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The Imperial Dictionary of the English Language

The Imperial Dictionary of the English Language: A Complete Encyclopedic Lexicon, Literary, Scientific, and Technological, edited by Rev. John Ogilvie (1797–1867), was an expansion of the 1841 second edition of Noah Webster's American Dictionary. It was published by W. G. Blackie and Co. of Scotland, 1847–1850 in two large volumes.[1]

With the addition of a third supplement volume in 1855, Ogilvie increased Webster's 70,000 word coverage to over 100,000. He included words from science, technology, and the arts; much British usage omitted by Webster; an unusual number of provincial and Scottish words; and added quotations and encyclopedic information for many words. With over 2,000 woodcut illustrations, it was the first significantly illustrated dictionary, setting the trend which continues today.

A revised and expanded edition by Charles Annandale was published in 1882 at London in four volumes, over 3,000 pages, with about 130,000 entries, revised definitions and etymologies, and 3,000 illustrations. Although the vocabulary coverage was small by today's standards, it was the largest English dictionary at the time. This edition went through numerous printings in various forms well into the twentieth century.

Due to disputes with the publisher of Webster's American Dictionary (G. & C. Merriam Company), the American edition of the Imperial, published by The Century Company of New York in 1883, contained a copyright notice stating:

Certain owners of American copyrights having claimed that undue use of matter so protected has been made in the compilation of the Imperial Dictionary, notice is hereby given that arrangement has been made with the proprietors of such copyright matter for the sale of this work in this country. The Century Co. May 1st, 1883.

The Century Company acquired rights to Annandale's Imperial and used it as the basis for the much larger American work, the Century Dictionary and Cyclopedia, published 1889–1891.

An adaptation of the Imperial by George W. Ogilvie, called Webster's Imperial Dictionary, was published in 1904, versions and revisions of which have been issued under various titles, including Webster's Universal Dictionary and Webster's Twentieth Century Dictionary.

Notes
  1. Haigh, John D. "Ogilvie, John". Oxford Dictionary of National Biography (online ed.). Oxford University Press. doi:10.1093/ref:odnb/20588. (Subscription or UK public library membership required.)
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Merriam-Webster's Advanced Learner's English Dictionary

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The Merriam-Webster's Advanced Learner's English Dictionary ( ISBN   978-0-87779-550-6 ) is a dictionary that was published in 2008. See also Advanced learner's dictionary External links Merriam-Webster's Advanced Learner's English Dictionary online The Merriam-Webster's Advanced Learner's English Dictionary ( ISBN   978-0-87779-550-6 ) is a dictionary that was published in 2008. See also Advanced learner's dictionary External links Merriam-Webster's Advanced Learner's English Dictionary online ...more...



Aramaic language

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Arāmāyā in Syriac Esṭrangelā script Syriac-Aramaic alphabet Aramaic (אַרָמָיָא Arāmāyā, Classical Syriac : ܐܪܡܝܐ ‎, Arabic : آرامية ‎) is a language or group of languages belonging to the Semitic subfamily of the Afroasiatic language family . More specifically, it is part of the Northwest Semitic group , which also includes the Canaanite languages such as Hebrew and Phoenician . The Aramaic alphabet was widely adopted for other languages and is ancestral to the Hebrew , Syriac and Arabic alphabets . During its approximately 3100 years of written history, Aramaic has served variously as a language of administration of empires and as a language of divine worship, religious study and as the spoken tongue of a number of Semitic peoples from the Near East . Historically, Aramaic was the language of Aramean tribes, a Semitic people of the region around between the Levant and the northern Euphrates valley. By around 1000 BC, the Arameans had a string of kingdoms in what is now part of western Syria . Aramaic rose t ...more...



Collins COBUILD Advanced Dictionary

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The Collins COBUILD Advanced Dictionary ( CCAD ) from HarperCollins , first published in 1987, is an dictionary that distinguished itself by providing definitions in full sentences rather than excerpted phrases. Example sentences are given for almost every meaning of every word, drawn from a large corpus of actual usage. Except for the 6th edition, it included phonetic transcriptions based on the International Phonetic Alphabet (IPA). In some editions, a digital version on CD-ROM was included with the dictionary in book form. The CCAD seems to skimp on American English, but there is its equivalent titled Collins COBUILD Advanced Dictionary of American English. Notes Szynalski, Tomasz P. (1987). "Review of the Collins COBUILD Advanced Learner's English Dictionary" . Antimoon.com . Retrieved February 1, 2011 . "Welcome to the Collins English Language Teaching Blog" . collinselt.com. Collins . Retrieved 15 February 2017 . When the first COBUILD dictionary was published in 1987 ... External links Collins COBUILD ...more...



Australian Oxford Dictionary

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The Australian Oxford Dictionary, sometimes abbreviated as AOD, is a dictionary of Australian English published by Oxford University Press. The AOD combines elements of the previous Oxford publication, The Australian National Dictionary (sometimes abbreviated as AND), which was a comprehensive, historically based record of 10,000 words and phrases representing Australia's contribution to English. However, The Australian National Dictionary was not a full dictionary, and could not be used as one in the normal sense. The AOD borrowed its scholarship both from the AND and from The Oxford English Dictionary, and competed with the Macquarie Dictionary when it was released in 1999. Like the Macquarie, the AOD combines elements of a normal dictionary with those of an encyclopaedic volume. It is a joint effort of Oxford University and the Australian National University. The AOD's current editor is Bruce Moore. Its content is largely sourced from the databases of Australian English at the Australian National Dicti ...more...



Chinese dictionary

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Chinese dictionaries date back over two millennia to the Eastern Zhou dynasty , which is a significantly longer lexicographical history than any other language. There are hundreds of dictionaries for the Chinese language , and this article introduces some of the most important. Terminology The Chinese language has two words for dictionary: zidian (character/logograph dictionary) for written forms, that is, Chinese characters , and cidian (word/phrase dictionary), for spoken forms. For character dictionaries , zidian ( Chinese : 字典 ; pinyin : zìdiǎn ; Wade–Giles : tzŭ⁴-tien³ ; literally: "character dictionary") combines zi ( 字 "character, graph; letter, script, writing; word") and dian ( 典 "dictionary, encyclopedia; standard, rule; statute, canon; classical allusion"). For word dictionaries, cidian is interchangeably written ( 辭典 /辞典; cídiǎn; tzʻŭ²-tien³; "word dictionary") or ( 詞典 /词典; cídiǎn; tzʻŭ²-tien³; "word dictionary"); using cí ( 辭 ; "word, speech; phrase, expression; diction, phraseology; statement; a ...more...



Brewer's Dictionary of Phrase and Fable

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The 18th edition of the dictionary, published in 2009. Brewer's Dictionary of Phrase and Fable , sometimes referred to simply as Brewer's , is a reference work containing definitions and explanations of many famous phrases, allusions and figures, whether historical or mythical. The "Revised and Updated Edition" from the 1890s is now in the public domain , and web-based versions are available online. The most recent version is the 19th edition, published in August 2012 by Chambers Harrap Publishers . History Originally published in 1870 by the Reverend E. Cobham Brewer , it was aimed at the growing number of people who did not have a university education, but wanted to understand the origins of phrases and historical or literary allusions. The 'phrase' part of the title refers mainly to the explanation of various idioms and proverbs, while the 'fable' part might more accurately be labelled ' folklore ' and ranges from classical mythology to relatively recent literature. On top of this, Brewer added notes on im ...more...



Gage Canadian Dictionary

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The Gage Canadian Dictionary ISBN   0771519818 is a dictionary for Canadian English published by Gage Publishers in Vancouver, British Columbia , Canada. The dictionary contains over 140,000 entry words with definitions, International Phonetic Alphabet pronunciation key, homonyms and synonyms . In addition, the dictionary contains many illustrations and photos. It was first published in 1967 as Dictionary of Canadian English: The Senior Dictionary, with a subsequent edition under the same title in 1973, and a further one as Canadian Senior Dictionary in 1979. This was followed by an edition as The Gage Canadian Dictionary in 1983, and a revised edition in 1997. ( ISBN   9780771573996 ). The most recent editions are under the title Collins Gage Canadian dictionary (2009) and Nelson Gage Canadian paperback dictionary in 2013. An abridged version was published as Gage Canadian concise dictionary in 2002, and a children's and intermediate versions in various years. See also List of Canadian English dictionarie ...more...



Historical Thesaurus of the Oxford English Dictionary

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The Historical Thesaurus of the Oxford English Dictionary ( HTOED ) is the print edition of the largest thesaurus in the world, the Historical Thesaurus of English ( HTE ), conceived and compiled by the English Language Department of the University of Glasgow . The HTE is a complete database of all the words in the second edition of The Oxford English Dictionary , arranged by semantic field and date. In this way, the HTE arranges the whole vocabulary of English , from the earliest written records in Old English to the present, alongside types and dates of use. It is the first historical thesaurus to be compiled for any of the world's languages and contains 800,000 meanings for 600,000 words, within 230,000 categories, covering more than 920,000 words and meanings. As the HTE website states, "in addition to providing hitherto unavailable information for linguistic and textual scholars, the Historical Thesaurus online is a rich resource for students of social and cultural history, showing how concepts develop ...more...



List of military slang terms

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Military slang is colloquial language used by and associated with members of various military forces. This page lists slang words or phrases that originate with military forces, are used exclusively by military personnel, or are strongly associated with military organizations. Acronym slang A number of military slang terms are acronyms. These include SNAFU, SUSFU, FUBAR and similar terms used by various branches of the United States military during World War II. BOHICA BOHICA (Bend Over, Here It Comes Again) is an item of acronym slang which grew to regular use amongst the United States armed forces during the Vietnam War. It is used colloquially to indicate that an adverse situation is about to repeat itself, and that acquiescence is the wisest course of action. It is commonly understood as a reference to being sodomized. Although it originated in the United States military forces, and is still commonly used by United States Air Force fighter crew chiefs and armament crews, its usage has spread to civi ...more...



Australian English

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Australian English ( AuE , en-AU ) is a major variety of the English language, used throughout Australia. Although English has no official status in the Constitution , Australian English is the country's national and de facto official language as it is the first language of the majority of the population . Australian English began to diverge from British English after the founding of the Colony of New South Wales in 1788 and was recognised as being different from British English by 1820. It arose from the intermingling of early settlers from a great variety of mutually intelligible dialectal regions of the British Isles and quickly developed into a distinct variety of English, which differs considerably from other varieties of English in vocabulary, accent , pronunciation, register , grammar and spelling. History The earliest form of Australian English was spoken by the children of the colonists born into the colony of New South Wales . This first generation of children created a new dialect that was to beco ...more...



A Syllabic Dictionary of the Chinese Language

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A Syllabic Dictionary of the Chinese Language: Arranged According to the Wu-Fang Yuen Yin, with the Pronunciation of the Characters as Heard in Peking, Canton, Amoy, and Shanghai or the Hàn-Yīng yùnfǔ 漢英韻府 (1874), compiled by the American sinologist and missionary Samuel Wells Williams , is a 1,150-page bilingual dictionary including 10,940 character headword entries, alphabetically collated under 522 syllables . Williams' dictionary includes, in addition to Mandarin, Chinese variants from Middle Chinese and four regional varieties of Chinese , according to the 17th-century Wufang yuanyin 五方元音 "Proto-sounds of Speech in All Directions". Title The lengthy English title A Syllabic Dictionary of the Chinese Language: Arranged According to the Wu-Fang Yuen Yin, with the Pronunciation of the Characters as Heard in Peking, Canton, Amoy, and Shanghai refers to the influential rime dictionary of Chinese varieties compiled by Fan Tengfeng 樊騰鳳 (1601-1664), the Wufang yuanyin 五方元音 "Proto-sounds of Speech in All Directio ...more...



Webster's New World Dictionary

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Webster's New World Dictionary of the American Language is an American dictionary first published in 1951 and since 2012 published by Houghton Mifflin Harcourt . The first edition was published by the World Publishing Company of Cleveland, Ohio , in two volumes or one large volume, including a large encyclopedic section. In 1953, World published a one-volume college edition, without the encyclopedic material. It was edited by Joseph H. Friend and David B. Guralnik and contained 142,000 entries, said to be the largest American desk dictionary available at the time. The second college edition, edited by Guralnik, was published in 1970. World Publishing was acquired by Simon & Schuster in 1980 and they continued the work with a third edition in 1989 edited by Victoria Neufeldt. A fourth edition was published by John Wiley & Sons in 1999, containing 160,000 entries; a fifth, published by Houghton Mifflin Harcourt in 2014, contains around 165,000. One of the salient features of Webster's New World dictio ...more...



A New Dictionary of the Terms Ancient and Modern of the Canting Crew

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A New Dictionary of the Terms Ancient and Modern of the Canting Crew is a dictionary of English cant and slang by a compiler known only by the initials B. E., first published in London c. 1698. With over 4,000 entries, it was the most extensive dictionary of non-standard English in its time, until it was superseded in 1785 by Francis Grose 's Classical Dictionary of the Vulgar Tongue . B. E.'s New Dictionary was used as a source by many subsequent dictionaries. Its full title is A new dictionary of the terms ancient and modern of the canting crew, in its several tribes, of gypsies, beggers, thieves, cheats, &c. with an addition of some proverbs, phrases, figurative speeches, &c. See also Cant (language) Notes Coleman (2004): pp. 41–42. References Coleman, Julie (2001). "Some of the sources of B.E.'s New Dictionary of the Terms Ancient and Modern of the Canting Crew". Notes and Queries. 48 (4): 400–401. doi : 10.1093/nq/48.4.400 . Coleman, Julie (2004). "Cant and slang dictionaries: A statistical ap ...more...



New Oxford American Dictionary

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The New Oxford American Dictionary ( NOAD ) is a single-volume dictionary of American English compiled by American editors at the Oxford University Press . NOAD is based upon the New Oxford Dictionary of English (NODE), published in the United Kingdom in 1998, although with substantial editing, additional entries, and the inclusion of illustrations. It is based on a corpus linguistics analysis of Oxford's 200 million word database of contemporary American English . NOAD includes a diacritical respelling scheme to convey pronunciations, as opposed to the Gimson phonemic IPA system that is used in NODE. Editions First Published in September 2001, the first edition was edited by Elizabeth J. Jewell and Frank Abate. Second edition Published in May 2005, the second edition was edited by Erin McKean . The edition added nearly 3,000 new words, senses, and phrases. It was in a large format, with 2096 pages, and was 8½" by 11" in size. It included a CD-ROM with the full text of the dictionary for Palm OS devices. Sinc ...more...



An Universal Etymological English Dictionary

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An Universal Etymological English Dictionary was a dictionary compiled by Nathan Bailey (or Nathaniel Bailey) and first published in London in 1721. It was the most popular English dictionary of the eighteenth century. As an indicator of its popularity it reached its 20th edition in 1763 and its 27th edition in 1794. Its last edition (30th) was in 1802. It was a little over 900 pages long. In compiling his dictionary, Bailey borrowed greatly from John Kersey's Dictionarium Anglo-Britannicum (1706), which in turn drew from the later editions of Edward Phillips's The New World of English Words. Like Kersey's dictionary, Bailey's dictionary was one of the first monolingual English dictionaries to focus on defining words in common usage, rather than just difficult words. Although Bailey put the word "etymological" in his title, he gives definitions for many words without also trying to give the word's etymology – because he doesn't know what the etymology is. A very high percentage of the etymologies he does gi ...more...



The Australian National Dictionary

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The Australian National Dictionary: Australian Words and Their Origins is a historical dictionary of Australian English , recording 16,000 words, phrases and meanings of Australian origin and use. The first edition of the dictionary, edited by W.S. Ramson, was published in 1988 by Oxford University Press; the second edition was edited by Bruce Moore at the Australian National Dictionary Centre , and published in 2016. History The first lexicographer to attempt a systematic documentation of Australian English words was E. E. Morris whose Austral English was published in 1898. The next significant works on Australian words were Sidney Baker’s The Australian Language (1945) and G.A. Wilkes' Dictionary of Australian Colloquialisms (1978). First edition Work on the Australian National Dictionary Project was undertaken from the late 1970s by W.S. (Bill) Ramson (1933–2011) at the Australian National University . Ramson was motivated by a lack of lexicographic work on Australian English on historical principles, in ...more...



List of English words of Persian origin

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As Indo-European languages, English and Persian are daughter languages of their common ancestral Proto-Indo-European, and still share many cognate words of similar forms. Examples of these include: English (mother) and Persian (mādar), English (father) and Persian (pedar), English (daughter) and Persian (dokhtar), English (brother) and Persian (barādar) and English (name) and Persian (nām). However, this article will be concerned with loanwords, that is, words in English that derive from Persian, either directly, or more often, from one or more intermediary languages. Many words of Persian origin have made their way into the English language through different, often circuitous, routes. Some of them, such as "paradise", date to cultural contacts between the Persians and the ancient Greeks or Romans and through Greek and Latin found their way to English. Persian as the second important language of Islam has influenced many languages in the Islamic world, and its words have found their way beyond that region. ...more...



Oxford American Dictionary

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The Oxford American Dictionary ( OAD ) is a single-volume dictionary of American English . It was the first dictionary published by the Oxford University Press to be prepared by American lexicographers and editors. The work was based on the Oxford Paperback Dictionary, published in 1979. It is no longer in print and has been superseded by the New Oxford American Dictionary . See also Other Oxford Dictionaries: New Oxford American Dictionary (NOAD) Oxford English Dictionary (OED) Shorter Oxford English Dictionary (SOED) Oxford Dictionary of English (ODE) Concise Oxford English Dictionary (COED) Australian Oxford Dictionary (AOD) Canadian Oxford Dictionary (CanOD) Oxford Advanced Learner's Dictionary (OALD) References The Oxford American Dictionary ( OAD ) is a single-volume dictionary of American English . It was the first dictionary published by the Oxford University Press to be prepared by American lexicographers and editors. The work was based on the Oxford Paperback Dictionary, published in 1979. It is no ...more...



Late Latin

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Late Latin is the scholarly name for the written Latin of Late Antiquity . The English dictionary definition of Late Latin dates this period from the 3rd to the 6th centuries AD, extending in the Iberian Peninsula of southwestern Europe to the 7th century. This somewhat-ambiguously-defined period fits between Classical Latin and Medieval Latin . There is no scholarly consensus about exactly when Classical Latin should end or exactly when Medieval Latin should begin. However, Late Latin is characterized (with variations and disputes) by an identifiable style. Being a written language, Late Latin is not identical with Vulgar . The latter served as Proto-Romance, a reconstructed ancestor of the Romance languages . Although Late Latin reflects an upsurge of the use of Vulgar Latin vocabulary and constructs, it remains largely classical in its overall features, depending on the author. Some are more literary and classical, but some are more inclined to the vernacular. Also, Late Latin is not identical to Chris ...more...



Imperial units

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The former Weights and Measures office in Seven Sisters, London (590 Seven Sisters Road). The system of imperial units or the imperial system (also known as British Imperial or Exchequer Standards of 1825) is the system of units first defined in the British Weights and Measures Act of 1824, which was later refined and reduced. The Imperial units replaced the Winchester Standards, which were in effect from 1588 to 1825. The system came into official use across the British Empire . By the late 20th century, most nations of the former empire had officially adopted the metric system as their main system of measurement, although some imperial units are still used in the United Kingdom, Canada and other countries formerly part of the British Empire. The imperial system developed from what were first known as English units , as did the related system of United States customary units . Implementation The Weights and Measures Act of 1824 was initially scheduled to go into effect on 1 May 1825. However, the Weights a ...more...



Wordnik

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Wordnik, a nonprofit organization, is an online English dictionary and language resource that provides dictionary and thesaurus content. Some of the content is based on print dictionaries such as the Century Dictionary , the American Heritage Dictionary , WordNet , and GCIDE . Wordnik has collected a corpus of billions of words which it uses to display example sentences, allowing it to provide information on a much larger set of words than a typical dictionary. Wordnik uses as many real examples as possible when defining a word. Wiktionary , the free open dictionary project, is one major source of words and citations used by Wordnik. History Wordnik.com was launched as a closed beta in March 2009 and opened to all in June 2009. Co-founders of the site are CEO Erin McKean , editorial director Grant Barrett , and chief computational lexicographer Orion Montoya. McKean, Barrett, and Montoya all formerly worked in the US Dictionaries Department of Oxford University Press . In September 2009, Wordnik purchase ...more...



A Dictionary of Canadianisms on Historical Principles

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A Dictionary of Canadianisms on Historical Principles ( DCHP ) is available in a 1967 edition ( Avis et al. 1967) and in a 2017 expanded, updated and partially revised edition (Dollinger and Fee 2017). DCHP is a historical usage dictionary of words, expressions, or meanings which are native to Canada or which are distinctively characteristic of Canadian usage though not necessarily exclusive to Canada. The first edition was edited by Walter S. Avis (ed.-in-chief), C. Crate, P. Drysdale, D. Leechman, M. H. Scargill, C. J. Lovell, and published in 1967 by W. J. Gage Limited. DCHP-1 was published after a period of about 12 years, and had a sizeable collection by C. J. Lovell at its base. W. J. Gage Publishers, the leading dictionary publisher for Canadian English (CanE) dictionaries at the time, contributed to the project (P. Drysdale was employed by Gage). In this way, the first edition (DCHP-1) was the result of both academia and a publishing house. More importantly, however, the academic partner, headed by e ...more...



Filipino language

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Filipino  (   listen ) (Wikang Filipino ), in this usage, refers to the national language (Wikang pambansa/Pambansang wika) of the Philippines . Filipino is also designated, along with English , as an official language of the country. It is the standard register of the Tagalog language , an Austronesian , regional language that is widely spoken in the Philippines. As of 2007, Tagalog is the first language of 28 million people, or about one-third of the Philippine population , while 45 million speak Tagalog as their second language . Tagalog is among the 185 languages of the Philippines identified in the Ethnologue . Officially, Filipino is defined by the Commission on the Filipino Language (Komisyon sa Wikang Filipino in Filipino or simply KWF) as "the native dialect, spoken and written, in Metro Manila , the National Capital Region, and in other urban centers of the archipelago." Filipino is taken to be a pluricentric language . Indeed, there have been observed "emerging varieties of Filipino which dev ...more...



World Book Dictionary

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The World Book Dictionary is a two-volume English dictionary published as a supplement to the World Book Encyclopedia . It was originally published in 1963 under the editorship of Clarence Barnhart , who wrote definitions for the Thorndike-Barnhart graded dictionary series for children, based on the educational works of Edward Thorndike whom Clarence Barnhart had known and worked with decades before. In some editions it was called the World Book Encyclopedia Dictionary. The writing and editing of special articles was carried out by the staff of the World Book Encyclopedia. Encyclopedia staff also reviewed the work for consistency with the encyclopedia and appropriateness of its users. Like the encyclopedia, it is designed to be user friendly to young people, yet comprehensive enough to be useful to adults. The definitions are designed with consideration for the age at which a person usually encounters the word. Quotations or sample sentences are offered with many words. Most proper names are excluded, leaving ...more...



A Dictionary of Modern Slang, Cant, and Vulgar Words

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A Dictionary of Modern Slang, Cant and Vulgar Words is a dictionary of slang originally compiled by publisher and lexicographer John Camden Hotten in 1859. The first edition was published in 1859, with the full title and subtitle: A dictionary of modern slang, cant, and vulgar words: used at the present day in the streets of London, the universities of Oxford and Cambridge, the houses of Parliament, the dens of St. Giles, and the palaces of St. James : preceded by a history of cant and vulgar language : with glossaries of two secret languages, spoken by the wandering tribes of London, the costermongers, and the patterers. It has also been published as The Slang Dictionary: Etymological, Historical, and Anecdotal . The dictionary included criminal slang, back slang, rhyming slang , and other types of slang. Its author, Hotten, included histories of some slangs (back slang and rhyming slang), a detailed bibliography, and a noted definition: Hotten's work was arguably the most important work on English slang s ...more...



Inch

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The inch (abbreviation: in or ″) is a unit of length in the (British) imperial and United States customary systems of measurement now formally equal to ​ ⁄ yard but usually understood as ​ ⁄ of a foot. Derived from the Roman uncia ("twelfth"), inch is also sometimes used to translate related units in other measurement systems, usually understood as deriving from the width of the human thumb. Traditional standards for the exact length of an inch have varied in the past, but since the adoption of the international yard during the 1950s and 1960s it has been based on the metric system and defined as exactly 2.54 cm. Name The English word "inch" (Old English: ynce) was an early borrowing from Latin uncia ("one-twelfth; Roman inch; Roman ounce") not present in other Germanic languages. The vowel change from Latin /u/ to English /ɪ/ is known as umlaut. The consonant change from the Latin /k/ to English /tʃ/ or /ʃ/ is palatalisation. Both were features of Old English phonology. "Inch" is cognate with "ounce" ...more...



World Englishes

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International Association for World Englishes World Englishes is a term for emerging localized or indigenized varieties of English, especially varieties that have developed in territories influenced by the United Kingdom or the United States. The study of World Englishes consists of identifying varieties of English used in diverse sociolinguistic contexts globally and analyzing how sociolinguistic histories, multicultural backgrounds and contexts of function influence the use of English in different regions of the world. The issue of World Englishes was first raised in 1978 to examine concepts of regional Englishes globally. Pragmatic factors such as appropriateness, comprehensibility and interpretability justified the use of English as an international and intra-national language. In 1988, at a Teachers of English to Speakers of Other Languages (TESOL) conference in Honolulu , Hawaii , the International Committee of the Study of World Englishes (ICWE) was formed. In 1992, the ICWE formally launched the Inter ...more...



Joseph Emerson Worcester

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Joseph Emerson Worcester (August 24, 1784 – October 27, 1865) was an American lexicographer who was the chief competitor to Noah Webster of Webster's Dictionary in the mid-nineteenth-century. Their rivalry became known as the "dictionary wars". Worcester's dictionaries focused on traditional pronunciation and spelling, unlike Noah Webster 's attempts to Americanize words. Worcester was respected by American writers and his dictionary maintained a strong hold on the American marketplace until a later, posthumous version of Webster's book appeared in 1864. After Worcester's death in 1865, their war ended. Biography Early life Worcester was born August 24, 1784, in Bedford, New Hampshire , and worked on a farm in his youth, entering Phillips Academy, Andover , in 1805. In 1809, he entered Yale University and graduated in two years. He began a school in Salem, Massachusetts in March 1812, but gave up on the project by 1815. One of his students had been a young Nathaniel Hawthorne ; Worcester tutored Hawthorne p ...more...



Manchu language

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Manchu (Manchu: ᠮᠠᠨᠵᡠ ᡤᡳᠰᡠᠨ manju gisun) is a severely endangered Tungusic language spoken in Manchuria ; it was the native language of the Manchus and one of the official languages of the Qing dynasty (1636–1911) of China. Most Manchus now speak Mandarin Chinese . According to data from UNESCO, there are 10 native speakers of Manchu out of a total of nearly 10 million ethnic Manchus. However, many Manchu have started to learn the language recently. Now several thousand can speak Manchu as a second language through governmental primary education or free classes for adults in classrooms or online. The Manchu language enjoys high historical value for historians of China, especially for the Qing dynasty. They supply information that is unavailable in Chinese and when both Manchu and Chinese versions of a given text exist they provide controls for understanding the Chinese. Like most Siberian languages, Manchu is an agglutinative language that demonstrates limited vowel harmony . It has been demonstrated that it ...more...



Mandarin (late imperial lingua franca)

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Mandarin ( simplified Chinese : 官话 ; traditional Chinese : 官話 ; pinyin : Guānhuà ; literally: "official speech") was the common spoken language of administration of the Chinese empire during the Ming and Qing dynasties. It arose as a practical measure, to circumvent the mutual unintelligibility of the varieties of Chinese spoken in different parts of China. Knowledge of this language was thus essential for an official career, but it was never formally defined. The language was a koiné based on Mandarin dialects , initially those spoken around Nanjing but later switching to Beijing , and developed into Standard Chinese in the 20th century. In some 19th-century works it was called the court dialect . History By the late imperial period, local varieties of Chinese had diverged to the extent that people from different provinces could not understand one another. In order to facilitate communication between officials from different provinces, and between officials and the inhabitants of the areas to which they we ...more...



Marquess

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A marquess (UK: ; French: marquis, ; Italian: marchese, Spanish: marqués, Portuguese: marquês) is a nobleman of hereditary rank in various European peerages and in those of some of their former colonies. The term is also used to translate equivalent Asian styles, as in imperial China and Japan. In the German lands, a Margrave was a ruler of an immediate Imperial territory (examples include the Margrave of Brandenburg, the Margrave of Baden and the Margrave of Bayreuth), not simply a nobleman like a marquess or marquis in Western and Southern Europe. German rulers did not confer the title of marquis; holders of marquisates in Central Europe were largely associated with the Italian and Spanish crowns. Etymology A 17th-century engraving of a marquis in the robe worn during his creation ceremony. The word "marquess" entered the English language from the Old French marchis ("ruler of a border area") in the late 13th or early 14th century. The French word was derived from marche ("frontier"), itself desc ...more...



Pint

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A full pint glass The pint ( ,   listen   ; symbol pt , sometimes abbreviated as "p" ) is a unit of volume or capacity in both the imperial and United States customary measurement systems. In both of those systems it is traditionally one-eighth of a gallon . The British Imperial pint is about 20% larger than the American pint since the two systems are not compatible . Almost all other countries have standardized on the metric system, so the size of what may be called a pint varies depending on local custom. Pints are still commonly used alongside metric labeling for milk in the United Kingdom (2018) The Imperial pint (≈ 568  mL ) is used in the United Kingdom and Ireland and to a limited extent in Commonwealth nations. In the United States, two pints are used: a liquid pint (≈ 473 mL) and a less-common dry pint (≈ 551 mL). Each of these pints is one-eighth of its respective gallon , but the gallons differ and the Imperial pint is about 20% larger than the US liquid pint. This difference dates back to 1824, ...more...



Ainu language

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Hokkaido Ainu ( ; Ainu: アイヌ・イタㇰ Aynu=itak; Japanese : アイヌ語 Ainu-go) is the sole survivor of the Ainu languages . It is spoken by members of the Ainu ethnic group on the northern Japanese island of Hokkaido . Until the 20th century, Ainu languages were also spoken throughout the southern half of the island of Sakhalin and by small numbers of people in the Kuril Islands . There were at least 19 dialects of the Ainu languages. Only the Hokkaido variant survives, the last speaker of Sakhalin Ainu having died in 1994. Hokkaido Ainu is moribund, though attempts are being made to revive it. Currently, the Japanese government is constructing a facility dedicated to preserving Ainu culture, including the language. Ainu has no generally accepted genealogical relationship to any other language family. Speakers Pirka Kotan Museum, an Ainu language and cultural center in Sapporo (Jozankei area) Depending on the classification system used, Ainu could be considered a moribund language or a critically endangered language. A ...more...



List of English–Spanish interlingual homographs

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This is a list of words that occur in both the English language and the Spanish language , but which have different meanings and/or pronunciations in each language. Such words are called interlingual homographs . Homographs are two or more words that have the same written form. This list includes only homographs that are written precisely the same in English and Spanish: They have the same spelling , hyphenation , capitalization , word dividers , etc. It excludes proper nouns and words that have different diacritics (e.g., invasion/invasión, pâté/paté). Relationships between words How words in one or more languages can differ in pronunciation, spelling, and meaning (click to enlarge) The words below are categorised based on their relationship: cognates , false friends , and modern loanwords . Cognates are words that have a common etymological origin. False friends are words in two languages that look or sound similar, but differ significantly in meaning. Loanwords are words that are adopted from one language ...more...



Lifeguard (military)

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Changing of the Guard in Whitehall, London, England Leibgarde (also life-guard, or household troops ) has been, since the 15th century, the designation for the military security guards who protected Fürsten (royal and noble ranks) — usually members of the highest nobility who ruled over states of the Holy Roman Empire and later its former territory — from danger. The Leibgarde should not be mixed up with bodyguard (de: Leibwächter), which may refer also to a private or single individual. The France Garde du Corps was established (with reference to the „Sargeants d'Arms“) in 1440. It was abolished after the French Revolution , 1815 re-established, and 1830 finally dissolved. Finally, Napoleon III set up the so-called Centgardes. Examples of lifeguard elite units Denmark - Royal Life Guards (Denmark) , a Danish Army regiment Germany - Royal Bavarian Infantry Lifeguards Regiment , a Bavarian Army regiment Russia - Lifeguard Jaeger Regiment , military elite / gurd regiment of the Russian Imperial Army until 1917 ...more...



Charles Annandale

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Charles Annandale (1843–1915) was a Scottish editor , primarily of reference books. Life He was born at Fordoun on 26 August 1843, the son of James Annandale. He graduated M.A. from the University of Aberdeen in 1867, and later received an honorary degree there in 1885. He edited the revision of John Ogilvie 's Imperial Dictionary of the English Language and several abridgements, including The Student's English Dictionary and The Concise English Dictionary . Other works he edited include The Modern Cyclopedia of Universal Information , The Popular Encyclopedia , The Works of Robert Burns , and The New Gresham Dictionary of the English Language . Notes Roll of the Graduates of the University of Aberdeen, 1860-1900 (1906) External links WorldCat page Online Books page Charles Annandale (1843–1915) was a Scottish editor , primarily of reference books. Life He was born at Fordoun on 26 August 1843, the son of James Annandale. He graduated M.A. from the University of Aberdeen in 1867, and later received an honorar ...more...



Jurchen language

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Jurchen language ( Chinese : 女真語 ; pinyin : Nǚzhēn Yǔ ) is the Tungusic language of the Jurchen people of eastern Manchuria , the founders of the Jin Empire in northeastern China of the 12th–13th centuries. It is ancestral to Manchu . In 1635 Hong Taiji renamed the Jurchen people and Jurchen language as "Manchu". Writing A silver pass with the Jurchen inscription gurun ni xada-xun, meaning "Trust of the Country". A writing system for Jurchen language was developed in 1119 by Wanyan Xiyin . A number of books were translated into Jurchen, but none have survived, even in fragments. Surviving samples of Jurchen writing are quite scarce. One of the most important extant texts in Jurchen is the inscription on the back of "the Jin Victory Memorial Stele " ( Chinese : 大金得勝陀頌碑 ; pinyin : Dà jīn déshèngtuó sòngbēi ), which was erected in 1185, during the reign of Emperor Shizong . It is apparently an abbreviated translation of the Chinese text on the front of the stele. A number of other Jurchen inscriptions exist as w ...more...



Neo-Aramaic languages

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The Neo-Aramaic or Modern Aramaic languages are varieties of the Semitic Aramaic , that are spoken vernaculars from the medieval to modern era that evolved out of Imperial Aramaic via Middle Aramaic dialects, around AD 1200 (conventional date). The term strictly excludes those Aramaic languages that are used only as literary , sacred or classical languages today (for example, Targumic Aramaic , Classical Syriac and Classical Mandaic ). However, the classical languages continue to have influence over the colloquial Neo-Aramaic languages. Northeastern Neo-Aramaic and Central Neo-Aramaic dialects are spoken primarily (though not wholly exclusively) by ethnic Assyrians , who are members of the Assyrian Church of the East , Chaldean Catholic Church (Eastern Right Catholics), Syriac Orthodox Church , Ancient Church of the East , Assyrian Pentecostal Church and Assyrian Evangelical Church . The Assyrians are an indigenous people of Iraq , northeast Syria , southeast Turkey and northwest Iran , descendants of the anc ...more...



The English Schoole-Master

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The English Schoole-Maister: Teaching all his schollers, the order of distinct reading, and true writing our English tongue is a dictionary compiled by Edmund Coote and first published in London in 1596. At least 40 editions were published between its first publication and the end of the 17th century. It went through several editions, with later editions having slightly different subtitles. References Fenton, Mary C. (2006). Milton's Places of Hope: Spiritual And Political Connections of Hope With Land. Ashgate Publishing. p. 104. ISBN   9780754657682 . "Edmund Coote's English Schoole-maister" . University of Toronto library. The English Schoole-Maister: Teaching all his schollers, the order of distinct reading, and true writing our English tongue is a dictionary compiled by Edmund Coote and first published in London in 1596. At least 40 editions were published between its first publication and the end of the 17th century. It went through several editions, with later editions having slightly different subtitl ...more...



Chinese language

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Chinese ( simplified Chinese : 汉语 ; traditional Chinese : 漢語 ; pinyin : Hànyǔ ; literally: " Han language"; or Chinese: 中文 ; pinyin: Zhōngwén ; literally: "Chinese writing") is a group of related, but in many cases mutually unintelligible , language varieties , forming a branch of the Sino-Tibetan language family . Chinese is spoken by the Han majority and many other ethnic groups in China . Nearly 1.2 billion people (around 16% of the world's population) speak some form of Chinese as their first language . The varieties of Chinese are usually described by native speakers as dialects of a single Chinese language, but linguists note that they are as diverse as a language family . The internal diversity of Chinese has been likened to that of the Romance languages , but may be even more varied. There are between 7 and 13 main regional groups of Chinese (depending on classification scheme), of which the most spoken by far is Mandarin (about 960 million), followed by Wu (80 million), Min (70 million), and Yue (60 ...more...



Historical Dictionary of American Slang

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The Historical Dictionary of American Slang , often abbreviated HDAS , is a dictionary of American slang . The first two volumes, Volume 1, A – G (1994), and Volume 2, H – O (1997), were published by Random House , and the work then was known as the Random House Historical Dictionary of American Slang , sometimes abbreviated as RHHDAS . Both volumes used the same ISBN, ISBN   0-394-54427-7 ; the paperback editions are ISBN   978-0-394-54427-4 for Volume 1 and ISBN   978-0-679-43464-1 for Volume 2. When Random House discontinued publication, Oxford University Press announced in 2003 that it would publish the two remaining volumes, Volume 3, P – S [Part 1], ISBN   978-0-19-517418-2 , and Volume 4, S [Part 2] – Z Each entry includes representative quotations, including the earliest quotation using the word. HDAS is edited by Dr. Jonathan E. Lighter , of the University of Tennessee . The HDAS is not to be confused with the DAS, the Dictionary of American Slang (1975). References "Historical Dictionary of American ...more...



Palatine

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A palatine or palatinus (in Latin ; plural palatini; cf. derivative spellings below) is a high-level official attached to imperial or royal courts in Europe since Roman times. The term palatinus was first used in Ancient Rome for chamberlains of the Emperor due to their association with the Palatine Hill . The imperial palace guard, after the rise of Constantine I , were also called the Scholae Palatinae for the same reason. In the Early Middle Ages the title became attached to courts beyond the imperial one; the highest level of officials in the Roman Catholic Church were called the judices palatini . Later the Merovingian and Carolingian dynasties had counts palatine , as did the Holy Roman Empire . Related titles were used in Hungary , Poland , Lithuania , the German Empire , and the Duchy of Burgundy , while England , Ireland , and parts of British North America referred to rulers of counties palatine as palatines. Derivative terms The different spellings originate from the different languages that used ...more...



Corpus of Contemporary American English

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The Corpus of Contemporary American English ( COCA ) is 450-million-word corpus of American English . It is one of the largest currently available corpora, and is the only publicly available corpus of American English to contain a wide array of texts from a number of genres. It was created by Mark Davies , Professor of Corpus Linguistics at Brigham Young University . Content The corpus is composed of more than 560 million words from more than 160,000 texts, including 20 million words each year from 1990 to 2017. The most recent update was made in December 2017. The corpus is used by approximately tens of thousands of people each month, which may make it the most widely used "structured" corpus currently available. For each year, the corpus is evenly divided between the five genres: spoken, fiction, popular magazines, newspapers, and academic journals. The texts come from a variety of sources: Spoken: (85 million words) Transcripts of unscripted conversation from nearly 150 different TV and radio programs. Fic ...more...



Diet (assembly)

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In politics, a diet is a formal deliberative assembly. The term is mainly used historically for the Imperial Diet, the general assembly of the Imperial Estates of the Holy Roman Empire, and for the legislative bodies of certain countries. Modern usage mainly relates to the Kokkai of Japan, called "Diet" in English, or the German Bundestag, the Federal Diet. Etymology The term (also in the nutritional sense) might be derived from Medieval Latin dieta, meaning both "parliamentary assembly" and "daily food allowance", from earlier Latin diaeta transcribing Classical Greek δίαιτα diaita, meaning "way of living", and hence also "diet", "regular (daily) work". In an alternative view, "Diet" means people. The word is related to "Deutsch", "Dutch", and "Diets" (a Dutch word referring to the people from the Low Countries or their language). The Diet is the annual meeting of the people, a Germanic tradition. Through a false etymology, reflected in the spelling change replacing ae by e, the word came to be associ ...more...



Pashto

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Pashto ( , rarely , Pashto: پښتو ‎ Pax̌tō ), sometimes spelled Pukhto , is the language of the Pashtuns . It is known in Persian literature as Afghāni ( افغانی ) and in Urdu and Hindi literature as Paṭhānī . Speakers of the language are called Pashtuns or Pakhtuns and sometimes Afghans or Pathans. It is an Eastern Iranian language , belonging to the Indo-European family . Pashto is one of the two official languages of Afghanistan , and it is the second-largest regional language of Pakistan , mainly spoken in the west and northwest of the country. Pakistan's Federally Administered Tribal Areas (FATA) are almost 100% Pashto-speaking, while it is the majority language of the province of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa and the northern districts of Balochistan . Along with Dari Persian , Pashto is the main language among the Pashtun diaspora around the world. The total number of Pashto-speakers is estimated to be 45–60 million people worldwide. Pashto belongs to the Northeastern Iranian group of the Indo-Iranian b ...more...



Noah Webster

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Noah Webster painted by Samuel F. B. Morse Webster's New Haven home, where he wrote An American Dictionary of the English Language. Now relocated to Greenfield Village in Dearborn, Michigan. Noah Webster Jr. (October 16, 1758 – May 28, 1843) was an American lexicographer , textbook pioneer, English-language spelling reformer , political writer, editor, and prolific author. He has been called the "Father of American Scholarship and Education". His blue-backed speller books taught five generations of American children how to spell and read. Webster's name has become synonymous with "dictionary" in the United States, especially the modern Merriam-Webster dictionary that was first published in 1828 as An American Dictionary of the English Language . Born in West Hartford, Connecticut , Webster graduated from Yale College in 1778. He passed the bar examination after studying law under Oliver Ellsworth and others, but was unable to find work as a lawyer. He found some financial success by opening a private school a ...more...



Myanmar English

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Myanmar English is the register of the English language used in Myanmar , spoken as first or second language by an estimated 2.4 million people, about 5% of the population (1997). History The British Empire annexed modern-day Myanmar in three stages over a six-decade span (1824–1885). It administered Myanmar as a province of British India until 1937, and as a separate colony until 1948. During the British colonial period , English was the medium of instruction in higher education, although it did not replace Burmese as the vernacular. English was the medium of instruction in universities and two types of secondary schools: English schools and Anglo-Vernacular schools (where English was taught as a second language). Burmese English resembles Indian English to a degree because of historical ties to India during British colonization. On 1 June 1950, a new education policy was implemented to replace Burmese as the medium of instruction at all state schools, although universities, which continued to use English as ...more...



Chinese postal romanization

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Postal romanization was a system of transliterating Chinese place names developed by the Imperial Post Office in the early 1900s. The system was in common use until the 1980s. For major cities and other places that already had widely accepted European names, traditional spellings were retained. With regard to other place names, the post office revised policy several times. Spellings given could reflect the local pronunciation, Nanjing pronunciation, or Beijing pronunciation. Although pronunciation-based arguments were made for each option, using postal romanization to determine any form of Chinese pronunciation was limited by the fact that the system dropped all dashes, diacritics, and apostrophes, to facilitate telegraphic transmission. At a conference held in 1906 in Shanghai, the post office selected a system of romanization developed by Herbert Giles called "Nanking syllabary." Although Beijing dialect had served as a national standard since the mid-19th century, the system adopted was based on Nanjing ...more...



Royal we

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The royal we, or majestic plural (pluralis maiestatis), is the use of a plural pronoun (or corresponding plural-inflected verb forms) to refer to a single person holding a high office, such as a sovereign monarch or religious leader like the Pope. The more general word for the use of a we, us, or our to refer to oneself is nosism. Speakers employing the royal we refer to themselves using a grammatical number other than the singular (i.e., in plural or dual form). For example, in his manifesto confirming the abdication from the throne of Tsesarevich and of the Grand Duke, Emperor Alexander I begins: "By the Grace of God, We, Alexander I, Emperor and Autocrat of All the Russias ...." . Western usage It is commonly employed by a person of high office, such as a monarch, earl, or pope. It is also used in certain formal contexts by bishops and university rectors. William Longchamp is credited with its introduction to England in the late 12th century, following the practice of the Chancery of Apostolic Briefs ...more...



Mandarin Chinese

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Mandarin (  (   listen ) ; simplified Chinese : 官话 ; traditional Chinese : 官話 ; pinyin : Guānhuà ; literally: "speech of officials") is a group of related varieties of Chinese spoken across most of northern and southwestern China . The group includes the Beijing dialect , the basis of Standard Mandarin or Standard Chinese . Because most Mandarin dialects are found in the north, the group is sometimes referred to as the Northern dialects ( 北方话 ; běifānghuà ). Many local Mandarin varieties are not mutually intelligible . Nevertheless, Mandarin is often placed first in lists of languages by number of native speakers (with nearly a billion). Mandarin is by far the largest of the seven or ten Chinese dialect groups, spoken by 70 percent of all Chinese speakers over a large geographical area, stretching from Yunnan in the southwest to Xinjiang in the northwest and Heilongjiang in the northeast. This is generally attributed to the greater ease of travel and communication in the North China Plain compared to the more ...more...




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