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The Nineteenth Century Club

The Nineteenth Century Club is a historic philanthropic and cultural women's club based in Memphis, Tennessee. The Nineteenth Century Club adopted the idea that the community was an extended "household" that would benefit from the "gentler spirit" and "uplifting influence" of women, and shifted towards civic reform. The club primarily focused on the needs of women and children, addressing public problems such as sanitation, health, education, employment, and labor conditions.[1]


The club was founded in May 1890 following an assembly of elite white women at the Gayoso Hotel in Memphis. The founding members included the women activists Elise Massey Selden, Elizabeth Fisher Johnson, Elizabeth Avery Meriwether, Elizabeth Lyle Saxon, Clara Conway, and Lide Meriwether.[2] The stated objectives of the club were "to promote the female intellect by encouraging a spirit of research in literary fields and provide an intellectual center for the women of Memphis." The club was immediately successful, with membership steadily rising and peaking at around 1,400 members in 1926.[1]

Political activism

In 1891, one of the four committees in the club was "Philanthropy and Reform", which attempted to influence Memphis officials. The members wanted to participate in the development of the city and inject women's "gentler spirit" and more "loving wisdom" into municipal affairs. While the activities of the club empowered female influence in politics, members made many assurances that the goal was not radical political upheaval, cautioning against ambition and arguing that activism made was merely "housekeeping" that was extended to the "family" of the city community.[3]

The activism promoted by the club was described as a very selfless and feminine brand of activism. Despite the many disclaimers, the movement did signal a "new sense of power and capacity among American women", particularly in the South. The club motto was "Influence is Responsibility", which epitomized their feelings of accountability for society.[3]

In 1892, the Congress of the Association for the Advancement of Women congregated for the first time in a southern city at its 20th annual meeting with the Nineteenth Century Club. Founding member Clara Conway made the opening remarks, stating that women "were impatient with incompleteness" and were eager to move away from leisure to become productive members of society.[3]


Notable successful campaigns were securing a police matron at the city jail, establishing a female sanitary inspector at the Board of Health, forming the Shelby County Anti-Tuberculosis Society, and founding a new city hospital.[1] They also played an important role in the West Tennessee State Normal School, which later came to be known as the University of Memphis.[1]

In 1897, the Hamburg branch of the club established the Hamburg Public Library in an effort to enrich the community and improve education. At that time, the club had limited membership of 19 women, including several librarians and teachers. In 1901, the Hamburg Business Men's Club took over management of the library and formed the Library Association. The New York State Education Department chartered the library in 1902, and it remains open to this day.[4]

Modern day

The club remains in existence today.[1] In 1926, the club acquired a mansion built in 1906 by Rowland Darnell, a great lumber magnate of Memphis, and remained there for over 20 years. The mansion was eventually sold as membership continued to decline over the years. A legal battle took place over ownership and historical preservation of the mansion, eventually resulting in a restoration and conversion into a restaurant.[5]

  1. Wedell, Marsha (25 December 2009). "Nineteenth Century Club | Entries | Tennessee Encyclopedia". The Tennessee Encyclopedia of History and Culture. The University of Tennessee Press. Retrieved 2015-12-16.
  2. Bond, Beverly Greene; Freeman, Sarah Wilkerson (2015-07-01). Tennessee Women: Their Lives and Times--Volume 2. University of Georgia Press. ISBN 9780820337432.
  3. Wedell, Marsha (1991-01-01). Elite Women and the Reform Impulse in Memphis, 1875-1915. Univ. of Tennessee Press. ISBN 9780870497049.
  4. Edson, John. "The Legacy of the Nineteenth Century Club". Buffalo and Erie County Public Library. Buffalo and Erie County Public Library System. Retrieved 2016-01-04.
  5. "Rowland J. Darnell and the 19th Century Club". Historic Memphis Website. Retrieved 2015-12-18.
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Beefsteak Club


Beefsteak Club is the name or nickname of several 18th and 19th-century male dining clubs that celebrated the beefsteak as a symbol of patriotic and often Whig concepts of liberty and prosperity. The first beefsteak club was founded about 1705 in London by the actor Richard Estcourt and others in the arts and politics. This club flourished for less than a decade. The Sublime Society of Beef Steaks was established in 1735 by another performer, John Rich , at the Theatre Royal, Covent Garden , where he was then manager, and George Lambert , his scenic artist, with two dozen members of the theatre and arts community ( Samuel Johnson joined in 1780). The society became much celebrated, and new members included royalty, statesmen and great soldiers: in 1785, the Prince of Wales joined. At the weekly meetings, the members wore a blue coat and buff waistcoat with brass buttons bearing a gridiron motif and the words "Beef and liberty". The steaks and baked potatoes were accompanied by port or porter . After dinner, t ...more...

Sons of Malta


The Independent Order of the Sons of Malta , was a fraternal order active in the mid-nineteenth century. Its initiation rites parodied more staid fraternal orders such as the Freemasons . Origin of the Sons of Malta The origins of the Sons of Malta are obscure and contentious. B.J. Griswold's 1917 The Pictorial History of Fort Wayne, Indiana, states, "A secret society, known as the 'Sons of Malta,' with local lodges in many of the larger American cities, was organized in 1856 by A. G. Barnett and Morton Taylor....The Fort Wayne lodge enrolled many of the prominent men of the day. It was instituted by General Stedman [sic] of Toledo, Ohio." Griswold may have meant to convey that Steedman instituted the Fort Wayne lodge and that Barnett and Taylor did the actual organizational work necessary to launch that particular lodge (or may have meant to convey something else entirely), but the apparent implication that Barnett and Taylor originated the Sons of Malta as an organization was repeated explicitly in the end ...more...

Western use of the swastika in the early 20th century


The swastika (from Sanskrit svástika) is a symbol that generally takes the form of an equilateral cross, with its four arms bent at 90 degrees in either right-facing (卐) form or its mirrored left-facing (卍) form. The Swastika (also known outside the Indian subcontinent as the Hakenkreuz , gammadion cross , cross cramponnée , croix gammée , fylfot , or tetraskelion ) (as a character 卐 or 卍) is an ancient religious symbol originating from the Indian subcontinent , that generally takes the form of an equilateral cross with four legs each bent at 90 degrees. It is considered to be a sacred and auspicious symbol in Hinduism , Buddhism , and Jainism and dates back at least 11,000 years. Archaeological evidence of swastika-shaped ornaments dates from the Neolithic period and was first found in the Mezine , Ukraine . The swastika ( gammadion , " fylfot ") symbol became a popular symbol of luck in the Western world in the early 20th century, as it had long been in Asia, and was often used for ornamentation. The Nazi ...more...

Primrose Club


The Primrose Club was a short-lived political London gentlemen's club founded in 1886 and located at 4-5 Park Place, St. James's . It was aligned to the Conservative party, with members having to pledge support. It was launched as a bid to combine the explosion of the popularity of clubs in London at the end of the nineteenth century with the phenomenal success of the Conservative-aligned Primrose League . At first it proved highly successful, with Whitaker's Almanack reporting 6,500 members, but within a decade this had already shrunk to 5,500, and by 1910 it had just 350 members, and was disbanded shortly afterwards. 2009 A new virtual Primrose Club with no links to the original London gentlemen's club was formed in January 2009, and the club biography on its website states: "Our historical inspiration is the political philosophy and career of Benjamin Disraeli, and in taking his lead we are looking to embark on the next steps of the ongoing British Revolution that began at the signing of the Magna Carta. W ...more...

19th-century Catholic periodical literature


The 19th-century Catholic periodical literature is unique in many respects. Most of the periodical publications in mainly Catholic countries can be regarded as "Catholic" literature up to a few decades before 1800: the editorial line is implicitly Catholic in most instances. The development of the press in the 19th century was in general terms a major factor in secularization according to Owen Chadwick . On the other hand, mass printing also meant that the "Pope of 1889 was far more influential that the Pope of 1839 because the later Pope was surrounded by the press and the earlier Pope was not" wrote Chadwick. Background The Catholic Encyclopedia of 1913 offered an analysis in terms of several factors. Periodical literature includes the political newspaper, the weekly, and literary and specialized magazines and journals appearing less frequently: in some countries such as Spain the implicit Catholicism persisted in the press for many years. The American-style, news-led paper would sell on its news content, r ...more...

Dresden United F.C.


Dresden United Football Club was a football club based in the Dresden area of Stoke-on-Trent who were active at the end of the nineteenth century. History In 1892, the club were elected to the Combination , where they spent three seasons finishing seventh, fifth and fourth respectively. In 1895, they left the Combination and took up a place in the Midland League . In their two seasons in the Midland League, the club managed finishes in eleventh and tenth place (out of fifteen). In 1897, Dresden returned to the Combination but were unable to complete the season, with their record being expunged. Several players from Dresden joined the local Football League clubs, Port Vale or Stoke , including Jack Farrell who left Dresden to join Stoke in 1894. He later played for Southampton , appearing in the 1900 FA Cup Final . Joe Turner started his career at Dresden before joining Southampton in 1895; he appeared in the 1902 FA Cup Final and also played for Everton . References Abbink, Dinant (23 Jul 2006). "England – T ...more...

List of public art in the City of Sydney


Public art in the City of Sydney in New South Wales , Australia includes a wide range of works across a range of genres and for a range of purposes or combination of purposes. Some are purely artistic, some are commemorative, some are both. Some are monuments or memorials; some are also fountains and some are site-specific and in some buildings, such as Australia Square and Grosvenor Place by Harry Seidler and Aurora Place by Renzo Piano , the art is a component of the architect's intentions. The City of Sydney has a Public Art Policy. Conservation work is carried on from time to time to maintain the works. The materials used vary widely but include traditional marble (such as in Touchstone) and bronze (such as in the Archibald Fountain ) as well as steel (such as in New Constellation and I Stay), concrete (such as in I Wish and Barrel Roll) and newer materials like aluminium (such as in Vine and Morpho). In the 21st century, kinetic, musical, and conceptual works began to appear. Notable sculptors from arou ...more...



Marburg is a university town in the German federal state (Bundesland) of Hesse , capital of the Marburg-Biedenkopf district (Landkreis). The town area spreads along the valley of the river Lahn and has a population of approximately 72,000. Having been awarded town privileges in 1222, Marburg served as capital of the landgraviate of Hessen-Marburg during periods of the fifteenth to seventeenth centuries. The University of Marburg was founded in 1527 and dominates the public life in the town to this day. History Founding and early history Like many settlements, Marburg developed at the crossroads of two important early medieval highways: the trade route linking Cologne and Prague and the trade route from the North Sea to the Alps and on to Italy , the former crossing the river Lahn here. The settlement was protected and customs were raised by a small castle built during the ninth or tenth century by the Giso. Marburg has been a town since 1140, as proven by coins. From the Gisos, it fell around that time to the ...more...



A psychic is a person who claims to use extrasensory perception (ESP) to identify information hidden from the normal senses , particularly involving telepathy or clairvoyance, or who performs acts that are apparently inexplicable by natural laws. Many people believe in psychic abilities, but there is no scientific consensus as to the actual existence of such powers. The word "psychic" is also used as an adjective to describe such abilities. In this meaning, this word has some synonyms, as parapsychic or metapsychic. Psychics encompass people in a variety of roles. Some are theatrical performers, such as stage magicians , who use various techniques, e.g., prestidigitation , cold reading , and hot reading , to produce the appearance of such abilities for entertainment purposes. A large industry and network exists whereby people advertised as psychics provide advice and counsel to clients. Some famous psychics include Edgar Cayce , Ingo Swann , Peter Hurkos , Jose Ortiz El Samaritano , Miss Cleo , John Edward , ...more...

Karen Joy Fowler


Karen Joy Fowler (born February 7, 1950) is an American author of science fiction , fantasy , and literary fiction . Her work often centers on the nineteenth century, the lives of women, and alienation . She is best known as the author of the best-selling novel The Jane Austen Book Club that was made into a movie of the same name . Biography Fowler was born in Bloomington, Indiana , and spent the first eleven years of her life there. Her family then moved to Palo Alto, California . Fowler attended the University of California, Berkeley , and majored in political science . After having a child during the last year of her master's program, she spent seven years devoted to child-raising. Feeling restless, Fowler decided to take a dance class, and then a creative writing class at the University of California, Davis . Realizing that she was never going to make it as a dancer, Fowler began to publish science fiction stories, making a name for herself with the short story "Recalling Cinderella" (1985) in L Ron Hubba ...more...

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Eighty Club


The Eighty Club was a political London gentlemen's club named after the year it was founded, 1880 (Much like the later 1900 Club ). It was strictly aligned to the Liberal party, with members having to pledge support to join. Somewhat dwarfed by similar mass-membership clubs like the National Liberal Club , it could only claim 400 members in 1890, and 600 by 1900. H H Asquith was the first secretary of the Eighty Club and David Lloyd George was sometime President. The Club finally closed in 1978, although the name was then adopted as the title of the Association of Liberal Democrat Lawyers' annual lecture series. Notes Antonia Taddei, London clubs in the late nineteenth century (Oxford University discussion paper, 1999), p.20 Chris Cook, Sources in British Political History, 1900-1951; Macmillan Press, 1975 pp86-87 Cook Routledge Guide to British Political Archives (2006) See also List of London's gentlemen's clubs The Eighty Club was a political London gentlemen's club named after the year it was founded, 188 ...more...



Tiddlywinks is an indoor game played on a flat felt mat with sets of small discs called "winks", a pot, which is the target, and a collection of squidgers, which are also discs. Players use a "squidger" (nowadays made of plastic) to shoot a wink into flight by flicking the squidger across the top of a wink and then over its edge, thereby propelling it into the air. The offensive objective of the game is to score points by sending your own winks into the pot. The defensive objective of the game is to prevent your opponents from potting their winks by "squopping" them: shooting your own winks to land on top of your opponents' winks. As part of strategic gameplay, players often attempt to squop their opponents' winks and develop, maintain and break up large piles of winks. Tiddlywinks is sometimes considered a simpleminded, frivolous children's game, rather than a strategic, adult game. However, the modern competitive adult game of tiddlywinks made a strong comeback at the University of Cambridge in 1955. The ...more...



Paul Legrand as Pierrot circa 1855. Photograph by Nadar . Pierrot ( French pronunciation: ​ ) is a stock character of pantomime and commedia dell'arte whose origins are in the late seventeenth-century Italian troupe of players performing in Paris and known as the Comédie-Italienne ; the name is a diminutive of Pierre (Peter), via the suffix -ot . His character in contemporary popular culture—in poetry, fiction, and the visual arts, as well as works for the stage, screen, and concert hall—is that of the sad clown, pining for love of Columbine , who usually breaks his heart and leaves him for Harlequin . Performing unmasked, with a whitened face, he wears a loose white blouse with large buttons and wide white pantaloons. Sometimes he appears with a frilled collaret and a hat, usually with a close-fitting crown and wide round brim, more rarely with a conical shape like a dunce's cap. But most frequently, since his reincarnation under Jean-Gaspard Deburau , he wears neither collar nor hat, only a black skullcap. ...more...

Daughters of the American Revolution


The Daughters of the American Revolution ( DAR ) is a lineage -based membership service organization for women who are directly descended from a person involved in the United States' efforts towards independence. A non-profit group, they work to promote historic preservation, education, and patriotism. The organization's membership is limited to direct lineal descendants of soldiers or others of the Revolutionary period who aided the cause of independence; applicants must have reached 18 years of age and are reviewed at the chapter level for admission. It currently has approximately 185,000 members in the United States and in several other countries. Its motto is "God, Home, and Country." Since the late 20th century, following the civil rights movement and changes in historic scholarship, the organization has expanded its membership, recognizing minority contributions and expanding the definition of those whose work is considered to have aided the Revolution, and recognizing more ways in which women and ot ...more...

Civil Service F.C.


Civil Service Football Club is an English football club based in the city of London . The club originally played both association football and rugby football and the Civil Service, along with Blackheath F.C. , is one of the two clubs that can claim to be a founder member of both The Football Association and the Rugby Football Union . However, the rugby club is now a distinct entity and appears to have been so since the late nineteenth century. They are currently members of the Southern Amateur League Senior Division 2. History In 1863 the newly formed Civil Service club was playing football under both Association and Rugby rules and sources suggest that the club was similar to Clapham Rovers in that it was a single club playing both codes. At what point the Civil Service Rugby Club became a distinct entity from the Football Club (Association football) is unclear. Certainly, the histories published by the official Football and Rugby clubs respectively do not refer to a joint history past even 1863. However, t ...more...

Annah Robinson Watson


Annah Robinson Watson (1848–1930 ) was an American author, the founding member and president of the Nineteenth Century Club , and a collector of American folklore . Early life Watson was born Annah Walker Robinson on the Taylor homestead, "Springfields", near Louisville, Kentucky , to Mary Louise Taylor Robinson and Archibald Magill Robinson., she was the granddaughter of Hancock Taylor, a brother of President Zachariah Taylor. Watson was described as a "romantic, poetic, imaginative child". After some years in the countryside, her family moved to Louisville, and Watson received an education there and later in Chicago . Written works After completing her studies, she entered society as a poet. She continued to write, publishing "Baby's Mission", which received widespread popularity and was published in the London journal Chatterbox. She also won a contest in the New York Churchman for best lullaby. In addition to publishing many poems and prose works under her own name, she also extensively published unsig ...more...

Walker's Court


The Raymond Revuebar in Walker's Court. (1997) The Maurice House bridge across Walker's Court with carousel horse. (South side) Soho's Original Book Shop on the corner with Brewer Street. Walker's Court is a pedestrian street in the Soho district of the City of Westminster , London. The street dates from around the early 1700s and escaped modernisation in the late nineteenth century so that it retains its original narrow layout. In the twentieth century the small shops that traded from the street gradually closed and from the late 1950s the street became associated with Soho's sex trade. The Raymond Revuebar opened in 1958 and closed in 2004. There are now plans to redevelop the street. Location The street is pedestrianised and runs between Peter Street in the north and the junction of east Brewer Street (originally Little Pulteney Street) and Rupert Street in the south. The two sides of Walker's Court are joined by a privately owned bridge halfway down. Early history The vicinity of Walker's Court was built ...more...

History of Richmond Hill, Ontario


The history of Richmond Hill began when the First Nations came and settled in the area. With the Toronto Purchase , the town gradually expanded with new greenhouse industries and improved transportation infrastructure. First Nations The first humans to come to the area were probably Paleo-Indians between 9000 and 7000 BCE . The first archaeological evidence of their presence found was a single scraper found at the Mortson site near Leslie Street and Elgin Mills Road. A few more artifacts were later found east of Lake Wilcox at the Esox site and as of 1988, fourteen sites in Richmond Hill have produced Paleo-Indian artifacts. The people in southern Ontario at this time were organized in nomadic bands, and would have migrated through the area, establishing camps then moving on. The Silver Stream site, which is located on a tributary of the Rouge River west of Leslie Street, between Elgin Mills Road and Major Mackenzie Drive , has yielded 27 artifacts that come from peoples of the Paleo-Indian cultures, one of ...more...

Oona O'Neill


Oona O'Neill Chaplin, Lady Chaplin (May 14, 1925 – September 27, 1991) was the daughter of Nobel and Pulitzer-Prize -winning American playwright Eugene O'Neill and English-born writer Agnes Boulton , and the fourth and last wife of English actor and filmmaker Charlie Chaplin . O'Neill's parents divorced when she was four years old, after which she was raised by her mother in Point Pleasant, New Jersey , and very rarely saw her father. She first came to the public eye during her time at the Brearley School in New York City in 1940–1942, when she was photographed attending fashionable nightclubs with her friends Carol Marcus and Gloria Vanderbilt . In 1942, she received a large amount of media attention after she was chosen as "The Number One Debutante" of the 1942–1943 season at the Stork Club . Soon after, she decided to pursue a career in acting and, after small roles in two stage productions, headed for Hollywood . In Hollywood, O'Neill was introduced to Chaplin, who considered her for a film role. The film ...more...

American Staffordshire Terrier


The American Staffordshire Terrier , also known as Amstaff (in the United States), is a medium-sized, short-coated American dog breed . In the early part of the twentieth century the breed gained social stature and was accepted by the American Kennel Club in 1936. The name was changed to reflect difference from the Staffordshire Bull Terrier of England. History One of the earliest AKC Champion American Staffordshire Terriers. American Staffordshire Terrier American Staffordshire Terrier with cropped ears American Staffordshire Terrier Despite its name, the Staffordshire Terrier's ancestor ( Bull and Terrier ) was first bred in the nineteenth century in Birmingham, West Midlands, rather than in the English county of Staffordshire where it was then later bred. The early ancestors of this breed came from England where, until the first part of the 19th century, the Bulldog was bred. Bulldogs pictured as late as 1870 resemble contemporary American Staffordshire Terriers to a greater degree than present-day Bull ...more...

Long Island (Massachusetts)


Long Island, Boston Harbor, 2008 Long Island is situated in the middle of Boston Harbor , Massachusetts . The island is part of the City of Boston , and of the Boston Harbor Islands National Recreation Area . Prior to October 2014, access to the island was via a road over a 4,175-foot (1,273 m) causeway from the Squantum peninsula of North Quincy to Moon Island , and from there, over a 3,050-foot (930 m) two-lane steel bridge from Moon Island to Long Island. The bridge was officially called the Long Island Viaduct . The island is 1.75 miles (2.82 km) long and covers 225 acres (0.9 km ). Access to the causeway leading to Moon Island and Long Island is controlled by police at a guardhouse at its southern end, and permission to enter the island must be obtained in advance since it is a restricted area. In October 2014, all access to Long Island was cut off for the indefinite future since the then Mayor of Boston, Marty Walsh , took the warning of the Massachusetts Department of Transportation about the cond ...more...

Sam Houston State University


Sam Houston State University (known as SHSU or Sam ) was founded in 1879 and is the third oldest public institution of higher learning in the State of Texas. It is located approximately 70 minutes north of downtown Houston , in Huntsville, Texas . It is one of the oldest purpose-built institutions for the instruction of teachers west of the Mississippi River and the first such institution of its type in Texas. The school is named for Sam Houston , who made his home in the city and is buried there. SHSU is a member of the Texas State University System and has an enrollment of more than 20,000 students across over 80 undergraduate, 59 masters', and 8 doctoral degree programs. The university also offers more than 20 online bachelor's and graduate degrees, and its online programs are ranked high by U.S. News & World Report. It was the first institution classified as a Doctoral Research University by the Carnegie Commission on Higher Education within the Texas State University System, and while education con ...more...

Clontarf parish (Church of Ireland)


The Parish of St. John the Baptist , the Church of Ireland Parish of Clontarf , Dublin is a religious community located on the north shore of Dublin Bay, bounded by the Parishes of North Strand to the west, Coolock to the north, and Raheny to the east (the latter two are in a Union). The Parish Church is situated on Seafield Road , approximately 2   ⁄ miles (4.0 km) from the churches of each of the adjoining parishes. It was built in 1866 to replace an earlier church some 200 metres away on Castle Avenue, on the edge of the grounds of Clontarf Castle . The early days The first church in Clontarf was reputedly founded by the great Abbot of Bangor, St. Comgall , as part of Christian development through north Dublin, perhaps from a base at St. Mobhi's Church at Glasnevin . St. Comgall became the Patron of Clontarf and remained so until replaced by St. John the Baptist when the Parish came under the control of the Knights of St. John of Jerusalem in the 14th century. Clontarf was a central location of the Battle ...more...

Suitland, Maryland


Suitland is an unincorporated community and census designated place (CDP) in Prince George's County, Maryland , about 1 mile (1.6 km) southeast of Washington, D.C. As of the 2010 census, the population of the CDP was 25,825. Prior to 2010, Suitland was part of the Suitland-Silver Hill census-designated place. History Suitland is named after 19th century landowner and businessman Senator Samuel Taylor Suit , whose estate, "Suitland," was located near the present-day intersection of Suitland and Silver Hill Roads. Seventeenth and eighteenth centuries In the 1600s, the Piscataway tribe inhabited the lands in southern Maryland. European settlers first visited Saint Clement's Island on the Potomac River and then established their first Maryland colony downriver at Saint Mary's City in 1634, and by the 1660s through the 1680s, settlers had moved into what is now known as Prince George's County. Faced with this encroachment, the Piscataways left the area in 1697, and moved north to what is now known as Conoy Islan ...more...

History of St Albans


St Albans is a city in southern Hertfordshire , England, 20 miles (32 km) north of London , beside the site of a Catuvellauni settlement and the Roman town of Verulamium on the River Ver . It is Hertfordshire's oldest town. Pre-Roman There was an Iron Age settlement known as Verulamium, Verlamion , or Verlamio, near the site of the present city, the centre of Tasciovanus ' power and a major center of the Catuvellauni from about 20 BC until shortly after the Roman invasion of AD 43. The name "Verulamium" is Celtic, meaning "settlement over or by the marsh". The town was on Prae Hill, 2 km to the west of modern St Albans, now covered by the village of St. Michael's, Verulamium Park and the Gorhambury Estate. It is believed that the tribal capital was moved to the site by Tasciovanus (around 25 to 5 BC). Cunobelinus may have constructed Beech Bottom Dyke , a defensive earthwork near the settlement whose significance is uncertain. Roman The Roman city of Verulamium , the third largest town in Roman Britain aft ...more...

Bartomeu Terradas


Bartomeu Brutau Terradas was a player of FC Barcelona in the late nineteenth and early twentieth century. He was treasurer and later the second president in the club's history. Player career His career started during the inaugural year of FC Barcelona; Terradas attended the founding meeting which formalized the establishment of the club, held at the Gimnasio Solé on November 29, 1899. He played his first match for Barcelona against a team that consisted of members of the British colony living in Barcelona, on December 8, 1899. The game was played in the old Bonanova Velodrome. Only ten players played, as no more were available. The British were defeated 0-1. Terradas' sports career ended in 1903 with 31 matches played for FC Barcelona. Career as an executive On April 25, 1901, Terradas became the president of Barcelona, following the resignation of Walter Wild . The dire economic situation forced him to deal with various difficult situations. He became the first patron of FC Barcelona, with a contribution of ...more...

Trinity Church, Princeton


Trinity Church is an historic Episcopal congregation located at 33 Mercer Street in Princeton, New Jersey . It is the largest Episcopal church in New Jersey. History Trinity was a relative latecomer in mainly Calvinistic central New Jersey. Princeton Borough, in particular, was a heavily Presbyterian village, anchored by the College of New Jersey (now Princeton University ) and Princeton Theological Seminary. A handful of local would-be parishioners, including a number with southern connections, founded Trinity in 1833, building a modest Greek Revival meeting hall as their church. Miller Chapel, a stone's throw away on the Princeton Theological Seminary campus, is a similar building by the same local architect-builder, Charles Steadman , who also designed many houses in the neighborhood. Nineteenth Century Trinity Church with its original tower and shorter nave before the renovations in 1914 In 1870 the original structure gave way to a larger, more assertively Episcopalian building designed in the Gothic Revi ...more...

Clydesdale RFC, Glasgow


Clydesdale RFC was a nineteenth-century and early twentieth-century Glasgow -based rugby union club, who were attached to Clydesdale Cricket Club during the 1880s. Formation The rugby club was formed in 1889. Honours In 1896, Clydesdale Rugby Club shared the unofficial Scottish league championship with Jedforest and Watsonians. Clydesdale also took part in an early Melrose Sevens final in 1907. They were beaten by Watsonians 13-0. Notable former players Scotland internationalists The following former Clydesdale players have represented Scotland at full international level. Thomas Hendry James Robertson Edward Spencer John Dykes J.A. Bell Glasgow District players The following former Clydesdale players have represented Glasgow District at provincial level. J. A. Bell William Dykes James Robertson Edward Spencer R.W. Lawson J Russell A. Gordon John Dykes E.G. Copestake R.F. Mather W. G. Walker R. Leggat T. Wilson Thomas Hendry External links Clydesdale Cricket Club history References http://www.clydesdalecricke ...more...

Brasenose College, Oxford


Brasenose College ( BNC ), officially The King's Hall and College of Brasenose , is one of the constituent colleges of the University of Oxford in the United Kingdom . It was founded in 1509, with the College library and current chapel added in the mid-seventeenth century. The College's New Quadrangle was completed in the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries, with additional residence areas completed in the 1960s and 1970s. As of 2012, it has a financial endowment of £90 million. For the four degree years 2011/2014, Brasenose averaged 10th in the Norrington Table (an unofficial measure of performance in undergraduate degree examinations). Brasenose is home to one of the oldest rowing clubs in the world, Brasenose College Boat Club . History Foundation A copy of the original Brasenose Knocker, mounted on a door in Stamford, Lincolnshire . The history of Brasenose College, Oxford stretches back to 1509, when the college was founded on the site of Brasenose Hall. Its name is believed to derive from t ...more...

Western canon


The Western canon is the body of books , music , and art that scholars generally accept as the most important and influential in shaping Western culture . It includes works of fiction , non-fiction , poetry , drama , music, art, sculpture, and architecture generally perceived as being of major artistic merit and representing the high culture of Europe and North America. University of California philosopher John Searle suggests that the Western canon can be roughly defined as "a certain Western intellectual tradition that goes from, say, Socrates to Wittgenstein in philosophy, and from Homer to James Joyce in literature". The Bible , a product of Middle Eastern culture, has been a major force in shaping Western culture , and "has inspired some of the great monuments of human thought, literature, and art". The canon of books, including Western literature and Western philosophy , has been fairly stable, although it has expanded to include more women and racial minorities , while the canons of music and the visu ...more...

Timeline of antisemitism


This timeline of antisemitism chronicles the facts of antisemitism , hostile actions or discrimination against Jews as a religious or ethnic group. It includes events in the history of antisemitic thought, actions taken to combat or relieve the effects of antisemitism, and events that affected the prevalence of antisemitism in later years. The history of antisemitism can be traced from ancient times to the present day. Some authors prefer to use the terms anti-Judaism or religious antisemitism for religious sentiment against Judaism before the rise of racial antisemitism in the 19th century. For events specifically pertaining to the expulsion of Jews, please see Jewish refugees . Antiquity 740 BCE The Assyrian captivity (or the Assyrian exile) is the period in the history of Ancient Israel and Judah during which several thousand Israelites of ancient Samaria were resettled as captives by Assyria . The Northern Kingdom of Israel was conquered by the Neo-Assyrian Empire . 586 BCE During the reign of King Nebuch ...more...

Royal Montreal Curling Club


The Royal Montreal Curling Club (French: Club de Curling Royal Montréal ) is the oldest curling club in North America , established on January 27, 1807 by a group of Scottish Canadian immigrants in Montreal . The group met at the Gillis Tavern to lay down the rules of the organization. Thirty years later, the group would again make Canadian sports history, by building Canada's first indoor ice rink . In addition to its status as the oldest curling club on the continent, the Royal Montreal Curling Club is also the oldest active sports club in North America, according to its website. References Redmond, Gerald (March 1982). The Sporting Scots of Nineteenth-Century Canada . Fairleigh Dickinson University Press . p. 108. ISBN   978-0-8386-3069-3 . Zawadzki, Edward. The Ultimate Canadian Sports Trivia Book . Dundurn Press . p. 163. ISBN   978-0-88882-237-6 . "The Royal Montreal Curling Club" . The Royal Montreal Curling Club . Retrieved 29 September 2011 . External links Official website The Royal Montreal Curling ...more...

Washington Grove, Maryland


Washington Grove is a town in Montgomery County , Maryland . The population was 555 at the 2010 United States Census . The Washington Grove Historic District was listed on the National Register of Historic Places in 1980. History Founding Around 1800 Methodists began the tradition of camp meetings, where a group of Methodists would gather in a forest clearing to worship. Benches were arranged in a circle or oval with an elevated preachers' stand in the middle. Tents surrounded the area along with carriages and wagons behind them. Services lasted well into the night. The camp meetings provided cultural and spiritual improvement to those who attended. In 1873 a committee from the Foundry Methodist Church, located at 14th and G streets NW in Washington, D.C. , began a search for a permanent location to hold annual camp meetings. They wanted a location with sufficient space for thousands of attendees, a supply of clean water, and a shaded location to provide relief from the summer sun. They wanted the locat ...more...

The Affair at Little Egg Harbor


The Affair at Little Egg Harbor took place on October 15, 1778, in southern New Jersey , United States, during the American Revolution . In what the Americans called a massacre, the Loyalists killed nearly 50 Patriot men, bayonetting them as they slept. The attack took place about one week after the Battle of Chestnut Neck , a British raid aimed at suppressing privateers who used the area as a base to harass and seize British ships and their cargoes. Background British Army officer Captain Patrick Ferguson led a raid on Chestnut Neck, on the Mullica River, to retrieve supplies taken by privateers and try to stop their use of the town as a base for the distribution of their prizes and shipment of captured goods to General Washington at Valley Forge. Count Kazimierz Pułaski and his newly raised forces were ordered to oppose his actions. Pulaski's Legion , along with three companies of light infantry, three troops of light horse, and one artillery detachment, arrived the day after Ferguson departed Chestnut Neck ...more...

Black Rock Yacht Club


Black Rock Yacht Club is a Yacht club for off-the-beach sailing boats (mostly dinghies ) on the shores of Port Phillip Bay , seventeen kilometres south of Melbourne, Australia . The club was founded in 1904 and has a proud history of Olympic, world and Australian champions. Classes sailed include International 14 , Sabre , 125 , 420 , Moth , Sabot , Optimist , Minnow , and Australian Lightweight Sharpie . In 1926 the nineteenth century warship HMVS Cerberus was scuttled to form a breakwater in front of the club and as a result launching is quite easy in most wind conditions. Recently Black Rock Yacht Club hosted the Moth World Championships (2004–05 ) and the International 14 Worlds in 1999. The fleet of International 14s sailing out of Black Rock is particularly strong and 2005 World Champion Lindsay Irwin is a BRYC member. External links [1] Black Rock Yacht Club is a Yacht club for off-the-beach sailing boats (mostly dinghies ) on the shores of Port Phillip Bay , seventeen kilometres south of Melbourne, Au ...more...

Plymouth Rock chicken


Barred hen Plymouth Rock egg The Plymouth Rock is an American breed of domestic chicken . It was first seen in Massachusetts in the nineteenth century, and for much of the early twentieth century was the most popular chicken breed in the United States. It is a dual-purpose breed, raised both for its meat and for its brown eggs. It is resistant to cold, easy to manage, and a good sitter . History The Plymouth Rock was first shown in Boston in 1849, but was then not seen for another twenty years. In 1869, in Worcester, Massachusetts , one D.A. Upham cross-bred some Black Java hens with a cock with barred plumage and a single comb; he selectively bred for barred plumage and clean (featherless) legs. His birds were shown in Worcester in 1869; the modern Plymouth Rock is thought to derive from them. Other people have been associated with the development of the Plymouth Rock, as have other chicken breeds including the Brahma , the Cochin (both white and buff), the Dominique , and the White-faced Black Spanish . ...more...

Fata Morgana (mirage)


A Fata Morgana as seen off the coast of Manhattan Beach, California on March 9, 2014 A Fata Morgana off the Santa Cruz shoreline as seen from Moss Landing, California A Fata Morgana of a boat '> A Fata Morgana changing the shape of a distant boat A Fata Morgana ( Italian:  ) is an unusual and complex form of superior mirage that is seen in a narrow band right above the horizon. It is the Italian name for the Arthurian sorceress Morgan le Fay , from a belief that these mirages, often seen in the Strait of Messina , were fairy castles in the air or false land created by her witchcraft to lure sailors to their deaths. Although the term Fata Morgana sometimes is applied to other, more common kinds, the true Fata Morgana is different from both an ordinary superior mirage and an inferior mirage . Fata Morgana mirages significantly distort the object or objects on which they are based, often such that the object is completely unrecognizable. A Fata Morgana may be seen on land or at sea, in polar regions, or in deser ...more...

Montpelier Hill


Mount Pelier Hill ( Irish : Cnoc Mount Pelier ) is a 383-metre (1,257-foot) hill in County Dublin , Ireland. It is commonly referred to as the Hell Fire Club ( Irish : Club Thine Ifrinn ), the popular name given to the ruined building at the summit. This building – a hunting lodge built in around 1725 by William Conolly – was originally called Mount Pelier and since its construction the hill has also gone by the same name. The building and hill were respectively known locally as 'The Brass Castle' and 'Bevan's Hill' , but the original Irish name of the hill is no longer known although the historian and archaeologist Patrick Healy has suggested that the hill is the place known as Suide Uí Ceallaig or Suidi Celi in the Crede Mihi , the twelfth century diocesan register book of the Archbishops of Dublin . Mount Pelier is the closest to Dublin city of the group of mountains – along with Killakee, Featherbed Bog, Kippure , Seefingan , Corrig, Seahan, Ballymorefinn, Carrigeenoura and Slievenabawnogue – that fo ...more...

Robert Gould Shaw


Robert Gould Shaw (October 10, 1837 – July 18, 1863) was an American soldier in the Union Army during the U.S. Civil War . Born into a prominent abolitionist family, he accepted command of the first all- black regiment ( 54th Massachusetts ) in the Northeast and encouraged the men to refuse their pay until it was equal to the white troops’ wage. At the Second Battle of Fort Wagner , a beachhead near Charleston, South Carolina , Shaw was killed while leading his men to the parapet of the enemy fort. Although they were overwhelmed and driven back, Shaw’s leadership passed into legend with a unit that inspired tens of thousands more African-Americans to enlist for the Union and contribute to its ultimate victory. Shaw's story is dramatized in the 1989 film Glory , starring Matthew Broderick . Early life and education Shaw was born in Boston to abolitionists Francis George and Sarah Blake (Sturgis) Shaw, who were also well-known Unitarian philanthropists and intellectuals. The Shaws had the benefit of a large inh ...more...

RIE College RFC


Royal Indian Engineering College RFC was a nineteenth-century and early twentieth-century Surrey -based rugby union club, who were attached to Royal Indian Engineering College from 1871 to 1903. Formation The estate of Coopers Hill in Surrey was bought by the India Office in 1870; and a college was built to train civil engineers to be sent to India. The college was officially opened in 1872. The rugby club was formed in 1871. In its day, the college's rugby union team, referred to by its opponents as "Cooper's Hill", was one of the most prominent rugby clubs in England. By the 1890s, the team was deemed of medium strength, and a long way behind the form of its heyday. This was put down to boys leaving school earlier than they had previously, thus the team became composed of men who were physically smaller in stature and physique than their predecessors. The engineering college closed in 1906. Notable former players England internationalists The following former RIE College players have represented England at ...more...

Islington Mill


Islington Mill is the name commonly used to refer to the collection of nineteenth and early twentieth century buildings that reside at 1 James St, Salford M3 5HW, England, and to the Islington Mill Arts Club which occupies those buildings. Architecture Islington Mill was originally built for cotton spinning in 1823 by the self-taught Leeds-born architect David Bellhouse (1764–1810). Bellhouse's firm was also responsible for the construction of the Manchester Portico Library, of which Bellhouse was also a founding member, and the original Manchester Town Hall on King Street, designed by Francis Goodwin and later demolished. A year after the original construction of Islington Mill there was a partial structural collapse of the building. During rebuilding, various new structures were added to the original model that had consisted of a single row of cast-iron columns. Further extensions were subsequently added over the years, including a second mill (which was also later rebuilt), stables around the courtyard and ...more...

List of University of Turin, Faculty of Law people


The following is a list of famous scholars, practitioners, alumni and others affiliated with the storied University of Turin, Faculty of Law : Notable alumni and former academics Luigi Einaudi Norberto Bobbio Piero Gobetti Enrico di Robilant Vladimiro Zagrebelsky , European Court of Human Rights Judge Anna di Robilant , alum and law professor at Boston University School of Law Fernanda Nicola , professor of law at American University , Washington College of Law Kakai Kissinger (1975–), UNITO law alum, is a Kenyan human rights activist and attorney. Twentieth century Pitigrilli , pseudonym for Dino Segre (1893–1975) (UNITO Law, class of 1916), an Italian writer. Mario Einaudi (1905–1994), law faculty alum and chair of Cornell University Government Department from 1951 to 1956 and again from 1959 to 1963. Luciana Frassati Gawronska (1902–2007), was an Italian writer and author. Gustavo Rol (1903–1994), noted parapsychologist . Fernando de Rosa (1908–1936), a former UNITO Law student who attempted to assassinate ...more...

List of women's club buildings


Women's Club of Coconut Grove , founded in 1891 Andover Chapter House , in 2011 General Federation of Women's Clubs Headquarters Women's club buildings (or woman's club buildings ) are meeting places of women’s clubs . A number were built in the early 1900s as part of a scheme by publisher Edward Gardner Lewis to promote sales of Woman's Magazine , but many more were independent organizations. The General Federation of Women's Clubs (GFWC) became the primary umbrella organization of women's clubs in the United States. "For the later part of the nineteenth century and much of the twentieth century, the women's clubs were an essential vehicle for women's activity outside of the home." Numerous women's club buildings have been evaluated for listing on the U.S. National Register of Historic Places individually or as part of wider collections. Historic preservation studies have been conducted for women's clubhouses in Florida, in Illinois, in New Jersey, in New Mexico, and in Olympia, Washington In New Mexico ...more...

Marble Palace (Kolkata)


Marble Palace is a palatial nineteenth-century mansion in North Kolkata . It is located at 46, Muktaram Babu Street, Kolkata 700007. It is one of the best-preserved and most elegant houses of nineteenth-century Calcutta. The mansion is famous for its marble walls, floors, and sculptures, from which it derives its name. History The house was built in 1835 by Raja Rajendra Mullick , a wealthy Bengali merchant with a passion for collecting works of art. The house continues to be a residence for his descendants, and the current occupants are the family of Raja Rajendra Mullick Bahadur. Raja Rajendra Mullick was the adopted son of Nilmoni Mullick, who built a Jagannath temple which predates Marble Palace, and still stands within the premises, but is only accessible to members of the family. Architecture Buildings of Marble Palace ... Buildings of Marble Palace ... The house is Neoclassical in style, while the plan with its open courtyards is largely traditional Bengali. Adjacent to the courtyard, there is a thaku ...more...

Bermuda rig


A Bermuda rig , Bermudian rig , or Marconi rig is a configuration of mast and rigging for a type of sailboat and is the typical configuration for most modern sailboats. This configuration was developed in Bermuda in the 17th century; the term Marconi was a much later reference to the inventor Guglielmo Marconi whose wireless radio masts resembled the wires that stabilize the mast of a Bermuda rigged ship. Description 1885 Map of Bermuda and its reefs by Anna Brassey, illustrating the perils of tacking in Bermuda's waters. A three-masted Bermuda sloop of the Royal Navy circa 1831, typical of the design of Bermudian ships by the 19th century The rig consists of a triangular sail set aft of the mast with its head raised to the top of the mast; its luff runs down the mast and is normally attached to it for its entire length; its tack is attached at the base of the mast; its foot (in modern versions of the rig) controlled by a boom ; and its clew attached to the aft end of the boom, which is controlled by its shee ...more...

Travellers Club


The Travellers Club is a gentlemen's club situated at 106 Pall Mall , London , United Kingdom . It is the oldest of the surviving Pall Mall clubs and one of the most exclusive, having been established in 1819. It was described as "the quintessential English gentleman's club" by the Los Angeles Times in 2004. Purpose The original concept of the club, by Lord Castlereagh and others, dates from the conclusion of the Napoleonic Wars . They envisaged a club where gentlemen who travelled abroad might meet and offer hospitality to distinguished foreign visitors. The original rules of 1819 excluded from membership anyone “who has not travelled out of the British islands to a distance of at least five hundred miles from London in a direct line”. Membership The members of the club's first Committee included the Earl of Aberdeen (later Prime Minister), Lord Auckland (after whom Auckland , New Zealand is named), the Marquess of Lansdowne (who had already served as Chancellor of the Exchequer and later refused office as P ...more...

Palace Club


The Palace Club was a short-lived political London gentlemen's club founded in 1882. It was aligned to the Conservative party, with members having to pledge support. Unlike many of the better-established clubs like the Carlton , or some of the new clubs like the Constitutional , it never acquired a sizable membership; according to Whittakers Almanack it had only 220 members in 1890, and 250 by 1900. It closed within a decade. Notes Taddei, Antonia. "Discussion Papers in Economic and Social History Number 28, April 1999 London Clubs in the late nineteenth century" (PDF) . University of Oxford. p. 20 . Retrieved 25 December 2016 . See also List of London's gentlemen's clubs The Palace Club was a short-lived political London gentlemen's club founded in 1882. It was aligned to the Conservative party, with members having to pledge support. Unlike many of the better-established clubs like the Carlton , or some of the new clubs like the Constitutional , it never acquired a sizable membership; acco ...more...



Réunion ( French : La Réunion , pronounced   (   listen ) ; previously Île Bourbon) is an island and region of France in the Indian Ocean , east of Madagascar and 175 kilometres (109 mi) southwest of Mauritius . As of January 2016, it had a population of 850,996. It is the most prosperous island in the Indian Ocean , having the highest GDP per capita in the region. The island has been inhabited since the 17th century when people from France, Madagascar and Africa settled there. Slavery was abolished on 20 December 1848 (a date celebrated yearly on the island), after which indentured workers were brought from Tamil Nadu, Southern India , among other places. The island became an overseas department of France in 1946. As elsewhere in France, the official language is French . In addition, the majority of the region's population speaks Réunion Creole . Administratively, Réunion is one of the overseas departments of France. Like the other four overseas departments, it is also one of the 18 regions of France , with ...more...

Baton (law enforcement)


A 1968-era Chicago Police helmet and billy club. A baton or truncheon is a club of less than arm's length made of wood, rubber, plastic or metal. It is carried for self-defense or riot control by law-enforcement officers, correctional staff, security-industry employees and military personnel. Other uses for truncheons and batons include crowd control or the dispersal of rioters. A truncheon or baton may be used in many ways as a weapon. It can be used defensively to block; offensively to strike, jab, or bludgeon; and it can aid in the application of armlocks . The usual striking or bludgeoning action is not produced by a simple and direct hit, as with an ordinary blunt object, but rather by bringing the arm down sharply while allowing the truncheon to pivot nearly freely forward and downward, so moving its tip much faster than its handle—effectively a slingshot or lever action, only without releasing. It has a common role to play, too, in rescuing trapped individuals by smashing windows. Some criminals use ba ...more...

Norfolk, Virginia


Norfolk ( NOR -fuuk , locally NOF -uuk ) is an independent city in the Commonwealth of Virginia in the United States. At the 2010 census , the population was 242,803; in 2015, the population was estimated to be 247,189 making it the second-most populous city in Virginia after neighboring Virginia Beach . Norfolk is located at the core of the Hampton Roads metropolitan area, named for the large natural harbor of the same name located at the mouth of Chesapeake Bay . It is one of nine cities and seven counties that constitute the Hampton Roads metro area, officially known as the Virginia Beach-Norfolk-Newport News, VA-NC MSA . The city is bordered to the west by the Elizabeth River and to the north by the Chesapeake Bay . It also shares land borders with the independent cities of Chesapeake to its south and Virginia Beach to its east. Norfolk is one of the oldest cities in Hampton Roads, and is considered to be the historic, urban, financial, and cultural center of the region. The city has a long history as a ...more...

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