The Nineteenth Century Club

The Nineteenth Century Club, in the historic Rowland J. Darnell House.

The Nineteenth Century Club is a historic philanthropic and cultural women's club based in Memphis, Tennessee. The Nineteenth Century Club adopted the idea that the community was an extended "household" that would benefit from the "gentler spirit" and "uplifting influence" of women, and shifted towards civic reform. The club primarily focused on the needs of women and children, addressing public problems such as sanitation, health, education, employment, and labor conditions.[1]

Creation

The club was founded in May 1890 following an assembly of elite white women at the Gayoso Hotel in Memphis. The founding members included the women activists Elise Massey Selden, Elizabeth Fisher Johnson, Elizabeth Avery Meriwether, Elizabeth Lyle Saxon, Clara Conway, and Lide Meriwether.[2] The stated objectives of the club were "to promote the female intellect by encouraging a spirit of research in literary fields and provide an intellectual center for the women of Memphis." The club was immediately successful, with membership steadily rising and peaking at around 1,400 members in 1926.[1]

Political activism

In 1891, one of the four committees in the club was "Philanthropy and Reform", which attempted to influence Memphis officials. The members wanted to participate in the development of the city and inject women's "gentler spirit" and more "loving wisdom" into municipal affairs. While the activities of the club empowered female influence in politics, members made many assurances that the goal was not radical political upheaval, cautioning against ambition and arguing that activism made was merely "housekeeping" that was extended to the "family" of the city community.[3]

The activism promoted by the club was described as a very selfless and feminine brand of activism. Despite the many disclaimers, the movement did signal a "new sense of power and capacity among American women", particularly in the South. The club motto was "Influence is Responsibility", which epitomized their feelings of accountability for society.[3]

In 1892, the Congress of the Association for the Advancement of Women congregated for the first time in a southern city at its 20th annual meeting with the Nineteenth Century Club. Founding member Clara Conway made the opening remarks, stating that women "were impatient with incompleteness" and were eager to move away from leisure to become productive members of society.[3]

Campaigns

Notable successful campaigns were securing a police matron at the city jail, establishing a female sanitary inspector at the Board of Health, forming the Shelby County Anti-Tuberculosis Society, and founding a new city hospital.[1] They also played an important role in the West Tennessee State Normal School, which later came to be known as the University of Memphis.[1]

In 1897, the Hamburg branch of the club established the Hamburg Public Library in an effort to enrich the community and improve education. At that time, the club had limited membership of 19 women, including several librarians and teachers. In 1901, the Hamburg Business Men's Club took over management of the library and formed the Library Association. The New York State Education Department chartered the library in 1902, and it remains open to this day.[4]

Modern day

The club remains in existence today.[1] In 1926, the club acquired a mansion built in 1906 by Rowland Darnell, a great lumber magnate of Memphis, and remained there for over 20 years. The mansion was eventually sold as membership continued to decline over the years. A legal battle took place over ownership and historical preservation of the mansion, eventually resulting in a restoration and conversion into a restaurant.[5]

References
  1. Wedell, Marsha (25 December 2009). "Nineteenth Century Club | Entries | Tennessee Encyclopedia". The Tennessee Encyclopedia of History and Culture. The University of Tennessee Press. Retrieved 2015-12-16.
  2. Bond, Beverly Greene; Freeman, Sarah Wilkerson (2015-07-01). Tennessee Women: Their Lives and Times--Volume 2. University of Georgia Press. ISBN 9780820337432.
  3. Wedell, Marsha (1991-01-01). Elite Women and the Reform Impulse in Memphis, 1875-1915. Univ. of Tennessee Press. ISBN 9780870497049.
  4. Edson, John. "The Legacy of the Nineteenth Century Club". Buffalo and Erie County Public Library. Buffalo and Erie County Public Library System. Retrieved 2016-01-04.
  5. "Rowland J. Darnell and the 19th Century Club". Historic Memphis Website. Retrieved 2015-12-18.
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The Nineteenth Century Club

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The Nineteenth Century Club

The Nineteenth Century Club, in the historic Rowland J. Darnell House. The Nineteenth Century Club is a historic philanthropic and cultural women's club based in Memphis, Tennessee. The Nineteenth Century Club adopted the idea that the community was an extended "household" that would benefit from the "gentler spirit" and "uplifting influence" of women, and shifted towards civic reform. The club primarily focused on the needs of women and children, addressing public problems such as sanitation, health, education, employment, and labor conditions.[1] Creation The club was founded in May 1890 following an assembly of elite white women at the Gayoso Hotel in Memphis. The founding members included the women activists Elise Massey Selden, Elizabeth Fisher Johnson, Elizabeth Avery Meriwether, Elizabeth Lyle Saxon, Clara Conway, and Lide Meriwether.[2] The stated objectives of the club were "to promote the female intellect by encouraging a spirit of research in literary fields and provide an intellectual center f ...more...

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Century Club

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Century Club

Century Club may refer to: The Century Club of San Diego, California Century Club of Scranton, Pennsylvania The Century Club, a fictional gentleman's club in Marvel Comics Travelers' Century Club, a club for travelers who have visited 100 or more countries of the world DX Century Club, an amateur radio operating award for contacting 100 geographic entities VHF/UHF Century Club, an amateur radio operating award for contacting 100 stations in other Maidenhead grid locators FIFA Century Club, List of footballers with 100 or more caps See also New Century Club (disambiguation) The Nineteenth Century Club, Memphis, Tennessee Twentieth Century Club (disambiguation) ...more...



France in the long nineteenth century

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France in the long nineteenth century

The history of France from 1789 to 1914 (the long 19th century) extends from the French Revolution to World War I and includes: French Revolution (1789–1792) French First Republic (1792–1804) First French Empire under Napoleon I (1804–1814/1815) Bourbon Restoration under Louis XVIII and Charles X (1814/1815–1830) July Monarchy under Louis Philippe d'Orléans (1830–1848) Second Republic (1848–1852) Second Empire under Napoleon III (1852–1870) Long Depression (1873–1890) Belle Époque (1871–1914) General aspects Geography A map of France in 1843 under the July Monarchy At the time of the French Revolution, France had expanded to nearly the modern territorial limits. The 19th century would complete the process by the annexation of the Duchy of Savoy and the city of Nice (first during the First Empire, and then definitively in 1860) and some small papal (like Avignon) and foreign possessions. France's territorial limits were greatly extended during the Empire through Revolutionary and Napol ...more...

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Scottish literature in the nineteenth century

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Scottish literature in the nineteenth century

Walter Scott, ballad collector, poet, playwright and the outstanding novelist of the early nineteenth century Scottish literature in the nineteenth century includes all written and published works in Scotland or by Scottish writers in the period. It includes literature written in English, Scottish Gaelic and Scots in forms including poetry, novels, drama and the short story. The most successful literary figure of the era, Walter Scott, began his literary career as a poet and also collected and published Scottish ballads. Scottish poetry is often seen as entering a period of decline in the nineteenth century, with Scots language poetry criticised for its use of parochial dialect and English poetry for its lack of Scottishness. Successful poets included William Thom, Lady Margaret Maclean Clephane Compton Northampton and Thomas Campbell. Among the most influential poets of the later nineteenth were James Thomson and John Davidson. The Highland Clearances and widespread emigration weakened Gaelic language and ...more...

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Scottish art in the nineteenth century

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Scottish art in the nineteenth century

William McTaggart Spring (1864) Scottish art in the nineteenth century is the body of visual art made in Scotland, by Scots, or about scottish subjects. This period saw the increasing professionalisation and organisation of art in Scotland. Major institutions founded in this period included the Institution for the Encouragement of the Fine Arts in Scotland, the Royal Scottish Academy of Art, the National Gallery of Scotland, the Scottish National Portrait Gallery and the Glasgow Institute. Art education in Edinburgh focused on the Trustees Drawing Academy of Edinburgh. Glasgow School of Art was founded in 1845 and Grays School of Art in Aberdeen in 1885. Henry Raeburn, most famous for his intimate portraits of leading figures in Scottish life, was the first significant artist to pursue his entire career in Scotland. His pupils included the brothers William, Archibald and Andrew Robertson. The next generation of portrait painters included David Watson and John Watson Gordon. Significant Glasgow artists incl ...more...

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Clara Conway

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Clara Conway

Clara Conway (August 14, 1844 – November 16, 1904) was an American teacher and political activist. She founded the Clara Conway Institute in Memphis, Tennessee and was a founding member of the Nineteenth Century Club in 1890.[1] Early life Clara Conway was born in New Orleans, Louisiana on August 14, 1844. She attended the St. Agnes Academy in Memphis, but received most of her education at home.[2] She moved to Memphis, Tennessee in 1864.[3] Conway began her career as a public school teacher. Developing a strong interest in providing women with a quality education, Conway was the first Tennessee woman to assist in the organization of teachers' institutes, and the first southern woman to attend the teachers' summer school in the North, when she took classes at Martha's Vineyard Summer Institute.[4] Conway later became principal of the Alabama Street School and the Market Street School.[2] In 1873, Conway was proposed for superintendent of public schools in Memphis as part of a political fight to have femal ...more...

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The Thirteen Club

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The Thirteen Club

In the 1880s, the Thirteen Club was created to debunk the superstition of "13 at a table" being unlucky. This belief states that when 13 people are seated together at a table, one will die within a year. They met on the 13th of the month for a dinner served to 13 people at each table. By 1887, the Thirteen Club was 400-strong, over time gaining five U.S. Presidents as honorary members: Chester Arthur, Grover Cleveland, Benjamin Harrison, William McKinley and Theodore Roosevelt. The "13 at a table" superstition may take its origin from The Last Supper wherein 13 people dined (Jesus and his twelve disciples) and Jesus died soon after, or from the Valhalla Banquet story in Norse mythology. That story tells about 12 gods invited to a banquet. Loki, making thirteen, intrudes and Balder, the favourite of the gods, is killed. In New York at the December 13, 1886 meeting of the Thirteen Club, Robert Green Ingersoll ended his toast, "The Superstitions of Public Men": “ We have had enough mediocrity, enough polic ...more...

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English Mastiff

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English Mastiff

The English Mastiff is a breed of extremely large dog (often known simply as the Mastiff) perhaps descended from the ancient Alaunt and Pugnaces Britanniae, with a significant input from the Alpine Mastiff in the 19th century. Distinguished by its enormous size, massive head, short coat in a limited range of colours, but always displaying a black mask, the Mastiff is noted for its gentle and loving nature. The lineage of modern dogs can be traced back to the early 19th century, but the modern type was stabilised in the 1880s and refined since. Following a period of sharp decline, the Mastiff has increased its worldwide popularity. Throughout its history, the Mastiff has contributed to the development of a number of dog breeds, some generally known as Mastiff-type dogs, or, confusingly, just as "Mastiffs". Appearance Fawn English Mastiff With a massive body, broad skull and head of generally square appearance, it is the largest dog breed in terms of mass. It is on average slightly heavier than the Saint B ...more...

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Jockey-Club de Paris

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Jockey-Club de Paris

The Jockey Club de Paris is a traditional gentlemen's club and is regarded as one of the most prestigious private clubs in Paris. It is best remembered as a gathering place of the elite of nineteenth-century French society. The club still exists at 2 rue Rabelais in Paris, and it hosts the International Federation of Racing Authorities. History The Jockey Club was originally organized as the "Society for the Encouragement of the Improvement of Horse Breeding in France", to provide a single authority for horse racing in the nation, beginning at Chantilly in 1834. It swiftly became the center for the most sportifs gentlemen of le tout-Paris. At the same time, when aristocrats and men of the haute bourgeoisie still formed the governing class, its Anglo-Gallic membership could not fail to give it some political colour: Napoleon III, who had passed some early exile in England, asserted that he had learned to govern an empire through "his intercourse with the calm, self-possessed men of the English turf".[1] Bet ...more...

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Annah Robinson Watson

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Annah Robinson Watson

Annah Robinson Watson (1848–1930[1]) was an American author, the founding member and president of the Nineteenth Century Club,[2] and a collector of American folklore. Early life Watson was born Annah Walker Robinson on the Taylor homestead, "Springfields", near Louisville, Kentucky, to Mary Louise Taylor Robinson and Archibald Magill Robinson.,[3] she was the granddaughter of Hancock Taylor, a brother of President Zachariah Taylor.[4] Watson was described as a "romantic, poetic, imaginative child". After some years in the countryside, her family moved to Louisville, and Watson received an education there and later in Chicago.[3] Written works After completing her studies, she entered society as a poet. She continued to write, publishing "Baby's Mission", which received widespread popularity and was published in the London journal Chatterbox. She also won a contest in the New York Churchman for best lullaby. In addition to publishing many poems and prose works under her own name, she also extensively publis ...more...

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Daughters of the American Revolution

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Daughters of the American Revolution

The Daughters of the American Revolution (DAR) is a lineage-based membership service organization for women who are directly descended from a person involved in the United States' efforts towards independence.[1] A non-profit group, they work to promote historic preservation, education, and patriotism. The organization's membership is limited to direct lineal descendants of soldiers or others of the Revolutionary period who aided the cause of independence; applicants must have reached 18 years of age and are reviewed at the chapter level for admission. It currently has approximately 185,000 members[2] in the United States and in several other countries.[3] Its motto is "God, Home, and Country." Since the late 20th century, following the civil rights movement and changes in historic scholarship, the organization has expanded its membership, recognizing minority contributions and expanding the definition of those whose work is considered to have aided the Revolution, and recognizing more ways in which women an ...more...

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Gentlemen's club

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Gentlemen's club

The Reform Club, set up in the early 19th century in London A gentlemen's club, or formerly traditional gentlemen's club, is a members-only private club originally set up by and for British upper-class men in the 18th century, and popularised by English upper middle-class men and women in the late 19th century and early 20th century. Today, some clubs are more accommodating about the gender and social status of their members. Many countries outside the United Kingdom have prominent gentlemen's clubs, mostly those associated with the British Empire, in particular, India, Pakistan, and Bangladesh have enthusiastically taken up the practice, and have a thriving club scene. There are also many extant clubs in major American cities. A gentleman's club typically contains a formal dining room, a bar, a library, a billiards room and one or more parlours for reading, gaming or socializing. Many clubs also contain guest rooms and fitness amenities. History The bar at the Savile Club, 69 Brook Street, London The o ...more...

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Canadian Club

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Canadian Club

Canadian Club is a brand of Canadian whisky produced by Beam Suntory. Popularly known as CC, Canadian Club was created by Hiram Walker and Sons, an evolution of a brand around a product that took place over the second half of the nineteenth century. Hiram Walker merged with Gooderham & Worts, Ltd. in 1926, yielding Hiram Walker-Gooderham & Worts, Ltd.. History Hiram Walker founded his distillery in 1858 in Detroit. He first learned how to distill cider vinegar in his grocery store in the 1830s before moving on to whisky and producing his first barrels in 1854. However, with the Prohibition movement gathering momentum and Michigan already becoming "dry", Walker decided to move his distillery across the Detroit River to Windsor, Ontario. From here, he was able to export his whisky and start to develop Walkerville, a model community that Walker financed to provide housing and services for his employees. Walker's whisky was particularly popular in the late 19th century gentlemen's clubs of the United ...more...

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Colony Club

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Colony Club

The Colony Club is a women-only private social club in New York City. Founded in 1903 by Florence Jaffray Harriman, wife of J. Borden Harriman, as the first social club established in New York City by and for women, it was modeled on similar clubs for men. Today, men are admitted as guests.[2] History The club and the street in front of it were often the site of large suffrage rallies sponsored by the Equal Franchise Society to which many members of the Club belonged.[3] Original clubhouse Coach leaving from the Colony Club in 1911, carrying Mrs. Thomas Hastings, Mrs. Iselin and Mrs. Loew With other wealthy women, including Anne Tracy Morgan (a daughter of J.P. Morgan), Harriman raised $500,000, and commissioned Stanford White of McKim, Mead & White to build the original clubhouse, later known as the "Old Colony Club". This building – at 120 Madison Avenue, between East 30th and East 31st Streets on the west side of Madison – was built between 1904 and 1908 and was modelled on eighteenth-centur ...more...

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The Kensington Club

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The Kensington Club

The Founders of The Kensington Club circa 1740. The Laird Balgonie sits in the centre, surrounded by the first members of the Kensington Club. Above the fireplace is a cameo of St Andrews. The portrait is now in the care of the Scottish National Portrait Gallery. The Kensington Club is a private all-male dining club for students of the University of St Andrews. Founded circa 1739 by Alexander the Laird Balgonie as a social club, the Kensington Club flourished predominately in the late eighteenth and early nineteenth centuries as a retreat for aristocratic and moneyed members of the student population. Renewed interest in the club after a period of decline in the second part of the twentieth century has led to a surge in membership since the early 2000s.[1] History Alexander Leslie Laird Balgonie was born around the year 1720, the only son among five children. His father, also named Alexander, lived in the Balgonie Castle, a fortified manor of ancient origin over the bank of the river Leven, east of Glenr ...more...

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Costume party

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Costume party

Guests in costume at a fancy dress party. A costume party (American English) or a fancy dress party (British English) is a type of party, common mainly in contemporary Western culture, where guests dress up in costumes. Costumed Halloween parties are popular in the United States, Canada, Australia, and New Zealand. By country Australia Australian fancy dress parties typically follows the style of the United States, and Halloween costume parties have been common since the early 1990s, even though Halloween has not historically been a celebrated event in Australia. Typical events for Australians that involve dressing up are the Sydney Gay and Lesbian Mardi Gras, the staff Christmas party and cricket matches. One of the oldest examples of fancy dress being worn in Australia is on display at the Western Australia Museum. It was a child's fancy dress costume worn by Rita Lloyd, aged nine, to the ‘Lord Mayor’s Juvenile Fancy Dress Ball’ at Mansion House in Perth on 8 January 1909. Iraq It is a tradition to ha ...more...

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Hoi polloi

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Hoi polloi

Hoi polloi (Ancient Greek: οἱ πολλοί, hoi polloi, "the many") is an expression from Greek that means the many or, in the strictest sense, the people. In English, it has been corrupted by being given a negative connotation to signify deprecation of the working class, commoners, the masses or common people in a derogatory or (more often today) ironic sense. Synonyms for hoi polloi, which also express the same or similar distaste for the common people felt by those who believe themselves to be superior, include "the great unwashed", "the plebeians" or "plebs", "the rabble", "the masses","the dregs of society", "riffraff", "the herd", "the canaille", "the proles" (proletariat), "sheeple", and "peons".[1] The phrase probably became known to English scholars through Pericles' Funeral Oration, as mentioned in Thucydides' History of the Peloponnesian War. Pericles uses it in a positive way when praising the Athenian democracy, contrasting it with hoi oligoi, "the few" (Greek: οἱ ὀλίγοι, see also oligarchy).[2] Its ...more...

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Cosmopolitan Club (New York City)

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Cosmopolitan Club (New York City)

The Cosmopolitan Club at 122 East 66th, New York City The Cosmopolitan Club is a private social club on the Upper East Side of Manhattan, New York City, New York, USA. Located at 122 East 66th Street, east of Park Avenue, it was founded as a women's club and remains a club exclusively for women. Members have included Willa Cather, Ellen Glasgow, Eleanor Roosevelt, Jean Stafford, Helen Hayes, Pearl Buck, Marian Anderson, Margaret Mead, and Abby Aldrich Rockefeller. History In 1909, the Cosmos Club formed as a club for governesses, leasing space in the Gibson building on East 33rd Street.[1] The following year, the club became the Women's Cosmopolitan Club, "organized," according to The New York Times, "for the benefit of New York women interested in the arts, sciences, education, literature, and philanthropy or in sympathy with those interested." [2] The club incorporated on March 22, 1911,[3] with Helen Gilman Brown as its president.[4] The other founding members were Mrs. V. Everett Macy, Mrs. John Sherma ...more...

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Andouillette

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Andouillette

In France, an andouille may be a large andouillette; in Cajun cooking, an andouille is a different kind of sausage. Barbecued andouillette from Troyes Andouillette in aspic from Troyes on sale at a charcuterie in Montmartre, Paris Andouillette (French pronunciation: ​) is a coarse-grained sausage made with pork (or occasionally veal), intestines or chitterlings, pepper, wine, onions, and seasonings. Tripe, which is the stomach lining of a cow, is sometimes an ingredient in the filler of an andouillette, but it is not the casing or the key to its manufacture. True andouillette will be an oblong tube. If made with the small intestine, it is a plump sausage generally about 25 mm in diameter but often it is much larger, possibly 7–10 cm in diameter, and stronger in scent when the colon is used. True andouillette is rarely seen outside France and has a strong, distinctive odour related to its intestinal origins and components. Although sometimes repellent to the uninitiated, this aspect of andouill ...more...

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Food Cocu

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Murray Hill, Manhattan

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Murray Hill, Manhattan

Row houses in the Murray Hill Historic District High-rise condominiums Murray Hill is a neighborhood in midtown Manhattan in New York City. In 1999, Manhattan Community Board 6 – of which Murray Hill is part – defined the boundaries as East 34th Street to the south, East 40th Street to the north, Madison Avenue to the west, and East River to the east.[1] History Eighteenth century Murray Hill derives its name from the Murray family, 18th-century Quaker merchants mainly concerned with shipping and overseas trade. Robert Murray (1721–1786), the family patriarch, was born in County Armagh, Ireland, immigrated to Pennsylvania in 1732, and came to New York City in 1753 after a short residence in North Carolina. He quickly established himself as a merchant and eventually owned more shipping tonnage than any other New Yorker. About 1762 Murray rented land from the city for a great house and farm. His great house, which he named Inclenberg (or Belmont), but which was popularly termed Murray Hill, was built ...more...

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Woman's club movement

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Woman's club movement

Five women officers of the Women's League in Newport, Rhode Island, c. 1899 The woman's club movement was a social movement that took place throughout the United States. While women's organizations had always been a part of United States history, it was not until the Progressive era that it came to be considered a "movement." The first wave of the club movement during the Progressive era was started by white, middle-class women and a second phase by African-American women. These clubs, most of which had started out as social and literary gatherings, eventually became a source of reform for various issues in the U.S. Both African-American and white women's clubs were involved with issues surrounding education, child labor, juvenile justice, legal reform, environmental protection, library creation and more. Women's clubs helped start many initiatives such as kindergartens and juvenile court systems. Later, women's clubs tackled issues like women's suffrage, lynching and family planning. The clubs allowed wome ...more...

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Saturday Club (Boston, Massachusetts)

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Saturday Club (Boston, Massachusetts)

"A Group of the Saturday Club", from Life and Letters of Oliver Wendell Holmes, 1896 The Saturday Club, established in 1855, was an informal monthly gathering in Boston, Massachusetts, of writers, scientists, philosophers, historians, and other notable thinkers of the mid-Nineteenth Century. Overview The club began meeting informally at the Albion House in Boston.[1] Publishing agent and lawyer Horatio Woodman first suggested the gatherings among his friends for food and conversation.[2] By 1856, the organization became more structured with a loose set of rules, with monthly meetings held over dinner at the Parker House.[1] The Parker House served as their place of meeting for many years. It was a hotel built in 1854 by Harvey D. Parker.[3][4] The gatherings led to the creation of the Atlantic Monthly, to which many of the members contributed.[2] The name was suggested by early member Oliver Wendell Holmes Sr.[5] The original members of the group included Woodman, Louis Agassiz, Richard Henry Dana Jr., ...more...

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English cuisine

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English cuisine

Afternoon tea in traditional English style at the Rittenhouse Hotel, Philadelphia English cuisine encompasses the cooking styles, traditions and recipes associated with England. It has distinctive attributes of its own, but also shares much with wider British cuisine, partly through the importation of ingredients and ideas from North America, China, and India during the time of the British Empire and as a result of post-war immigration. Traditional meals have ancient origins, such as bread and cheese, roasted and stewed meats, meat and game pies, boiled vegetables and broths, and freshwater and saltwater fish. The 14th-century English cookbook, the Forme of Cury,[a] contains recipes for these, and dates from the royal court of Richard II. English cooking has been influenced by foreign ingredients and cooking styles since the Middle Ages. Curry was introduced from the Indian subcontinent and adapted to English tastes from the eighteenth century with Hannah Glasse's recipe for chicken "currey". French cuisi ...more...

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The Plastic Club

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The Plastic Club

The Plastic Club is an arts organization located in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. Founded in 1897, the Plastic Club is one of the oldest art clubs in the United States. It is located on the 200 block of Camac Street, the "Little Street of Clubs" that was a cultural destination in the early 1900s.[1] Since 1991, the club's membership also includes men.[2] History The Plastic Club was founded by art educator Emily Sartain. It was founded as an arts organization for women to promote collaboration and members' works, partly in response to the Philadelphia Sketch Club, an exclusively male arts club.[3] The first President was the etcher Blanche Dillaye.[4] The motto of the club was taken from a poem by Theophile Gautier: All passes. Art aloneEnduring stays to us;The Bust outlasts the throne,—The Coin, Tiberius[5] The club offered art classes, social events, and exhibitions. Its annual masquerade party was called "the Rabbit."[2][6] Early members included Elenore Plaisted Abbott, Paula Himmelsbach Balano, Cecili ...more...

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Francisca Club

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Francisca Club

The Francisca Club is a women's only private social club in San Francisco. It is the oldest private women's club in San Francisco[1] and has been in its clubhouse since the 1920s.[2] It had typically had a membership of around 500;[2] however, recently this has declined to closer to 400.[1] References Bowles, Nellie (11 September 2011). "S.F. women's clubs aging, rolls declining". SF Gate. Retrieved 4 February 2017. Lyons, Louis; Wilson, Josephine (1922). Who's who Among the Women of California. Security publishing Company. ...more...

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20th Century Club (Reno, Nevada)

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20th Century Club (Reno, Nevada)

With this motto, “The measure of the worth of an organization to its community, is bound in its ability to embrace opportunities for service” the Twentieth Century Club (sometimes referred to as the "20th Century Club") had its beginning in 1894. Mrs. Walter McNab Miller served as President for an original group of 84 women. The Club’s name was chosen to reflect a look forward to the future and the beginning of the new century. In 1894, Club members started a circulating library, and in 1898 a scholarship to the University of Nevada was funded. In 1901, members of the Twentieth Century Club participated in founding the Kindergarten Association and urged the Legislature to establish public kindergartens throughout the state. During the war years, many hours were devoted to the home-front war effort. In 1925 a Clubhouse was built on First Street on the river. Through the years the Clubhouse was the pride of its members. Much social life of Reno revolved around the facilities of this Clubhouse – weddings, lunc ...more...

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Lowenstein House

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Lowenstein House

The Lowenstein House is a historic house in Memphis, Tennessee, U.S.. It was built circa 1890 for Elias Lowenstein, a German-born merchant. During World War I, it was used as a boarding house for women who worked. In the first half of the 1920s, Lowenstein's daughter, Celia Lowenstein Samuelson, donated the house to The Nineteenth Century Club. It has been listed on the National Register of Historic Places since March 23, 1979. References National Park Service (2010-07-09). "National Register Information System". National Register of Historic Places. National Park Service. "National Register of Historic Places Inventory--Nomination Form: Lowenstein House". National Park Service. United States Department of the Interior. Retrieved May 16, 2017. "Lowenstein House". National Park Service. United States Department of the Interior. Retrieved May 16, 2017. The Lowenstein House is a historic house in Memphis, Tennessee, U.S.. It was built circa 1890 for Elias Lowenstein, a German-born merchant. During W ...more...

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Three Arts Club of Chicago

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Three Arts Club of Chicago

The Three Arts Club of Chicago was a Chicago home and club for women in the "three arts" of music, painting and drama.[1] The club, modelled on the Three Arts Club of New York, was founded in 1912. In 1914 the club commissioned their own building, designed by architects Holabird & Roche.[2] This building provided a residential space continuously until 2004, when the last of the residents moved out. In 2007 the building was sold to developers.[3] Over 13,000 women had stayed in the club.[4] In 1981 the building, located in the Near North Side neighborhood at 1300 N. Dearborn Street, was listed as a Chicago Landmark.[5] References Chicago's arts club is saved, The Prescott Courier, May 14, 1991 Robert Bruegmann (1997). The Architects and the City: Holabird & Roche of Chicago, 1880-1918. University of Chicago Press. pp. 431–8. ISBN 978-0-226-07695-9. Retrieved 10 October 2012. Three Arts Club of Chicago: An inventory of the collection at the University of Illinois at Chicago Wil ...more...

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Junior Carlton Club

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Junior Carlton Club

The Junior Carlton Club's nineteenth century clubhouse. The Junior Carlton Club was a London gentlemen's club, now dissolved, which was established in 1864 and was disbanded in 1977. History Anticipating the forthcoming Second Reform Act under Benjamin Disraeli, numerous prospective electors decided to form a club closely aligned to the Conservative party. Adopting the model such other clubs as the Junior Athenaeum and the Junior Oxford and Cambridge Club, the Junior Carlton styled itself after the Carlton Club, which had a fixed number of members and a lengthy waiting list, and so was likely to remain out of the reach of these soon-to-be-enfranchised/newly enfranchised electors. According to Anthony Lejeune, the Junior Carlton was the only one of the many clubs with the 'Junior' prefix to achieve anything of the prestige of the longer-standing, more established clubs which they sought to emulate. Club building From 1869, the club was housed in sumptuous premises at 30 Pall Mall designed by David Brand ...more...

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Eva Palmer-Sikelianos

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Eva Palmer-Sikelianos

Evelina "Eva" Palmer-Sikelianos (Greek: Εύα Πάλμερ-Σικελιανού; January 9, 1874 – June 4, 1952) was an American woman notable for her study and promotion of Classical Greek culture, weaving, theater, choral dance and music. Palmer's life and artistic endeavors intersected with numerous noteworthy artists throughout her life. She was both inspired by or inspired the likes of dancers Isadora Duncan and Ted Shawn, the French literary great Colette, the poet and author Natalie Barney and the actress Sarah Bernhardt. She would go on to marry Angelos Sikelianos, a Greek poet and playwright. Together they organized a revival of the Delphic Festival in Delphi, Greece. Embodied in these festivals of art, music and theater she hoped to promote a balanced sense of enlightenment that would further the goals of peace and harmony in Greece and beyond. Early life Palmer was born on January 9, 1874 at Gramercy Park in New York City. She was one of five children in a family of eclectic intellectuals and gifted artists. The f ...more...

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La Jolla Woman's Club

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La Jolla Woman's Club

The La Jolla Woman's Club is a historic building in La Jolla, a neighborhood of San Diego, California. Designed and built by Irving Gill with assistance from his nephew Louis John Gill in 1914-1915, it is an important example of Gill's modern architectural style, and is listed on the National Register of Historic Places. History The La Jolla Woman's Club was founded in 1894 as the Current Events Club, taking its present name in 1900. The social club was without a permanent home for the first twenty years of its existence.[2] The cornerstone of the building was laid in December 1913, with the inaugural meeting held in 1914.[2] The site, design, and construction of the clubhouse were all donated to the La Jolla Woman's Club by philanthropist and club member Ellen Browning Scripps. The project cost a total of $40,000.[3] The building is a prime example of Irving Gill's modern style, exemplified by simple geometrical shapes, and generous use of arches and columns, with a minimum of ornamentation.[3] This style ...more...

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Sorosis

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Sorosis

Sorosis Club rules in 1869 Sorosis (est. March 1868) of New York City was the first professional women's club in the United States. History The club was organized in New York City with 12 members in March 1868, by Jane Cunningham Croly.[1] Among its founding members[2] were Josephine Pollard, a children's author, and Fanny Fern, a popular columnist who had been angered at newspaper women being excluded from the all-male New York Press Club when it had an honorary dinner for the author Charles Dickens the month before.[1][3] Sorosis was incorporated in January 1869. Alice Cary was the first president. Within one year, Sorosis had 83 members. Sorosis is a latinate word meaning 'aggregation' (from the Greek sōros, meaning ‘heap’). Its object was to further the educational and social activities of women by bringing representative women of accomplishment in art, literature, science, and kindred pursuits. The University of Texas at San Antonio houses a collection of records for the San Antonio chapter of Soro ...more...

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History of universities in Scotland

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History of universities in Scotland

The University of St Andrews, Scotland's oldest university, opened in the early fifteenth century. The history of universities in Scotland includes the development of all universities and university colleges in Scotland, between their foundation between the fifteenth century and the present day. Until the fifteenth century, those Scots who wished to attend university had to travel to England, or to the Continent. This situation was transformed by the founding of St John's College, St Andrews in 1418 by Henry Wardlaw, bishop of St. Andrews. St Salvator's College was added to St. Andrews in 1450. The other great bishoprics followed, with the University of Glasgow being founded in 1451 and King's College, Aberdeen in 1495. Initially, these institutions were designed for the training of clerics, but they would increasingly be used by laymen. International contacts helped integrate Scotland into a wider European scholarly world and would be one of the most important ways in which the new ideas of humanism were br ...more...

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Woman's Club of El Paso

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Woman's Club of El Paso

The Woman's Club of El Paso was founded in the late nineteenth century, and during that time was the only woman's organization in El Paso, Texas. The Woman's Club also allowed women in El Paso to become involved in community service and activism. The building which is the home for the club is located on 1400 N. Mesa Drive, and was erected in 1916. The club, now a non-profit organization, traces its official origins back to 1894, and continues to provide an "educational and cultural center for its members." The building is registered in the National Register of Historic Places. History Mary Hamilton Mills arrived in El Paso with her husband, William Wallace Mills on March 8, 1869. Mills began to create a social circle, which started to meet in 1881 and included Flora Hague, Octavia Magoffin, Olga Kohlberg, Eugenia Schuster, Carrie Fewel, Lemire Morehead, Elizabeth Irvin, Margaret Beall, Eliza Berrien, Laura Loomis, Carrie Race, Maude Austin, Harriet Shelton, Frances McCutcheon, Rebecca Falvey, Mary Voss, Ca ...more...

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National Register of Historic Places in Texas

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Newington Green Unitarian Church

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Newington Green Unitarian Church

Newington Green Unitarian Church (NGUC) in north London is one of England's oldest Unitarian churches. It has had strong ties to political radicalism for over 300 years, and is London's oldest Nonconformist place of worship still in use. It was founded in 1708 by English Dissenters, a community of which had been gathering around Newington Green for at least half a century before that date. The church belongs to the umbrella organisation known as the General Assembly of Unitarian and Free Christian Churches, and has had an upturn in its fortunes since the turn of the millennium. Its most famous minister was Dr Richard Price, a political radical who is remembered for his role in the Revolution Controversy, a British debate about the French Revolution, but who also did pioneering work in finance and statistics. The most famous member of its congregation was Mary Wollstonecraft, who drew inspiration from Price's sermons in her work, both in arguing for the new French republic and in raising the issue of the righ ...more...

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19th-century church buildings

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Cosmopolitan Club of Philadelphia

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Cosmopolitan Club of Philadelphia

The Cosmopolitan Club of Philadelphia The Cosmopolitan Club of Philadelphia is a private social club in Philadelphia. It was founded in June 1928 by a group of women from Philadelphia and its surroundings.[1] In January 1930, the members had purchased the lot at 1616 Latimer Street, and oversaw the construction of an Art Deco building.[1] The members of the Cosmopolitan Club of Philadelphia are all women, and they represent a wide array of ages, races, cultures, interests, skills, professions and affiliations.[1] They work and volunteer in the community. Thirty-eight of the Club's past and present members have been named Distinguished Daughters of Pennsylvania.[2] See also Colonial Dames of Pennsylvania in Philadelphia External links Cosmopolitan Club (official site) [1] Print Center The Pennsylvania Headquarters of the Colonial Dames of America References The Cosmopolitan Club of Philadelphia - Home Page http://www.dgs.state.pa.us/dgs/lib/dgs/pa_manual/section9/distinguished_daugh ...more...

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Vincennes Fortnightly Club

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Vincennes Fortnightly Club

Vincennes Fortnightly Club is a historic Women's club clubhouse located at Vincennes, Knox County, Indiana. It was built in 1928, and is a two-story, Colonial Revival style brick and Indiana limestone building. The tripartate front facade features arched openings and a decorative metal railed balcony on the second floor. The dumbbell shaped building consists of a main entrance block, auditorium, and rear stage section. It was added to the National Register of Historic Places in 2000. References National Park Service (2010-07-09). "National Register Information System". National Register of Historic Places. National Park Service. "Indiana State Historic Architectural and Archaeological Research Database (SHAARD)" (Searchable database). Department of Natural Resources, Division of Historic Preservation and Archaeology. Retrieved 2015-08-01. Note: This includes Mrs. Clifford McDade (October 1999). "National Register of Historic Places Inventory Nomination Form: Vincennes Fortnightly Club" (PDF). Retriev ...more...

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Buildings and structures completed in 1928

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Woman's Era Club

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Woman's Era Club

The Woman's Era Club was an African American women's civic organization founded in Boston in between 1892 and 1894 by Josephine St. Pierre Ruffin. The Club was the first black women's club in Boston. The organization was especially well-known for the conflict caused when Ruffin attempted to desegregate the General Federation of Women's Clubs (GFWC) in 1900. History The Woman's Era Club was the first African American women's club in Boston and was founded by Josephine St. Pierre Ruffin.[1][2] The club, depending on the source, was founded anytime between 1892 and 1894.[3][2][1] The name of the club came from the paper, The Woman's Era,[4] though it had also earlier been called "The New Era Club."[5] There were 113 founding members and Ruffin served as the president.[1][6] Ruffin remained president of the Woman's Era Club until 1903.[1] In addition to black women, the club also admitted white women.[3] The purpose of the club was to do charity work, personal improvement and philanthropy.[4] At the time, it wa ...more...

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Berkeley City Club

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Berkeley City Club

The Berkeley City Club was commissioned as the club house of the Berkeley Women's City Club organized in Berkeley, California in 1927 to contribute to social, civic, and cultural progress. This private club is no longer restricted to women, and the club house building is available to the public at large for overnight stays, weddings and other occasions. The building, constructed in 1929, is one of the outstanding works of noted California architect Julia Morgan. The San Francisco-born Morgan was the first woman to gain admission and earn a certificate from the Ecole de Beaux-Arts in Paris (1902) and the first licensed female architect in California. She designed over 100 women's organization buildings throughout her career. Her interpretation of Moorish and Gothic elements in the Berkeley Women's City Club created a landmark of California design. It is registered as California Historical Landmark[1] and is listed on the National Register of Historic Places (NPS-7700028). See also References "Berkeley C ...more...

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Rowland J. Darnell House

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Rowland J. Darnell House

The Rowland J. Darnell House is a historic mansion in Memphis, Tennessee, U.S.. It was built in 1907 for Rowland Jones Darnell, a lumber dealer from the North.[2] By 1917, it had been acquired by the hardware dealer A. R. Orgill, followed by another hardware dealer named Leslie Martin Stratton from 1919 to 1924.[2] It was purchased by The Nineteenth Century Club in 1926.[2] The house was designed in the Colonial Revival architectural style, with Beaux Arts features. It has been listed on the National Register of Historic Places since March 26, 1979.[3] References National Park Service (2010-07-09). "National Register Information System". National Register of Historic Places. National Park Service. "National Register of Historic Places Inventory--Nomination Form: Rowland J. Darnell House". National Park Service. United States Department of the Interior. Retrieved May 16, 2017. "Darnell, Rowland J., House". National Park Service. United States Department of the Interior. Retrieved May 16, 2017. ...more...

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New England Women's Club

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New England Women's Club

The New England Women's Club (est. May 1868) of Boston, Massachusetts, was the one of the two earliest women's clubs in the United States, having been founded a couple of months after Sorosis in New York City.[1][2] Portrait of Ednah Cheney, one of the club's founders Portrait of Caroline Severance, one of the club's founders History Harriet Hanson Robinson, founder of the National Woman Suffrage Association of Massachusetts, and suffragist Caroline Severance worked with Julia Ward Howe to organize the club.[1][3] In 1868, "club rooms were first secured in ... the rear of the popular Tremont House. On May 30, 1868, the first meeting to introduce the New England Woman's Club to the public was held in Chickering Hall."[2] The club incorporated in 1887; Sarah H. Bradford, Ednah Dow Littlehale Cheney, Lucy Goddard, Abby W. May, L. M. Peabody, Harriet M. Pittman, Harriet Winslow Sewall, and Kate Gannett Wells served as signatories. By 1893, some 340 members belonged to the club.[4] Although the clu ...more...

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Started in 1868 in the United States

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Pug

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Pug

The Pug is a breed of dog with physically distinctive features of a wrinkly, short-muzzled face, and curled tail. The breed has a fine, glossy coat that comes in a variety of colours, most often fawn or black, and a compact square body with well-developed muscles. Pugs were brought from China to Europe in the sixteenth century and were popularized in Western Europe by the House of Orange of the Netherlands, and the House of Stuart.[2] In the United Kingdom, in the nineteenth century, Queen Victoria developed a passion for pugs which she passed on to other members of the Royal family. Pugs are known for being sociable and gentle companion dogs.[3] The American Kennel Club describes the breed's personality as "even-tempered and charming".[4] Pugs remain popular into the twenty-first century, with some famous celebrity owners. A pug was judged Best in Show at the World Dog Show in 2004.[5] Description A fawn Pug puppy, Best in Puppies competition, Physical characteristics While the pugs that are depicted ...more...

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National Association of Colored Women's Clubs

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National Association of Colored Women's Clubs

National Association of Colored Women's Clubs Emblem The National Association of Colored Women Clubs (NACWC) is an American organization that was formed in July 1896 at the First Annual Convention of the National Federation of Afro-American Women in Washington, D.C., United States, by a merger of the National Federation of African-American Women, the Woman's Era Club of Boston, and the National League of Colored Women of Washington, DC, at the call of Josephine St. Pierre Ruffin.[1] From 1896 to 1904 it was known as the National Association of Colored Women (NACW). It adopted the motto "Lifting as we climb", to demonstrate to "an ignorant and suspicious world that our aims and interests are identical with those of all good aspiring women." When incorporated in 1904, NACW became known as the National Association of Colored Women's Clubs (NACWC).[2][3] History “In 1895 an obscure man in an obscure Missouri town sent a letter broad-cast over this country and England, reflecting upon the character and morals o ...more...

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African-American history

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Lyceum Club (Dallas)

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Lyceum Club (Dallas)

The Lyceum Club of Dallas, established by the city’s middle-class female establishment in 1931, promoted knowledge and comprehension of literature, music, art, drama, and later politics and international relations among women.[1] Holding a steady membership of 45-75 women, the Dallas Lyceum club attracted notable individuals of the time, including musicians, authors, and government figures. Background Founded in 1931 by Mrs. Alma Thurman, the Lyceum Club provided a Southern counterpart to the women’s club movement in the Northern United States. The Lyceum Club’s mission to explore all disciplines of the humanities paralleled the mission of the first women’s club, Sorosis, based in New York City. The Southern counterpart that the Lyceum Club provided, however, presented a new take on the usual modes of study of the humanities by specifically calling attention and recognition to Southern artists, authors, and musicians. Membership The club steadily grew in membership numbers that it more than doubled in the ...more...

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Organizations started in 1931

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Charlotte Woman's Club

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Charlotte Woman's Club

The Charlotte Woman's Club (CWC) is the oldest civic organization in Charlotte, North Carolina.[1] Charlotte Woman's club was and still is very active in the community. They established the first kindergarten in the city. During both world wars, they staffed city buses and the Southern Railway station with volunteers.[1] They were also involved with organizing the YWCA, PTA and Traveler's Aid in Charlotte. They also brought the first public health nurses to Charlotte and helped create the League of Women Voters. The CWC also supported the creation of the Mint Museum of Art and the Domestic Relations Court.[2][3] History It was organized by six women in April 1899 as the Charlotte Mothers' Club.[4] In 1901, twenty-five more women joined and the group was officially renamed to the Charlotte Woman's Club (CWC) with Mrs. F.C. Abbot as the first president.[4] The club became part of the North Carolina Federation of Women's Clubs (NCFWC) in 1903. The CWC would send delegates to the annual conference for the NCFWC ...more...

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History of the Jews in Curaçao

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History of the Jews in Curaçao

The history of the Jews in Curaçao can be traced back to the mid-17th century, when the first Jewish immigrants began to arrive. The first Jews in Curaçao were Sephardi Jewish immigrants from Netherlands, Portugal, and Spain. These immigrants founded Congregation Mikvé Israel-Emanuel, the oldest continuously used synagogue in the Americas. The first Jew to settle in Curaçao was a Dutch-Jewish interpreter named Samuel Cohen, who arrived on board a Dutch fleet in 1634. By the mid-1700s, the community was the most prosperous in the Americas and many of the Jewish communities in Latin America, primarily in Colombia and Venezuela, resulted from the influx of Curaçaoan Jews. In the 20th century Ashkenazi Jews from Eastern Europe immigrated to Curaçao, establishing their own traditions and a school. As of 2013, the Jewish population is around 350. History In 1492, the Jews of Spain, after years of persecution and forced conversion to Catholicism, were expelled en masse. Initially, they sought refuge in nearby Por ...more...

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Hellfire Club

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Hellfire Club

Portrait of Francis Dashwood, 11th Baron le Despencer by William Hogarth from the late 1750s, parodying Renaissance images of Francis of Assisi. The Bible has been replaced by a copy of the erotic novel Elegantiae Latini sermonis, and the profile of Dashwood's friend Lord Sandwich peers from the halo. Hellfire Club was a name for several exclusive clubs for high society rakes established in Britain and Ireland in the 18th century. The name is most commonly used to refer to Sir Francis Dashwood's Order of the Friars of St. Francis of Wycombe.[1] Such clubs were rumoured to be the meeting places of "persons of quality"[2] who wished to take part in socially perceived immoral acts, and the members were often involved in politics. Neither the activities nor membership of the club are easy to ascertain, for the clubs were rumoured to have distant ties to an elite society known only as The Order of the Second Circle.[3][4] The first official Hellfire Club was founded in London in 1718, by Philip, Duke of Wharton ...more...

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General Federation of Women's Clubs

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General Federation of Women's Clubs

The General Federation of Women's Clubs (GFWC), founded in 1890 during the Progressive Movement, is a federation of over 3,000 women's clubs in the United States which promote civic improvements through volunteer service. Many of its activities and service projects are done independently by local clubs through their communities or GFWC's national partnerships. GFWC maintains nearly 100,000 members[1] throughout the United States and internationally. GFWC remains one of the world's largest and oldest nonpartisan, nondenominational, women's volunteer service organizations.[2] History The GFWC was founded by Jane Cunningham Croly, a leading New York journalist. In 1868 she helped found the Sorosis club for professional women. It was the model for the nationwide GFWC in 1890. Federation Of Women's Clubs, D.C. Leaders Of Delegation To White House, 1914: Mrs. Ellis Logan; Mrs. H.W. Wiley; Miss E. Shippen; Mrs. R.C. Darr; Miss M. McNeilan In 1889 Mrs. Croly organized a conference in New York that brought to ...more...

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Myra Belle Martin

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Myra Belle Martin

Myra Belle Martin (October 6, 1861 – ) was an American teacher, writer, and financier.[1] Having taught one year in Pennsylvania, six years in Connecticut, and one year in Massachusetts, she was the first woman elected president of the Eastern Connecticut Teachers' Association. She retired from teaching in 1889 and became associate manager of the New York City office of Prang Educational Company, 1889-93. After this time, she held various positions for several important corporations, including secretary and treasurer of the San Luis Mining Company; secretary of the George A. Treadweil Mining Company; as well as secretary and director of the Copete Consolidated Copper Company, and Fahnestock Electric Company.[2] Martin was a prominent member of the American Ethnological Society, the American Anthropological Society, the American Scenic and Historic Preservation Society, the National Institute of Civics, the National Society of Craftsmen, the National Arts Club, the Nineteenth Century Club, the Drawing Room Cl ...more...

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History of Harrisburg, Pennsylvania

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History of Harrisburg, Pennsylvania

The history of Harrisburg, the state capital of the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania, United States, has played a key role in the development of the nation's industrial history, from its origins as a trading outpost to the present. Harrisburg has played a critical role in American history during the Westward Migration, the American Civil War, and the Industrial Revolution. During part of the 19th century, the building of the Pennsylvania Canal and later the Pennsylvania Railroad, allowed Harrisburg to become one of the most industrialized cities in the Northeastern United States. Early settlement The site along the Susquehanna River where Harrisburg is located is thought to have been inhabited by Native Americans as early as 3000 BC. Known to the Native Americans as "Peixtin," or "Paxtang," the area was an important resting place and crossroads for Native American traders, as the trails leading from the Delaware to the Ohio rivers, and from the Potomac to the Upper Susquehanna intersected there. The first Europe ...more...

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