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Tesla Model S

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Tesla Model S

The Tesla Model S is an all-electric five-door liftback sedan, produced by Tesla, Inc., and introduced on June 22, 2012.[10] As of February 16, 2020, the Model S Long Range Plus has an EPA range of 390 miles (630 km), which is higher than any other battery electric car.[11][12] Model S vehicles built after October 2016 have the option of an advanced driver assistance system that allows the car to operate without assistance from the driver, but the driver must supervise continuously and take control if there is an issue. This feature is called Autopilot.[13] Sentry mode is available on Autopilot hardware 2+, built after August 2017.[14] Sentry Mode senses and records suspicious activity around the car. Autopilot 2.0 also includes Enhanced Summon, which allows the car to drive through a parking lot to find you, without anybody in the driver's seat.[15] In 2013, the Model S became the first electric car to top the monthly new-car-sales ranking in any country, twice leading in Norway, in September and December

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Electric-vehicle battery

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Electric-vehicle battery

A man cutting open a Lithium-ion battery for use in an Electric Vehicle. An electric-vehicle battery (EVB) or traction battery is a battery used to power the propulsion of battery electric vehicles (BEVs). Vehicle batteries are usually a secondary (rechargeable) battery. Traction batteries are used in forklifts, electric golf carts, riding floor scrubbers, electric motorcycles, electric cars, trucks, vans, and other electric vehicles. Electric-vehicle batteries differ from starting, lighting, and ignition (SLI) batteries because they are designed to give power over sustained periods of time. Deep-cycle batteries are used instead of SLI batteries for these applications. Traction batteries must be designed with a high ampere-hour capacity. Batteries for electric vehicles are characterized by their relatively high power-to-weight ratio, energy-to-weight ratio and energy density; smaller, lighter batteries reduce the weight of the vehicle and improve its performance. Compared to liquid fuels, most current batte

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Electric vehicle technologies

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Battery electric vehicle

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Battery electric vehicle

The Nissan Leaf (left) and the Tesla Model S (right) are the world's all-time top selling all-electric cars. A battery electric vehicle (BEV), pure electric vehicle, only-electric vehicle or all-electric vehicle is a type of electric vehicle (EV) that exclusively uses chemical energy stored in rechargeable battery packs, with no secondary source of propulsion (e.g. hydrogen fuel cell, internal combustion engine, etc.). BEVs use electric motors and motor controllers instead of internal combustion engines (ICEs) for propulsion. They derive all power from battery packs and thus have no internal combustion engine, fuel cell, or fuel tank. BEVs include – but are not limited to[1][2] – motorcycles, bicycles, scooters, skateboards, railcars, watercraft, forklifts, buses, trucks, and cars. In 2016 there were 210 million electric bikes worldwide used daily.[3] Cumulative global sales of highway-capable light-duty pure electric car vehicles passed the one million unit milestone in September 2016.[4] As of April 2018,

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Bank

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Bank

A bank is a financial institution that accepts deposits from the public and creates credit.[1] Lending activities can be performed either directly or indirectly through capital markets. Due to their importance in the financial stability of a country, banks are highly regulated in most countries. Most nations have institutionalized a system known as fractional reserve banking under which banks hold liquid assets equal to only a portion of their current liabilities. In addition to other regulations intended to ensure liquidity, banks are generally subject to minimum capital requirements based on an international set of capital standards, known as the Basel Accords. Banking in its modern sense evolved in the fourteenth century in the prosperous cities of Renaissance Italy but in many ways was a continuation of ideas and concepts of credit and lending that had their roots in the ancient world. In the history of banking, a number of banking dynasties – notably, the Medicis, the Fuggers, the Welsers, the Berenberg

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Law firm

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Law firm

A law firm is a business entity formed by one or more lawyers to engage in the practice of law. The primary service rendered by a law firm is to advise clients (individuals or corporations) about their legal rights and responsibilities, and to represent clients in civil or criminal cases, business transactions, and other matters in which legal advice and other assistance are sought. Arrangements Law firms are organized in a variety of ways, depending on the jurisdiction in which the firm practices. Common arrangements include: Sole proprietorship, in which the attorney is the law firm and is responsible for all profit, loss and liability; General partnership, in which all the attorneys who are members of the firm share ownership, profits and liabilities; Professional corporations, which issue stock to the attorneys in a fashion similar to that of a business corporation; Limited liability company, in which the attorney-owners are called "members" but are not directly liable to third party creditors

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Greek government-debt crisis

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Greek government-debt crisis

The Greek government-debt crisis was the sovereign debt crisis faced by Greece in the aftermath of the financial crisis of 2007–08. Widely known in the country as The Crisis (Greek: Η Κρίση), it reached the populace as a series of sudden reforms and austerity measures that led to impoverishment and loss of income and property, as well as a small-scale humanitarian crisis.[6][7] In all, the Greek economy suffered the longest recession of any advanced capitalist economy to date, overtaking the US Great Depression. As a result, the Greek political system has been upended, social exclusion increased, and hundreds of thousands of well-educated Greeks have left the country.[8] The Greek crisis started in late 2009, triggered by the turmoil of the world-wide Great Recession, structural weaknesses in the Greek economy, and lack of monetary policy flexibility as a member of the Eurozone (according to certain arguments[9][10]). The crisis included revelations that previous data on government debt levels and deficits h

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Private finance initiative

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Private finance initiative

Sign on the door Central Manchester University Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust A private finance initiative (PFI) is a way of creating "public–private partnerships" (PPPs) where private firms are contracted to complete and manage public projects.[1] Developed initially by the governments of Australia[2] and the United Kingdom, and used extensively there and in Spain, PFI and its variants have now been adopted in many countries as part of the wider programme of privatisation and financialisation, and presented as a means for increasing accountability and efficiency for public spending.[3] According to critics, PFI has been used simply to place a great amount of debt "off-balance-sheet".[4] PFI has been controversial in the UK; the National Audit Office felt in 2003 that it provided good value for money overall.[5] However, in 2011 the Parliamentary Treasury Select Committee found that "PFI should be brought on balance sheet. The Treasury should remove any perverse incentives unrelated to value for money by en

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Great Recession in Russia

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Great Recession in Russia

The Great Recession in Russia was a crisis during 2008–2009 in the Russian financial markets as well as an economic recession that was compounded by political fears after the war with Georgia and by the plummeting price of Urals heavy crude oil, which lost more than 70% of its value since its record peak of US$147 on 4 July 2008 before rebounding moderately in 2009. According to the World Bank, Russia’s strong short-term macroeconomic fundamentals made it better prepared than many emerging economies to deal with the crisis, but its underlying structural weaknesses and high dependence on the price of a single commodity made its impact more pronounced than would otherwise be the case.[1] In late 2008 during the onset of the crisis, Russian markets plummeted and more than $1 trillion had been wiped off the value of Russia's shares,[2] although Russian stocks rebounded in 2009 becoming the world’s best performers, with the MICEX Index having more than doubled in value and regaining half its 2008 losses.[3] As t

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Hedge fund

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Hedge fund

A hedge fund is an investment fund that pools capital from accredited investors or institutional investors and invests in a variety of assets, often with complicated portfolio-construction and risk management techniques.[1] It is administered by a professional investment management firm, and often structured as a limited partnership, limited liability company, or similar vehicle.[2][3] Hedge funds are generally distinct from mutual funds and regarded as alternative investments, as their use of leverage is not capped by regulators, and distinct from private equity funds, as the majority of hedge funds invest in relatively liquid assets.[4][5] However, funds which operate similarly to hedge funds but are regulated similarly to mutual funds are available and known as liquid alternative investments. The term "hedge fund" originated from the paired long and short positions that the first of these funds used to hedge market risk. Over time, the types and nature of the hedging concepts expanded, as did the differen

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List of Coronation Street characters (2011)

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List of Coronation Street characters (2011)

Coronation Street is a British soap opera, produced by ITV Studios. Created by writer Tony Warren, Coronation Street was first broadcast on ITV on 9 December 1960. It has been produced by Phil Collinson since 2010. The following is a list of characters introduced by Collinson in the show's fifty-first year, by order of first appearance. January saw three introductions; DC Moore (Pooja Shah), the detective in charge of the investigation into the attack on Tracy Barlow (Kate Ford), Marc Selby (Andrew Hall), a new love interest for both Audrey Roberts (Sue Nicholls) and Claudia Colby (Rula Lenska), and Frank Foster, played by former The Bill actor Andrew Lancel, as a new business partner for Carla Connor (Alison King). Faye Butler (Ellie Leach), the adoptive daughter of Anna (Debbie Rush) and Eddie Windass (Steve Huison), Jeff Cullen (Steven Houghton), a love interest for Sally Webster (Sally Dynevor), and the soap's first Chinese character, Xin Chiang (Elizabeth Tan), a friend of Tina McIntyre (Michelle Keegan)

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Toyota Supra

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Toyota Supra

The Toyota Supra (Japanese: トヨタ・スープラ, Toyota Sūpura) is a sports car and grand tourer manufactured by Toyota Motor Corporation beginning in 1978. The initial four generations of the Supra were produced from 1978 to 2002. The fifth generation has been produced since March 2019 and went on sale in May 2019.[3] The styling of the original Supra was derived from the Toyota Celica, but it was both longer and wider.[4] Starting in mid-1986, the A70 Supra became a separate model from the Celica. In turn, Toyota also stopped using the prefix Celica and named the car Supra.[5] Owing to the similarity and past of the Celica's name, it is frequently mistaken for the Supra, and vice versa. The first, second and third generations of the Supra were assembled at the Tahara plant in Tahara, Aichi, while the fourth generation was assembled at the Motomachi plant in Toyota City. The fifth generation of the Supra is assembled alongside the G29 BMW Z4 in Graz, Austria by Magna Steyr. The Supra also traces much of its roots back

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Proton Prevé

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Proton Prevé

The Proton Prevé is a four-door compact saloon developed by Malaysian automobile manufacturer Proton. It was launched on 16 April 2012 and is based on Proton's next-generation P2 platform. The Prevé is the saloon complement to its sister car, the Proton Suprima S hatchback, and is also the successor of Proton Inspira. Etymology The Prevé is claimed to be Proton's first global car, evident in the name Prevé itself, which means to prove or proof. History Proton started out in 1985 as a manufacturer of badge-engineered Mitsubishi vehicles. Proton cars managed to sell in great numbers because they benefited from the superior engineering and reliability of the Mitsubishi cars they were based on, among other reasons.[4] However, with the dawn of the 21st century, Proton moved forward with the introduction of indigenously designed models such as the Proton Waja and Proton GEN•2. Unfortunately, these next-generation Protons were universally criticised for being poorly engineered vehicles.[5][6] Consequently, Prot

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Constitution of the United Kingdom

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Constitution of the United Kingdom

Parliament is central to the UK's democratic constitution. In the Palace of Westminster the House of Commons represents 65 million people in 650 UK constituencies, and appoints the Prime Minister at will. The House of Lords remains unelected but can be overruled.[1] The Constitution of the United Kingdom is the system of rules that shapes the political governance of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland. The UK constitution is not contained in a single code, but principles have emerged over the centuries from statute, case law, political conventions and social consensus. In this sense, it can be said that the United Kingdom does not have a constitution or a basic law. In 1215, Magna Carta required the King to call "common counsel" or Parliament, hold courts in a fixed place, guarantee fair trials, guarantee free movement of people, free the church from the state, and enshrined the rights of "common" people to use the land.[2] After the English Civil War and the Glorious Revolution 1688, P

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Human overpopulation

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Human overpopulation

Graph of human population from 10000 BCE to 2000 CE. It shows exponential rise in world population that has taken place since the end of the seventeenth century. World population Human overpopulation (or population overshoot) is when there are too many people for the environment to sustain (with food, drinkable water, breathable air, etc.). In more scientific terms, there is overshoot when the ecological footprint of a human population in a geographical area exceeds that place's carrying capacity, damaging the environment faster than it can be repaired by nature, potentially leading to an ecological and societal collapse. Overpopulation could apply to the population of a specific region, or to world population as a whole.[1] Overpopulation can result from an increase in births, a decline in mortality rates, an increase in immigration, or an unsustainable biome and depletion of resources. It is possible for very sparsely populated areas to be overpopulated if the area has a meager or non-existent capabili

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BMW i3

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BMW i3

The BMW i3 is a B-class, high-roof hatchback manufactured and marketed by BMW with an electric powertrain using rear wheel drive via a single-speed transmission and an underfloor Li-ion battery pack and an optional range-extending gasoline engine. The i3 was BMW's first mass-produced zero emissions vehicle and was launched as part of BMW's electric vehicle BMW i sub-brand.[13] Styled by Richard Kim, the i3 uses a single five-door configuration with bodywork consisting of a passenger module of high strength, ultra-lightweight CFRP (carbon fiber reinforced plastic) glued to a lower aluminium module holding the chassis, battery, drive system and powertrain. The bodywork features two smaller clamshell rear-hinged rear doors. The i3 debuted as a concept at the 2011 International Motor Show Germany,[13][14] and production began in July 2013[15] in Leipzig, Germany. The i3 ranked third among all-electric cars sold worldwide from 2014 to 2016.[16][17][18][19] Global sales since inception totaled more than 133,000 u

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List of Doc Martin episodes

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List of Doc Martin episodes

Doc Martin is a British television medical comedy drama series starring Martin Clunes in the title role. It was created by Dominic Minghella[1] after the character of Dr Martin Bamford in the 2000 comedy film Saving Grace.[2] The show is set in the fictional seaside village of Portwenn and filmed on location in the village of Port Isaac, Cornwall, England, with most interior scenes shot in a converted local barn. Doc Martin has aired on ITV since 2 September 2004, with a first season of six episodes. The episode number for the second series increased to eight. This was followed by a TV film and a third series of seven episodes. The next six series aired eight episodes each. While it had been reported in 2017 that the series would end after Series 9 in 2019, Martin Clunes clarified that it had only been commissioned as far as that year, thereby not ruling out future plans by the broadcaster.[3] Immediately after airing the finale episode of Series 9, ITV issued a terse publicity statement, "Goodbye, Doc! We'

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Seat belt

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Seat belt

Buckling a three-point seat belt A seat belt (also known as a seatbelt or safety belt) is a vehicle safety device designed to secure the driver or a passenger of a vehicle[1] against harmful movement that may result during a collision or a sudden stop. A seat belt reduces the likelihood of death or serious injury in a traffic collision by reducing the force of secondary impacts with interior strike hazards, by keeping occupants positioned correctly for maximum effectiveness of the airbag (if equipped) and by preventing occupants being ejected from the vehicle in a crash or if the vehicle rolls over. When in motion, the driver and passengers are travelling at the same speed as the car. If the driver makes the car suddenly stop or crashes it, the driver and passengers continue at the same speed the car was going before it stopped. A seatbelt applies an opposing force to the driver and passengers to prevent them from falling out or making contact with the interior of the car (especially preventing contact with

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Ford Mondeo (first generation)

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Ford Mondeo (first generation)

The Ford Mondeo I (first generation) is a mid-size car that was produced by Ford, beginning on 23 November 1992, with sales beginning on 22 March 1993. It is also known as the Mk I Mondeo; the 1996 facelift versions are usually designated Mk II. Available as a four-door saloon, a five-door hatchback, and a five-door estate, all models for the European market were produced at Ford's plant in the Belgian city of Genk.[3] In December 1992, Autocar published a section on the Mondeo, and how it would conquer rivals. Intended as a world car, it replaced the Ford Sierra in Europe, the Ford Telstar in a large portion of Asia and other markets, while the Ford Contour and Mercury Mystique replaced the Ford Tempo and Mercury Topaz in North America. Despite being billed as a world car, the only external items the Mondeo shared initially with the Contour were the windscreen, front windows, front mirrors and door handles. Thus, the CDW27 project turned out not to be a true world car in the sense that the original Ford Foc

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Domestic violence

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Domestic violence

Domestic violence (also named domestic abuse or family violence) is violence or other abuse in a domestic setting, such as in marriage or cohabitation. Domestic violence may be used as a synonym for intimate partner violence, which is committed by a spouse or partner in an intimate relationship against the other spouse or partner, and can take place in heterosexual or same-sex relationships, or between former spouses or partners. In the broadest sense, domestic violence can also involve violence against children, parents, or the elderly. It takes a number of forms, including physical, verbal, emotional, economic, religious, reproductive, and sexual abuse, which can range from subtle, coercive forms to marital rape and to violent physical abuse such as choking, beating, female genital mutilation, and acid throwing that results in disfigurement or death. Domestic murders include stoning, bride burning, honor killings, and dowry deaths (which sometimes involve non-cohabitating family members). Globally, the vic

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Zulu (1964 film)

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Zulu (1964 film)

Zulu is a 1964 British epic war film depicting the Battle of Rorke's Drift between the British Army and the Zulus in January 1879, during the Anglo-Zulu War. It shows how 150 British soldiers, many of whom were sick and wounded patients in a field hospital, successfully held off a force of 4,000 Zulu warriors. The film is notable for showing the Zulu army as disciplined and governed by strategy. The film was directed by American screenwriter[4] Cy Endfield and produced by Stanley Baker and Endfield, with Joseph E. Levine as executive producer. The screenplay is by John Prebble and Endfield, based on an article by Prebble, a historical writer. The film stars Stanley Baker and introduces Michael Caine, in his first major role, with a supporting cast that includes Jack Hawkins, Ulla Jacobsson, James Booth, Nigel Green, Paul Daneman, Glynn Edwards, Ivor Emmanuel and Patrick Magee. Future South African political leader Mangosuthu Buthelezi played Zulu King Cetshwayo kaMpande, his great-grandfather. The opening an

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Concorde

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Concorde

The Aérospatiale/BAC Concorde is a British–French turbojet-powered supersonic passenger airliner that was operated until 2003. It had a maximum speed over twice the speed of sound, at Mach 2.04 (1,354 mph or 2,180 km/h at cruise altitude), with seating for 92 to 128 passengers. First flown in 1969, Concorde entered service in 1976 and continued flying for the next 27 years. It is one of only two supersonic transports to have been operated commercially; the other is the Soviet-built Tupolev Tu-144, which operated in the late 1970s.[8][9] Concorde was jointly developed and manufactured by Sud Aviation (later Aérospatiale) and the British Aircraft Corporation (BAC) under an Anglo-French treaty. Twenty aircraft were built, including six prototypes and development aircraft. Air France (AF) and British Airways (BA) were the only airlines to purchase and fly Concorde. The aircraft was used mainly by wealthy passengers who could afford to pay a high price in exchange for the aircraft's speed and luxury service. For

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Vanilla

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Vanilla

Vanilla planifolia, flower Dried vanilla fruits Vanilla is a flavoring derived from orchids of the genus Vanilla, primarily from the Mexican species, flat-leaved vanilla (V. planifolia). The word vanilla, derived from vainilla, the diminutive of the Spanish word vaina (vaina itself meaning a sheath or a pod), is translated simply as "little pod".[1] Pre-Columbian Mesoamerican people cultivated the vine of the vanilla orchid, called tlīlxochitl by the Aztecs. Spanish conquistador Hernán Cortés is credited with introducing both vanilla and chocolate to Europe in the 1520s.[2] Pollination is required to get the vanilla fruit from which the flavoring is derived. In 1837, Belgian botanist Charles François Antoine Morren discovered this fact and pioneered a method of artificially pollinating the plant.[3] The method proved financially unworkable and was not deployed commercially.[4] In 1841, Edmond Albius, a slave who lived on the French island of Réunion in the Indian Ocean, discovered at the age of 12 that t

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Victoria Cross

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Victoria Cross

The Victoria Cross (VC) is the highest and most prestigious award of the British honours system. It is awarded for valour "in the presence of the enemy" to members of the British Armed Forces. It may be awarded posthumously. It was previously awarded to Commonwealth countries, most of which have established their own honours systems and no longer recommend British honours. It may be awarded to a person of any military rank in any service and to civilians under military command although no civilian has received the award since 1879. Since the first awards were presented by Queen Victoria in 1857, two-thirds of all awards have been personally presented by the British monarch. These investitures are usually held at Buckingham Palace. The VC was introduced on 29 January 1856 by Queen Victoria to honour acts of valour during the Crimean War. Since then, the medal has been awarded 1,358 times to 1,355 individual recipients. Only 15 medals, of which 11 were to members of the British Army and four were to members of

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History of liberalism

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History of liberalism

Liberalism, the belief in freedom and human rights, is historically associated with thinkers such as John Locke and Montesquieu. It is a political movement which spans the better part of the last four centuries, though the use of the word "liberalism" to refer to a specific political doctrine did not occur until the 19th century. The Glorious Revolution of 1688 in England laid the foundations for the development of the modern liberal state by constitutionally limiting the power of the monarch, affirming parliamentary supremacy, passing the Bill of Rights and establishing the principle of "consent of the governed". The 1776 Declaration of Independence of the United States founded the nascent republic on liberal principles without the encumbrance of hereditary aristocracy—the declaration stated that "all men are created equal and endowed by their creator with certain unalienable rights, among these life, liberty, and the pursuit of happiness",[1] echoing John Locke's phrase "life, liberty, and property". A few

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History of Facebook

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History of Facebook

Facebook is a social networking service launched as TheFacebook on February 4, 2004.[1] It was founded by Mark Zuckerberg with his college roommates and fellow Harvard University students Eduardo Saverin, Andrew McCollum, Dustin Moskovitz and Chris Hughes.[2] The website's membership was initially limited by the founders to Harvard students, but was expanded to other colleges in the Boston area, the Ivy League,[3] and gradually most universities in the United States and Canada,[4][5] corporations,[6] and by September 2006, to everyone with a valid email address along with an age requirement of being 13 and older.[7][8] Mark Zuckerberg created Facebook in his Harvard dorm room FaceMash FaceMash, Facebook's predecessor, opened in 2003, developed by Mark Zuckerberg; he wrote the software for the Facemash website when he was in his second year of college. The website was set up as a type of "hot or not" game for Harvard students. The website allowed visitors to compare two female student pictures side by si

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Western African Ebola virus epidemic

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Western African Ebola virus epidemic

The Western African Ebola virus epidemic (2013–2016) was the most widespread outbreak of Ebola virus disease (EVD) in history—causing major loss of life and socioeconomic disruption in the region, mainly in Guinea, Liberia and Sierra Leone. The first cases were recorded in Guinea in December 2013; later, the disease spread to neighbouring Liberia and Sierra Leone,[12] with minor outbreaks occurring elsewhere. It caused significant mortality, with the case fatality rate reported which was initially considerable,[12][13][14][note 1] while the rate among hospitalised patients was 57–59%,[15] the final numbers 28,616 people, including 11,310 deaths, for a case-fatality rate of 40%.[16] Small outbreaks occurred in Nigeria and Mali,[17][18] and isolated cases were recorded in Senegal,[19] the United Kingdom and Italy.[14][20] In addition, imported cases led to secondary infection of medical workers in the United States and Spain but did not spread further.[21][22] The number of cases peaked in October 2014 and then

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United Kingdom government austerity programme

topic

United Kingdom government austerity programme

UK median household disposable income by income group for 2008–2016, indexed to 2008[1] The United Kingdom government austerity programme is a fiscal policy adopted in the early 21st century following the Great Recession. It is a deficit reduction programme consisting of sustained reductions in public spending and tax rises, intended to reduce the government budget deficit and the role of the welfare state in the United Kingdom. The National Health Service[2] and education[3] have been "ringfenced" and protected from direct spending cuts,[4] but between 2010 and 2019 more than £30 billion in spending reductions have been made to welfare payments, housing subsidies and social services.[5] The effects of United Kingdom austerity policies have proved controversial and the policies have received criticism from a variety of politicians and economists. Anti-austerity movements have been formed among citizens more generally.[6] History A UK government budget surplus in 2001–2 was followed by many years of budget

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Nuclear weapons and the United Kingdom

topic

Nuclear weapons and the United Kingdom

The United Kingdom was the third country (after the United States and the Soviet Union) to develop and test nuclear weapons, and is one of the five nuclear-weapon states under the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons. The UK initiated a nuclear weapons programme, codenamed Tube Alloys, during the Second World War. At the Quebec Conference in August 1943, it was merged with the American Manhattan Project. The British contribution to the Manhattan Project saw British scientists participate in most of its work. The British government considered nuclear weapons to be a joint discovery, but the American Atomic Energy Act of 1946 (McMahon Act) restricted other countries, including the UK, from access to information about nuclear weapons. Fearing the loss of Britain's great power status, the UK resumed its own project, now codenamed High Explosive Research. On 3 October 1952, it detonated an atomic bomb in the Monte Bello Islands of Western Australia in Operation Hurricane. Eleven more British nuclear

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Gina Rinehart

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Gina Rinehart

Georgina Hope "Gina" Rinehart (née Hancock, formerly Hayward; born 9 February 1954) is an Australian mining magnate and heiress. Rinehart is Chairman of Hancock Prospecting, a privately-owned mineral exploration and extraction company founded by her father, Lang Hancock. She is one of Australia's richest people; with Forbes estimating her net worth in 2019 at US$14.8 billion as published in the list of Australia's 50 richest people;[2] and The Australian Financial Review estimating her net worth in 2019 at A$13.81 billion as published in the Financial Review Rich List.[1] Forbes considers Rinehart one of the world's richest women. Rinehart was born in Perth, Western Australia, and spent her early years in the Pilbara. She boarded at St Hilda's Anglican School for Girls and then briefly studied at the University of Sydney, dropping out to work with her father at Hancock Prospecting. As Lang Hancock's only child, Rinehart inherited a 76.6% share in the company upon his death in 1992, and succeeded him as execu

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Greenhouse gas emissions by Turkey

topic

Greenhouse gas emissions by Turkey

Coal, cars and cows vent half the greenhouse gas emissions by Turkey, but a fifth is absorbed by trees. Turkey emits 500 megatonnes (Mt) CO of greenhouse gases each year, more than 1% of the world's total.[1] This is about six and a half tonnes per person,[2] worse than the global average of five tonnes. One of the main reasons is that coal-fired power stations in Turkey are subsidized. The country was one of those contributing most to the growth in global emissions between 2008 and 2018,[3] but is now investing in energy efficiency and renewable energy in Turkey,[4] and is likely to meet the “unambitious” Intended Nationally Determined Contribution (INDC) it has submitted to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC).[5] 526 megatonnes of greenhouse gases were emitted in 2017: but 100 megatonnes were absorbed, mainly by forests. Sources of 2017 greenhouse gas emissions Although climate change in Turkey is forecast to have severe impacts,[6] the country's plans to limit emissions

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Unorthodox Jukebox

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Unorthodox Jukebox

Unorthodox Jukebox is the second studio album by American singer and songwriter Bruno Mars. It was released on December 7, 2012, by Atlantic Records. It serves as the follow-up to Mars' debut record Doo-Wops & Hooligans (2010). The album was initially planned to be more "energetic" than his previous work, but ended presenting a wide range of styles such as reggae rock, disco, and soul music. Mars co-wrote the whole record and worked with several past collaborators, while enlisting new producers and no guest vocalists. Lyrically, Unorthodox Jukebox revolves around the theme of relationships, incorporating more explicit lyrics and subjects than his previous material. On December 4, 2012, Unorthodox Jukebox was made available to listen to in its entirety for a week before its release. Critical response to Unorthodox Jukebox was generally favorable; many reviewers compared Mars' work to that of his previous album, while others deemed its lyrics shallow. It debuted at number two on the US Billboard 200, wit

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Door

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Door

Various examples of doors throughout history A door is a hinged or otherwise movable barrier that allows ingress and egress into an "enclosure". The opening in the wall can be referred to as a "portal". A door's essential and primary purpose is to provide security by controlling access to the portal (doorway). Conventionally, it is a panel that fits into the portal of a building, room, or vehicle. Doors are generally made of a material suited to the task of which it is to perform. Doors are commonly attached by hinges within the portal but can be moved by other means such as slides or counterbalancing. The door may be moved in various ways (at angles away from the portal, by sliding on a plane parallel to the frame, by folding in angles on a parallel plane, or by spinning along an axis at the center of the frame) to allow or prevent ingress or egress. In most cases, a door's interior matches its exterior side. But in other cases (e.g., a vehicle door) the two sides are radically different. False door of

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Nuclear power

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Nuclear power

The 1200 MWe Leibstadt Nuclear Power Plant in Switzerland. The boiling water reactor (BWR), located inside the dome capped cylindrical structure, is dwarfed in size by its cooling tower. The station produces a yearly average of 25 million kilowatt-hours per day, sufficient to power a city the size of Boston.[1] The Palo Verde Nuclear Generating Station, the largest in the United States with 3 pressurized water reactors (PWRs), is situated in the Arizona desert. It uses sewage from cities as its cooling water in 9 squat mechanical draft cooling towers.[2][3] Its total spent fuel inventory, produced since 1986, is contained in dry cask storage cylinders located between the artificial body of water and the electrical switchyard. U.S. nuclear powered ships: (top to bottom) cruisers USS Bainbridge, USS Long Beach, and USS Enterprise, the first nuclear-powered aircraft carrier. Picture taken in 1964 during a record setting voyage of 26,540 nmi (49,152 km) around the world in 65 days without refueling. Crew m

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Automated teller machine

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Automated teller machine

An NCR Personas 75-Series interior, multi-function ATM in the United States Smaller indoor ATMs dispense money inside convenience stores and other busy areas, such as this off-premises Wincor Nixdorf mono-function ATM in Sweden. An automated teller machine (ATM) is an electronic telecommunications device that enables customers of financial institutions to perform financial transactions, such as cash withdrawals, deposits, funds transfers, or account information inquiries, at any time and without the need for direct interaction with bank staff. ATMs are known by a variety of names, including automatic teller machine (ATM) in the United States[1][2][3] (sometimes redundantly as "ATM machine"). In Canada, the term automated banking machine (ABM) is used,[4][5] although ATM is also very commonly used in Canada, with many Canadian organizations using ATM over ABM.[6][7][8] In British English, the terms cashpoint, cash machine and hole in the wall are most widely used.[9] Other terms include any time money, ca

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Electric vehicle battery

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Electric vehicle battery

Nissan Leaf cutaway showing part of the battery in 2009 An electric-vehicle battery (EVB) in addition to the traction battery speciality systems used for industrial (or recreational) vehicles, are batteries used to power the electric motors of a battery electric vehicle (BEVs). These batteries are usually a secondary (rechargeable) battery, and are typically lithium-ion batteries. Traction batteries, specifically designed with a high ampere-hour capacity, are used in forklifts, electric golf carts, riding floor scrubbers, electric motorcycles, electric cars, trucks, vans, and other electric vehicles. Electric-vehicle batteries differ from starting, lighting, and ignition (SLI) batteries as they are designed to give power over sustained periods of time. Deep-cycle batteries are used instead of SLI batteries for these applications. Batteries for electric vehicles are characterized by their relatively high power-to-weight ratio, specific energy and energy density; smaller, lighter batteries reduce the weight o

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History of Libya under Muammar Gaddafi

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History of Libya under Muammar Gaddafi

The green flag of the Libyan Arab Jamahiriya The colour green, which represented Islam and Gaddafi's Third International Theory, outlined in The Green Book. Gaddafi at the 12th African Union conference in 2009 Muammar Gaddafi became the de facto leader of Libya on 1 September 1969 after leading a group of young Libyan military officers against King Idris I in a bloodless coup d'état. After the king had fled the country, the Libyan Revolutionary Command Council (RCC) headed by Gaddafi abolished the monarchy and the old constitution and established the Libyan Arab Republic, with the motto "freedom, socialism and unity".[1] After coming to power, the RCC government initiated a process of directing funds toward providing education, health care and housing for all. Public education in the country became free and primary education compulsory for both sexes. Medical care became available to the public at no cost, but providing housing for all was a task the RCC government was not able to complete.[2] Under Gadd

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Sustainability

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Sustainability

Achieving sustainability will enable the Earth to continue supporting life. Banaue rice terraces in the Philippines, a UNESCO World Heritage site. Sustainability is the ability of a system to exist constantly at a cost, in a universe that evolves towards thermodynamic equilibrium, the state with maximum entropy. In the 21st century, it refers generally to the capacity for the biosphere and human civilization to coexist. It is also defined as the process of people maintaining change in a homeostasis balanced environment, in which the exploitation of resources, the direction of investments, the orientation of technological development and institutional change are all in harmony and enhance both current and future potential to meet human needs and aspirations.[1] For many in the field, sustainability is defined through the following interconnected domains or pillars: environment, economic and social,[2] which according to Fritjof Capra[3] is based on the principles of Systems Thinking. Sub-domains of sustain

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Gentrification

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Gentrification

Buildings on Mainzer Straße in Berlin Early 20th-century damaged buildings next to a new loft tower in Mexico City's Colonia Roma Gentrification in Warsaw Gentrification is a process of changing the character of a neighborhood through the influx of more affluent residents and businesses.[1] This is a common and controversial topic in politics and in urban planning. Gentrification often increases the economic value of a neighborhood, but the resulting demographic change is frequently a cause of controversy. Gentrification often shifts a neighborhood's racial/ethnic composition and average household income by developing new, more expensive housing, businesses and improved resources.[2] The gentrification process is typically the result of increasing attraction to an area by people with higher incomes spilling over from neighboring cities, towns, or neighborhoods. Further steps are increased investments in a community and the related infrastructure by real estate development businesses, local governme

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Chesterfield Canal

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Chesterfield Canal

Chesterfield Canal West Stockwith Junction, River Trent Tidal Lock (65) West Stockwith basin Doncaster to Lincoln railway bridge (84) Misterton low lock(64)  A161  Station Street bridge, Misterton (82a) Misterton high lock (63)  B1403  Misterton Coopers Bridge (80) Shaw Lock (62) Gringley Top Lock (61)  A631  Bawry Road Bridge (73a)  B6045  Drakeholes Tunnel (73) (154 yds)  B1403  Clayworth Iron Bridge (67)  B1403  Hayton Townend Bridge (67) Whitsunday Pie Lock (60)  A620  Hop Pole Bridge (59)  A638  Budges Bridge (56a) Retford Town Lock (59) River Idle West Retford Lock (60)  A620  Woodcocks Bridge (55) East Coast Main Line bridge (54a) Forest locks (54–57) Ranby

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Cocaine

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Cocaine

Cocaine, also known as coke, is a strong stimulant most frequently used as a recreational drug.[10] It is commonly snorted, inhaled as smoke, or dissolved and injected into a vein.[9] Mental effects may include loss of contact with reality, an intense feeling of happiness, or agitation.[9] Physical symptoms may include a fast heart rate, sweating, and large pupils.[9] High doses can result in very high blood pressure or body temperature.[11] Effects begin within seconds to minutes of use and last between five and ninety minutes.[9] Cocaine has a small number of accepted medical uses such as numbing and decreasing bleeding during nasal surgery.[12] Cocaine is addictive due to its effect on the reward pathway in the brain.[10] After a short period of use, there is a high risk that dependence will occur.[10] Its use also increases the risk of stroke, myocardial infarction, lung problems in those who smoke it, blood infections, and sudden cardiac death.[10][13] Cocaine sold on the street is commonly mixed with l

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United Kingdom company law

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United Kingdom company law

Beside the River Thames, the City of London is a global financial centre. Within the Square Mile, the London Stock Exchange lies at the heart of the United Kingdom's corporations. The United Kingdom company law regulates corporations formed under the Companies Act 2006. Also governed by the Insolvency Act 1986, the UK Corporate Governance Code, European Union Directives and court cases, the company is the primary legal vehicle to organise and run business. Tracing their modern history to the late Industrial Revolution, public companies now employ more people and generate more of wealth in the United Kingdom economy than any other form of organisation. The United Kingdom was the first country to draft modern corporation statutes,[1] where through a simple registration procedure any investors could incorporate, limit liability to their commercial creditors in the event of business insolvency, and where management was delegated to a centralised board of directors.[2] An influential model within Europe, the Comm

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Violet Friend

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Violet Friend

Violet Friend would have used modified versions of the Bloodhound missile to attack ballistic missiles. Violet Friend was the Ministry of Supply rainbow code for an anti-ballistic missile (ABM) system developed in the United Kingdom. The project began in 1954 with study contracts for an early warning radar system, which was followed by the February 1955 release of Air Staff Target 1135 (AST.1135) calling for a system to counter intermediate range ballistic missiles (IRBMs) being fired at the UK from eastern Europe. AST.1135 required the system to be able to attack six targets at once and be ready for initial deployment in 1963. After many changes, due both to technical progress and changes in the strategic mission, in 1958 an "interim" design emerged that used existing missiles and radars to lower cost. The concept used AMES Type 85 radars in East Anglia for long-range early detection as soon as the missiles rose above the radar horizon. Initial tracking of the warheads would then be handed off to AN/FPS-16

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Economy of Argentina

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Economy of Argentina

The economy of Argentina is an upper middle-income economy for fiscal year 2019 according to the World Bank. It is the second-largest in South America behind Brazil.[30] Argentina benefits from rich natural resources, a highly literate population, an export-oriented agricultural sector, and a diversified industrial base. Argentina's economic performance has historically been very uneven, with high economic growth alternating with severe recessions, particularly since the late twentieth century, since when income maldistribution and poverty have increased. Early in the twentieth century Argentina had one of the ten highest per capita GDP levels in the world, on par with Canada and Australia and surpassing both France and Italy.[31] Argentina's currency declined by about 50% in 2018 to more than 38 Argentine pesos per U.S. Dollar and as of in that year is under a stand-by program from the International Monetary Fund.[32] In 2019, it fell further by 25%.[33] Argentina is considered an emerging market by the FT

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2018 bombing of Damascus and Homs

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2018 bombing of Damascus and Homs

On 14 April 2018, beginning at 04:00 Syrian time (UTC+3),[5] the United States, France, and the United Kingdom carried out a series of military strikes involving aircraft and ship-based missiles against multiple government sites in Syria.[6][7] They said it was in response to the Douma chemical attack against civilians on 7 April, which they attributed to the Syrian government.[8][9] The Syrian government denied involvement in the Douma attacks[9] and called the airstrikes a violation of international law.[8] Background A Syrian government offensive to recapture the rebel-held Eastern Ghouta suburb began in February 2018. The offensive was condemned by Western media for its reportedly brutal humanitarian consequences.[10][11][12] By the beginning of April, Douma was one of the last rebel enclaves remaining in the region, with rebel group Jaysh al-Islam in control of the city.[13] Russian and Syrian state media reported a deal between the rebel group and Russia to hand over Douma to government control.[14][1

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History of socialism

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History of socialism

The history of socialism has its origins in the 1789 French Revolution and the changes which it brought, although it has precedents in earlier movements and ideas. The Communist Manifesto was written by Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels in 1848 just before the Revolutions of 1848 swept Europe, expressing what they termed scientific socialism. In the last third of the 19th century, social democratic parties arose in Europe, drawing mainly from Marxism. The Australian Labor Party was the world's first elected socialist party when it formed government in the Colony of Queensland for a week in 1899.[1] In the first half of the 20th century, the Soviet Union and the communist parties of the Third International around the world mainly came to represent socialism in terms of the Soviet model of economic development and the creation of centrally planned economies directed by a state that owns all the means of production, although other trends condemned what they saw as the lack of democracy. In the United Kingdom, Herb

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Georgism

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Georgism

Georgist campaign button from the 1890s in which the cat on the badge refers to a slogan "Do you see the cat?" to draw analogy to the land question[1] Georgism, also called geoism[2] and single tax (archaic), is an economic ideology holding that while people should own the value they produce themselves, economic value derived from land (often including natural resources and natural opportunities) should belong equally to all members of society.[3][4][5] Developed from the writings of American economist and social reformer Henry George, the Georgist paradigm seeks solutions to social and ecological problems, based on principles of land rights and public finance which attempt to integrate economic efficiency with social justice.[6][7] Georgism is concerned with the distribution of economic rent caused by natural monopolies, pollution and the control of commons, including title of ownership for natural resources and other contrived privileges (e.g. intellectual property). Any natural resource which is inheren

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Chevrolet Aveo (T200)

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Chevrolet Aveo (T200)

The Chevrolet Aveo (T200) ( ə-VAY-oh) is the first generation of the Chevrolet Aveo, a subcompact automobile from the Chevrolet division of the American manufacturer General Motors, launched in 2002, developed by the initially independent South Korean manufacturer Daewoo, later GM Korea. It was originally marketed as the Daewoo Kalos and prominently marketed as the Aveo. The model received the T200 internal codes during the car's development. The T250 code was designated for the model's facelift. Designed, engineered and originally marketed by GM Daewoo, the Aveo superseded the Daewoo Lanos and was marketed worldwide in 120 countries under seven brands (Chevrolet, Daewoo, Holden, Pontiac, Ravon, Suzuki and ZAZ).[4] In its home market of South Korea, the T200 was known as Daewoo Kalos, before being rebranded Daewoo Gentra. In several Asian, Australasian, and European export markets, the "Daewoo Kalos" name was also used, only to be later renamed "Chevrolet Aveo" or Holden Barina in the case of Australasia. In

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Internet censorship

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Internet censorship

Internet censorship is the control or suppression of what can be accessed, published, or viewed on the Internet enacted by regulators, or on their own initiative. Individuals and organizations may engage in self-censorship for moral, religious, or business reasons, to conform to societal norms, due to intimidation, or out of fear of legal or other consequences.[1][2] The extent of Internet censorship varies on a country-to-country basis. While most democratic countries have moderate Internet censorship, other countries go as far as to limit the access of information such as news and suppress discussion among citizens.[2] Internet censorship also occurs in response to or in anticipation of events such as elections, protests, and riots. An example is the increased censorship due to the events of the Arab Spring. Other types of censorship include the use of copyrights, defamation, harassment, and obscene material claims as a way to suppress content. Support for and opposition to Internet censorship also varies

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Environmental governance

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Environmental governance

Environmental governance is a concept in political ecology and environmental policy that advocates sustainability (sustainable development) as the supreme consideration for managing all human activities—political, social and economic.[1] Governance includes government, business and civil society, and emphasizes whole system management. To capture this diverse range of elements, environmental governance often employs alternative systems of governance, for example watershed-based management.[2] It views natural resources and the environment as global public goods, belonging to the category of goods that are not diminished when they are shared.[3] This means that everyone benefits from for example, a breathable atmosphere, stable climate and stable biodiversity. Public goods are non-rivalrous—a natural resource enjoyed by one person can still be enjoyed by others—and non-excludable—it is impossible to prevent someone consuming the good (breathing). Nevertheless, public goods are recognized as beneficial and th

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Avro Vulcan

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Avro Vulcan

Vulcans in anti-flash white in 1957 The Avro Vulcan (later Hawker Siddeley Vulcan[2] from July 1963)[3] is a jet-powered tailless delta wing high-altitude strategic bomber, which was operated by the Royal Air Force (RAF) from 1956 until 1984. Aircraft manufacturer A.V. Roe and Company (Avro) designed the Vulcan in response to Specification B.35/46. Of the three V bombers produced, the Vulcan was considered the most technically advanced and hence the riskiest option. Several reduced-scale aircraft, designated Avro 707, were produced to test and refine the delta wing design principles. The Vulcan B.1 was first delivered to the RAF in 1956; deliveries of the improved Vulcan B.2 started in 1960. The B.2 featured more powerful engines, a larger wing, an improved electrical system and electronic countermeasures (ECM); many were modified to accept the Blue Steel missile. As a part of the V-force, the Vulcan was the backbone of the United Kingdom's airborne nuclear deterrent during much of the Cold War. Although th

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