in Russian). 1906.
  12. Kli͡uchevskiĭ, V. O. (Vasiliĭ Osipovich); Duddington, Natalie. (1994). A course in Russian history—the seventeenth century. Armonk, N.Y.: M.E. Sharpe. ISBN 1-56324-317-2.
  13. Larin, A. K. (2004). Gosudarev namestnik : istoricheskai͡a povestʹ o M.N. Krechetnikov. Kaluga: Zolotai͡a allei͡a. ISBN 5-7111-0347-4.
  14. "hrono.ru: namestnik". Retrieved 19 January 2010.
  15. (in Russian) Тархов, Сергей, "Изменение административно-территориального деления России в XIII-XX в." (pdf), Логос, #1 2005 (46), ISSN 0869-5377
  16. Ledonne, John P. (January–March 2002). "Administrative Regionalization in the Russian Empire 1802–1826". Cahiers du Monde russe. pp. 5–33. Retrieved 19 January 2010.
  17. Thomas Mitchell, Handbook for Travellers in Russia, Poland, and Finland, 1888, p. 460. Google Print [1]
  18. КАВКАЗ
  19. The Late Medieval Balkans: A Critical Survey from the Late Twelfth Century
  20. Judith Mary Upton-Ward, H.J.A. Sire. "24. The Priory of Vrana". The Military Orders: On Land and by Sea. p. 221.
  21. Magyar Országos Levéltár
  22. Encyclopædia Britannica: Ismail Pasha, Ottoman Viceroy of Egypt and New Spain
  23. Philip Taylor (2004), Goddess on the rise: pilgrimage and popular religion in Vietnam, University of Hawaii Press, p. 36.
Sources
  • Aznar, Daniel/Hanotin, Guillaume/May, Niels F. (dir.), À la place du roi. Vice-rois, gouverneurs et ambassadeurs dans les monarchies française et espagnole (XVIe-XVIIIe siècles). Madrid: Casa de Velázquez, 2014.
  • Elliott, J. H., Imperial Spain, 1469–1716. London: Edward Arnold, 1963.
  • Fisher, Lillian Estelle. Viceregal Administration in the Spanish American Colonies. Berkeley, University of California Press, 1926.
  • Harding, C. H., The Spanish Empire in America. New York: Oxford University Press, 1947.
  • Public Domain This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domainBrockhaus and Efron Encyclopedic Dictionary (in Russian). 1906.
Further reading
  • Andrada (undated). The Life of Dom John de Castro: The Fourth Vice Roy of India. Jacinto Freire de Andrada. Translated into English by Peter Wyche. (1664) Henry Herrington, New Exchange, London. Facsimile edition (1994) AES Reprint, New Delhi. ISBN 81-206-0900-X.
  • (in Russian) hrono.ru: namestnik
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Viceroy

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A viceroy is a regal official who runs a country , colony , city , province , or sub-national state, in the name of and as the representative of the monarch of the territory . The term derives from the Latin prefix vice-, meaning "in the place of" and the French word roi, meaning "king". A viceroy's territory may be called a viceroyalty , though this term is not always applied. The adjectival form is viceregal , less often viceroyal . The term vicereine is sometimes used to indicate a female viceroy suo jure , although viceroy can serve as a gender-neutral term. Vicereine is more commonly used to indicate a viceroy's wife. Spanish Empire The title was originally used by the Crown of Aragon ; where beginning in the 14th century, it referred to the Spanish governors of Sardinia and Corsica . After the unification, at the end of the 15th century, later kings of Spain came to appoint numerous viceroys to rule over various parts of the increasingly vast Spanish Empire in Europe, the Americas, and overseas elsew



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The viceroy (Limenitis archippus) is a North American butterfly that ranges through most of the contiguous United States as well as parts of Canada and Mexico. The westernmost portion of its range extends from the Northwest Territories along the eastern edges of the Cascade Range and Sierra Nevada mountains, southwards into central Mexico. Its easternmost range extends along the Atlantic and Gulf coasts of North America from Nova Scotia into Texas. The viceroy was named the state butterfly of Kentucky in 1990. Description Its wings feature an orange and black pattern, and over most of its range it is a Müllerian mimic with the monarch butterfly (Danaus plexippus). The viceroy's wingspan is between 53 and 81 mm. It can be distinguished from the monarch by its smaller size and the postmedian black line that runs across the veins on the hindwing. In Florida, Georgia , and the American Southwest , viceroys share the pattern of the queen (Danaus gilippus) and in Mexico they share the pattern of the soldier (Danau



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Viceroy cigarettes box (Poland) Viceroy is a low-cost cigarette brand owned by London-based British American Tobacco . Viceroy cigarettes are made by Brown & Williamson (B&W), an American tobacco company which was bought by British American Tobacco (BAT) in 1927. Viceroys were first produced in 1936; the first filter cigarettes with a cork tip. Origin 1957 Viceroy ad. Viceroy originated in the U.S. in 1936, produced by B&W as the world's first cork-tipped filter cigarette . It was a mid-priced brand at the time, equivalent to B&W's Raleigh cigarettes flagship brand, but more expensive than Wings cigarettes introduced by B&W in 1929. In 1952 Viceroy was the first brand to add a cellulose acetate filter which established a new industry standard. In 1953, Viceroy Filter Kings were introduced. In 1990, Viceroy Box Kings and Lights Box Kings were introduced on the U.S. market, followed by Viceroy Ultra Lights Kings and Ultra Lights 100's in 1992. In the 1970s, Viceroy was proposed as part



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List of governors-general of India

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Viceroy (disambiguation)

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Viceroy may refer to: Viceroy, Saskatchewan , a small hamlet located in the Canadian province of Saskatchewan Viceroy , a gubernatorial title for the monarch-appointed governor of a country or province Viceroy (butterfly) , a North American butterfly Viceroy (cigarette) , a cigarette brand The Viceroys , a Jamaican rocksteady/reggae vocal trio Icon Brickell , a skyscraper complex in Miami, Florida, USA has a building known as Viceroy. Vauxhall Viceroy , a large car sold in the United Kingdom Viceroy of Kush , an official serving the Pharaoh of Egypt I Vicerè , an 1894 novel by Federico De Roberto , translated to English as The Viceroys I Vicerè (film) , a 2007 film based on the De Roberto novel by director Roberto Faenza HMS Viceroy (D91) , a British destroyer in commission in the Royal Navy from 1918 until the mid-1930s and from 1941 to 1945 RMS Viceroy of India , a British ocean liner and later troop transport in service from 1929 until it sunk in 1942 Viceroy may refer to: Viceroy, Saskatchewan , a small h



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Viceroy of Liangguang

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The Viceroy of Liangguang or Viceroy of the Two Guangs , fully referred to in Chinese as the Governor-General, Commander and Quartermaster, Supervisor of Waterways, and Inspector-General of the Two Expanses and Surrounding Areas , was one of eight regional Viceroys in China proper during the Qing dynasty . The two Guangs referred to Guangdong and Guangxi provinces. The areas under the Viceroy's jurisdiction included present-day Guangdong and Guangxi provinces, as well as Hainan Province . History Ming dynasty The office of the Viceroy of Liangguang originated in 1452 during the Ming dynasty . The Jingtai Emperor accepted Yu Qian 's proposal to create the office and appointed Wang Ao (王翱) as the first viceroy. In 1465, the Chenghua Emperor appointed Han Yong (韓雍) as Left Censor-in-Chief and Viceroy of Liangguang. The office was formalised in 1469, with the administrative headquarters fixed in Wuzhou , Guangxi . In 1536, during the reign of the Jiajing Emperor , the viceroy Qian Rujing (錢如京) created a separate



Viceroy's House (film)

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Viceroy's House is British-Indian historical drama film directed by Gurinder Chadha and written by Paul Mayeda Berges , Moira Buffini , and Chadha. The film stars Hugh Bonneville , Gillian Anderson , Manish Dayal , Huma Qureshi , and Michael Gambon . It has been selected to be screened out of competition at the 67th Berlin International Film Festival . The film was released in the United Kingdom on 3 March 2017, while the Hindi dubbed version titled Partition: 1947 was released in India on 18 August 2017, 3 days after its 70th Independence Day. It was released worldwide on September 1st, 2017. Plot About the life inside the Viceroy's House in 1947 during the Partition of India . The final Viceroy of India, Lord Mountbatten , has to oversee the transition of British India to independence but meets with conflict as the sides clash in the face of monumental changes; i.e., ultimately the division of India into separate Hindu and Muslim -majority countries through Partition into secular India and Islamic Pakist



Rashtrapati Bhavan

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The Rashtrapati Bhavan (   pronunciation   , "rásh-tra-pa-ti bha-van" ; Presidential Residence" previously " Viceroy's House ") is the official home of the president located at the Western end of Rajpath in New Delhi , India . It may refer to only the mansion (the 340-room main building) that has the president's official residence, halls, guest rooms and offices; it may also refer to the entire 130-hectare (320 acre) President Estate that additionally includes huge presidential gardens ( Mughal Gardens ), large open spaces, residences of bodyguards and staff, stables, other offices and utilities within its perimeter walls. In terms of area, it is one of the largest residences of a head of state in the world. History This decision to build a residence in New Delhi for the British Viceroy was taken after it was decided during the Delhi Durbar in December 1911 that the capital of India would be relocated from Calcutta to Delhi. When the plan for a new city, New Delhi , adjacent to end south of Old Delhi , was de



Viceroys in China

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Map of viceroys in Qing Dynasty of China Shang Kexi , known to the Dutch as the "Old Viceroy" of Guangdong , drawn by Johan Nieuhof in 1655 Zongdu ( Tsung-tu ; simplified Chinese : 总督 ; traditional Chinese : 總督 ; pinyin : Zǒngdū ; Wade–Giles : Tsung -tu ; Manchu : Uheri kadalara amban), usually translated as Viceroy or Governor-General , governed one or more provinces of Qing dynasty China . One of the most important was the Viceroy of Zhili (Chihli), since it encompassed the imperial capital. Yuan Shikai , later president of the Republic of China , held this office. The title was first used use during the Ming dynasty (1368–1644). The regional viceroys during the Qing dynasty were: Viceroy of Zhili Viceroy of Liangjiang : Jiangsu, Jiangxi, Anhui Viceroy of Min-Zhe : Fujian, Zhejiang, Taiwan Viceroy of Huguang : Hunan, Hubei Viceroy of Shaan-Gan : Shaanxi, Gansu, Xinjiang Viceroy of Liangguang : Guangdong, Guangxi Viceroy of Yun-Gui : Yunnan, Guizhou Viceroy of Sichuan Viceroy of the Three Northeast Provinces



Viceroy of Liangjiang

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The Viceroy of Liangjiang or Viceroy of the Two Jiangs , fully referred to in Chinese as the Governor-General of the Two Yangtze Provinces and Surrounding Areas Overseeing Military Affairs, Provisions and Funds, Manager of Waterways, Director of Civil Affairs , was one of eight regional Viceroys in China proper during the Qing dynasty . The Viceroy of Liangjiang had jurisdiction over Jiangsu , Jiangxi and Anhui provinces. Because Jiangsu and Anhui were previously part of a single province, Jiangnan ("south of the Yangtze"), they were thus known, along with Jiangxi ("west of the Yangtze"), as the two jiangs, hence the name "Liangjiang" ("two Jiangs"). History The office of Viceroy of Liangjiang originated in 1647 during the reign of the Shunzhi Emperor . It was called "Viceroy of the Three Provinces of Jiangdong , Jiangxi and Henan " (江東江西河南三省總督) and headquartered in Jiangning (江寧; present-day Nanjing , Jiangsu ). In 1652, the office was renamed "Viceroy of Jiangxi" (江西總督) and its headquarters shifted to Nanch



Lord Mountbatten: The Last Viceroy

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Lord Mountbatten: The Last Viceroy was a British television series which first aired on ITV in 1986. It depicts Lord Mountbatten 's time as Supreme Commander, South-East Asia in the Second World War , and then as Viceroy of India shortly after the war in the days leading up to Indian independence. The Film was shot in Sri Lanka . Main cast Nicol Williamson ... Lord Louis Mountbatten Janet Suzman ... Lady Edwina Mountbatten Dreya Weber ... Pamela Mountbatten Wendy Hiller ... Princess Victoria of Hesse and by Rhine A.K. Hangal ... Sardar Vallabhbhai Patel Owen Holder ... King George VI David Lyon ... Lt Col Vernon Erskine-Crum Patrick Allen ... Claude Auchinleck Michael Byrne ... George Abell Sam Dastor ... Mahatma Gandhi Derek Reed ... Patrick Spens Nigel Davenport ... Hastings Ismay, 1st Baron Ismay David Quilter ... Alan Campbell Johnson Ian Richardson ... Jawaharlal Nehru Nadim Sawalha ... Liaquat Ali Khan Tony Wredden ... Maulana Abul Kalam Azad Saloni Kaur ... Indira Gandhi (née Nehru) Sumant Mastakaa ..



Montagu–Chelmsford Reforms

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The Montagu–Chelmsford Reforms or more briefly known as Mont-Ford Reforms were reforms introduced by the British colonial government in India to introduce self-governing institutions gradually to India. The reforms take their name from Edwin Samuel Montagu , the Secretary of State for India during the latter parts of World War I and Lord Chelmsford , Viceroy of India between 1916 and 1921. The reforms were outlined in the Montagu-Chelmsford Report prepared in 1918 and formed the basis of the Government of India Act 1919. Indian nationalists considered that the reforms did not go far enough while British conservatives were critical of them. Background Edwin Montagu became Secretary of State for India in June 1917 after Austen Chamberlain resigned following the capture of Kut by the Turks in 1916 and the capture of an Indian army staged there. He put before the British Cabinet a proposed statement regarding his intention to work towards the gradual development of free institutions in India with a view to ultima



Viceroy of Zhili

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The Viceroy of Zhili , fully referred to in Chinese as the Governor-General of Zhili and Surrounding Areas Overseeing Military Affairs and Food Production, Manager of Waterways, Director of Civil Affairs , was one of eight regional Viceroys in China proper during the Qing dynasty . The Viceroy of Zhili was an important post because the province of Zhili , which literally means "directly ruled", was the area surrounding the imperial capital, Beijing . The administrative centre was in Tianjin even though the provincial capital was in Baoding . The Viceroy's duties and responsibilities have never been defined entirely. Generally speaking, the Viceroy oversaw the military and civil affairs of Zhili, Shandong and Henan provinces. The Viceroy of Zhili was also highly influential in imperial court politics. History The office was first created on 30 September 1649 during the reign of the Shunzhi Emperor , but was later abolished on 1 June 1658. On 23 November 1661, during the reign of the Kangxi Emperor , the office



The Viceroys

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The Viceroys , also known as The Voiceroys , The Interns , The Inturns , The Brothers , and The Hot Tops , are a reggae vocal group who first recorded in 1967. After releasing several albums in the late 1970s and early 1980s, they split up in the mid-1980s. They reformed and recorded a new album in 2006. History The group was formed in Kingston, Jamaica by Wesley Tinglin, along with Daniel Bernard and Bunny Gayle, and after auditioning unsuccessfully for Duke Reid , the trio made their debut recording for producer Clement "Coxsone" Dodd in the middle of the rocksteady era in 1967. The group recorded several singles for Dodd's Studio One label, including "Ya Ho", "Fat Fish", and "Love & Unity", and these tracks were collected together by Heartbeat Records for a 1995 compilation album. They went on to record for several other producers in the late 1960s and 1970s, including Derrick Morgan , Winston Riley (who produced their hit "Mission Impossible"), Lee "Scratch" Perry (including "Babylon Deh Pon Fire"



Michael (archangel)

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Michael ( Hebrew : מִיכָאֵל ‎, translit.   Micha'el or Mîkhā'ēl , lit.   ' Who is like God? '‎; Greek : Μιχαήλ , translit.   Mikhaḗl ; Latin : Michael or Michahel ; Arabic : ميخائيل ‎, translit.   Mīkhā'īl ‎) is an archangel in Judaism , Christianity , and Islam . In Roman Catholic , Eastern Orthodox , Anglican , and Lutheran traditions, he is called "Saint Michael the Archangel" and "Saint Michael". In the Oriental Orthodox and Eastern Orthodox traditions, he is called " Taxiarch Archangel Michael" or simply "Archangel Michael". Michael is mentioned three times in the Book of Daniel . The idea that Michael was the advocate of the Jews became so prevalent that, in spite of the rabbinical prohibition against appealing to angels as intermediaries between God and his people, Michael came to occupy a certain place in the Jewish liturgy . In the New Testament Michael leads God's armies against Satan 's forces in the Book of Revelation , where during the war in heaven he defeats Satan. In the Epistle of Jude Michae



Abdul Karim (the Munshi)

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Hafiz Mohammed Abdul Karim , CIE , CVO (1863 – April 1909), known as " the Munshi ", was an Indian attendant of Queen Victoria . He served her during the final fifteen years of her reign, gaining her maternal affection over that time. Karim was born near Jhansi in British India , the son of a hospital assistant. In 1887, Victoria's Golden Jubilee year, Karim was one of two Indians selected to become servants to the Queen. Victoria came to like him a great deal and gave him the title of " Munshi " ("clerk" or "teacher"). Victoria appointed him her Indian Secretary, showered him with honours, and obtained a land grant for him in India. The close platonic relationship between Karim and the Queen led to friction within the Royal Household , the other members of which felt themselves to be superior to him. The Queen insisted on taking Karim with her on her travels, which caused arguments between her and her other attendants. Following Victoria's death in 1901, her successor, Edward VII , returned Karim to India an



Viceroy of Sichuan

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The Viceroy of Sichuan , fully referred to in Chinese as the Governor-General of Sichuan Province and the Surrounding Areas Overseeing Military Affairs and Food Production, Director of Civil Affairs , was one of eight regional viceroys in China proper during the Qing dynasty . As its name suggests, the Viceroy of Sichuan had control over Sichuan (Szechuan) Province . History The origins of the Viceroy of Sichuan trace back to 1644, during the reign of the Shunzhi Emperor , with the creation of the office of the Provincial Governor of Sichuan (四川巡撫). Its headquarters were in Chengdu . In 1645, the Qing government created the Viceroy of Huguang-Sichuan with Luo Xiujin (羅繡錦) as the first Viceroy overseeing both Huguang (present-day Hubei and Hunan ) and Sichuan provinces. In 1653, Sichuan was placed under the jurisdiction of the Viceroy of the Three Borders in Shaanxi , which was subsequently renamed "Viceroy of Chuan and the Three Borders in Shaanxi" (川陝三邊總督) with Meng Qiaofang (孟喬芳) as the officeholder. In 165



The Viceroy of Ouidah

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The Viceroy of Ouidah is a novel published in 1980 by Bruce Chatwin , a British author. Summary Chatwin's novel portrays the life of a fictional slave trader named Francisco Manuel da Silva, who is loosely based on a historical white Brazilian , Francisco Félix de Sousa . He became powerful in Ouidah , on the so-called Slave Coast of West Africa , now Benin , Togo , and parts of the Volta Region in Ghana . Chatwin was caught up in the violence of a coup in Dahomey (now Benin), where Ouidah is located, when he was researching the book. Film adaptation The novel was adapted for the 1987 film Cobra Verde , directed by Werner Herzog and starring Klaus Kinski as Francisco Manuel da Silva. Reception The novel received mixed reviews. In The New York Times , John Thompson compared The Viceroy to other about-Africa prose works: "One could mention Graham Greene 's Journey Without Maps or, for a work of the imagination based on somewhat less horrendous events, Chinua Achebe 's Arrow of God . That novel of West Africa ha



Gujarat under Shah Jahan

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The Mughal Empire 's province Gujarat (now in India) was managed by the Viceroys appointed by the emperors. On the death of the emperor Jehangir , his son Shah Jahan ascended the to throne in 1627. His Gujarat viceroy Sher Khán Túar worked for relief in 1631-31 femine in the province. Shah Jahan sent his men to expand its territories further south. Between 1632 to 1635, four viceroys were appointed due to their precious gift to the emperor and they could not manage the province well. Kolis of Kankrej in north Gujarat committed excesses and the Jam of Nawanagar did not paid the tribute. Soon Azam Khan was appointed who put the province in order by subdueing Kolis in north and Kathis in Kathiawad . He also made the Jam of Nawanagar surrender. The next viceroy Ísa Tarkhán carried out financial reforms. In 1644, the Mughal prince Aurangzeb was appointed as the viceroy who was engaged in relious disputes for destroying a Jain temple in Ahmedabad . Due to his disputes, he was replaced by Sháistah Khán who failed to



Gujarat under Aurangzeb

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The Mughal Empire 's province Gujarat (now in India) was managed by the Viceroys appointed by the emperors. After defeating all his brothers, Aurangzeb ascended the Mughal throne in 1658. He rewarded people who had helped him in his succession war. He forgave Jaswant Singh with whom he had faught in the battle and appointed him as the viceroy of Gujarat. Mahabat Khan succeeded him who annexed Nawanagar under the Mughal control. During his time, Aurangzeb decreed some administrative reforms, ordered curbs on Hindu customs and festivals and enforced Islamic religious law. In 1664, Maratha leader Shivaji plundered Surat and emptied its riches. Under next viceroy Khan Jehan, Shivaji again attacked Surat and Janjira . Jaswant Singh was appointed the viceroy again and the Nawanagar was partially restored to its ruler. During the next viceroy Amin Khan, there was disorder in the province due to imposition of jizya tax and other discrimination and Idar revolted in 1679 but soon contained. During next viceroy, Mukhtar



Governor General of Canada

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The Governor General of Canada ( French : Gouverneur(e) général(e) du Canada) is the federal viceregal representative of the Canadian monarch , currently Queen   Elizabeth II . The person of the sovereign is shared equally both with the 15 other Commonwealth realms and the 10 provinces of Canada , but resides predominantly in her oldest realm, the United Kingdom . Because of this, the Queen, on the advice of her Canadian prime minister , appoints a governor general to carry out most of her constitutional and ceremonial duties . The commission is for an unfixed period of time—known as serving at Her Majesty's pleasure —though five years is the normal convention. Beginning in 1959, it has also been traditional to rotate between anglophone and francophone incumbents —although many recent governors general have been bilingual. Once in office, the governor general maintains direct contact with the Queen, wherever she may be at the time. The office began in the 16th and 17th centuries with the Crown-appointed gove



Waco (Violent Soho album)

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WACO is the fourth studio album by Australian alternative rock band Violent Soho . It was released on I Oh You Records in March 2016. Track listing All music composed by Violent Soho. No. Title Length 1. "How to Taste" 4:17 2. "Blanket" 3:49 3. "Viceroy" 3:14 4. "So Sentimental" 4:08 5. "Like Soda" 4:02 6. "No Shade" 4:11 7. "Slow Wave" 4:20 8. "Evergreen" 3:54 9. "Holy Cave" 2:59 10. "Waco" 4:01 11. "Low" 5:47 Total length: 44:48 Personnel Violent Soho Luke Boerdam – lead vocals, rhythm guitars James Tidswell – lead guitars Luke Henery – bass guitar, backing vocals Michael Richards – drums, percussion Charts Weekly charts Chart (2016) Peak position Australian Albums ( ARIA ) 1 Year-end charts Chart (2016) Position Australian Albums (ARIA) 47 Accolades Year Nominee/work Award Result 2016 WACO ARIA Award for Best Group Won Best Independent Release Nominated Best Rock Album Won "Like Soda" Best Video Nominated "The WACO Tour" Best Australian Live Act Nominated References http://www.sputnikmusic.com/soundoff.ph



Gujarat under Muhammad Shah

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The Mughal Empire 's province Gujarat (now in India) was managed by the viceroys appointed by the emperors. The emperor Farrukhsiyar was deposed by influential Sayad brothers in 1719. He was succeeded by the short reigns of Rafi ud-Darajat and Shah Jahan II . Finally Muhammad Shah was raised to the throne by them. To make peace with powerful vassal, he appointed Ajítsingh of Márwár as a viceroy. The Maratha incursions continued and Píláji Gáikwár established himself at Songad near southern border of Gujarat. Ajit Singh had appointed Anopsingh Bhandari as his deputy. For helping desposing influencial Sayad brothers, Haidar Kúli Khán was appointed the next viceroy. People discontent with Anopsingh rejoiced his appointment but he tried to make himself free so he was recalled. Nizám-ul-Mulk took over who had to face the Maratha incursion again. The Marathas taking advantage of weakening Mughal Empire started extracting tribute from Gujarat regularly. The next viceroy Sarbuland Khan came in conflict with the Marat



Gujarat under Jehangir

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The Mughal Empire 's province Gujarat (now in India) was managed by the Viceroys appointed by the emperors. The emperor Jehangir continued Mírza Âzíz Kokaltásh as the viceroy when he ascended to the throne in 1605. He continued to manage the province eventhough Khalij Khan was appointed as the new viceroy. He was succeeded by Sayad Murtaza who controlled the rebellions in north and south Gujarat. Mírza Âzíz Kokaltásh again returned as the viceroy and succeessfully averted invasion of Malik Ambar from Daulatabad in south. The next viceroy Abdulláh Khán Fírúz Jang made expedition to south and subdued the Ahmednagar . During his time, in 1611, Jehangir permitted the British East India Company to establish factories in Surat and elsewhere in Gujarat. During reign of the next viceroy Mukarrab Khán, Jehangir toured Gujarat and received several local rulers. In 1618, he appointed his son prince Shah Jahan as the next viceroy. He rebelled in 1622-23 and he was replced by Sultán Dáwar Baksh . Shah Jahan resisted but l



Viceroy of Huguang

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The Viceroy of Huguang , fully referred to in Chinese as the Governor-General of Hubei and Hunan Provinces and the Surrounding Areas; Overseeing Military Affairs, Food Production; Director of Civil Affairs , was one of eight regional Viceroys in China proper during the Qing dynasty . The Viceroy of Huguang had jurisdiction over Hubei and Hunan provinces, which were previously a single province called "Huguang Province" in the Ming dynasty , hence the name "Huguang". History The office was created in 1644 as the "Viceroy of Huguang" during the reign of the Shunzhi Emperor . Its headquarters were in Wuchang (present-day Wuchang District , Wuhan , Hubei). It was abolished in 1668 during the reign of the Kangxi Emperor but was restored in 1670 as the "Viceroy of Chuan-Hu" (川湖總督; "Viceroy of (Si)chuan and Hu(guang)"), with its headquarters in Chongqing . In 1674, the office of Viceroy of Chuan-Hu was split into the Viceroy of Sichuan and Viceroy of Huguang, and had remained as such until 1904. In 1904, during the



Viceroy of Kush

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Amenhotep called Huy King's Son of Kush under Pharaoh Tutankhamun The Kingdom of Kush based in Lower Nubia was a province of Ancient Egypt from the 16th century BCE to eleventh century BCE. During this period, the polity was ruled by a viceroy who reported directly to the Egyptian Pharaoh . It is believed that the Egyptian 25th Dynasty were descendants of these viceroys, and so were the dynasties that ruled independent Kush until the fourth century CE. List of Viceroys Below is a list of viceroys mainly based on a list assembled by George Reisner . Name Dynasty King (Pharaoh) Comment Ahmose called Si-Tayit Eighteenth Dynasty of Egypt Ahmose I Possibly the first Viceroy. Ahmose called Turo Eighteenth Dynasty of Egypt Amenhotep I and Thutmose I Son of Ahmose called Si-Tayit Seni Eighteenth Dynasty of Egypt Thutmose I and Thutmose II Penre Eighteenth Dynasty of Egypt Hatshepsut Inebny called Amenemnekhu Eighteenth Dynasty of Egypt Hatshepsut and Thutmose III First attested in year 18, and serving until about yea



Taj Mahal

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The Taj Mahal ( , more often ; meaning Crown of the Palace ) is an ivory-white marble mausoleum on the south bank of the Yamuna river in the Indian city of Agra . It was commissioned in 1632 by the Mughal emperor , Shah Jahan (reigned 1628–1658), to house the tomb of his favourite wife, Mumtaz Mahal . The tomb is the centrepiece of a 17-hectare (42-acre) complex, which includes a mosque and a guest house, and is set in formal gardens bounded on three sides by a crenellated wall. Construction of the mausoleum was essentially completed in 1643 but work continued on other phases of the project for another 10 years. The Taj Mahal complex is believed to have been completed in its entirety in 1653 at a cost estimated at the time to be around 32 million rupees , which in 2015 would be approximately 52.8 billion rupees ( US$ 827 million). The construction project employed some 20,000 artisans under the guidance of a board of architects led by the court architect to the emperor, Ustad Ahmad Lahauri . The Taj Mahal w



Müllerian mimicry

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Müllerian mimicry is a natural phenomenon in which two or more distasteful species , that may or may not be closely related and share one or more common predators , have come to mimic each other's warning signals . It is named after the German naturalist Fritz Müller , who first proposed the concept in 1878. The phenomenon can be understood by imagining two distasteful species that do not resemble one another and are also prey to a common predator. Occasionally, individuals of the predatory third species will encounter one or the other type of noxious prey, and thereafter avoid it. Predators that avoid only one of the harmful species provide no benefit to individuals of the other species. Therefore, it would be advantageous if the appearances of the two prey species were more similar. This is because a predator that learns to avoid either species in a pair of species exhibiting Müllerian mimicry learns, in effect, to avoid both. Background Fritz Müller The viceroy butterfly (top) appears very similar to the n



Gujarat under Akbar

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In 1573, Mughal Emperor Akbar conquered Gujarat Sultanate (now Gujarat , India) taking advantage of young Gujarat Sultan Muzaffar Shah III and his quarelling nobles. Muzaffar was held captive at Agra . He appointed his foster brother Mírza Âzíz Kokaltásh as the first viceroy who faced an insurrection by the rebel nobles of the former Sultanate. Akbar quickly came to aid and ended the insurrection. He soon appointed Mírza Khán who managed to set revenue system and quelled attack by the Mirzas with help of Mughal minister Todar Mal . The next viceroy Shaháb-ud-dín strengthened the military. Soon Sultan Muzaffar escaped, returned to Gujarat and led an attack on Ahmedabad and recaptured it before his former noble and now viceroy Itimad Khan reach the city. Soon Mirza Khan was reappointed as the viceroy who defeated Muzaffar in the battle of Fatehwadi in 1584. Soon Kokaltásh returned as the viceroy and defeated Muzaffar and combined Kathiawad forces in battle of Bhuchar Mori . Later Muzaffar was captured but he co



Diego Columbus

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Diego Columbus ( Portuguese : Diogo Colombo ; Spanish : Diego Colón ; also, in Italian : Diego Colombo ) (1479/80-1526) was a Portuguese navigator and explorer under the Kings of Castile and Aragón. He served as the 2nd Admiral of the Indies, 2nd Viceroy of the Indies and 4th Governor of the Indies as a vassal to the Kings of Castile and Aragón. He was the eldest son of Christopher Columbus and wife Filipa Moniz Perestrelo . He was born in Portugal , either in Porto Santo in 1479/1480, or in Lisbon in 1474. He spent most of his adult life trying to regain the titles and privileges granted to his father for his explorations and then denied him in 1500. He was greatly aided in this goal by his marriage to María de Toledo y Rojas , niece of the 2nd Duke of Alba , who was the cousin of King Ferdinand . Life Tierra Firme (1513) - Castilla de Oro Diego was made a page at the Spanish court in 1492, the year his father embarked on his first voyage . Diego had a younger half-brother, Fernando , by Beatriz Enríquez de



Ignition (Remix)

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" Ignition (Remix) " is a song written and produced by American R&B singer R. Kelly . It was released in 2002 as the lead single from his sixth studio album Chocolate Factory (2003). It is viewed as one of his most well-known songs and has been popular in the United States, Europe and Oceania. "Ignition (Remix)" peaked at number two on the Billboard Hot 100 . Outside the United States, the song topped the charts in Australia, New Zealand, the Republic of Ireland and the United Kingdom. It was later included on the updated version of Rolling Stone ' s 500 greatest songs of all time in 2010 at number 494. The song was listed at #19 on Pitchfork Media 's top 500 songs of the 2000s. Background The original song "Ignition" was first recorded in 2002 after the alleged Kelly sex tape was a hot topic in the media. The original "Ignition" was originally going to be one of the songs on his forthcoming album at that time called Loveland; the album got leaked later on, and Kelly decided to turn Loveland to Chocolat



X-Treme X-Men

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X-Treme X-Men is the name of two comic book series published by Marvel Comics , the first from 2001 through 2004 , and the second from 2012 through 2013 . All 46 issues of the first series were written by Chris Claremont , and featured a globetrotting X-Men team led by Storm . The first 24 issues were drawn by Salvador Larroca , and the final 22 issues were drawn by Igor Kordey . Volume 2 of X-Treme X-Men featured a cast of X-Men characters from alternate dimensions, but led by Dazzler from the main Earth-616 universe. The series was written by Greg Pak . The thirteenth and final issue was released in April 2013. Volume 1 Volume 1 of the series originated as part of a revamp of the X-Men line of comics in 2001 . Prior to this revamp, Claremont was writing both of the main X-Men titles ( Uncanny X-Men and X-Men, the latter of which became New X-Men , and then X-Men: Legacy ). He was removed from both core X-titles by Editor-in-Chief Joe Quesada when his storylines fell apart due to editorial interference by th



Antonio de Mendoza

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Antonio de Mendoza y Pacheco ( Spanish : Antonio de Mendoza ) (1495 – July 21, 1552) was the first Viceroy of New Spain , serving from April 17, 1535 to November 25, 1550, and the third Viceroy of Peru , from September 23, 1551, until his death on July 21, 1552. Mendoza was born at Alcalá la Real ( Jaén , Spain ), the son of the Second Conde de Tendilla, Íñigo López de Mendoza y Quiñones and Francisca Pacheco. He was married to María Ana de Trujillo de Mendoza. Viceroy of New Spain Mendoza became Viceroy of New Spain in 1535 and governed for 15 years, longer than any subsequent viceroy. On his arrival in New Spain, he found a recently conquered territory beset with Indian unrest and rivalry among the Spanish conquerors and Spanish settlers. His difficult assignment was to govern in the king's name without making an enemy of Hernando Cortés . Cortés himself had expected to be made the permanent ruling crown official of New Spain, since he had led the Spanish conquest of the Aztec Empire . The Emperor Charles V



Viceroy, Saskatchewan

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Viceroy is a hamlet in Excel Rural Municipality No. 71 , Saskatchewan , Canada . The population was 25 at the 2011 Census . The hamlet previously held the status of a village until May 10, 2002. Viceroy is located 7 km south of the historic Red Coat Trail on Highway 624 north of Willow Bunch Lake adjacent to Big Muddy Valley . History Viceroy was incorporated in 1912. At its peak in the 1950s it had a population of 250. Prior to May 10, 2002, Viceroy was incorporated as a village , and was restructured as a hamlet under the jurisdiction of the Rural municipality of Excel on that date. Demographics Services Once a bustling community with two schools, two restaurants, Klemenz Poolroom and bowling alley, a theatre and many other businesses. After two fires in the past century the community has shrunk to a much smaller scale. Viceroy still boasts the Viceroy Co-op which in a sense is the local "general store" offering grocery staples, tools, feed, hardware, parts, auto repair and petroleum sales. The RM of Excel



Velocette Viceroy

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The Viceroy was a scooter introduced by the British motorcycle manufacturer Velocette in 1960. Only 700 were sold before the model was discontinued in 1964. The Viceroy was considered an unusual design, as the two-stroke 250cc engine was placed at the front of the scooter. References "Ugly Black Beast Velocette Viceroy" . Scootering.com . Retrieved 22 June 2015 . "Five classic scooter rides from the 60s" . Stuff.co.nz . Retrieved 22 June 2015 . "Velocette Viceroy 1960" . Auto Evolution . Retrieved 22 June 2015 . The Viceroy was a scooter introduced by the British motorcycle manufacturer Velocette in 1960. Only 700 were sold before the model was discontinued in 1964. The Viceroy was considered an unusual design, as the two-stroke 250cc engine was placed at the front of the scooter. References "Ugly Black Beast Velocette Viceroy" . Scootering.com . Retrieved 22 June 2015 . "Five classic scooter rides from the 60s" . Stuff.co.nz . Retrieved 22 June 2015 . "Velocette Viceroy 1960" . Auto Evolution . Retriev



Fridtjof Nansen

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Fridtjof Nansen ( FRID -choff NAN -sən ; 10 October 1861 – 13 May 1930) was a Norwegian explorer, scientist, diplomat, humanitarian, and Nobel Peace Prize laureate . In his youth he was a champion skier and ice skater. He led the team that made the first crossing of the Greenland interior in 1888, traversing the island on cross-country skis. He won international fame after reaching a record northern latitude of 86°14′ during his North Pole expedition of 1893–96. Although he retired from exploration after his return to Norway, his techniques of polar travel and his innovations in equipment and clothing influenced a generation of subsequent Arctic and Antarctic expeditions. Nansen studied zoology at the Royal Frederick University in Christiania (renamed Oslo in 1925), and later worked as a curator at the University Museum of Bergen where his research on the central nervous system of lower marine creatures earned him a doctorate and helped establish modern theories of neurology . After 1896 his main scientific i



Yas Viceroy Abu Dhabi Hotel

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Yas Viceroy Abu Dhabi Hotel is built across the F1 Yas Marina Circuit in Abu Dhabi. It is known as one of the icons of Abu Dhabi and has a very futuristic design. Design Yas Viceroy Abu Dhabi Hotel is located within the Yas Marina Circuit , Abu Dhabi . It is the first new hotel in the world to be built over an F1 race circuit. The Hotel, designed by Hani Rashid and Lise Anne Couture , principals of New York based Asymptote Architecture , consists of two twelve story hotel towers, one set within the race circuit and another placed in the Marina itself, linked together by a monocoque steel and glass bridge and Grid Shell structure that both cross above and over the Yas Marina Circuit F1 race track. Asymptote created and conceived of the building as an architectural landmark embodying key influences and local and global inspirations ranging from the aesthetics and forms associated with speed and spectacle to the artistry and geometries that form the basis of ancient Islamic art and craft traditions. Of architect



List of governors of Portuguese India

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Map of Portuguese India, 1923. Coat of arms of Portuguese India. The government of Portuguese India started in 1505, six years after the discovery of the sea route to India by Vasco da Gama , with the nomination of the first Viceroy Francisco de Almeida , then settled at Kochi . Until 1752, the name "India" included all Portuguese possessions in the Indian Ocean , from southern Africa to Southeast Asia , governed - either by a Viceroy or Governor - from its headquarters, established in Goa since 1510. In 1752 Portuguese Mozambique got its own government and in 1844 the Portuguese Government of India stopped administering the territory of Portuguese Macau , Solor and Portuguese Timor , seeing itself thus confined to a reduced territorial entity in Malabar: Goa, Daman, Diu, Dadra and Nagar Haveli. Portuguese control ceased in the last two enclaves in 1954 , and finally ceased in the remaining three pockets in 1961 , when they were occupied by the Republic of India (although Portugal only recognized the occupati



Wuchang Uprising

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The Wuchang Uprising was an armed rebellion against the ruling Qing Dynasty that took place in Wuchang, Hubei , in China . It was the first successful uprising led by elements of the New Army , influenced by revolutionary ideas from Tongmenghui . Following the uprising, several other uprisings quickly spread across southern China as part of the beginning of the Xinhai Revolution . The uprising and the eventual revolution directly led to the downfall of the Qing Dynasty along with two millennia of imperial rule, and the establishment of the Republic of China (ROC). The uprising originated from popular unrest about a railway crisis , and the planning process took advantage of the situation. On 10 October 1911 the New Army stationed in Wuchang launched an assault on the residence of the Viceroy of Huguang . The viceroy Ruicheng quickly fled from the residence, and the revolutionaries soon took control of the entire city. Background Tongmenghui In 1895, China was decisively defeated by Japan in the First Sino-J



Zeng Guofan

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Zeng Guofan, Marquis Yiyong ( Chinese : 曾國藩 pinyin : Zēng Guófān ; 26 November 1811 – 12 March 1872), birth name Zeng Zicheng , courtesy name Bohan , was a Chinese statesman, military general, and Confucian scholar of the late Qing dynasty . He is best known for raising and organizing the Xiang Army to aid the Qing military in suppressing the Taiping Rebellion and restoring the stability of the Qing Empire. Along with other prominent figures such as Zuo Zongtang and Li Hongzhang , Zeng set the scene for the Tongzhi Restoration , an attempt to arrest the decline of the Qing dynasty. Zeng was known for his strategic perception, administrative skill and noble personality on Confucianist practice, but also for the ruthlessness of his repression of the rebellion. He also exemplified loyalty in an era of chaos, but is also regarded as a precursor to the rise of warlordism. Early life Zeng's former residence in Hunan Born Zeng Zicheng in Xiangxiang , Hunan Province in 1811, Zeng was the grandson of Zeng Yuping , a



Viceroy of Shaan-Gan

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The Viceroy of Shaan-Gan , fully referred to in Chinese as the Governor-General of Shaanxi and Gansu Provinces and the Surrounding Areas; Overseeing Military Affairs and Food Production, Manager of Waterways, Director of Civil Affairs , was one of eight regional viceroys in China proper during the Qing dynasty . The Viceroy of Shaan-Gan had jurisdiction over Shaanxi and Gansu provinces (hence the name "Shaan(xi)-Gan(su)"), as well as western Inner Mongolia . History Ming dynasty The office of Viceroy of Shaan-Gan originated in the early Ming dynasty with the garrisoning of military forces in three towns along the northern border of Shaanxi Province . The three garrisons were called " Xunfu of Yansui " (延綏巡撫), "Xunfu of Ningxia " (寧夏巡撫) and "Xunfu of Gansu " (甘肅巡撫). In 1497, when the Mongols of the Northern Yuan dynasty made intrusions across the border, the Hongzhi Emperor put Wang Yue (王越) in charge of coordinating military actions in Shaanxi, Yansui, Ningxia and Gansu. In the early reign of the Zhengde Empe



Filipa Moniz Perestrelo

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Todos-os-Santos All Saints Monastery of the Order of Santiago, Lisbon where Filipa used to live, today houses the French Embassy. Capela da Piedade (Chapel of Piety) at Carmo, Lisbon where Filipa was buried. Filipa Moniz Perestrelo (c. 1455 – c. 1484) was a Portuguese noblewoman from Porto Santo Island , in Madeira , Portugal . She was the wife of Christopher Columbus , married in 1479 in Vila Baleira on the island. History Filipa Moniz was the daughter of Isabel Moniz and Bartolomeu Perestrelo . Prior to marrying she was one of the twelve elite Comendadoras of the Monastery of All Saints in Lisbon of the Military Order of St. James, which means she had a comendary. Her step son Ferdinand Columbus and her brother - in -law Bartholomew Columbus , described her as a "noble Comendadora" residing in the Monastery of All Saints. Marriage Discussing the question how Christopher Columbus, the son of a Genoese wool weaver, could marry the daughter of a Portuguese Knight of Santiago, member of the household of Princ



Sher Ali Afridi

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Sher Ali Afridi also called Shere Ali , was the murderer of Lord Mayo , Viceroy of India on 8 February 1872. He was a prisoner at Andaman and Nicobar Islands at the time. Early life Sher Ali worked for the British administration in the Punjab Mounted Police during the 1860s. He came from the Tirah valley in Khyber Agency (now a Federally Administered Tribal Area) and worked for the Commissioner of Peshawar. He served the British in Ambala in a cavalry regiment He served in the Indian army in Rohilkhand and Oudh during the Indian Rebellion of 1857 , that is, the Indian Soldiers serving the East India Company). He worked under Major Hugh James as a cavalry trooper in Peshawar and as a mounted orderly for Reynell Taylor , who awarded Sher Ali with a horse, pistol and certificate. Due to his good character, Sher Ali was popular among Europeans and was taking care of Taylor's children. In a family feud, he killed one of his relatives named Hydur at Peshawar in broad daylight and although he pleaded innocenc



Viceroyalty

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A viceroyalty is an entity headed by a viceroy . France Viceroyalty of New France Portuguese Empire In the scope of the Portuguese Empire , the term " Viceroyalty of Brazil " is also occasionally used to designate the colonial State of Brazil , in the historic period while its governors had the title of "Viceroy". Viceroyalty of Brazil Russian Empire List of viceroyalties of the Russian Empire Spanish Empire The viceroyalty was a local, political, social, and administrative institution, created by the Spanish monarchy in the 15th century, for ruling in its overseas territories. The administration over the vast territories of the Spanish Empire was carried out by viceroys , who became governors of an area, which was considered not as a colony but as a province of the empire, with the same rights as any other province in Peninsular Spain . The Spanish Americas had four viceroyalties: Viceroyalty of New Spain Viceroyalty of Peru Viceroyalty of the Río de la Plata Viceroyalty of New Granada References "viceroyalt




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