The Nineteenth Century Club

The Nineteenth Century Club, in the historic Rowland J. Darnell House.

The Nineteenth Century Club is a historic philanthropic and cultural women's club based in Memphis, Tennessee. The Nineteenth Century Club adopted the idea that the community was an extended "household" that would benefit from the "gentler spirit" and "uplifting influence" of women, and shifted towards civic reform. The club primarily focused on the needs of women and children, addressing public problems such as sanitation, health, education, employment, and labor conditions.[1]

Creation

The club was founded in May 1890 following an assembly of elite white women at the Gayoso Hotel in Memphis. The founding members included the women activists Elise Massey Selden, Elizabeth Fisher Johnson, Elizabeth Avery Meriwether, Elizabeth Lyle Saxon, Clara Conway, and Lide Meriwether.[2] The stated objectives of the club were "to promote the female intellect by encouraging a spirit of research in literary fields and provide an intellectual center for the women of Memphis." The club was immediately successful, with membership steadily rising and peaking at around 1,400 members in 1926.[1]

Political activism

In 1891, one of the four committees in the club was "Philanthropy and Reform", which attempted to influence Memphis officials. The members wanted to participate in the development of the city and inject women's "gentler spirit" and more "loving wisdom" into municipal affairs. While the activities of the club empowered female influence in politics, members made many assurances that the goal was not radical political upheaval, cautioning against ambition and arguing that activism made was merely "housekeeping" that was extended to the "family" of the city community.[3]

The activism promoted by the club was described as a very selfless and feminine brand of activism. Despite the many disclaimers, the movement did signal a "new sense of power and capacity among American women", particularly in the South. The club motto was "Influence is Responsibility", which epitomized their feelings of accountability for society.[3]

In 1892, the Congress of the Association for the Advancement of Women congregated for the first time in a southern city at its 20th annual meeting with the Nineteenth Century Club. Founding member Clara Conway made the opening remarks, stating that women "were impatient with incompleteness" and were eager to move away from leisure to become productive members of society.[3]

Campaigns

Notable successful campaigns were securing a police matron at the city jail, establishing a female sanitary inspector at the Board of Health, forming the Shelby County Anti-Tuberculosis Society, and founding a new city hospital.[1] They also played an important role in the West Tennessee State Normal School, which later came to be known as the University of Memphis.[1]

In 1897, the Hamburg branch of the club established the Hamburg Public Library in an effort to enrich the community and improve education. At that time, the club had limited membership of 19 women, including several librarians and teachers. In 1901, the Hamburg Business Men's Club took over management of the library and formed the Library Association. The New York State Education Department chartered the library in 1902, and it remains open to this day.[4]

Modern day

The club remains in existence today.[1] In 1926, the club acquired a mansion built in 1906 by Rowland Darnell, a great lumber magnate of Memphis, and remained there for over 20 years. The mansion was eventually sold as membership continued to decline over the years. A legal battle took place over ownership and historical preservation of the mansion, eventually resulting in a restoration and conversion into a restaurant.[5]

References
  1. Wedell, Marsha (25 December 2009). "Nineteenth Century Club | Entries | Tennessee Encyclopedia". The Tennessee Encyclopedia of History and Culture. The University of Tennessee Press. Retrieved 2015-12-16.
  2. Bond, Beverly Greene; Freeman, Sarah Wilkerson (2015-07-01). Tennessee Women: Their Lives and Times--Volume 2. University of Georgia Press. ISBN 9780820337432.
  3. Wedell, Marsha (1991-01-01). Elite Women and the Reform Impulse in Memphis, 1875-1915. Univ. of Tennessee Press. ISBN 9780870497049.
  4. Edson, John. "The Legacy of the Nineteenth Century Club". Buffalo and Erie County Public Library. Buffalo and Erie County Public Library System. Retrieved 2016-01-04.
  5. "Rowland J. Darnell and the 19th Century Club". Historic Memphis Website. Retrieved 2015-12-18.
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Hellfire Club

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Hellfire Club

Portrait of Francis Dashwood, 11th Baron le Despencer by William Hogarth from the late 1750s, parodying Renaissance images of Francis of Assisi. The Bible has been replaced by a copy of the erotic novel Elegantiae Latini sermonis, and the profile of Dashwood's friend Lord Sandwich peers from the halo. Hellfire Club was a name for several exclusive clubs for high society rakes established in Britain and Ireland in the 18th century. The name is most commonly used to refer to Sir Francis Dashwood's Order of the Friars of St. Francis of Wycombe.[1] Such clubs were rumoured to be the meeting places of "persons of quality"[2] who wished to take part in socially perceived immoral acts, and the members were often involved in politics. Neither the activities nor membership of the club are easy to ascertain, for the clubs were rumoured to have distant ties to an elite society known only as The Order of the Second Circle.[3][4] The first official Hellfire Club was founded in London in 1718, by Philip, Duke of Wharton ...more...

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History of Harrisburg, Pennsylvania

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History of Harrisburg, Pennsylvania

The history of Harrisburg, the state capital of the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania, United States, has played a key role in the development of the nation's industrial history, from its origins as a trading outpost to the present. Harrisburg has played a critical role in American history during the Westward Migration, the American Civil War, and the Industrial Revolution. During part of the 19th century, the building of the Pennsylvania Canal and later the Pennsylvania Railroad, allowed Harrisburg to become one of the most industrialized cities in the Northeastern United States. Early settlement The site along the Susquehanna River where Harrisburg is located is thought to have been inhabited by Native Americans as early as 3000 BC. Known to the Native Americans as "Peixtin," or "Paxtang," the area was an important resting place and crossroads for Native American traders, as the trails leading from the Delaware to the Ohio rivers, and from the Potomac to the Upper Susquehanna intersected there. The first Europe ...more...

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Poetry of Scotland

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Poetry of Scotland

A page from The Bannatyne Manuscript, the major source for Scottish Medieval and Early Modern poetry Poetry of Scotland includes all forms of verse written in Brythonic, Latin, Scottish Gaelic, Scots, French, English and Esperanto and any language in which poetry has been written within the boundaries of modern Scotland, or by Scottish people. Much of the earliest Welsh literature was composed in or near Scotland, but only written down in Wales much later. These include The Gododdin, considered the earliest surviving verse from Scotland. Very few works of Gaelic poetry survive from this period and most of these in Irish manuscripts. The Dream of the Rood, from which lines are found on the Ruthwell Cross, is the only surviving fragment of Northumbrian Old English from early Medieval Scotland. In Latin early works include a "Prayer for Protection" attributed to St Mugint, and Altus Prosator ("The High Creator") attributed to St Columba. There were probably filidh who acted as poets, musicians and historians. ...more...

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Kentucky Federation of Women's Clubs

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Kentucky Federation of Women's Clubs

The Kentucky Federation of Women's Clubs (KFWC) is a community and civic umbrella organization for women in Kentucky. It was founded in 1894 and is affiliated with the General Federation of Women's Clubs (GFWC). The KFWC helped bring about various reforms in Kentucky and expanded educational opportunities to citizens. About Cornelia O. Hansford, past president of the Kentucky Federation of Women's Clubs. The Kentucky Federation of Women's Clubs (KFWC) was created in July 1894, when several women met in Lexington to form the group. It was the fourth state federation of women's clubs to become affiliated with the General Federation of Women's Clubs (GFWC). The club has held annual meetings since the first one in 1985 at Richmond. By 1898, the KFWC had thirty clubs it represented throughout the state. In 1909, there were 85 different organizations in the KFWC. By 1921, there were 150 clubs and around 16,000 individual clubwomen. These women were white and were generally upper-class to middle class. KFWC ...more...



The College Club of Boston

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The College Club of Boston

The College Club of Boston is a private membership organization founded in 1890 as the first women's college club in the United States. Located in the historic Back Bay of Boston, Massachusetts at 44 Commonwealth Avenue, the College Club was established by nineteen college educated women whose mission was to form a social club where they and other like-minded women could meet and share companionship. The College Club of Boston the oldest residential college club in the United States.[1] History In December 1890, 76 Marlborough Street, also located in Boston's Back Bay, became the first home of The College Club.[2] The building at 76 Marlborough was purchased by Club member Mabel Cummings in 1893. In April 1905, the College Club acquired the clubhouse at 40 Commonwealth Avenue, which contained an Old English drawing room, a fine big cafe with a male chef, and seven bedrooms, each of which "were furnished and decorated in the colors of various women's colleges: crimson rambler wallpaper for Radcliffe, blue s ...more...

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Era Club of New Orleans

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Era Club of New Orleans

The Era Club of New Orleans was a woman's club in New Orleans, Louisiana. It was one of the largest woman's clubs in the southern United States.[1] The club did charitable works, advocated for reform and for women's suffrage. History The Era Club was founded in 1896 by Evelyn W. Ordway and was affiliated with the Portia Club.[2] The name was really an acronym, standing for the "Equal Rights for All."[3] The Era Club worked for women's suffrage in Louisiana and also towards improvements in education, sanitation and other civic matters.[4] The club also raised money for charities and was involved in campaigning against child labor.[5] The Era Club was also the only organization in New Orleans advocating for women's suffrage between 1900 and 1913.[5] Notable members Elizabeth Bass.[6] Jean Gordon.[7] Kate M. Gordon, served as president.[8] References Segrave, Kerry (2016). The Hatpin Menace: American Women Armed and Fashionable, 1887–1920. Jefferson, North Carolina: McFarland. p. 169. ISBN 978 ...more...

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Alabama's Colored Women's Club

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Alabama's Colored Women's Club

An Alabama's Colored Women's Club refers to any member of the Alabama Federation of Colored Women's Club, including the "Ten Times One is Ten Club", the Tuskegee Women's Club, and the Anna M. Duncan Club of Montgomery. These earliest clubs united and created the Alabama Federation of Colored Women's Club in 1899. By 1904, there were more than 26 clubs throughout Alabama. The most active ones were in Birmingham, Selma, Mobile, Tuskegee, Tuscaloosa, Eufaula, Greensboro, and Mt. Megis.[1] Early history The first African American women's club in Alabama, the "Ten Times One is Ten Club" was established in 1888.[2] It was followed by the Anna M. Duncan Club of Montgomery, established in 1892, and the Tuskegee Women's Club, established in 1895.[3] Tuskegee Women's Club Under the leadership of Margaret Murray Washington the Tuskegee Women's Club was formed by female faculty and the wives of male faculty members of the Tuskegee Institute. Thirteen women took part at the first meeting of the club in 1895, which was ...more...

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Liberalism in Mexico

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Liberalism in Mexico

Liberalism in Mexico was part of a broader nineteenth-century political trend affecting Western Europe and the Americas, including the United States, that challenged entrenched power.[1] Nineteenth-century liberalism Alegoría de la Constitución de 1857 shows a dark complected Mexican woman clutching the liberal constitution of 1857. The 1869 painting by Petronilo Monroy was completed after the expulsion of the French in 1867. Most Mexican liberals looked to European thinkers in their formulation of their ideology, which has led to a debate about whether those ideas were merely "Mexicanized" versions.[2] In Mexico, the most salient aspects of nineteenth-century liberalism were to create a secular state separated from the Roman Catholic Church, establish equality before the law by abolishing corporate privileges (fueros) of the church, the military, and indigenous communities. Liberals' aim was to transform Mexico into a modern secular state with a dynamic economy. Corporate privilege and the conservati ...more...

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Western use of the swastika in the early 20th century

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Western use of the swastika in the early 20th century

Postcard sent in June 1910 The swastika (from Sanskrit svástika) is a symbol that generally takes the form of an equilateral cross, with its four arms bent at 90 degrees in either right-facing (卐) form or its mirrored left-facing (卍) form. The Swastika (also known outside the Indian subcontinent as the Hakenkreuz, gammadion cross, cross cramponnée, croix gammée, fylfot, or tetraskelion) (as a character 卐 or 卍) is an ancient Indo-European religious symbol originating from the Ukraine, that generally takes the form of an equilateral cross with four legs each bent at 90 degrees.[1][2] It is considered to be a sacred and auspicious symbol in Hinduism, Buddhism, and Jainism and dates back at least 11,000 years.[3] Archaeological evidence of swastika-shaped ornaments dates from the Neolithic period and was first found in the Mezine, Ukraine. The swastika (gammadion, "fylfot") symbol became a popular symbol of luck in the Western world in the early 20th century, as it had long been in Asia, and was often used for ...more...

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The Woman's Era

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The Woman's Era

The Woman's Era was the first national newspaper published by and for African-American women. Originally established as a monthly Boston newspaper, it became distributed nationally in 1894 and ran until January 1897, with Josephine St. Pierre Ruffin as editor and publisher.[1] The Woman's Era played an important role in the national African-American women's club movement. History In 1892, Boston activist Josephine St. Pierre Ruffin founded the Woman's Era Club, an advocacy group for black women, with the help of her daughter, Florida Ruffin Ridley, and educator Maria Louise Baldwin. It was the first black women's club in Boston,[2] and one of the first in the country. Its members, prominent black women from the Boston area, devoted their efforts to education, women's suffrage, and race-related issues such as anti-lynching reform. Its slogan was "Help to make the world better".[3] The Woman's Era, an illustrated monthly publication, was the club's newspaper.[4] Ruffin served as its editor and publisher; Ridl ...more...

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Equal Suffrage League (Brooklyn)

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Equal Suffrage League (Brooklyn)

Equal Suffrage League was a suffrage organization founded by Sarah J. Garnet in Brooklyn, New York, in the late 1880s to advocate for voting rights for African American women. Dr. Susan Smith McKinney Steward was a contributor to the founding of the organization.[1] The group worked to abolish both gender and race bias. [2] After Garnet became the Superintendent of the Suffrage Department for the National Association of Colored Women (NACW), the Equal Suffrage League affiliated with the National Association of Colored Women. The small organization initially met in Garnet's seamstress shop.[3] In 1907 the Equal Suffrage League and National Association of Colored Women jointly supported a resolution supporting the principles of the Niagara Movement that advocated for equal rights for all American citizens. [2] The organization was short-lived, ending when Garnet died in 1911.[3] References Sterling, Dorothy, ed. (1984). We are Your Sisters: Black Women in the Nineteenth Century. New York: W. W. Norton & ...more...

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East Hampton (village), New York

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East Hampton (village), New York

The Village of East Hampton is a village in Suffolk County, New York, United States. It is located in the town of East Hampton on the South Fork of eastern Long Island. The population was 1,083 at the time of the 2010 census, 251 less than in the year 2000.[7] It is a center of the summer resort and upscale locality at the East End of Long Island known as The Hamptons and is generally considered one of the area's two most prestigious communities. History Seventeenth Century Founded in 1648 by Puritan farmers who worshiped as Presbyterians, the village of Easthampton was a farming community with some fishing and whaling. Whales that washed up on the beach were butchered and whales were hunted offshore with rowboats sometimes manned by Montauk Indians. Due to no good harbor in East Hampton; however, it was Sag Harbor which became a whaling center which sent ships to the Pacific.[8] The land had been purchased in 1648 by the governors of Connecticut Colony and New Haven Colony from the Montauk Indians, in lar ...more...

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Bagsecg

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Bagsecg

Bagsecg's name as it appears on folio 131r of British Library Cotton MS Tiberius B I (the "C" version of the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle): "Bagsecg".[1] Bagsecg (died 8 January 871), also known as Bacgsecg, was a ninth-century Viking, and one of the first to be recorded by the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle. Both he and Healfdene were the two commanding Viking kings of the Great Army that set up camp at Reading, and invaded the Kingdom of Wessex in the winter of 870/871. The Great Army is recorded to have combated the West Saxons in several engagements in 871. One of these was the Battle of Ashdown, in which Bagsecg and five Viking earls were slain against the forces Æthelred, King of Wessex. Upon Bagsecg's death, Healfdene seems to have been the sole king of the Great Army. The latter certainly seems to have been the principal leader when the Vikings overwintered in London later in the year. Three other Viking kings are identified by the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle in 875, and it is possible that some of them may have been el ...more...

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Frederick Douglass Woman's Club

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Frederick Douglass Woman's Club

The Frederick Douglass Woman's Club was formed in Chicago, Illinois in 1906.[1] It was one of the first women's clubs in Chicago to promote suffrage.[2] It was notable because it was one of the few interracial women's clubs in Chicago.[2] History The club was founded in 1906 by Celia Parker Woolley, a white Unitarian minister and novelist.[3] Most of the members of the club were middle-class, and it was an interracial club.[3] The club met weekly, hosting speakers who discussed political events of the day, including votes for women. Speakers included Elia W. Peattie, G. M. Faulkner of Liberia College, and Elmira Springer.[1] Ida B. Wells served as vice president of the club.[1] Because of social pressure from the Frederick Douglass Woman's Club, the Chicago Political League, another local woman's club extended their membership to African-American women.[3] See also Woman's club movement References Knupfer, Anne Meis (1996). Toward a tenderer and a nobler womanhood : African American women's clubs ...more...

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Colored Female Religious and Moral Society

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Colored Female Religious and Moral Society

The Colored Female Religious and Moral Society was an African American women's club organized in 1818 in Salem.[1] The group was started by forty women and they created their own constitution.[2] The group's constitution was published in the Liberator, an abolitionist paper.[3] The members promised that they would "be charitably watchful over each other."[4] Members also were required to take an oath of secrecy.[5] The organization was religious in nature, but they also worked to get sickness and death benefits for others.[6] In 1833, after membership had dwindled, the society was again revived.[7] Many of the members were "Christian propertied elite."[5] References Scott, Anne Firor (1990-01-01). "Most Invisible of All: Black Women's Voluntary Associations". The Journal of Southern History. 56 (1): 6. doi:10.2307/2210662. JSTOR 2210662. (Registration required (help)). Sterling, Dorothy (1997). We are Your Sisters: Black Women in the Nineteenth Century (Revised ed.). W. W. Norton & Company. p. 1 ...more...

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Primrose Club

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Primrose Club

The Primrose Club was a short-lived political London gentlemen's club founded in 1886 and located at 4-5 Park Place, St. James's. It was aligned to the Conservative party, with members having to pledge support. It was launched as a bid to combine the explosion of the popularity of clubs in London at the end of the nineteenth century with the phenomenal success of the Conservative-aligned Primrose League. At first it proved highly successful, with Whitaker's Almanack reporting 6,500 members, but within a decade this had already shrunk to 5,500, and by 1910 it had just 350 members, and was disbanded shortly afterwards.[1] Notes Antonia Taddei, London clubs in the late nineteenth century (Oxford University discussion paper, 1999), p.20 See also List of London's gentlemen's clubs 51°30′22.56″N 0°8′26.34″W / 51.5062667°N 0.1406500°W ...more...

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Beverly Hills Women's Club

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Beverly Hills Women's Club

The Beverly Hills Women's Club is an historic house and social club in Beverly Hills, California.[2][3][4][5][6][7][8] History Beginnings The club was founded in October 1916, and it served as a unit for the American Red Cross during the First World War.[8] The clubhouse In 1925, they raised US$4,000 at a horse show attended by the likes of Hobart Bosworth, Douglas Fairbanks, Mary Pickford, Stanley S. Anderson (owner of the Beverly Hills Hotel), Cecilia DeMille (daughter of Cecil B. DeMille), Charles E. Toberman, Silsby Spalding (Mayor of Beverly Hills), and Alphonzo Bell (developer of Bel Air, California).[8] Later that year, they used that money to move into the newly constructed clubhouse.[2][3] The clubhouse is a one-story, stucco-clad Spanish Colonial Revival with a tiled hip roof.[7][9] It features pilasters, scrolled brackets, an entablature topped by a pediment with a shield and urn motif surrounding the main door, and casement windows.[7] It was designed by the architectural team , who also desig ...more...

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List of mayors of Albany, New York

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List of mayors of Albany, New York

Albany City Hall houses the mayor's office From its formal chartering on 22 July 1686 until 1779, the mayors of Albany, New York, were appointed by the royal governor of New York, per the provisions of the original city charter, issued by Governor Thomas Dongan. From 1779 until 1839, mayors were chosen by the New York State's Council of Appointment, typically for a one-year term that began in September. From 1840 on, Albany's mayors were directly elected by the city's residents. Beginning in 1886, mayoral terms began on January 1 of the year after the mayor was elected. A total of 74 men and one woman have served as mayor since the City's inception; eighteen of them served multiple terms that were not consecutive. Erastus Corning 2nd served for over 40 years, longer than any other mayor of any other major United States city. Kathy Sheehan (Democrat) is the current mayor; she was first elected in 2013, began service on January 1, 2014, and is currently in her first term of office. Since Thomas M. Whalen I ...more...

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List of poetry groups and movements

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List of poetry groups and movements

Poetry groups and movements or schools may be self-identified by the poets that form them or defined by critics who see unifying characteristics of a body of work by more than one poet. To be a 'school' a group of poets must share a common style or a common ethos. A commonality of form is not in itself sufficient to define a school; for example, Edward Lear, George du Maurier and Ogden Nash do not form a school simply because they all wrote limericks. There are many different 'schools' of poetry. Some of them are described below in approximate chronological sequence. The subheadings indicate broadly the century in which a style arose. Prehistoric The Oral tradition is too broad to be a strict school but it is a useful grouping of works whose origins either predate writing, or belong to cultures without writing. Fifteenth century (1400-1500) The Makars were a diverse genere of Scottish poets who wrote during the Northern Renaissance. Sixteenth century (1500-1600) The Castalian Band. Seventeenth century ...more...

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San Pedro Woman's Club

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San Pedro Woman's Club

The San Pedro Woman's Club (SPWC) was a civic organization created in 1905 in San Pedro, California. The organization consisted mainly of the wives of prominent members of the community and was concerned with the improvement of the city.[1] SPWC was affiliated with the California Federation of Woman's Clubs (CFWC).[2] About The club was founded as a literary association in 1905, but re-organized in 1906 under the leadership of Fanny Hogaboom to respond to moves by the city of Los Angeles to annex San Pedro. It quickly became involved in serious municipal improvements to San Pedro.[3] It became federated in November 1907.[4] The club, partnering with the local chapter of the Women's Christian Temperance Union (WCTU) started their reforms by working to eliminate saloons.[5] SPWC installed drinking fountains in the city as an alternative to needing to purchase drinks in a saloon.[5] SPWC also persuaded the city council to shut down saloons for one day a week.[6] They planted trees throughout the city on Arbor ...more...

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Brooklyn Women's Club

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Brooklyn Women's Club

The Brooklyn Women's Club was an organization founded in 1869 and incorporated in 1871.[1] Laura Curtis Bullard cofounded the organization along with her friend Elizabeth Tilton and served as its first president. In 1912, the club moved to 114 Pierrepont Street in Brooklyn Heights[2][3] and shared the building with the Brooklyn Women Suffrage Association[1] and the Civitas Club.[4] In 1915, Ida Sherwood Coffin (née Willets) served as president.[5] After his election in 1921, President Warren Harding wrote to Mrs. William Hoster, director of social services for the organization, to endorse their work for child welfare in Brooklyn.[6] In addition to working towards women's suffrage, the club also hosted events such as card games for hundreds of attendees[7] and lectures on world politics and peace advocacy.[8] References Ina Brevoot Roberts, ed. (1913). Club Women of New York. Club Women of New York Company. Retrieved 2015-06-07. American Institute of Architects (2010). AIA Guide to New York City. Oxf ...more...



Marguerite Harbert

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Marguerite Harbert

Marguerite Jones Harbert (1923 – March 17, 2015) was an American philanthropist and billionaire from Alabama. Early life Margarite Jones was born in 1923 in Birmingham, Alabama. Her father was Raymond McAdoo Jones and her mother, Marguerite Nabers Jones.[1] She had a sister, Alice McGriff.[1] She descended from Birmingham's founders.[2] She was educated at Mountain Brook Elementary School and Phillips High School.[1][2] She graduated from Birmingham–Southern College, where she served as president of the Kappa Delta sorority chapter.[1][2][3] Philanthropy Jones worked for the American Red Cross in Jefferson County, Alabama.[1][2][3] Later, she volunteered for the "Junior League of Birmingham, Advent Day School, All-Saints School, Children's Hospital, Center for Developmental Learning Disabilities, Spain Rehabilitation, Birmingham Art Association, Birmingham Ballet League, American Heart Association and Linly Heflin Unit."[1][2] A member of the American Needlepoint Guild, she needlepointed an armchair for ...more...

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Books in the United States

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Books in the United States

As of 2017, several firms in the United States rank among the world's biggest publishers of books in terms of revenue: Cengage Learning, HarperCollins, Houghton Mifflin Harcourt, McGraw-Hill Education, Quarto, Scholastic, Simon & Schuster, and Wiley.[1][nb 1] History See also: English Short Title Catalogue, 15th-18th centuries; Early American Imprints, 1639-1819 In 1640 in Cambridge, Massachusetts, Stephen Daye produced the first book printed in British North America, the Bay Psalm Book.[3] The American Library Association formed in 1876, and the Bibliographical Society of America in 1904. The national Center for the Book began in 1977. Types Children's books: United States and List of American children's books American cookbooks Bookselling See also: Bookselling in the US, Bookstores of the US, List of US booksellers' associations, Antiquarian book trade in the US, List of booksellers in Boston Popular books in the 19th century included Sheldon's In His Steps (1896). 20th century bestsel ...more...

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Chilton Club

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Chilton Club

Chilton Club Chilton Club The Chilton Club is a private social club established in 1910, in the Back Bay area of Boston, Massachusetts.[1] Founded by Pauline Revere Thayer,[2] the club was intended in part as a counterpoint to the Mayflower Club. The club was named after Mary Chilton because she had been the first woman to step out of the Mayflower.[3] The club occupies a large red brick building on Commonwealth Avenue,[4] designed in 1870 by architect "Henry Richards of the firm of Ware and Van Brunt."[5] (However, some claim the building was designed by architects Peabody and Stearns.)[6] The building has been altered and expanded over the years. "On May 18, 1910, the Chilton Club applied for (and subsequently received) permission to significantly remodel and expand the house, including removing the original third floor, with its mansard roof, and adding three additional floors, two of brick and the third "in roof." They also received permission to construct an addition at the rear, 38 feet by 18 ...more...

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Iowa Federation of Colored Women's Clubs

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Iowa Federation of Colored Women's Clubs

The Iowa Federation of Colored Women's Clubs (IFCWC) was an umbrella organization serving African-American women's clubs in Iowa. The motto of IFCWC was "Sowing Seeds of Kindness," and the organization was affiliated with the National Association of Colored Women.[1] The club produced a journal called the Iowa Colored Woman.[2] IFCWC sent delegates to represent the state at national conventions and opportunities such as "Colored Women's day" at the 1939 New York World's Fair.[3] The IFCWC is also known for creating a black women's dormitory for the University of Iowa before the school was fully integrated. About The IFCWC was created in May 1902[4] and was at first known as the Iowa Association of Colored Women's Clubs.[5] The first convention met in Ottumwa with only a few women and their clubs attending.[6] The first president was Helen Downey.[7] By 1904, there were 300 women attending the annual conference and clubs from all cities large enough to support them sent representatives.[6] By 1914, the IFCWC ...more...

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Hamburg, New York

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Hamburg, New York

Hamburg is a town in Erie County, New York, United States. As of the 2010 census, the town had a population of 56,936.[3] It is named after the city of Hamburg, in Germany.[4] The town is on the western border of the county and is south of Buffalo. Hamburg is one of the Southtowns in Erie County. The villages of Hamburg and Blasdell are in the town. History Vintage image of Woodlawn Beach in 1896 Historical evidence shows the area was settled originally by the Erie people.[5] Around 1805 the settlement was known as "Barkerville", named after Zenas Barker, the postmaster. On the site of this building today is the Dock at the Bay. The first landowner in the area was John Cummings, who built the first grist mill in 1806. The town of Hamburg was formed by government decree on March 20, 1812, from the (now defunct) town of Willink. The first town meeting took place on April 7, 1812, at Jacob Wright's tavern at Wright's Corners, which was renamed Abbott's Corners, and now Armor. One of the early noted acti ...more...

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The Dark Days Club

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The Dark Days Club

The Dark Days Club is a 2016 historical fiction novel by Alison Goodman.[1][2] The book is first of the Lady Helen series. The story is set in early nineteenth century London.[3] The series is a Regency romance.[4] Characters Lady Helen References "The Dark Days Club". Google Books. 2016-02-04. Retrieved 2016-02-15. "Read an exclusive excerpt from Alison Goodman's 'The Dark Days Club'". Entertainment Weekly's EW.com. 2015-08-12. Retrieved 2016-02-15. @danizhuu, Danielle Zhu • (2016-01-26). "'The Dark Days Club' by Alison Goodman: EW Review". Entertainment Weekly's EW.com. Retrieved 2016-02-15. Chopin, Allison (2016-02-08). "'The Dark Days Club': Regency romance with demonic twist". NY Daily News. Retrieved 2016-02-15. ...more...

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Lilian Wyckoff Johnson

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Lilian Wyckoff Johnson

Lilian Wyckoff Johnson (June 19, 1864 − September 22, 1956) was an American teacher of history and an advocate for rural reform and civil rights.[1] She was born in Memphis, Tennessee[2] to John Cumming Johnson and Elizabeth Fisher. Both of her parents valued education and were strong proponents of community service. Her mother headed up the Memphis Women's Christian Association and was the first president of the Women's Christian Temperance Union.[1] After an early education in private schools, in 1878 Lilian was sent to Dayton, Ohio to take refuge during a yellow fever outbreak; while there, she attended the Cooper Academy.[3] Her parents then sent the 15 year old Lilian and her sister to Wellesley College in 1879,[1] with the first two years being spent in preparatory school.[3] However, Lilian had to return home upon the death of her mother in 1883, and was unable to complete her studies.[1] After spending a year at a State Normal School in Cortland, New York,[3] she returned home to teach at Hope Night ...more...

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List of football club nicknames in the United Kingdom

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List of football club nicknames in the United Kingdom

This is a list of nicknames for United Kingdom football clubs. Nicknames are usually preceded by 'The'. The origins of some nicknames are unclear with various stories being put forward. The usual basis for nicknames are: Local industry Colour(s) of home strip Name of club Name of area or ground Logo Influence by Players or Fans England Nickname Club(s) Reason Addicks Charlton Athletic A corruption of the word 'haddocks', named after a local fish and chip shop Ash Trees Ashford Town The emblem of the town, derived both from the name of the town and from the large tree that stood in the centre of the town for many years Atom Men AFC Aldermaston Named after the local Atomic Weapons Research Establishment Avenue Bradford Park Avenue The club has always been known colloquially as "Avenue" Badgers Stalybridge Celtic Baggies West Bromwich Albion Acquired when the players played in long shorts Bantams Bradford City A reference to the claret and amber colours of the club's strip[1] ...more...

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Democracy in China

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Democracy in China

'Democracy' was a major concept introduced to China in the late nineteenth century. Qing dynasty The first introduction of the concept of modern democracy into China is credited to exiled Chinese writer Liang Qichao. In 1895, he participated in protests in Beijing for increased popular participation during the late Qing Dynasty, the last ruling dynasty of China. It was the first of its kind in modern Chinese history. After escaping to Japan following the government's clampdown on anti-Qing protesters, Liang Qichao translated and commented on the works of Hobbes, Rousseau, Locke, Hume, Bentham and many other western political philosophers. He published his essays in a series of journals that easily found an audience among Chinese intelligentsia hungering for an explanation of why China, once a formidable empire of its own, was now on the verge of being dismembered by foreign powers. In interpreting Western democracy through the prism of his strongly Confucian background, Liang shaped the ideas of democracy t ...more...

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Texas Association of Women's Clubs

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Texas Association of Women's Clubs

The Texas Association of Women's Clubs (TAWC) is an umbrella organization of African American women's clubs in Texas. It was first organized as the Texas Federation of Colored Women's Clubs in 1905. The purpose of the group was to allow clubs to work together to improve the social and moral life of people in Texas.[1] The club also spoke on topics of interest to black women in the United States.[2] History Mrs. M.E.Y. Moore founded the organization under the name Texas Federation of Colored Women's Clubs in Gainesville, Texas in 1905.[1] Black women had been excluded from joining the Texas Federation of Women's Clubs.[3] In 1906, they affiliated with the National Association of Colored Women's Clubs.[4] In 1915, they formally endorsed women's suffrage.[4] The TAWC began to petition the state in 1918 to raise money for a home for delinquent black girls which later became the Crockett State School.[1] The land for the school was purchased in 1920 by the club.[5] In 1922 the organization created a drive to ra ...more...

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Woman's Improvement Club (Indianapolis)

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Woman's Improvement Club (Indianapolis)

The Woman's Improvement Club of Indianapolis, Indiana, was formed in 1903 by Lillian Thomas Fox, Beulah Wright Porter, and other prominent African American women as a small literary group to improve their education, but it was especially active and best known for its pioneering efforts to provide facilities to care for the city's African American tuberculosis patients from 1905 to the mid-1930s. The clubwomen also supported the war effort during World War I and provided social service assistance to Indianapolis's impoverished residents and its African American youth. By 1960, when tuberculosis was no longer a major health threat, the club continued its support of the local black community in other ways, such as a visiting nurse program and scholarships to students graduating from Crispus Attucks High School students. In the mid-1960s, after its membership significantly declined, its records were donated to the Indiana Historical Society. Founding In the tradition of many other black women's clubs in the ear ...more...

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History of rail transport in India

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History of rail transport in India

Rail transport in India began during the early nineteenth century. 1832–1852: Industrial railways India's first railway proposals were made in Madras in 1832.[1] The Red Hill Railway, the country's first train, ran from Red Hills to Chintadripet bridge in Madras in 1837. It was hauled by a rotary steam-engine locomotive manufactured by William Avery. Built by Arthur Cotton, the railway was primarily used to transport granite stone for road-building work in Madras.[1] In 1845, the Godavari Dam Construction Railway was built at Dowleswaram in Rajahmundry. Also built by Cotton, it supplied stone for the construction of a dam over the Godavari River.[1] On 8 May 1845, the Madras Railway was incorporated, followed that year by the East India Railway. On 1 August 1849, the Great Indian Peninsular Railway was incorporated by an act of parliament. The "guarantee system", providing free land and a guaranteed five-percent rate of return to private British companies willing to build railways, was finalized on 17 Augu ...more...

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Chicago Woman's Club

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Chicago Woman's Club

Founder and Presidents, Chicago Woman's Club. The Chicago Woman's Club was formed in 1876 by women in Chicago who were interested in "self and social improvement."[1] The club was notable for creating educational opportunities in the Chicago region and helped create the first juvenile court in the United States.[1] The group was primarily made up of wealthy and middle-class white women, with physicians, lawyers and university professors playing "prominent roles."[2] The club often worked towards social and educational reform in Chicago. It also hosted talks by prominent women, including artists and suffragists.[3][4][5][6][7][8][9][10] The Chicago Woman's Club was responsible for creating the first Protective Agency in the United States that dealt with assault and rape of women. The group was active in reform of the Cook County Insane Hospital and of other health reforms. They helped establish the first kindergartens and nursery schools in Chicago. Later, the club became involved with both the woman's suff ...more...

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Los Angeles Nurses' Club

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Los Angeles Nurses' Club

Los Angeles Nurses' Club is a clubhouse and apartment building for nurses located in the Westlake district of Central Los Angeles, California. History The large building was built in 1924 by the Los Angeles Nurses' Club. The club was organized and incorporated as a non-profit corporation in 1921. The club's members conducted several bazaars, some theatre parties, and a dance, raising funds to buy a lot, which they then sold for a profit. By 1923, the club had raised sufficient funds to purchase a hilltop lot at the corner of Third Street and Lucas Street, west of Downtown Los Angeles in the Westlake district. The clubhouse was intended to provide a place "where registered nurses may live and enjoy the few quiet hours spared from their arduous duties." Building Architect John J. Frauenfelder was hired to design the building. Frauenfelder designed a structure consisting of four stories and a basement. The ground floor had a large living room with a library and fireplace, which was intended to lend a "hom ...more...

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Atlanta Woman's Club

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Atlanta Woman's Club

The Atlanta Woman’s Club is one of oldest non-profit woman’s organizations in Atlanta, organized November 11, 1895. It is a 501(c)3 non-profit philanthropic organization made up of professional women of all ages, races and religions. The Atlanta Woman’s Club is part of the Georgia Federation of Women’s Clubs, as well as the General Federation of Women's Clubs. The Georgia Federation of Women's Clubs (GFWC Georgia) is a state organization composed of 150 women's clubs throughout the State of Georgia, whose members provide volunteer service to their communities. Each Club sets their own agendas and works on projects and programs that address the specific needs of their communities. Members of all ages have opportunities for personal growth and enrichment through leadership training and development. Every Georgia clubwoman is also a member of the General Federation of Women's Clubs (GFWC). The General Federation of Women’s Clubs is an international philanthropic organization headquartered in Washington, D.C. Th ...more...

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American Staffordshire Terrier

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American Staffordshire Terrier

The American Staffordshire Terrier, also known as Amstaff (in the United States of America), is a medium-sized, short-coated American dog breed. It is one of several breeds in the pit bull group.[2][3][4] In the early part of the twentieth century the breed gained social stature and was accepted by the American Kennel Club in 1936 and should not be confused with the Staffordshire Bull Terrier of the United Kingdom.[5] History One of the earliest AKC Champion American Staffordshire Terriers. American Staffordshire Terrier American Staffordshire Terrier with cropped ears American Staffordshire Terrier The Staffordshire Terrier's ancestor, the bull and terrier was first bred in the nineteenth century in Birmingham. The early ancestors of this breed came from England where, until the first part of the 19th century, the Bulldog was bred. Bulldogs pictured as late as 1870 resemble the Staffordshire Terrier's ancestor, the contemporary American Staffordshire Terriers, to a greater degree tha ...more...

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Scottish Agricultural Revolution

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Scottish Agricultural Revolution

Frontispiece from Transactions of the Society of Improvers (1743) The Agricultural Revolution in Scotland was a series of changes in agricultural practice that began in the seventeenth century and continued in the nineteenth century. They began with the improvement of Scottish Lowlands farmland and the beginning of a transformation of Scottish agriculture from one of the least modernised systems to what was to become the most modern and productive system in Europe. The traditional system of agriculture in Lowland Scotland had existed unchanged for hundreds of years, the land being worked by the cottars on the centuries-old runrig system of subsistence farming. Use of the term The term Scottish Agricultural Revolution was used in the early twentieth century primarily to refer to the period of most dramatic change in the second half of the eighteenth century and early nineteenth century. More recently historians have become aware of a longer processes, with change beginning in the late seventeenth century a ...more...

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Beefsteak Club

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Beefsteak Club

The present-day Beefsteak Club, Irving Street, London Beefsteak Club is the name or nickname of several 18th and 19th-century male dining clubs in Britain and Australia, that celebrated the beefsteak as a symbol of patriotic and often Whig concepts of liberty and prosperity. The first beefsteak club was founded about 1705 in London by the actor Richard Estcourt and others in the arts and politics. This club flourished for less than a decade. The Sublime Society of Beef Steaks was established in 1735 by another performer, John Rich, at the Theatre Royal, Covent Garden, where he was then manager, and George Lambert, his scenic artist, with two dozen members of the theatre and arts community (Samuel Johnson joined in 1780). The society became much celebrated, and new members included royalty, statesmen and great soldiers: in 1785, the Prince of Wales joined. At the weekly meetings, the members wore a blue coat and buff waistcoat with brass buttons bearing a gridiron motif and the words "Beef and liberty". Th ...more...

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Football

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Football

Several codes of football. Images, from top to down, left to right: Association football Australian rules football, international rules football, a rugby union scrum, rugby league, and American football. Football is a family of team sports that involve, to varying degrees, kicking a ball with a foot to score a goal. Unqualified, the word football is understood to refer to whichever form of football is the most popular in the regional context in which the word appears. Sports commonly called football in certain places include association football (known as soccer in some countries); gridiron football (specifically American football or Canadian football); Australian rules football; rugby football (either rugby league or rugby union); and Gaelic football.[1][2] These different variations of football are known as football codes. There are a number of references to traditional, ancient, or prehistoric ball games played by indigenous peoples in many different parts of the world.[3][4][5] Contemporary codes of foo ...more...

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Sports for All Club Nepal

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Guinea (coin)

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Guinea (coin)

Five Guinea coin, James II, Great Britain, 1688 The guinea was a coin of approximately one quarter ounce of gold that was minted in Great Britain between 1663 and 1814.[1] The name came from the Guinea region in West Africa, where much of the gold used to make the coins originated.[2] It was the first English machine-struck gold coin, originally worth one pound sterling,[1] equal to twenty shillings, but rises in the price of gold relative to silver caused the value of the guinea to increase, at times to as high as thirty shillings. From 1717 to 1816, its value was officially fixed at twenty-one shillings. When Britain adopted the gold standard the guinea became a colloquial or specialised term. Although the coin itself no longer circulated, the term guinea survived as a unit of account in some fields. Notable usages include horse racing,[1] and in the sale of rams to mean an amount of one pound and one shilling (21 shillings), or one pound and five pence (£1.05) in decimalised currency. The name also forms ...more...

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Savile Row

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Savile Row

Savile Row from Burlington Gardens Savile Row (pronounced ) is a street in Mayfair, central London. Known principally for its traditional bespoke tailoring for men, the street has had a varied history that has included accommodating the headquarters of the Royal Geographical Society at 1 Savile Row, where significant British explorations to Africa and the South Pole were planned; and more recently, the Apple office of the Beatles at 3 Savile Row, where the band's final live performance was held on the roof of the building. Originally named Savile Street, it was built between 1731 and 1735 as part of the development of the Burlington Estate. It was designed under the influence of Burlington's interpretation of Palladian architecture, known as "Burlingtonian". Henry Flitcroft, under the supervision of Daniel Garrett, appears to have been the main architect – though 1 and 22–23 Savile Row were designed by William Kent. Initially, the street was occupied mainly by military officers and their wives; later Willi ...more...

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Royal Gibraltar Yacht Club

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Royal Gibraltar Yacht Club

The Royal Gibraltar Yacht Club, formerly the Gibraltar Yacht Club, was established by officers of the Royal Navy in 1829. It was one of the first yacht clubs founded outside of Britain. British monarchs and Gibraltarian governors have been patrons of the club; the first visit by a reigning monarch was in 1954. During the latter twentieth century, the naval presence waned and the membership of locals dominated. The club's sailing school was established in 2001, accredited as a teaching facility in 2004, and became a testing centre in 2010. The reclamation projects in the middle section of Gibraltar Harbour necessitated the club's move from 26 Queensway to temporary premises. A new facility is under construction. History Ensign of the Royal Gibraltar Yacht Club The first meeting of the Gibraltar Yacht Club took place at the Griffiths Hotel. The Gibraltar Yacht Club was established in 1829 in the British overseas territory of Gibraltar by officers of the Royal Navy stationed at the garrison.[1][2][3] It ...more...

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America Info

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Woman's Christian Temperance Union

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Woman's Christian Temperance Union

The logo of the Woman's Christian Temperance Union (WCTU) is a white ribbon bow, representing purity. The Woman's Christian Temperance Union (WCTU) is an active international temperance organization that was among the first organizations of women devoted to social reform with a program that "linked the religious and the secular through concerted and far-reaching reform strategies based on applied Christianity."[1] It was influential in the temperance movement, and supported the 18th Amendment. The WCTU was originally organized on December 23, 1873, in Hillsboro, Ohio, and officially declared at a national convention in Cleveland, Ohio, in 1874.[2] It operated at an international level and in the context of religion and reform, including missionary work and woman's suffrage. Two years after its founding, the American WCTU sponsored an international conference at which the International Women's Christian Temperance Union was formed.[3] The World's Woman's Christian Temperance Union was founded in 1883 and bec ...more...

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Bachelors' Club

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Bachelors' Club

The Bachelors' Club was a London gentlemen's club in the late nineteenth and early twentieth century, now defunct. As the name suggests, membership was only open to bachelors. The club had a reputation for having a markedly younger membership than many other Edwardian clubs, and given the high-spirited antics which sometimes ensued on the premises, it was cited (along with Buck's) as an influence on the fictional Drones Club, in some of P.G. Wodehouse's earlier stories.[1] A persistent rumour circulated throughout its existence, and reached wider circulation in the 1920s, that some of its membership were 'confirmed bachelors' - then both illegal and publicly frowned upon – and it soon became superseded by Buck's as the young man's club in London, being forced to close shortly thereafter. Famous members included Field Marshal Sir Herbert Kitchener, and Capt. Berkeley Levett, a witness in the Royal Baccarat Scandal. See also In the Bachelors' Club, Tarbolton, Scotland, Robert Burns and his friends formed a l ...more...



Terrier

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Terrier

Staffordshire Bull Terrier Kerry Blue Terrier Short-legged terriers: Scottish Terrier and West Highland White Terrier Wire Fox Terrier Yorkshire Terrier Boston Terrier Airedale Terrier Jack Russell Terrier A terrier is a dog of any one of many breeds or landraces of the terrier type, which are typically small, wiry and fearless. Terrier breeds vary greatly in size from just 1 kg (2 lb) to over 32 kg (70 lb) and are usually categorized by size or function. There are five different groups, with each group having several different breeds. History A pet terrier in 1875 (English Toy Terrier type), painting by Frederick August Wenderoth Most terrier breeds were developed in Great Britain and Ireland. They were used to control rats, rabbits, and foxes both over and under the ground. Some larger terriers were also used to hunt badgers. The word terrier comes from the Middle French terre, derived from the Latin word for earth, terra. Terrier is also the modern French for "burrow". The Kerr ...more...

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City Beautiful movement

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City Beautiful movement

"White City" buildings in the World's Columbian Exposition (1893) widely displayed and inspired the City Beautiful movement, influencing architecture with such Beaux-Arts structures as the Museum of Science and Industry building. The City Beautiful Movement was a reform philosophy of North American architecture and urban planning that flourished during the 1890s and 1900s with the intent of introducing beautification and monumental grandeur in cities. The movement, which was originally associated mainly with Chicago, Cleveland, Detroit, and Washington, D.C., promoted beauty not only for its own sake, but also to create moral and civic virtue among urban populations.[1] Advocates of the philosophy believed that such beautification could promote a harmonious social order that would increase the quality of life, while critics would complain that the movement was overly concerned with aesthetics at the expense of social reform; Jane Jacobs referred to the movement as an "architectural design cult."[2] History O ...more...

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Washington D.C.

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History of Darien, Connecticut

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History of Darien, Connecticut

The ca. 1700 Pond-Weed House saltbox is located on the Post Road in Noroton and is the oldest home in town The history of Darien, Connecticut, has been shaped by its location on the shore of Long Island Sound as the main route from Boston to New York City, initially with sailing ships and dirt roads for transportation, and later with locomotives and highways. This aspect of the town continually influenced its development. Colonial times Bates-Scofield House, Darien Historical Society headquarters and museum The Siwanoy, an Agonquian-speaking sachemdom (or subtribe) of the Wappinger tribe, originally occupied Darien and the surrounding area. The Siwanoy controlled what is now much of the Bronx, Westchester County and the Connecticut "panhandle" as far east as Norwalk and part of Wilton.[1] The land that became Darien was a part of Stamford from the time Stamford was bought from the Indians until Darien was incorporated as a town in 1820. Settlement began in the late 17th century with permission from ...more...

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Bohemianism

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Bohemianism

Pierre-Auguste Renoir, The Bohemian (or Lise the Bohemian), 1868, oil on canvas, Berlin, Germany: Alte Nationalgalerie Bohemianism is the practice of an unconventional lifestyle, often in the company of like-minded people and with few permanent ties. It involves musical, artistic, literary or spiritual pursuits. In this context, Bohemians may or may not be wanderers, adventurers, or vagabonds. This use of the word bohemian first appeared in the English language in the nineteenth century to describe the non-traditional lifestyles of marginalized and impoverished artists, writers, journalists, musicians, and actors in major European cities.[1] Bohemians were associated with unorthodox or anti-establishment political or social viewpoints, which often were expressed through free love, frugality, and—in some cases—voluntary poverty. A more economically privileged, wealthy, or even aristocratic bohemian circle is sometimes referred to as haute bohème[2] (literally "high Bohemia").[3] The term Bohemianism emerg ...more...

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Walker's Court

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Walker's Court

Walker's Court, looking south (2008) Walker's Court is a pedestrian street in the Soho district of the City of Westminster, London. The street dates from around the early 1700s and escaped modernisation in the late nineteenth century so that it retains its original narrow layout. In the twentieth century the small shops that traded from the street gradually closed and from the late 1950s the street became associated with Soho's sex trade. The Raymond Revuebar opened in 1958 and closed in 2004. There are now plans to redevelop the street. Location The immediate vicinity of Walker's Court. The street is pedestrianised and runs between Peter Street in the north and the junction of east Brewer Street (originally Little Pulteney Street) and Rupert Street in the south. The two sides of Walker's Court are joined by a privately owned bridge halfway down. Early history The vicinity of Walker's Court was built up in the late seventeenth and early eighteenth centuries. Building leases were granted in the area ...more...

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