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The Nineteenth Century Club

The Nineteenth Century Club is a historic philanthropic and cultural women's club based in Memphis, Tennessee. The Nineteenth Century Club adopted the idea that the community was an extended "household" that would benefit from the "gentler spirit" and "uplifting influence" of women, and shifted towards civic reform. The club primarily focused on the needs of women and children, addressing public problems such as sanitation, health, education, employment, and labor conditions.[1]

Creation

The club was founded in May 1890 following an assembly of elite white women at the Gayoso Hotel in Memphis. The founding members included the women activists Elise Massey Selden, Elizabeth Fisher Johnson, Elizabeth Avery Meriwether, Elizabeth Lyle Saxon, Clara Conway, and Lide Meriwether.[2] The stated objectives of the club were "to promote the female intellect by encouraging a spirit of research in literary fields and provide an intellectual center for the women of Memphis." The club was immediately successful, with membership steadily rising and peaking at around 1,400 members in 1926.[1]

Political activism

In 1891, one of the four committees in the club was "Philanthropy and Reform", which attempted to influence Memphis officials. The members wanted to participate in the development of the city and inject women's "gentler spirit" and more "loving wisdom" into municipal affairs. While the activities of the club empowered female influence in politics, members made many assurances that the goal was not radical political upheaval, cautioning against ambition and arguing that activism made was merely "housekeeping" that was extended to the "family" of the city community.[3]

The activism promoted by the club was described as a very selfless and feminine brand of activism. Despite the many disclaimers, the movement did signal a "new sense of power and capacity among American women", particularly in the South. The club motto was "Influence is Responsibility", which epitomized their feelings of accountability for society.[3]

In 1892, the Congress of the Association for the Advancement of Women congregated for the first time in a southern city at its 20th annual meeting with the Nineteenth Century Club. Founding member Clara Conway made the opening remarks, stating that women "were impatient with incompleteness" and were eager to move away from leisure to become productive members of society.[3]

Campaigns

Notable successful campaigns were securing a police matron at the city jail, establishing a female sanitary inspector at the Board of Health, forming the Shelby County Anti-Tuberculosis Society, and founding a new city hospital.[1] They also played an important role in the West Tennessee State Normal School, which later came to be known as the University of Memphis.[1]

In 1897, the Hamburg branch of the club established the Hamburg Public Library in an effort to enrich the community and improve education. At that time, the club had limited membership of 19 women, including several librarians and teachers. In 1901, the Hamburg Business Men's Club took over management of the library and formed the Library Association. The New York State Education Department chartered the library in 1902, and it remains open to this day.[4]

Modern day

The club remains in existence today.[1] In 1926, the club acquired a mansion built in 1906 by Rowland Darnell, a great lumber magnate of Memphis, and remained there for over 20 years. The mansion was eventually sold as membership continued to decline over the years. A legal battle took place over ownership and historical preservation of the mansion, eventually resulting in a restoration and conversion into a restaurant.[5]

References
  1. Wedell, Marsha (25 December 2009). "Nineteenth Century Club | Entries | Tennessee Encyclopedia". The Tennessee Encyclopedia of History and Culture. The University of Tennessee Press. Retrieved 2015-12-16.
  2. Bond, Beverly Greene; Freeman, Sarah Wilkerson (2015-07-01). Tennessee Women: Their Lives and Times--Volume 2. University of Georgia Press. ISBN 9780820337432.
  3. Wedell, Marsha (1991-01-01). Elite Women and the Reform Impulse in Memphis, 1875-1915. Univ. of Tennessee Press. ISBN 9780870497049.
  4. Edson, John. "The Legacy of the Nineteenth Century Club". Buffalo and Erie County Public Library. Buffalo and Erie County Public Library System. Retrieved 2016-01-04.
  5. "Rowland J. Darnell and the 19th Century Club". Historic Memphis Website. Retrieved 2015-12-18.
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The Nineteenth Century Club

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The Nineteenth Century Club is a historic philanthropic and cultural women's club based in Memphis, Tennessee . The Nineteenth Century Club adopted the idea that the community was an extended "household" that would benefit from the "gentler spirit" and "uplifting influence" of women, and shifted towards civic reform . The club primarily focused on the needs of women and children, addressing public problems such as sanitation, health, education, employment, and labor conditions. Creation The club was founded in May 1890 following an assembly of elite white women at the Gayoso Hotel in Memphis. The founding members included the women activists Elise Massey Selden , Elizabeth Fisher Johnson , Elizabeth Avery Meriwether , Elizabeth Lyle Saxon , Clara Conway , and Lide Meriwether . The stated objectives of the club were "to promote the female intellect by encouraging a spirit of research in literary fields and provide an intellectual center for the women of Memphis." The club was immediately successful, with memb ...more...



France in the long nineteenth century

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The history of France from 1789 to 1914 (the long 19th century ) extends from the French Revolution to World War I and includes: French Revolution (1789–1792) French First Republic (1792–1804) First French Empire under Napoleon I (1804–1814/1815) Bourbon Restoration under Louis XVIII and Charles X (1814/1815–1830) July Monarchy under Louis Philippe d'Orléans (1830–1848) Second Republic (1848–1852) Second Empire under Napoleon III (1852–1870) Long Depression (1873–1890) Belle Époque (1871–1914) General aspects Geography A map of France in 1843 under the July Monarchy At the time of the French Revolution, France had expanded to nearly the modern territorial limits. The 19th century would complete the process by the annexation of the Duchy of Savoy and the city of Nice (first during the First Empire, and then definitively in 1860) and some small papal (like Avignon ) and foreign possessions. France's territorial limits were greatly extended during the Empire through Revolutionary and Napoleonic military conquest ...more...



Century Club

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Century Club may refer to: The Century Club , a fictional gentleman's club in the Marvel Comics Universe The Century Club of San Diego , California Century Club of Scranton , Pennsylvania The Century Club, Bengaluru, a social club founded by Sir M. Vishveshwariah The Century Association , a prominent private authors and artists club, with its own building in New York City FIFA Century Club, football players who have played 100 or more "A" international matches for their countries DX Century Club , an amateur radio operating award for contacting 100 geographic entities VHF/UHF Century Club , an amateur radio operating award for contacting 100 stations in other Maidenhead grid locators The Travelers' Century Club , a club for travelers who have visited 100 or more countries of the world See also New Century Club (disambiguation) The Nineteenth Century Club , Memphis, Tennessee Twentieth Century Club (disambiguation) Century Club may refer to: The Century Club , a fictional gentleman's club in the Marvel Comics ...more...



Scottish art in the nineteenth century

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Scottish art in the nineteenth century is the body of visual art made in Scotland, by Scots, or about scottish subjects. This period saw the increasing professionalisation and organisation of art in Scotland. Major institutions founded in this period included the Institution for the Encouragement of the Fine Arts in Scotland, the Royal Scottish Academy of Art , the National Gallery of Scotland , the Scottish National Portrait Gallery and the Glasgow Institute . Art education in Edinburgh focused on the Trustees Drawing Academy of Edinburgh . Glasgow School of Art was founded in 1845 and Grays School of Art in Aberdeen in 1885. Henry Raeburn , most famous for his intimate portraits of leading figures in Scottish life, was the first significant artist to pursue his entire career in Scotland. His pupils included the brothers William, Archibald and Andrew Robertson. The next generation of portrait painters included David Watson and John Watson Gordon . Significant Glasgow artists included John Graham-Gilbert and ...more...



Scottish literature in the nineteenth century

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Scottish literature in the nineteenth century includes all written and published works in Scotland or by Scottish writers in the period. It includes literature written in English , Scottish Gaelic and Scots in forms including poetry, novels, drama and the short story. The most successful literary figure of the era, Walter Scott , began his literary career as a poet and also collected and published Scottish ballads. Scottish poetry is often seen as entering a period of decline in the nineteenth century, with Scots language poetry criticised for its use of parochial dialect and English poetry for its lack of Scottishness. Successful poets included William Thom , Lady Margaret Maclean Clephane Compton Northampton and Thomas Campbell . Among the most influential poets of the later nineteenth were James Thomson and John Davidson . The Highland Clearances and widespread emigration weakened Gaelic language and culture and had a profound impact on the nature of Gaelic poetry. Particularly significant was the work of ...more...



English Mastiff

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The English Mastiff is a breed of extremely large dog (often known simply as the Mastiff) perhaps descended from the ancient Alaunt and Pugnaces Britanniae , with a significant input from the Alpine Mastiff in the 19th century. Distinguishable by enormous size, massive head, short coat in a limited range of colours, but always displaying a black mask, the Mastiff is noted for its gentle and loving nature. The lineage of modern dogs can be traced back to the early 19th century, but the modern type was stabilised in the 1880s and refined since. Following a period of sharp decline, the Mastiff has increased its worldwide popularity. Throughout its history, the Mastiff has contributed to the development of a number of dog breeds, some generally known as Mastiff-type dogs , or, confusingly, just as " Mastiffs ". Appearance Fawn English Mastiff With a massive body, broad skull and head of generally square appearance, it is the largest dog breed in terms of mass. It is on average slightly heavier than the Saint Bern ...more...



Canadian Club

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Canadian Club is a brand of Canadian whisky produced by Beam Suntory . Popularly known as CC , Canadian Club was created by Hiram Walker and Sons , an evolution of a brand around a product that took place over the second half of the nineteenth century. Hiram Walker merged with Gooderham & Worts, Ltd. in 1926, yielding Hiram Walker-Gooderham & Worts, Ltd.. History Hiram Walker founded his distillery in 1858 in Detroit . He first learned how to distill cider vinegar in his grocery store in the 1830s before moving on to whisky and producing his first barrels in 1854. However, with the Prohibition movement gathering momentum and Michigan already becoming "dry", Walker decided to move his distillery across the Detroit River to Windsor, Ontario . From here, he was able to export his whisky and start to develop Walkerville , a community that Walker financed and from which he sourced most of his employees. Walker's whisky was particularly popular in the late 19th century gentlemen's clubs of the United Stat ...more...



Costume party

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Manchester fancy dress ball of 1828, painting by Arthur Perigal A costume party ( American English ) or a fancy dress party ( British English ) is a type of party , common mainly in contemporary Western culture , where guests dress up in costumes . Costumed Halloween parties are popular in the United States, Canada, Australia, and New Zealand. By country Australia Australian fancy dress parties typically follows the style of the United States, and Halloween costume parties have been common since the early 1990s, even though Halloween has not historically been a celebrated event in Australia. Typical events for Australians that involve dressing up are the Sydney Gay and Lesbian Mardi Gras , the staff Christmas party and cricket matches. One of the oldest examples of fancy dress being worn in Australia is on display at the Western Australia Museum . It was a child's fancy dress costume worn by Miss Rita Lloyd, aged nine, to the ‘Lord Mayor’s Juvenile Fancy Dress Ball’ at Mansion House in Perth on 8 January 1909 ...more...



Hoi polloi

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Hoi polloi ( Ancient Greek : οἱ πολλοί , hoi polloi, "the many") is an expression from Greek that means the many or, in the strictest sense, the majority . In English, it has been corrupted by being given a negative connotation to signify deprecation of the working class , commoners , the masses or common people in a derogatory or (more often today) ironic sense. Synonyms for hoi polloi, which also express the same or similar distaste for the common people felt by those who believe themselves to be superior, include "the great unwashed ", "the plebeians " or "plebs", "the rabble", "the masses","the dregs of society", " riffraff ", "the herd", "the canaille", "the proles" (proletariat) , " sheeple ", and " peons ". The phrase probably became known to English scholars through Pericles' Funeral Oration , as mentioned in Thucydides ' History of the Peloponnesian War . Pericles uses it in a positive way when praising the Athenian democracy , contrasting it with hoi oligoi , "the few" ( Greek : οἱ ὀλίγοι , see also ...more...



Jockey-Club de Paris

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The Jockey Club de Paris is a traditional gentlemen's club and is regarded as one of the most prestigious private clubs in Paris . It is best remembered as a gathering place of the elite of nineteenth-century French society. The club still exists at 2 rue Rabelais in Paris, and it hosts the International Federation of Racing Authorities. History The Jockey Club was originally organized as the "Society for the Encouragement of the Improvement of Horse Breeding in France", to provide a single authority for horse racing in the nation, beginning at Chantilly in 1834. It swiftly became the center for the most sportifs gentlemen of le tout-Paris. At the same time, when aristocrats and men of the haute bourgeoisie still formed the governing class, its Anglo-Gallic membership could not fail to give it some political colour: Napoleon III , who had passed some early exile in England, asserted that he had learned to govern an empire through "his intercourse with the calm, self-possessed men of the English turf". Between ...more...



Portland, Connecticut

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Portland is a town in Middlesex County , Connecticut , United States . The population was 8,732 at the 2000 census . The town center is listed as a census-designated place (CDP). It is situated across the Connecticut River from Middletown . Brownstone quarried in Portland was used in the construction of Hartford's Old State House in 1796. The vast majority of the brownstone buildings in Connecticut (see College Row at Wesleyan University and the Long Walk at Trinity College ) as well as the famous brownstones in New York City were built with brownstone from Portland's quarries . About half of the town's perimeter is made up of the Connecticut River. The town has eight marinas and boat clubs as well as three 18-hole golf courses. History The Wangunk tribe lived in the area prior to European settlement, and lived in Portland continuously throughout the settler period. Wangunk descendants still live in the area today. Their name referred to the bend in the Connecticut River which curves around half of the town's ...more...



List of poetry groups and movements

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Poetry groups and movements or schools may be self-identified by the poets that form them or defined by critics who see unifying characteristics of a body of work by more than one poet. To be a 'school' a group of poets must share a common style or a common ethos. A commonality of form is not in itself sufficient to define a school; for example, Edward Lear , George du Maurier and Ogden Nash do not form a school simply because they all wrote limericks . There are many different 'schools' of poetry. Some of them are described below in approximate chronological sequence. The subheadings indicate broadly the century in which a style arose. Prehistoric The Oral tradition is too broad to be a strict school but it is a useful grouping of works whose origins either predate writing, or belong to cultures without writing. Fifteenth century (1400-1500) The Makars were a diverse genere of Scottish poets who wrote during the Northern Renaissance . Sixteenth century (1500-1600) The Castalian Band . Seventeenth century (16 ...more...



Murray Hill, Manhattan

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Row houses in the Murray Hill Historic District High-rise condominiums Murray Hill is a neighborhood in midtown Manhattan in New York City . In 1999, Manhattan Community Board 6 – of which Murray Hill is part – defined the boundaries as East 34th Street to the south, East 40th Street to the north, Madison Avenue to the west, and East River to the east. History Eighteenth century Murray Hill derives its name from the Murray family, 18th-century Quaker merchants mainly concerned with shipping and overseas trade. Robert Murray (1721–1786), the family patriarch, was born in County Armagh , Ireland , immigrated to Pennsylvania in 1732, and came to New York City in 1753 after a short residence in North Carolina . He quickly established himself as a merchant and eventually owned more shipping tonnage than any other New Yorker. About 1762 Murray rented land from the city for a great house and farm. His great house, which he named Inclenberg (or Belmont), but which was popularly termed Murray Hill, was built on a sinc ...more...



Andouillette

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Barbecued andouillette from Troyes Andouillette in aspic from Troyes on sale at a charcuterie in Montmartre , Paris Andouillette ( French pronunciation: ​ ) is a coarse-grained sausage made with pork (or occasionally veal ), intestines or chitterlings , pepper , wine , onions , and seasonings. Tripe , which is the stomach lining of a cow, is sometimes an ingredient in the filler of an andouillette, but it is not the casing or the key to its manufacture. True andouillette will be an oblong tube. If made with the small intestine, it is a plump sausage generally about 25 mm in diameter but often it is much larger, possibly 7–10 cm in diameter, and stronger in scent when the colon is used. True andouillette is rarely seen outside France and has a strong, distinctive odour related to its intestinal origins and components. Although sometimes repellent to the uninitiated, this aspect of andouillette is prized by its devotees. Ingredients and history The original composition of "andouillette sausages" is not known an ...more...



Poetry of Scotland

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Poetry of Scotland includes all forms of verse written in Brythonic , Latin , Scottish Gaelic , Scots , French, English and Esperanto and any language in which poetry has been written within the boundaries of modern Scotland, or by Scottish people. Much of the earliest Welsh literature was composed in or near Scotland, but only written down in Wales much later. These include The Gododdin , considered the earliest surviving verse from Scotland. Very few works of Gaelic poetry survive from this period and most of these in Irish manuscripts. The Dream of the Rood , from which lines are found on the Ruthwell Cross , is the only surviving fragment of Northumbrian Old English from early Medieval Scotland. In Latin early works include a "Prayer for Protection" attributed to St Mugint, and Altus Prosator ("The High Creator") attributed to St Columba. There were probably filidh who acted as poets, musicians and historians. After the "de-gallicisation" of the Scottish court from the twelfth century, bards continued to ...more...



Liberalism in Mexico

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Liberalism in Mexico was part of a broader nineteenth-century political trend affecting Western Europe and the Americas, including the United States, that challenged entrenched power. Nineteenth-Century Liberalism Alegoría de la Constitución de 1857 shows a dark complected Mexican woman clutching the liberal constitution of 1857. The 1869 painting by Petronilo Monroy was completed after the expulsion of the French in 1867. Most Mexican liberals looked to European thinkers in their formulation of their ideology, which has led to a debate about whether those ideas were merely "Mexicanized" versions. In Mexico, the most salient aspects of nineteenth-century liberalism were to create a secular state separated from the Roman Catholic Church, establish equality before the law by abolishing corporate privileges (fueros) of the church, the military, and indigenous communities. Liberals' aim was to transform Mexico into a modern secular state with a dynamic economy. Corporate privilege and the conservative elite defe ...more...



Guinea (coin)

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Five Guinea coin, James II, Great Britain, 1688 The guinea was a coin of approximately one quarter ounce of gold that was minted in Great Britain between 1663 and 1814. The name came from the Guinea region in West Africa, where much of the gold used to make the coins originated. It was the first English machine-struck gold coin , originally worth one pound sterling , equal to twenty shillings , but rises in the price of gold relative to silver caused the value of the guinea to increase, at times to as high as thirty shillings. From 1717 to 1816, its value was officially fixed at twenty-one shillings. When Britain adopted the gold standard the guinea became a colloquial or specialised term. Although no longer circulated, the term guinea survives as a unit of account in some fields. Notable usages include horse racing , and in the sale of rams to mean an amount of one pound and one shilling (21 shillings) or one pound and five pence (£1.05) in decimalised currency. The name also forms the basis for the Arab ...more...



Pug

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The Pug is a breed of dog with physically distinctive features of a wrinkly, short-muzzled face, and curled tail. The breed has a fine, glossy coat that comes in a variety of colours, most often fawn or black, and a compact square body with well-developed muscles. Pugs were brought from China to Europe in the sixteenth century and were popularized in Western Europe by the House of Orange of the Netherlands , and the House of Stuart . In the United Kingdom , in the nineteenth century, Queen Victoria developed a passion for pugs which she passed on to other members of the Royal family. Pugs are known for being sociable and gentle companion dogs . The American Kennel Club describes the breed's personality as "even-tempered and charming". Pugs remain popular into the twenty-first century, with some famous celebrity owners. A pug was judged Best in Show at the World Dog Show in 2004. Description A fawn Pug puppy, Best in Puppies competition, Physical characteristics While the pugs that are depicted in eighteent ...more...



List of mayors of Albany, New York

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From its formal chartering on 22 July 1686 until 1779, the mayors of Albany, New York , were appointed by the royal governor of New York , per the provisions of the original city charter, issued by Governor Thomas Dongan . From 1779 until 1839, mayors were chosen by the New York State's Council of Appointment , typically for a one-year term that began in September. From 1840 on, Albany's mayors were directly elected by the city's residents. Beginning in 1886, mayoral terms began on January 1 of the year after the mayor was elected. A total of 74 men and one woman have served as mayor since the City's inception; eighteen of them served multiple terms that were not consecutive. Erastus Corning 2nd served for over 40 years, longer than any other mayor of any other major United States city. Kathy Sheehan ( Democrat ) is the current mayor; she was first elected in 2013, began service on January 1, 2014, and is currently in her first term of office. Since Thomas M. Whalen III's death in 2002, Gerald Jennings and Ka ...more...



English cuisine

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English cuisine encompasses the cooking styles, traditions and recipes associated with England . It has distinctive attributes of its own, but also shares much with wider British cuisine , partly through the importation of ingredients and ideas from North America , China , and India during the time of the British Empire and as a result of post-war immigration . Traditional meals have ancient origins, such as bread and cheese , roasted and stewed meats, meat and game pies , boiled vegetables and broths, and freshwater and saltwater fish . The 14th-century English cookbook, the Forme of Cury , contains recipes for these, and dates from the royal court of Richard II . English cooking has been influenced by foreign ingredients and cooking styles since the Middle Ages . Curry was introduced from the Indian subcontinent and adapted to English tastes from the eighteenth century with Hannah Glasse 's recipe for chicken "currey". French cuisine influenced English recipes throughout the Victorian era . After the ratio ...more...



Savile Row

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The immediate vicinity of Savile Row Savile Row from Burlington Gardens Savile Row (pronounced ) is a street in Mayfair , central London . Known principally for its traditional bespoke tailoring for men, the street has had a varied history that has included accommodating the headquarters of the Royal Geographical Society at 1 Savile Row, where significant British explorations to Africa and the South Pole were planned; and more recently, the Apple office of the Beatles at 3 Savile Row, where the band's final live performance was held on the roof of the building. Originally named Savile Street, it was built between 1731 and 1735 as part of the development of the Burlington Estate . It was designed under the influence of Burlington's interpretation of Palladian architecture , known as "Burlingtonian". Henry Flitcroft , under the supervision of Daniel Garrett , appears to have been the main architect – though 1 and 22–23 Savile Row were designed by William Kent . Initially, the street was occupied mainly by milit ...more...



Edinburgh Wanderers

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Edinburgh Wanderers was a nineteenth-century and twentieth-century Edinburgh -based rugby union club. Formation The rugby club was formed in 1868. The club was initially known as St. Andrew's Wanderers, as it was formed by St. Andrew's University graduates based in Edinburgh. Early history The club quickly became known as Edinburgh Wanderers - and the side established itself as one of the best in Scotland. In the world's first provincial match - between Glasgow District and Edinburgh District - in 1872, the side was already known as Edinburgh Wanderers and provided 3 players to the first Edinburgh District side:- A. Ross; J. Forsyth and A. R. Stewart The club would have been the ninth founding club of the Scottish Rugby Union had the club secretary made it to the inauguration meeting of the union in 1872. Instead it initially joined the English Rugby Union in that same year. However a year later as the Scottish Rugby Union grew, the Wanderers resigned from the English union to join the SRU. The Wanderers te ...more...



East Hampton (village), New York

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The Village of East Hampton is a village in Suffolk County , New York , United States. It is located in the town of East Hampton on the South Fork of eastern Long Island . The population was 1,083 at the time of the 2010 census , 251 less than in the year 2000. It is a center of the summer resort and upscale locality at the East End of Long Island known as The Hamptons and is generally considered one of the area's two most prestigious communities. History Seventeenth Century Founded in 1648 by Puritan farmers who worshiped as Presbyterians , the village of Easthampton was a farming community with some fishing and whaling. Whales that washed up on the beach were butchered and whales were hunted offshore with rowboats sometimes manned by Montauk Indians . Due to no good harbor in East Hampton; however, it was Sag Harbor which became a whaling center which sent ships to the Pacific. The land had been purchased in 1648 by the governors of Connecticut Colony and New Haven Colony from the Montauk Indians, in large ...more...



Voluntaryism

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Voluntaryism ( UK : , US : ; sometimes voluntarism ), is a philosophy which holds that all forms of human association should be voluntary, a term coined in this usage by Auberon Herbert in the 19th century, and gaining renewed use since the late 20th century, especially among libertarians . Its principal beliefs stem from the non-aggression principle . History Movements identifying as voluntaryist Seventeenth century Precursors to the voluntaryist movement had a long tradition in the English-speaking world, at least as far back as the Leveller movement of mid-seventeenth century England. The Leveller spokesmen John Lilburne (c. 1614–1657) and Richard Overton (c. 1600 – c. 1660s) who "clashed with the Presbyterian puritans, who wanted to preserve a state-church with coercive powers and to deny liberty of worship to the puritan sects." The Levellers were nonconformist in religion and advocated for the separation of church and state. The church to their way of thinking was a voluntary associating of equals, ...more...



Brisbane

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Brisbane (  (   listen ) ) is the capital of and most populous city in the Australian state of Queensland , and the third most populous city in Australia. Brisbane's metropolitan area has a population of 2.4 million, and the South East Queensland region, centred on Brisbane, encompasses a population of more than 3.5 million. The Brisbane central business district stands on the original European settlement and is situated inside a bend of the Brisbane River , about 15 kilometres (9 miles) from its mouth at Moreton Bay . The metropolitan area extends in all directions along the floodplain of the Brisbane River Valley between Moreton Bay and the Great Dividing Range , sprawling across several of Australia's most populous local government areas (LGAs), most centrally the City of Brisbane , which is by far the most populous LGA in the nation. The demonym of Brisbane is Brisbanite. One of the oldest cities in Australia , Brisbane was founded upon the ancient homelands of the indigenous Turrbal and Jagera peopl ...more...



History of rail transport in India

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Rail transport in India began in the early nineteenth century. 1832–1852: Industrial railways The first proposals for railways in India were made in Madras in 1832. The first train in India ran from Red Hills to Chintadripet bridge in Madras in 1837, and was called Red Hill Railway. It was hauled by a rotary steam engine locomotive manufactured by William Avery. Built by Sir Arthur Cotton, it was primarily used for transporting granite stones for road building work in Madras. In 1845, a railway was built at Dowleswaram in Rajahmundry called Godavari Dam Construction Railway. It was also built by Arthur Cotton and was used to supply stones for construction of a dam over Godavari . On 8 May 1845, Madras Railway was incorporated. In the same year, the East India Railway company was incorporated. On 1 August 1849, Great Indian Peninsular Railway was incorporated by an Act of Parliament. The "Guarantee System", providing free land and guaranteed rates of return (5%) to the private English companies willing to w ...more...



Junior Carlton Club

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The Junior Carlton Club was a London gentlemen's club , now dissolved, which was established in 1864 and was disbanded in 1977. History Anticipating the forthcoming Second Reform Act under Benjamin Disraeli , numerous prospective electors decided to form a club closely aligned to the Conservative party . Adopting the model such other clubs as the Junior Athenaeum and the Junior Oxford and Cambridge Club , the Junior Carlton styled itself after the Carlton Club , which had a fixed number of members and a lengthy waiting list, and so was likely to remain out of the reach of these soon-to-be-enfranchised/newly enfranchised electors. According to Anthony Lejeune, the Junior Carlton was the only one of the many clubs with the 'Junior' prefix to achieve anything of the prestige of the longer-standing, more established clubs which they sought to emulate. Club building From 1869, the club was housed in sumptuous premises at 30 Pall Mall designed by David Brandon , which it occupied well into the twentieth century. T ...more...



Newington Green Unitarian Church

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Newington Green Unitarian Church (NGUC) in north London is one of England's oldest Unitarian churches. It has had strong ties to political radicalism for over 300 years, and is London's oldest Nonconformist place of worship still in use. It was founded in 1708 by English Dissenters , a community of which had been gathering around Newington Green for at least half a century before that date. The church belongs to the umbrella organisation known as the General Assembly of Unitarian and Free Christian Churches , and has had an upturn in its fortunes since the turn of the millennium. Its most famous minister was Dr Richard Price , a political radical who is remembered for his role in the Revolution Controversy , a British debate about the French Revolution , but who also did pioneering work in finance and statistics. The most famous member of its congregation was Mary Wollstonecraft , who drew inspiration from Price's sermons in her work, both in arguing for the new French republic and in raising the issue of the ...more...



Woman's club movement

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The woman's club movement was a social movement that took place throughout the United States . While women's organizations had always been a part of United States history, especially in African-American communities, it wasn't until the Progressive era that it came to be considered a "movement." The first wave of the club movement during the Progressive era was started by white, middle-class women and a second phase by African-American women. These clubs, most of which had started out as social and literary gatherings, eventually became a source of reform for various issues in the U.S. Both African-American and white women's clubs were involved with issues surrounding education, child labor , juvenile justice , legal reform, environmental protection, library creation and more. Women's clubs helped start many initiatives such as kindergartens and juvenile court systems. Later, women's clubs tackled issues like women's suffrage , lynching and family planning . While participation in women's clubs has waned in th ...more...



The Thirteen Club

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In the 1880s, the Thirteen Club was created to debunk the superstition of "13 at a table" being unlucky. This belief states that when 13 people are seated together at a table, one will die within a year. They met on the 13th of the month for a dinner served to 13 people at each table. By 1887, the Thirteen Club was 400-strong, over time gaining five U.S. Presidents as honorary members: Chester Arthur , Grover Cleveland , Benjamin Harrison , William McKinley and Theodore Roosevelt . The "13 at a table" superstition may take its origin from The Last Supper wherein 13 people dined ( Jesus and his twelve disciples) and Jesus died soon after, or from the Valhalla Banquet story in Norse mythology . That story tells about 12 gods invited to a banquet. Loki , making thirteen, intrudes and Balder , the favourite of the gods, is killed. In New York at the December 13, 1886 meeting of the Thirteen Club, Robert Green Ingersoll ended his toast, "The Superstitions of Public Men": “ We have had enough mediocrity, enough pol ...more...



Gentlemen's club

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The Reform Club , set up in the early 19th century in London A gentlemen's club , or formerly traditional gentlemen's club , is a members-only private club originally set up by and for British upper-class men in the 18th century, and popularised by English upper middle-class men and women in the late 19th century and early 20th century. Today, some clubs are more accommodating about the gender and social status of their members. Many countries outside the United Kingdom have prominent gentlemen's clubs, mostly those associated with the British Empire , in particular, India , Pakistan , and Bangladesh have enthusiastically taken up the practice, and have a thriving club scene. History The bar at the Savile Club , 69 Brook Street, London The original clubs were established in the West End of London . Today, the area of St James's is still sometimes called "clubland". Clubs took over some parts of the role occupied by coffee houses in 18th-century London , and reached the height of their influence in the late 19 ...more...



History of Harrisburg, Pennsylvania

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The history of Harrisburg , the state capital of the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania , United States , has played a key role in the development of the nation's industrial history, from its origins as a trading outpost to the present. Harrisburg has played a critical role in American history during the Westward Migration , the American Civil War , and the Industrial Revolution . During part of the 19th century, the building of the Pennsylvania Canal and later the Pennsylvania Railroad , allowed Harrisburg to become one of the most industrialized cities in the Northeastern United States . Early settlement The site along the Susquehanna River where Harrisburg is located is thought to have been inhabited by Native Americans as early as 3000 BC. Known to the Native Americans as "Peixtin," or " Paxtang ," the area was an important resting place and crossroads for Native American traders, as the trails leading from the Delaware to the Ohio rivers, and from the Potomac to the Upper Susquehanna intersected there. The fir ...more...



Rathfarnham Castle

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Rathfarnham Castle ( Irish : Caisleán Rath Fearnáin ) is a 16th-century fortified house in Rathfarnham , South Dublin , Ireland . Origins Adam Loftus The earlier Irish castle was replaced by the present building built on lands confiscated from the Eustace family of Baltinglass because of their involvement in the Second Desmond Rebellion . The family were Irish-speaking and epitomized the fusion of Gaelic & Norman traditions that defines early modern Irish identity as described in the phrase More Irish than the Irish themselves . The Geraldines defended the Pale from the Irish clans in the nearby Wicklow Mountains . It is believed the present castle was built around 1583 for Archbishop Adam Loftus . Originally a semi-fortified and battlemented structure it underwent extensive alterations in the 18th century. The castle consisted of a square building four stories high with a projecting tower at each corner, the walls of which were an average of 5 feet (1.5 m) thick. On the ground level are two vaulted apar ...more...



Flesherton

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Flesherton (population 700) is a community in the Municipality of Grey Highlands , in Grey County , Ontario , Canada , located at the junction of Highway 10 and Grey County Road 4 (formerly Highway 4 ). Although the area initially showed a high rate of growth in the 1850s and its founder believed that it would become an important centre of economic activity, growth stagnated when an all-important rail link bypassed it, and the community never grew larger than a small village. The self-proclaimed "Gateway to the Beaver Valley" recently lost its autonomy as a village when it was amalgamated with the surrounding Artemesia Township. Prehistory A paleolithic quartzite arrowhead that had been quarried north of the Great Lakes was discovered near Flesherton in 1974. Whether it was carried south to the Flesherton area around the east side of Georgian Bay , or dates back to a time when a land bridge existed between the Bruce Peninsula and Manitoulin Island , the arrowhead does point to prehistoric interaction between ...more...



Alfred Thayer Mahan

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Alfred Thayer Mahan [məˈhæn] (September 27, 1840 – December 1, 1914) was a United States naval officer and historian , whom John Keegan called "the most important American strategist of the nineteenth century." His book The Influence of Sea Power Upon History, 1660–1783 (1890) won immediate recognition, especially in Europe, and with its successor, The Influence of Sea Power Upon the French Revolution and Empire, 1793–1812 (1892), made him world-famous and perhaps the most influential American author of the nineteenth century. Early life Mahan was born on September 27, 1840, at West Point, New York , to Dennis Hart Mahan (a professor at the United States Military Academy ) and Mary Helena Okill Mahan (1815–1893), daughter of John Okill and Mary Jay (daughter of Sir James Jay ). Mahan's middle name honors "the father of West Point", Sylvanus Thayer . Mahan attended Saint James School , an Episcopal college preparatory academy in western Maryland. He then studied at Columbia for two years, where he was a membe ...more...



Democracy in China

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Democracy was a major concept introduced to China in the late nineteenth century. The debate over its form and definition as well as application was one of the major ideological battlegrounds in Chinese politics for well over a century. Qing dynasty The first introduction of the concept of modern democracy into China is credited to exiled Chinese writer Liang Qichao . In 1895, he participated in protests in Beijing for increased popular participation during the late Qing Dynasty , the last ruling dynasty of China. It was the first of its kind in modern Chinese history. After escaping to Japan following the government's clampdown on anti-Qing protesters, Liang Qichao translated and commented on the works of Hobbes , Rousseau , Locke , Hume , Bentham and many other western political philosophers. He published his essays in a series of journals that easily found an audience among Chinese intelligentsia hungering for an explanation of why China, once a formidable empire of its own, was now on the verge of being d ...more...



Scottish Agricultural Revolution

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The Agricultural Revolution in Scotland was a series of changes in agricultural practice that began in the seventeenth century and continued in the nineteenth century. They began with the improvement of Scottish Lowlands farmland and the beginning of a transformation of Scottish agriculture from one of the least modernised systems to what was to become the most modern and productive system in Europe. The traditional system of agriculture in Lowland Scotland had existed unchanged for hundreds of years, the land being worked by the cottars on the centuries-old runrig system of subsistence farming . Use of the term The term Scottish Agricultural Revolution was used in the early twentieth century primarily to refer to the period of most dramatic change in the second half of the eighteenth century and early nineteenth century. More recently historians have become aware of a longer processes, with change beginning in the late seventeenth century and still continuing into the mid-nineteenth century. The expansion of ...more...



History of the Jews in Curaçao

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The history of the Jews in Curaçao can be traced back to the mid-17th century, when the first Jewish immigrants began to arrive. The first Jews in Curaçao were Sephardi Jewish immigrants from Netherlands , Portugal , and Spain . These immigrants founded Congregation Mikvé Israel-Emanuel , the oldest continuously used synagogue in the Americas. The first Jew to settle in Curaçao was a Dutch-Jewish interpreter named Samuel Cohen, who arrived on board a Dutch fleet in 1634. By the mid-1700s, the community was the most prosperous in the Americas and many of the Jewish communities in Latin America, primarily in Colombia and Venezuela, resulted from the influx of Curaçaoan Jews. In the 20th century Ashkenazi Jews from Eastern Europe immigrated to Curaçao, establishing their own traditions and a school. As of 2013, the Jewish population is around 350. History In 1492, the Jews of Spain , after years of persecution and forced conversion to Catholicism, were expelled en masse. Initially, they sought refuge in nearby P ...more...



History of Darien, Connecticut

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The history of Darien , Connecticut, has been shaped by its location on the shore of Long Island Sound as the main route from Boston to New York City, initially with sailing ships and dirt roads for transportation, and later with locomotives and highways. This aspect of the town continually influenced its development. Colonial times Bates-Scofield House, Darien Historical Society headquarters and museum The Siwanoy , an Agonquian-speaking sachemdom (or subtribe) of the Wappinger tribe, originally occupied Darien and the surrounding area. The Siwanoy controlled what is now much of the Bronx, Westchester County and the Connecticut "panhandle" as far east as Norwalk and part of Wilton . The land that became Darien was a part of Stamford from the time Stamford was bought from the Indians until Darien was incorporated as a town in 1820. Settlement began in the late 17th century with permission from Stamford authorities to start building roads cut "in the woods". Originally, settlers congregated in three areas: aro ...more...



Sällskapet (club)

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Sällskapet is an exclusive gentlemen's club in Stockholm , Sweden , providing private member facilities to a constitutionally limited number of members, and their invited guests. Creation The success of private gentlemen's clubs in London during the eighteenth century led to a group of Swedish socialites seeking similar facilities in their capital. A total of 91 founders established Sällskapet, which opened on 1 December 1800. The founders established a rule book and constitution for their society, aiming to recreate the ethos and success of top London clubs such as White's . Clubhouse On 31 March 1870 Sällskapet relocated into a new purpose-built clubhouse in central Stockholm, on the opposite bank of the river from the Swedish Parliament and the Royal Palace. The Club remains at this location, No 7 Arsenalsgatan, to the present day. The architect was Johan Fredrik Åbom a leading proponent of his art in mid-nineteenth century Stockholm. Åbom had also designed the world-renowned Hotel Rydberg (where the Clu ...more...



Gigolo

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A gigolo ( or ) is a male escort or social companion who is supported by a woman in a continuing relationship, often living in her residence or having to be present at her beck and call. The gigolo is expected to provide companionship, to serve as a consistent escort with good manners and social skills, and often to serve as a dancing partner as required by the woman in exchange for the support. Many gifts such as expensive clothing and an automobile to drive may be lavished upon him. The relationship may include sexual services as well, when he also would be referred to as a "kept man". Origins The term gigolo usually implies a man who adopts a lifestyle consisting of a number of such relationships serially, rather than having other means of support. The word gigolo may be traced to a first usage in English as a neologism during the 1920s as a back-formation from a French word, gigolette, a woman hired as a dancing partner. Both gigolo and gigolette were first recorded in French in the middle part of the ni ...more...



The Dark Days Club

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The Dark Days Club is a 2016 historical fiction novel by Alison Goodman . The book is first of the Lady Helen series. The story is set in early nineteenth century London . The series is a Regency romance . Characters Lady Helen References "The Dark Days Club" . Google Books. 2016-02-04 . Retrieved 2016-02-15 . "Read an exclusive excerpt from Alison Goodman's 'The Dark Days Club ' " . Entertainment Weekly's EW.com. 2015-08-12 . Retrieved 2016-02-15 . @danizhuu, Danielle Zhu • (2016-01-26). " ' The Dark Days Club' by Alison Goodman: EW Review" . Entertainment Weekly's EW.com . Retrieved 2016-02-15 . Chopin, Allison (2016-02-08). " ' The Dark Days Club': Regency romance with demonic twist" . NY Daily News . Retrieved 2016-02-15 . The Dark Days Club is a 2016 historical fiction novel by Alison Goodman . The book is first of the Lady Helen series. The story is set in early nineteenth century London . The series is a Regency romance . Characters Lady Helen References "The Dark Days Club" . Google Books. 2016- ...more...



Timeline of Edinburgh history

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View of Arthur's Seat from Edinburgh Castle This article is a timeline of the history of Edinburgh , Scotland, up to the present day. It traces its rise from an early hill fort and later royal residence to the bustling city and capital of Scotland that it is today. First millennium Pre-1st century AD: Late Bronze Age (c.600 BC) weapons were found in Duddingston Loch in 1778. Traces of four Iron Age forts have been identified at Arthur's Seat , Dunsapie Crag, Salisbury Crags and Samson's Ribs. 2nd century AD: Roman forts were built and manned at Cramond and Inveresk on the western and eastern margins of the present-day city. c.600: The traditional date of the military campaign, starting out from Edinburgh ("Din Eydin"), commemorated in the Old Welsh poem Y Gododdin by the poet Aneirin. At this time the inhabitants of the region spoke predominantly Old Welsh (the ancestor of modern Welsh). The name of the king or chief whom the poem names as the leader of the Gododdin was Mynyddawc Mwynvawr . c.638: Edinburgh i ...more...



National Conservative Club

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The National Conservative Club was a short-lived political London gentlemen's club founded in 1886. It was aligned to the Conservative party, with members having to pledge support. It was launched as a rival to the mass-membership National Liberal Club of the opposing Liberal party, but proved highly unsuccessful. According to Whitaker's Almanack , it had 2,500 members in 1890, but at a third of the National Liberal Club's membership, this was less than expected, and the NCC closed before the end of the century. Notes Antonia Taddei, London clubs in the late nineteenth century ( Oxford University discussion paper, 1999), p. 20 See also List of London's gentlemen's clubs The National Conservative Club was a short-lived political London gentlemen's club founded in 1886. It was aligned to the Conservative party, with members having to pledge support. It was launched as a rival to the mass-membership National Liberal Club of the opposing Liberal party, but proved highly unsuccessful. According to Whitaker's Alman ...more...



Russian Academy of Theatre Arts

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The Russian Institute of Theatre Arts - GITIS ( Russian : Российский институт театрального искусства — ГИТИС ) was founded on 22 September 1878 as the Shestakovsky Music School , became the Musico-Dramatic School of the Moscow Philharmonic Society in 1883, and was elevated to the status of a conservatory in 1886. Known as the Lunacharsky State Institute for Theatre Arts (GITIS) from 1934 to 1991, it is the largest and oldest independent theatrical arts school in Russia and is located in Moscow. Mission and background GITIS trains students in various professions in the theatrical arts (including ballet , acting , etc.) and simultaneously provides a traditional university education in liberal arts and humanities . Approximately 1,500 students, qualification-advancement students, and post-graduate students from various countries study at GITIS. Nineteenth century The University was founded as the Shestakovskiy Music School for Coming People in Moscow at the end of the 19th century, patronized by the Society of M ...more...



Clara Conway

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Clara Conway (August 14, 1844 – November 16, 1904) was an American teacher and political activist. She founded the Clara Conway Institute in Memphis, Tennessee and was a founding member of the Nineteenth Century Club in 1890. Early life Clara Conway was born in New Orleans, Louisiana on August 14, 1844. She attended the St. Agnes Academy in Memphis, but received most of her education at home. She moved to Memphis, Tennessee in 1864. Conway began her career as a public school teacher. Developing a strong interest in providing women with a quality education, Conway was the first Tennessee woman to assist in the organization of teachers' institutes, and the first southern woman to attend the teachers' summer school in the North, when she took classes at Martha's Vineyard Summer Institute. Conway later became principal of the Alabama Street School and the Market Street School. In 1873, Conway was proposed for superintendent of public schools in Memphis as part of a political fight to have female educators recog ...more...



Terrier

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Staffordshire Bull Terrier Kerry Blue Terrier Short-legged terriers: Scottish Terrier and West Highland White Terrier Wire Fox Terrier Yorkshire Terrier Boston Terrier Airedale Terrier Jack Russell Terrier A terrier is a dog of any one of many breeds or landraces of the terrier type , which are typically small, wiry and fearless.. Terrier breeds vary greatly in size from just 1 kg (2 lb) to over 32 kg (70 lb) and are usually categorized by size or function. There are five different groups with each group having several different breeds. History A pet terrier in 1875 ( English Toy Terrier type), painting by Frederick August Wenderoth Most terrier breeds were developed in Great Britain and Ireland . They were used to control rats , rabbits , and foxes both over and under the ground. Some larger terriers were also used to hunt badgers . The word terrier comes from the Middle French terre, derived from the Latin word for earth, terra. Terrier is also the modern French for "burrow". The Kerry Blue Terrier and Aire ...more...



Cookstown

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Cookstown is a town and townland in County Tyrone , Northern Ireland . It is the fourth largest town in the county and had a population of nearly 11,000 people in the 2001 Census . It is one of the main towns in the area of Mid-Ulster . It was founded around 1620 when the townlands in the area were leased by an English ecclesiastical lawyer, Dr. Alan Cooke, from the Archbishop of Armagh , who had been granted the lands after the Flight of the Earls during the Plantation of Ulster . It was one of the main centres of the linen industry West of the River Bann , and until 1956, the processes of flax spinning, weaving, bleaching and beetling were carried out in the town. Cookstown's famous main street (laid out from c1735–c1800), is 1.25 miles (2.01 km) long and 135 feet (41.15 m) wide, one of the longest, and widest in Ireland . Places of interest Cookstown's main street hosts an open-air market each Saturday. The annual Cookstown 100 National Road Race is a motor biking event attended by many motorbiking enthusi ...more...



Romance novel

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"Oh Edward! How can you?", a late 19th-century illustration from Sense and Sensibility (1811) by Jane Austen , a pioneer of the genre The romance novel or romantic novel discussed in this article is the mass-market literary genre . Novels of this type of genre fiction place their primary focus on the relationship and romantic love between two people, and must have an "emotionally satisfying and optimistic ending." There are many subgenres of the romance novel including fantasy , historical romance , paranormal fiction , and science fiction . Walter Scott defined the literary fiction form of romance as "a fictitious narrative in prose or verse; the interest of which turns upon marvellous and uncommon incidents". A thriving genre of works conventionally referred to as "romance novels" existed in ancient Greece. Some scholars see precursors to modern genre fiction romance novels in literary fiction of the 18th and 19th centuries, including Samuel Richardson 's sentimental novel Pamela, or Virtue Rewarded (1740 ...more...



Bohemianism

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Pierre-Auguste Renoir , The Bohemian (or Lise the Bohemian), 1868, oil on canvas, Berlin, Germany: Alte Nationalgalerie Bohemianism is the practice of an unconventional lifestyle, often in the company of like-minded people and with few permanent ties. It involves musical, artistic, literary or spiritual pursuits. In this context, Bohemians may or may not be wanderers, adventurers, or vagabonds . This use of the word bohemian first appeared in the English language in the nineteenth century to describe the non-traditional lifestyles of marginalized and impoverished artists , writers , journalists , musicians , and actors in major European cities. Bohemians were associated with unorthodox or anti-establishment political or social viewpoints, which often were expressed through free love , frugality , and—in some cases— voluntary poverty . A more economically privileged, wealthy, or even aristocratic bohemian circle is sometimes referred to as haute bohème (literally "high Bohemia"). The term Bohemianism emerged ...more...




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