Revolvy Trivia Quizzes
Revolvy Lists
Revolvy Topics

The Imperial Dictionary of the English Language

The Imperial Dictionary of the English Language: A Complete Encyclopedic Lexicon, Literary, Scientific, and Technological, edited by Rev. John Ogilvie (1797–1867), was an expansion of the 1841 second edition of Noah Webster's American Dictionary. It was published by W. G. Blackie and Co. of Scotland, 1847–1850 in two large volumes.[1]

With the addition of a third supplement volume in 1855, Ogilvie increased Webster's 70,000 word coverage to over 100,000. He included words from science, technology, and the arts; much British usage omitted by Webster; an unusual number of provincial and Scottish words; and added quotations and encyclopedic information for many words. With over 2,000 woodcut illustrations, it was the first significantly illustrated dictionary, setting the trend which continues today.

A revised and expanded edition by Charles Annandale was published in 1882 at London in four volumes, over 3,000 pages, with about 130,000 entries, revised definitions and etymologies, and 3,000 illustrations. Although the vocabulary coverage was small by today's standards, it was the largest English dictionary at the time. This edition went through numerous printings in various forms well into the twentieth century.

Due to disputes with the publisher of Webster's American Dictionary (G. & C. Merriam Company), the American edition of the Imperial, published by The Century Company of New York in 1883, contained a copyright notice stating:

Certain owners of American copyrights having claimed that undue use of matter so protected has been made in the compilation of the Imperial Dictionary, notice is hereby given that arrangement has been made with the proprietors of such copyright matter for the sale of this work in this country. The Century Co. May 1st, 1883.

The Century Company acquired rights to Annandale's Imperial and used it as the basis for the much larger American work, the Century Dictionary and Cyclopedia, published 1889–1891.

An adaptation of the Imperial by George W. Ogilvie, called Webster's Imperial Dictionary, was published in 1904, versions and revisions of which have been issued under various titles, including Webster's Universal Dictionary and Webster's Twentieth Century Dictionary.

Notes
  1. Haigh, John D. "Ogilvie, John". Oxford Dictionary of National Biography (online ed.). Oxford University Press. doi:10.1093/ref:odnb/20588. (Subscription or UK public library membership required.)
Continue Reading...
Content from Wikipedia Licensed under CC-BY-SA.

The Imperial Dictionary of the English Language

topic

The Imperial Dictionary of the English Language

The Imperial Dictionary of the English Language: A Complete Encyclopedic Lexicon, Literary, Scientific, and Technological, edited by Rev. John Ogilvie (1797–1867), was an expansion of the 1841 second edition of Noah Webster's American Dictionary. It was published by W. G. Blackie and Co. of Scotland, 1847–1850 in two large volumes.[1] With the addition of a third supplement volume in 1855, Ogilvie increased Webster's 70,000 word coverage to over 100,000. He included words from science, technology, and the arts; much British usage omitted by Webster; an unusual number of provincial and Scottish words; and added quotations and encyclopedic information for many words. With over 2,000 woodcut illustrations, it was the first significantly illustrated dictionary, setting the trend which continues today. A revised and expanded edition by Charles Annandale was published in 1882 at London in four volumes, over 3,000 pages, with about 130,000 entries, revised definitions and etymologies, and 3,000 illustrations. Alth ...more...



A Dictionary of the English Language

topic

A Dictionary of the English Language

Published on 4 April 1755[1] and written by Samuel Johnson, A Dictionary of the English Language, sometimes published as Johnson's Dictionary, is among the most influential dictionaries in the history of the English language. There was dissatisfaction with the dictionaries of the period, so in June 1746 a group of London booksellers contracted Johnson to write a dictionary for the sum of 1,500 guineas (£1,575), equivalent to about £220,000 in 2018.[2] Johnson took seven years to complete the work, although he had claimed he could finish it in three. Remarkably, he did so single-handedly, with only clerical assistance to copy the illustrative quotations that he had marked in books. Johnson produced several revised editions during his life. Until the completion of the Oxford English Dictionary 173 years later, Johnson's was viewed as the pre-eminent English dictionary. According to Walter Jackson Bate, the Dictionary "easily ranks as one of the greatest single achievements of scholarship, and probably the gre ...more...



Imperial Dictionary

topic

Imperial Dictionary

The Imperial Dictionary may be: The Imperial Dictionary of the English Language (Ogilvie, 1855; Annandale, 1882), or Webster's Imperial Dictionary based on it The Kangxi Dictionary of Chinese (17th century) Imperial Dictionary of Universal Biography (1863) ...more...



The American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language

topic

The American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language

The American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language (AHD) is an American dictionary of English published by Boston publisher Houghton Mifflin, the first edition of which appeared in 1969. Its creation was spurred by the controversy over the perceived permissiveness of the Webster's Third New International Dictionary. History James Parton, the publisher (and co-owner) of the history magazine American Heritage, was appalled by the permissiveness of Webster's Third, published in 1961, and tried to buy the G. and C. Merriam Company so he could undo the changes. When that failed, he contracted with Houghton to publish a new dictionary. The AHD was edited by William Morris and relied on a usage panel of 105 writers, speakers, and eminent persons chosen for their well-known conservatism in the use of language.[1] However, Morris made inconsistent use of the panels, often ignoring their advice and inserting his own opinions.[1] Linguistics The AHD broke ground among dictionaries by using corpus linguistics for ...more...



Webster's Dictionary

topic

Webster's Dictionary

An 1888 advertisement for Webster's Unabridged Dictionary Webster's Dictionary is any of the dictionaries edited by Noah Webster in the early nineteenth century, and numerous unrelated dictionaries that have adopted the Webster's name. "Webster's" has become a genericized trademark in the U.S. for dictionaries of the English language, and is widely used in English dictionary titles.[1] The only modern dictionaries that trace their lineage to Noah Webster's are published by Merriam-Webster. Noah Webster's American Dictionary of the English Language Noah Webster (1758–1843), the author of the readers and spelling books which dominated the American market at the time, spent decades of research in compiling his dictionaries. His first dictionary, A Compendious Dictionary of the English Language, appeared in 1806. In it, he popularized features which would become a hallmark of American English spelling (center rather than centre, honor rather than honour, program rather than programme, etc.) and included techn ...more...



Oxford Dictionary of English

topic

Oxford Dictionary of English

The Oxford Dictionary of English (ODE) is a single-volume English dictionary published by Oxford University Press, first published in 1998 as The New Oxford Dictionary of English (NODE). The word "new" was dropped from the title with the Second Edition in 2003.[1] This dictionary is not based on the Oxford English Dictionary and should not be mistaken for a new or updated version of the OED. It is a completely new dictionary which strives to represent as faithfully as possible the current usage of English words. The Revised Second Edition contains 355,000 words, phrases, and definitions, including biographical references and thousands of encyclopaedic entries. The Third Edition was published in August 2010, with some new words, including "vuvuzela". It is currently the largest single-volume English-language dictionary published by Oxford University Press. Editorial principles and practices The first editor, Judy Pearsall, wrote in the introduction that it is based on a modern understanding of language and ...more...



Century Dictionary

topic

Century Dictionary

First alphabetical page of The Century Dictionary and Cyclopedia The Century Dictionary and Cyclopedia was one of the largest encyclopedic dictionaries of the English language. The first edition was published from 1889 to 1891 by The Century Company of New York, in six, eight, or ten volume versions (originally issued in 24 fascicles) in 7,046 pages with some 10,000 wood-engraved illustrations. It was edited by Sanskrit scholar and linguist William Dwight Whitney, with Benjamin Eli Smith's assistance. It was a great expansion of the smaller Imperial Dictionary of the English Language, which in turn had been based on the 1841 edition of Noah Webster's American Dictionary. Meredith Publishing Company's 1963 edition of The New Century Dictionary. Volume One: A—pocket veto and Volume Two: pock-mark—zymurgy & Supplements After Whitney's death in 1894, supplementary volumes were published under Smith's supervision, including The Century Cyclopedia of Names (1894) and The Century Atlas (1897). A two-v ...more...



Dictionary

topic

Dictionary

English-English and English-Persian dictionaries A multi-volume Latin dictionary by Egidio Forcellini. Langenscheidt dictionaries A dictionary, sometimes known as a wordbook, is a collection of words in one or more specific languages, often arranged alphabetically (or by radical and stroke for ideographic languages), which may include information on definitions, usage, etymologies, pronunciations, translation, etc.[1] or a book of words in one language with their equivalents in another, sometimes known as a lexicon.[1] It is a lexicographical product which shows inter-relationships among the data.[2] A broad distinction is made between general and specialized dictionaries. Specialized dictionaries include words in specialist fields, rather than a complete range of words in the language. Lexical items that describe concepts in specific fields are usually called terms instead of words, although there is no consensus whether lexicology and terminology are two different fields of study. In theory, ...more...



Oxford English Dictionary

topic

Oxford English Dictionary

The Oxford English Dictionary (OED) is the main historical dictionary of the English language, published by the Oxford University Press. It traces the historical development of the English language, providing a comprehensive resource to scholars and academic researchers, as well as describing usage in its many variations throughout the world.[2][3] The second edition came to 21,728 pages in 20 volumes, published in 1989. Work began on the dictionary in 1857, but it was not until 1884 that it began to be published in unbound fascicles as work continued on the project, under the name of A New English Dictionary on Historical Principles; Founded Mainly on the Materials Collected by The Philological Society. In 1895, the title The Oxford English Dictionary (OED) was first used unofficially on the covers of the series, and in 1928 the full dictionary was republished in ten bound volumes. In 1933, the title The Oxford English Dictionary fully replaced the former name in all occurrences in its reprinting as twelve ...more...



Random House Webster's Unabridged Dictionary

topic

Random House Webster's Unabridged Dictionary

Random House Webster's Unabridged Dictionary is a large American dictionary, first published in 1966 as The Random House Dictionary of the English Language: The Unabridged Edition. Edited by Jess Stein, it contained 315,000 entries in 2256 pages, as well as 2400 illustrations. The CD-ROM version in 1994 also included 120,000 spoken pronunciations.[1] History The Random House publishing company entered the reference book market after World War II. They acquired rights to the Century Dictionary and the Dictionary of American English, both out of print. Their first dictionary was Clarence Barnhart's American College Dictionary, published in 1947, and based primarily on The New Century Dictionary, an abridgement of the Century.[2][3] In the late 1950s, it was decided to publish an expansion of the American College Dictionary, which had been modestly updated with each reprinting since its publication. Under editors Jess Stein and Laurence Urdang, they augmented the American College Dictionary with large numbers ...more...



Collins English Dictionary

topic

Collins English Dictionary

Collins English Dictionary Complete and Unabridged 12th edition The Collins English Dictionary is a printed and online dictionary of English. It is published by HarperCollins in Glasgow.[1] The first edition of the dictionary, in 1979, with Patrick Hanks as editor and Lawrence Urdang as editorial director, was the first British dictionary to use the full power of computer databases and typesetting in its preparation. This meant that, for instance, subject editors could control separate definitions of the same word and the results could be blended into the result, rather than one editor being responsible for a word. By the third edition, they increasingly used the Bank of English established by Hanks at COBUILD to provide typical definitions rather than examples composed by the lexicographer. Editions The current edition is the 12th edition, which was published in October 2014.[2] The previous edition was the 11th edition, which was published in October 2011. A special "30th Anniversary" 10th edition was ...more...



Concise Oxford English Dictionary

topic

Concise Oxford English Dictionary

Henry Watson Fowler The Concise Oxford English Dictionary (officially titled The Concise Oxford Dictionary until 2002, and widely abbreviated COD or COED) is probably the best-known of the 'smaller' Oxford dictionaries. The latest edition of the Concise Oxford English Dictionary contains over 240,000 entries and 1,728 pages (concise only compared to the OED at over 21,000 pages). Its 12th edition, published in 2011, is used by both the United Nations and NATO as the current authority for spellings in documents written in English for international use.[1][2] It is available as an e-book for a variety of handheld device platforms. In addition to providing information for general use, it documents local variations such as United States and United Kingdom usage. It was started as a derivative of the Oxford English Dictionary (OED), although section S–Z had to be written before the Oxford English Dictionary reached that stage. However, starting from the 10th edition, it is based on the Oxford Dictionary of Engli ...more...



English language

topic

English language

English is a West Germanic language that was first spoken in early medieval England and is now a global lingua franca.[4][5] Named after the Angles, one of the Germanic tribes that migrated to England, it ultimately derives its name from the Anglia (Angeln) peninsula in the Baltic Sea. It is closely related to the Frisian languages, but its vocabulary has been significantly influenced by other Germanic languages, particularly Norse (a North Germanic language), as well as by Latin and French.[6] English has developed over the course of more than 1,400 years. The earliest forms of English, a set of Anglo-Frisian dialects brought to Great Britain by Anglo-Saxon settlers in the 5th century, are called Old English. Middle English began in the late 11th century with the Norman conquest of England and was a period in which the language was influenced by French.[7] Early Modern English began in the late 15th century with the introduction of the printing press to London, the printing of the King James Bible and the s ...more...



Macquarie Dictionary

topic

Macquarie Dictionary

The Macquarie Dictionary is a dictionary of Australian English. It is generally held by universities and the legal profession to be the authoritative source on Australian English.[1] It also pays considerable attention to New Zealand English. Originally it was a publishing project of Jacaranda Press, a Brisbane educational publisher, for which an editorial committee was formed, largely from the Linguistics department of Macquarie University in Sydney, Australia.[2] It is now published by Macquarie Dictionary Publishers an imprint of Pan Macmillan Australia Pty Ltd. In October 2007 it moved its editorial office away from Macquarie University to the University of Sydney.[3] HistoryFirst Edition The original version of the Macquarie Dictionary was based on Hamlyn's Encyclopedic World Dictionary of 1971, which in turn was based on Random House's American College Dictionary of 1947,[4] which was based on the 1927 New Century Dictionary, which was based on The Imperial Dictionary of the English Language, which its ...more...



Dictionary of Old English

topic

Dictionary of Old English

The Dictionary of Old English (DOE) is a dictionary of the Old English language, published by the Centre for Medieval Studies, University of Toronto, under the direction of Angus Cameron, Ashley Crandell Amos, and Antonette diPaolo Healey. It complements the Oxford English Dictionary's comprehensive survey of modern English and the Middle English Dictionary's comprehensive survey of Middle English.[1] The dictionary is still under production. As of March 2015 the entries for 8 of the 24 letters of the Old English alphabet have been published, and over 60% of the total entries have been written.[1] The dictionary has made extensive use of digital technology, and is based on a corpus of at least one copy of every known surviving text written in Old English.[1] History The dictionary was conceived in 1968 as a replacement for the Bosworth–Toller Anglo-Saxon Dictionary, which had been compiled at a time when both the study of the Old English language and lexicographical techniques were less advanced.[2] From t ...more...



Gingering

topic

Gingering

Gingering, or gingering the tail, is the practice of making a horse carry its tail high, and to a lesser extent to encourage it to move in a lively fashion, by applying an irritant, such as raw ginger, to its anus or vulva.[1] Historically the process, the purpose of which was often to make an older horse behave like one that was younger, or to temporarily liven up a sick or weakened animal, was known as feaguing (from which the modern term figging derives), and involved a piece of ginger, onion, pepper, tobacco, or a live eel.[2][3][4][5][6] The modern practice commonly involves a paste product with concentrated gingerol.[7] For the halter horses in the Arabian and American Saddlebred breeds, high tail carriage and animation are desired traits. However, nearly all horse show sanctioning organizations in the U.S. explicitly forbid gingering and have the authority to disqualify a horse treated in this way. While some areas may be less than rigorous about enforcing the rule, tests such as "ginger swabbing" may ...more...



List of Canadian English dictionaries

topic

List of Canadian English dictionaries

List of Canadian English dictionaries: Canadian Oxford Dictionary ISBN 0195418166 Collins Canadian Dictionary ISBN 0007337523 A Dictionary of Canadianisms on Historical Principles ISBN 0771519761 Gage Canadian Dictionary ISBN 0771519818 Houghton Mifflin Canadian Dictionary ISBN 0395296544 ITP Nelson Canadian Dictionary ISBN 0176065911 Penguin Canadian Dictionary ISBN 0773050078 Reader's Digest Webster's Canadian Dictionary and Thesaurus ISBN 1554750520 Websters Canadian Dictionary ISBN 1596951311 Winston Canadian Dictionary ISBN 0176425691 Variants Dictionary of Prince Edward Island English ISBN 0802057810 Dictionary of Newfoundland English ISBN 0802068197 Dictionary of Newfoundland & Labrador ISBN 1895109345 Dictionary of Cape Breton English ISBN 978-1442615991 See also ...more...



Cambridge Advanced Learner's Dictionary

topic

Cambridge Advanced Learner's Dictionary

CALD 3rd Ed. Cambridge Advanced Learner's Dictionary 3rd Edition CD-ROM Cambridge Advanced Learner's Dictionary (unofficially Cambridge English Dictionary or Cambridge Dictionary, abbreviated CALD) was first published in 1995 under the name Cambridge International Dictionary of English, by the Cambridge University Press. The dictionary has over 140,000 words, phrases, and meanings. It is suitable for learners at CEF levels B2-C2. Editions First edition first published in 2003 Second edition first published in 2005 Third edition first published in 2008 Fourth edition first published in 2013 See also Advanced learner's dictionary External links Cambridge Advanced Learner's Dictionary online CALD 3rd Ed. Cambridge Advanced Learner's Dictionary 3rd Edition CD-ROM Cambridge Advanced Learner's Dictionary (unofficially Cambridge English Dictionary or Cambridge Dictionary, abbreviated CALD) was first published in 1995 under the name Cambridge International Dictionary of English, by t ...more...



A Dictionary of Slang and Unconventional English

topic

A Dictionary of Slang and Unconventional English

A Dictionary of Slang and Unconventional English is a dictionary of slang originally compiled by the noted lexicographer of the English language, Eric Partridge. The first edition was published in 1937 and seven editions were eventually published by Partridge. An eighth edition was published in 1984,[1] after Partridge's death, by editor Paul Beale; in 1990 Beale published an abridged version, Partridge's Concise Dictionary of Slang and Unconventional English.[2] The dictionary was updated in 2005 by Tom Dalzell and Terry Victor as The New Partridge Dictionary of Slang and Unconventional English,[3][4] and again in 2007 as The Concise New Partridge Dictionary of Slang and Unconventional English,[5] which has additional entries compared to the 2005 edition, but omits the extensive citations. Original publication Partridge published seven editions of his "hugely influential"[6] slang dictionary before his death in 1979.[7] The dictionary was "regarded as filling a lexicographical gap"[8] in the English langua ...more...



Canadian Oxford Dictionary

topic

Canadian Oxford Dictionary

The Canadian Oxford Dictionary is a dictionary of Canadian English. First published by Oxford University Press Canada in 1998, it became a well-known reference for Canadian English. The second edition, published in 2004, contains about 300,000 entries, including about 2,200 true Canadianisms. It also provides information on Canadian pronunciation and on Canadian spelling, which has features of both British and American spelling: colour, centre, and travelling, but tire, aluminum and realize. Editorial staff and development method Until September 2008, Oxford maintained a permanent staff of lexicographers in Canada, led by editor Katherine Barber. With its Canadian dictionary division closed, Oxford has since been outsourcing work on Canadian dictionary products to freelance editors.[1] Editions and versions Barber, Katherine, ed. (2005). Canadian Oxford Dictionary (2nd ed.). Don Mills, Ontario: Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0-19-541816-3. Prior editions Barber, Katherine, ed. (2002). The Canad ...more...



Shorter Oxford English Dictionary

topic

Shorter Oxford English Dictionary

The Shorter Oxford English Dictionary (SOED) is an English language dictionary published by the Oxford University Press. The SOED is a two-volume abridgement of the twenty-volume Oxford English Dictionary (OED). Print EditionsPrequel The first editor, William Little, worked on the book from 1902 until his death in 1922. The dictionary was completed by H. W. Fowler, Jessie Coulson, and C. T. Onions. An abridgement of the complete work was contemplated from 1879, when the Oxford University Press took over from the Philological Society on what was then known as A New English Dictionary on Historical Principles. However, no action was taken until 1902, when the work was begun by William Little, a fellow of Corpus Christi College, Oxford. He laboured until his death in 1922, at which point he had completed "A" to "T" and "V". The remaining letters were completed by Henry Watson Fowler ("U", "X", "Y", and "Z") and Mrs. E. A. Coulson (Jessie Coulson) ("W") under the direction of Charles Talbut Onions, who succeeded ...more...



Merriam–Webster's Dictionary of English Usage

topic

Merriam–Webster's Dictionary of English Usage

Merriam–Webster's Dictionary of English Usage is a usage dictionary published by Merriam-Webster, Inc., of Springfield, Massachusetts . It is currently available in a reprint edition (1994) ISBN 0-87779-132-5 or ISBN 978-0-87779-132-4. (The 1989 edition did not include Merriam– in the title. It was added as part of the rebranding campaign to emphasize the differences between Merriam–Webster's dictionaries and dictionaries of other publishers using the generic trademark Webster's.) The book has been praised by language experts. Stan Carey at the blog Sentence First concludes that it operates "in such a thorough and unbiased way is what elevates MWDEU so far above the ordinary. Each entry is presented in a much broader context than is typically the case in books that advise on English usage and style."[1] It is critically acclaimed by the linguist Geoffrey Pullum, who calls it "the best usage book I know of... utterly wonderful." [2] It is known for its historical scholarship, analysis, use of examples, and de ...more...



English-language idioms

topic

English-language idioms

An idiom is a common word or phrase with a culturally understood meaning that differs from what its composite words' denotations would suggest. For example, an English speaker would understand the phrase "kick the bucket" to mean "to die" – and also to actually kick a bucket. Furthermore, they would understand when each meaning is being used in context. An idiom is not to be confused with other figures of speech such as a metaphor, which invokes an image by use of implicit comparisons (e.g., "the man of steel" ); a simile, which invokes an image by use of explicit comparisons (e.g., "faster than a speeding bullet"); and hyperbole, which exaggerates an image beyond truthfulness (e.g., like "missed by a mile" ). Idioms are also not to be confused with proverbs, which are simple sayings that express a truth based on common sense or practical experience. An idiom is a phrase where the words together have a meaning that is different from the dictionary definitions of the individual words.[1][2] In another definit ...more...



Collaborative International Dictionary of English

topic

Collaborative International Dictionary of English

The Collaborative International Dictionary of English (CIDE) was derived from the 1913 Webster's Dictionary and has been supplemented with some of the definitions from WordNet. It is being proof-read and supplemented by volunteers from around the world. This electronic dictionary is also made available as a potential starting point for development of a modern comprehensive encyclopedic dictionary, to be accessible freely on the Internet, and developed by the efforts of all individuals willing to help build a large and freely available knowledge base.[1] There are several derivative versions of this dictionary on the Internet, in some cases reformatted or provided with an interface: Project Gutenberg, in the etext96 directory The DICT development group The GNU project's GCIDE The University of Chicago ARTFL Project[2] References Readme file Documentation accompanying the GNU version of the set of files containing the electronic version of the CIDE. ARTFL Project External links ARTFL Pr ...more...



Open Dictionary of English

topic

Open Dictionary of English

The Open Dictionary of English (ODE, after the OED) is a multimedia learners' dictionary, published by 501(c)3 nonprofit organization LearnThat Foundation. It is fully integrated with LearnThatWord, the vocabulary and spelling tutoring program by LearnThat Foundation, and can also be used as a standalone dictionary. The Open Dictionary of English cherishes English as a global language. Its goal is to connect learners with words illustrating their usage and nuances in a lively multimedia format. Genesis The ODE contains around 180,000 words. Word data is assorted from a range of online sources. The Open Dictionary of English is a collaborative project, based on Open Source materials, LearnThat's own resources, and partner APIs. It contains data from WordNet/Princeton University and Wiktionary, Google, Wordnik.com, Dictionary.com, Stands4.com, YouTube.com, OEDILF.com, Kylescholz.com, Best-Practice.com, and Forvo.com. Features The Open Dictionary of English offers: • Videos and video snippets showing word us ...more...



Advanced learner's dictionary

topic

Advanced learner's dictionary

The advanced learner's dictionary is the most common type of monolingual learner's dictionary, that is, a dictionary written for someone who is learning a foreign language and who has a proficiency level of B2 or above according to the Common European Framework. It differs from a bilingual or translation dictionary, on the one hand, and a standard dictionary written for native speakers or linguistic scholars, on the other. The definitions are usually built on defining vocabulary. Although advanced learner's dictionaries have been produced for learners of several languages (including Chinese, Dutch, German, and Spanish) the majority are written for learners of English. Printed The best-known advanced learner's dictionaries are: Oxford Advanced Learner's Dictionary, first published in 1948. Longman Dictionary of Contemporary English, first published in 1978. Collins Cobuild English Dictionary, first published in 1987 and now published as Collins COBUILD Advanced Learner’s Dictionary. Cambridge Internati ...more...



Dictionary of American English

topic

Dictionary of American English

A Dictionary of American English on Historical Principles (DAE) is a dictionary of terms appearing in English in the United States that was published in four volumes from 1938 to 1944 by the University of Chicago Press.[1][2][3] Intended to pick up where the Oxford English Dictionary left off, it covers American English words and phrases in use from the first English settlements up to the start of the 20th century. History The work was begun in 1925 by William A. Craigie. The first volume appeared in 1936 under the editorship of Craigie and James R. Hulbert,[4] a professor of English at the University of Chicago. The four volume edition was completed with the help of George Watson and Allen Walker Read. The work was one of the sources for the Dictionary of Americanisms, c. 1952, prepared under the direction of Mitford Mathews. A similar, but unrelated modern work, the Dictionary of American Regional English, has been compiled to show dialect variation. Volumes I. A-Corn patch. II. Corn pit-Honk. III. Honk ...more...



Joseph Emerson Worcester

topic

Joseph Emerson Worcester

Joseph Emerson Worcester Joseph Emerson Worcester (August 24, 1784 – October 27, 1865) was an American lexicographer who was the chief competitor to Noah Webster of Webster's Dictionary in the mid-nineteenth-century. Their rivalry became known as the "dictionary wars". Worcester's dictionaries focused on traditional pronunciation and spelling, unlike Noah Webster's attempts to Americanize words. Worcester was respected by American writers and his dictionary maintained a strong hold on the American marketplace until a later, posthumous version of Webster's book appeared in 1864. After Worcester's death in 1865, their war ended. BiographyEarly life Worcester was born August 24, 1784, in Bedford, New Hampshire, and worked on a farm in his youth, entering Phillips Academy, Andover, in 1805. In 1809, he entered Yale University and graduated in two years. He began a school in Salem, Massachusetts in March 1812, but gave up on the project by 1815.[1] One of his students had been a young Nathaniel Hawthorne;[2] Wo ...more...



John Ogilvie (lexicographer)

topic

John Ogilvie (lexicographer)

John Ogilvie (; 17 April 1797 – 21 November 1867) was a Scottish lexicographer who edited the Imperial Dictionary of the English Language. Life He was born 17 April 1797 in Marnoch, Banffshire (now in Aberdeenshire), the son of William Ogilvie, farmer, and Ann Leslie, daughter of a farmer in a neighbouring parish.[1] After receiving some elementary education at home, and attending the parish school for two quarters, Ogilvie worked as a ploughman till he was twenty-one. In 1818, after an accident, one of his legs had to be amputated above the knee. Afterwards Ogilvie taught successively in two subscription schools, in the parishes of Fordyce and Gamrie, both in Banffshire. With the help of a local schoolmaster, he prepared for university, and in October 1824 he entered Marischal College, Aberdeen. Adding to his income by private tuition, he graduated M.A. on 14 April 1828.[1] He remained in Aberdeen as a tutor till 13 May 1831, when he was appointed mathematical master in Gordon's Hospital, an educational e ...more...



Glossary of rail transport terms

topic

Glossary of rail transport terms

Rail terminology is a form of technical terminology. The difference between the American term railroad and the international term railway (used by the International Union of Railways and English-speaking countries outside the United States) is the most significant difference in rail terminology. There are also others, due to the parallel development of rail transport systems in different parts of the world. Various global terms are presented here; where a term has multiple names, this is indicated. The abbreviation "UIC" refers to standard terms adopted by the International Union of Railways in its official publications and thesaurus.[1] 0–9 A Adhesion railway The most common type of railway, where power is applied by driving some or all of the wheels of the locomotive[2] Adhesive weight The weight on the driving wheels of a locomotive, which determines the frictional grip between wheels and rail, and hence the drawbar pull which a locomotive can exert[3] Air brake A power braking system with compressed ...more...



Oxford Advanced Learner's Dictionary

topic

Oxford Advanced Learner's Dictionary

Oxford Advanced Learner's Dictionary of Current English, 1980. 8th edition cover Oxford Advanced Learner's English-Chinese Dictionary, 7th edition (Simplified Chinese version) The Oxford Advanced Learner's Dictionary (OALD) was the first advanced learner's dictionary of English. It was first published 70 years ago. It is the largest English-language dictionary from Oxford University Press aimed at a non-native audience. Users with a more linguistic interest, requiring etymologies or copious references, usually prefer the Concise Oxford English Dictionary, or indeed the comprehensive Oxford English Dictionary, or other dictionaries aimed at speakers of English with native-level competence. PublicationsEnglish dictionariesOxford Advanced Learner's Dictionary of Current English Oxford Advanced Learner's Dictionary of Current English was first published in 1948; the current edition is the ninth. The following editions exist: First edition first published in 1948 (12 impressions) Second edition f ...more...



Wiktionary

topic

Wiktionary

Wiktionary is a multilingual, web-based project to create a free content dictionary of all words in all languages. It is collaboratively edited via a wiki, and its name is a portmanteau of the words wiki and dictionary. It is available in 171 languages and in Simple English. Like its sister project Wikipedia, Wiktionary is run by the Wikimedia Foundation, and is written collaboratively by volunteers, dubbed "Wiktionarians". Its wiki software, MediaWiki, allows almost anyone with access to the website to create and edit entries. Because Wiktionary is not limited by print space considerations, most of Wiktionary's language editions provide definitions and translations of words from many languages, and some editions offer additional information typically found in thesauri and lexicons. The English Wiktionary includes a thesaurus (formerly known as Wikisaurus) of synonyms of various words. Wiktionary data are frequently used in various natural language processing tasks. History and development Wiktionary was b ...more...



Tay Bridge disaster

topic

Tay Bridge disaster

The Tay Bridge disaster occurred during a violent storm on Sunday 28 December 1879 when the first Tay Rail Bridge collapsed while a train was passing over it from Wormit to Dundee, killing all aboard. The bridge—designed by Sir Thomas Bouch—used lattice girders supported by iron piers, with cast iron columns and wrought iron cross-bracing. The piers were narrower and their cross-bracing was less extensive and robust than on previous similar designs by Bouch. Bouch had sought expert advice on "wind loading" when designing a proposed rail bridge over the Firth of Forth; as a result of that advice he had made no explicit allowance for wind loading in the design of the Tay Bridge. There were other flaws in detailed design, in maintenance, and in quality control of castings, all of which were, at least in part, Bouch's responsibility. Bouch died within the year, with his reputation as an engineer ruined. Future British bridge designs had to allow for wind loadings of up to 56 pounds per square foot (2.7 kPa). Bo ...more...



A Dictionary of the Chinese Language

topic

A Dictionary of the Chinese Language

A Dictionary of the Chinese Language, in Three Parts or Morrison's Chinese dictionary (1815-1823), compiled by the Anglo-Scottish missionary Robert Morrison was the first Chinese-English, English-Chinese dictionary. Part I is Chinese-English arranged by the 214 Kangxi radicals, Part II is Chinese-English arranged alphabetically, and Part III is English-Chinese also arranged alphabetically. This groundbreaking reference work is enormous, comprising 4,595 pages in 6 quarto volumes and including 47,035 head characters taken from the 1716 Kangxi Dictionary. However, Morrison's encyclopedic dictionary had flaws, notably failing to distinguish aspirated consonants: the pronunciation taou is given for both aspirated táo (桃, "peach") and unaspirated dào (道, "way; the Tao"). History An engraving of George Chinnery's lost Robert Morrison Translating the Bible (c. 1828). Morrison is assisted by Li Shigong (left) and Chen Laoyi (right). Robert Morrison (1782-1834) is credited with several historical firsts in addi ...more...



Longman Dictionary of Contemporary English

topic

Longman Dictionary of Contemporary English

LDOCE 4th ed. Longman Dictionary of Contemporary English (LDOCE) was first published by Longman in 1978. The dictionary is available in various formats: paper only; paper with a bundled premium website; online access only or a gratis online version. LDOCE is an advanced learner's dictionary, providing definitions by using a restricted vocabulary, helping non-native English speakers to understand meanings easily. The latest version of Longman Dictionary of Contemporary English is the sixth edition. The premium website was revised during 2014 and 2015 and offers over a million corpus examples, exceeding that of the paper version and also supplying sound files for every word and 88,000 example sentences, along with various tools for study, teaching, examinations and grammar. The 9000 most important English words to learn have been highlighted via the Longman Communication 9000. The gratis LDOCE online was updated to its current layout in 2008 and offers a search (with spelling assistance), definitions; collo ...more...



Webster's Third New International Dictionary

topic

Webster's Third New International Dictionary

Webster's Third New International Dictionary of the English Language, Unabridged (commonly known as Webster's Third, or W3) was published in September 1961. It was edited by Philip Babcock Gove and a team of lexicographers who spent 757 editor-years and $3.5 million. It contained more than 450,000 entries, including more than 100,000 new entries and as many new senses for entries carried over from previous editions. The final definition, Zyzzogeton, was written on October 17, 1960; the final etymology was recorded on October 26; and the final pronunciation was transcribed on November 9. The final copy went to the typesetters, RR Donnelley, on December 2. The book was printed by the Riverside Press in Cambridge, Massachusetts. The first edition had 2,726 pages (measuring 9 in (23 cm) wide by 13 in (33 cm) tall by 3 in (7.6 cm) thick), weighed 13½ lbs (6.12 kg), and originally sold for $47.50 ($389 in 2017 dollars[1]). The changes were the most radical in the history of the Unabridged. Although it was an unpr ...more...



Charles Annandale

topic

Charles Annandale

Charles Annandale (1843–1915) was a Scottish editor, primarily of reference books. Life He was born at Fordoun on 26 August 1843, the son of James Annandale. He graduated M.A. from the University of Aberdeen in 1867, and later received an honorary degree there in 1885.[1] He edited the revision of John Ogilvie's Imperial Dictionary of the English Language and several abridgements, including The Student's English Dictionary and The Concise English Dictionary. Other works he edited include The Modern Cyclopedia of Universal Information, The Popular Encyclopedia, The Works of Robert Burns, and The New Gresham Dictionary of the English Language. Notes Roll of the Graduates of the University of Aberdeen, 1860-1900 (1906) External links WorldCat page Online Books page ...more...



Urban Dictionary

topic

Urban Dictionary

Urban Dictionary is a crowdsourced online dictionary for slang words and phrases, operating under the motto "Define Your World."[2] The website was founded in 1999 by Aaron Peckham. History The site was founded in 2005 by Aaron Peckham while he was a freshman computer science major at California Polytechnic State University, San Luis Obispo. He launched the site to compare urban slang used by university students in different parts of California. He had previously created a spoof version of the Ask Jeeves web search engine while studying at Cal Poly but closed the website after he received an infringement letter.[3] He created Urban Dictionary initially as a parody of actual dictionaries, which he thought tended to be "stuffy" and "take themselves too seriously". For the first five years, the site generated revenue without making a profit, but did not incur any costs,. In 2003, the website paid more attention to the site after a news article revealed that United Kingdom (UK) high court judges had used Urban ...more...



Roasting jack

topic

Roasting jack

A bottle jack A roasting jack is a machine which rotates meat roasting on a spit.[1] It can also be called a spit jack, a spit engine or a turnspit, although this name can also refer to a human turning the spit, or a turnspit dog.[2] Cooking meat on a spit dates back at least to the 1st century BC, but at first spits were turned by human power. In Britain, starting in the Tudor period, dog-powered turnspits were used; the dog ran in a treadmill linked to the spit by belts and pulleys. Other forms of roasting jacks included the steam jack, driven by steam, the smoke jack, driven by hot gas rising from the fire,[3] and the bottle jack or clock jack, driven by weights or springs. Weight or clock jacks A great majority of the jacks used prior to the 19th century were powered by a descending weight, often made of stone or iron, sometimes of lead. Although most commonly referred to as spit engines or jacks, these were also termed weight or clock jacks (clock jacks was the more common term in North America). Ear ...more...



Dictionary of American Regional English

topic

Dictionary of American Regional English

The Dictionary of American Regional English (DARE) is a record of American English as spoken in the United States, from its beginnings to the present. It differs from other dictionaries in that it does not document the standard language used throughout the country. Instead, it contains regional and folk speech, those words, phrases, and pronunciations that vary from one part of the country to another, or that we learn from our families and friends rather than from our teachers and books. For DARE, a "region" may be as small as a city or part of a city, or as large as most (but not all) of the country.[1] Humanities magazine has described it as "a bold synthesis of linguistic atlas and historical dictionary",[2] and William Safire called it "the most exciting new linguistic project in the twentieth century".[3] The Dictionary is based both on face-to-face interviews with 2,777 people carried out in 1,002 communities across the country between 1965 and 1970, and on a large collection of print and (recently) el ...more...



A Dictionary of Modern Slang, Cant, and Vulgar Words

topic

A Dictionary of Modern Slang, Cant, and Vulgar Words

A Dictionary of Modern Slang, Cant and Vulgar Words is a dictionary of slang originally compiled by publisher and lexicographer John Camden Hotten in 1859. The first edition was published in 1859, with the full title and subtitle: A dictionary of modern slang, cant, and vulgar words: used at the present day in the streets of London, the universities of Oxford and Cambridge, the houses of Parliament, the dens of St. Giles, and the palaces of St. James : preceded by a history of cant and vulgar language : with glossaries of two secret languages, spoken by the wandering tribes of London, the costermongers, and the patterers.[1] It has also been published as The Slang Dictionary: Etymological, Historical, and Anecdotal. The dictionary included criminal slang, back slang, rhyming slang, and other types of slang.[2] Its author, Hotten, included histories of some slangs (back slang and rhyming slang), a detailed bibliography, and a noted definition: Slang represents that evanescent, vulgar language, ever changin ...more...



Macmillan English Dictionary for Advanced Learners

topic

Macmillan English Dictionary for Advanced Learners

Macmillan English Dictionary for Advanced Learners, also known as MEDAL, was first published in 2002 by Macmillan Education. MEDAL is an advanced learner’s dictionary and shares most of the features of this type of dictionary: it provides definitions in simple language, using a controlled defining vocabulary; most words have example sentences to illustrate how they are typically used; and information is given about how words combine grammatically or in collocations. MEDAL also introduced a number of innovations.[1][2] These include: ‘collocation boxes’ giving lists of high-frequency collocates, identified using Sketch Engine software[3] word frequency information, with the most frequent 7500 English words shown in red and categorised in three frequency bands, based on the idea, derived from Zipf's law, that a relatively small number of high-frequency words account for a high percentage of most texts[4] ‘metaphor boxes’, showing how the vocabulary used for expressing common concepts (such as ‘anger’) ten ...more...



A New English Dictionary

topic

A New English Dictionary

A New English Dictionary: or, a complete collection of the most proper and significant words, commonly used in the language was an English dictionary compiled by philologist John Kersey and first published in London in 1702. Unlike previous dictionaries, which had focused on documenting difficult words, A New English Dictionary was one of the first to focus on words in common usage. It was also the first to be written by a professional lexicographer. Kersey later continued his lexicographic career by enlarging Edward Phillips' The New World of English Words in 1706 and editing the Dictionarium Anglo-Britannicum in 1708. The original title of the Oxford English Dictionary was A New English Dictionary on Historical Principles, and it was sometimes given the abbreviation NED, for New English Dictionary. A New English Dictionary: or, a complete collection of the most proper and significant words, commonly used in the language was an English dictionary compiled by philologist John Kersey and first published i ...more...



Compact Oxford English Dictionary of Current English

topic

Compact Oxford English Dictionary of Current English

The Compact Oxford English Dictionary of Current English is a one-volume dictionary published by Oxford University Press. It is intended for a family or upper secondary school readerships. The third edition (revised), published in 2008, has 1,264 pages, somewhat smaller than the Concise Oxford English Dictionary, and should not be confused with the "Compact" (single- and two-volume photo-reduced) editions of the multi-volume Oxford English Dictionary. PublicationsCompact Oxford English Dictionary of Current English Third edition revised (ISBN 978-0-19-953296-4): Includes over 150,000 words, phrases, and definitions. ?th impression (2008-06-19) Compact Oxford Thesaurus Third edition revised (ISBN 978-0-19-953295-7): Includes over 300,000 synonyms and antonyms. ?th impression References Soanes, Catherine; Sara Hawker (19 June 2008). Compact Oxford English Dictionary of Current English (3rd ed.). Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0-19-953296-4. External links Compact Oxford English Di ...more...



Pachira

topic

Pachira

Pachira is a genus of tropical trees distributed in Central and South America, Africa and India. They are classified in the subfamily Bombacoideae of the family Malvaceae. Previously the genus was assigned to Bombacaceae. Prior to that the genus was found in the (now obsolete) Sterculiaceae. Some 77 species have been identified. They form small or large trees with digitate leaves, and the fruit an oval woody one-celled capsule opening by a number of divisions and containing many seeds. The genus name is derived from a language spoken in Guyana. History Although first named Pachira by Jean Baptiste Aublet in 1775, Carl Linnaeus the Younger unaware of this separately is said to have called the genus Carolinea after Princess (or Marchioness) "Sophia Caroline of Baden" in 1782. The principle of precedence gives the authority to Pachira. The Margrave of Baden, Karl Wilhelm (1709 – 1738) founded the Karlsruhe Palace (Karlsruher Schloß) in 1715. He had a considerable interest in Botany, particularly the exotic, a ...more...



Penguin English Dictionary

topic

Penguin English Dictionary

The Penguin English Dictionary is a one-volume English-language dictionary published by Penguin Books. It is their flagship dictionary with over 70,000 entries, first published in 2000. The Penguin English Dictionary is currently in its third edition, and its chief editor is Robert Allen. The specialist contributors and advisers involve writers for books, newspapers, magazines etc. The dictionary is also variously known as The New Penguin English Dictionary (1st edition) or The Penguin Complete English Dictionary. The second edition was published in 2003 and the third in late 2007. ...more...



Chambers Dictionary

topic

Chambers Dictionary

The Chambers Dictionary (TCD) was first published by William and Robert Chambers as Chambers's English Dictionary in 1872. It was an expanded version of Chambers's Etymological Dictionary of 1867, compiled by James Donald. A second edition came out in 1898, and was followed in 1901 by a new compact edition called Chambers's Twentieth Century Dictionary.[1] TCD is widely used by British crossword solvers and setters, and by Scrabble players (though it is no longer the official Scrabble dictionary). It contains many more dialectal, archaic, unconventional and eccentric words than its rivals, and is noted for its occasional wryly humorous definitions. Examples of such definitions include those for éclair ("a cake, long in shape but short in duration") and middle-aged ("between youth and old age, variously reckoned to suit the reckoner").[2] These jocular definitions were removed by the publisher in the 1970s, but many of them were reinstated in 1983 because of the affection in which they were held by readers. ...more...



Collins COBUILD Advanced Dictionary

topic

Collins COBUILD Advanced Dictionary

The Collins COBUILD Advanced Dictionary[1] (CCAD) from HarperCollins, first published in 1987,[2] is a dictionary that distinguished itself by providing definitions in full sentences rather than excerpted phrases. Example sentences are given for almost every meaning of every word, drawn from a large corpus of actual usage. Except for the 6th edition, it included phonetic transcriptions based on the International Phonetic Alphabet (IPA). In some editions, a digital version on CD-ROM was included with the dictionary in book form. The CCAD seems to skimp on American English, but there is its equivalent titled Collins COBUILD Advanced Dictionary of American English. Notes Szynalski, Tomasz P. (1987). "Review of the Collins COBUILD Advanced Learner's English Dictionary". Antimoon.com. Retrieved February 1, 2011. "Welcome to the Collins English Language Teaching Blog". collinselt.com. Collins. Retrieved 15 February 2017. When the first COBUILD dictionary was published in 1987 ... External links Coll ...more...



List of adjectivals and demonyms of astronomical bodies

topic

List of adjectivals and demonyms of astronomical bodies

The adjectival forms of the names of astronomical bodies are not always easily predictable. Attested adjectival forms of the larger bodies are listed below, along with non-obvious derivations of some smaller bodies; in some cases these are accompanied by their demonymic equivalents, which denote purported inhabitants of these bodies. For Classical (Greco-Roman) names, the adjectival form is normally derived from the genitive case, which may differ from the nominative case used in English for the noun form. For instance, for a large portion of names ending in -s, the genitive and therefore the adjective changes the -s to a -d, -t, or -r, as in Isis–Isidian and Ceres–Cererian;[note 1] occasionally an -n has been lost from the noun form, and reappears in the adjective, as in Pluto–Plutonian and Atlas–Atlantean.[note 2] Many of the more recent or more obscure names are only attested in mythological or literary contexts, rather than in specifically astronomical contexts. Forms ending in -ish or -ine, such as "Pu ...more...



Noah Webster

topic

Noah Webster

Noah Webster painted by Samuel F. B. Morse Webster's New Haven home, where he wrote An American Dictionary of the English Language. Now relocated to Greenfield Village in Dearborn, Michigan. Noah Webster Jr. (October 16, 1758 – May 28, 1843) was an American lexicographer, textbook pioneer, English-language spelling reformer, political writer, editor, and prolific author. He has been called the "Father of American Scholarship and Education". His blue-backed speller books taught five generations of American children how to spell and read. Webster's name has become synonymous with "dictionary" in the United States, especially the modern Merriam-Webster dictionary that was first published in 1828 as An American Dictionary of the English Language. Born in West Hartford, Connecticut, Webster graduated from Yale College in 1778. He passed the bar examination after studying law under Oliver Ellsworth and others, but was unable to find work as a lawyer. He found some financial success by opening a private sc ...more...




Next Page
Javascript Version
Revolvy Server https://www.revolvy.com
Revolvy Site Map