The Imperial Dictionary of the English Language: A Complete Encyclopedic Lexicon, Literary, Scientific, and Technological, edited by Rev. John Ogilvie (1797–1867), was an expansion of the 1841 second edition of Noah Webster's American Dictionary. It was published by W. G. Blackie and Co. of Scotland, 1847–1850 in two large volumes.
With the addition of a third supplement volume in 1855, Ogilvie increased Webster's 70,000 word coverage to over 100,000. He included words from science, technology, and the arts; much British usage omitted by Webster; an unusual number of provincial and Scottish words; and added quotations and encyclopedic information for many words. With over 2,000 woodcut illustrations, it was the first significantly illustrated dictionary, setting the trend which continues today.
A revised and expanded edition by Charles Annandale was published in 1882 at London in four volumes, over 3,000 pages, with about 130,000 entries, revised definitions and etymologies, and 3,000 illustrations. Although the vocabulary coverage was small by today's standards, it was the largest English dictionary at the time. This edition went through numerous printings in various forms well into the twentieth century.
Due to disputes with the publisher of Webster's American Dictionary (G. & C. Merriam Company), the American edition of the Imperial, published by The Century Company of New York in 1883, contained a copyright notice stating:
Certain owners of American copyrights having claimed that undue use of matter so protected has been made in the compilation of the Imperial Dictionary, notice is hereby given that arrangement has been made with the proprietors of such copyright matter for the sale of this work in this country. The Century Co. May 1st, 1883.
The Century Company acquired rights to Annandale's Imperial and used it as the basis for the much larger American work, the Century Dictionary and Cyclopedia, published 1889–1891.
An adaptation of the Imperial by George W. Ogilvie, called Webster's Imperial Dictionary, was published in 1904, versions and revisions of which have been issued under various titles, including Webster's Universal Dictionary and Webster's Twentieth Century Dictionary.
The Collins COBUILD Advanced Dictionary ( CCAD ) from HarperCollins , first published in 1987, is an dictionary that distinguished itself by providing definitions in full sentences rather than excerpted phrases. Example sentences are given for almost every meaning of every word, drawn from a large corpus of actual usage. Except for the 6th edition, it included phonetic transcriptions based on the International Phonetic Alphabet (IPA). In some editions, a digital version on CD-ROM was included with the dictionary in book form. The CCAD seems to skimp on American English, but there is its equivalent titled Collins COBUILD Advanced Dictionary of American English. Notes Szynalski, Tomasz P. (1987). "Review of the Collins COBUILD Advanced Learner's English Dictionary" . Antimoon.com . Retrieved February 1, 2011 . "Welcome to the Collins English Language Teaching Blog" . collinselt.com. Collins . Retrieved 15 February 2017 . When the first COBUILD dictionary was published in 1987 ... External links Collins COBUILD
The Merriam-Webster's Advanced Learner's English Dictionary ( ISBN 978-0-87779-550-6 ) is a dictionary that was published in 2008. See also Advanced learner's dictionary External links Merriam-Webster's Advanced Learner's English Dictionary online The Merriam-Webster's Advanced Learner's English Dictionary ( ISBN 978-0-87779-550-6 ) is a dictionary that was published in 2008. See also Advanced learner's dictionary External links Merriam-Webster's Advanced Learner's English Dictionary online
A Chinese-English Dictionary: Compiled for the China Inland Mission by R. H. Mathews (1931) or Mathews' Chinese-English Dictionary (1943), edited by the Australian Congregationalist missionary Robert Henry Mathews (1877-1970), was the standard Chinese-English dictionary for decades. Mathews originally intended his dictionary to be a revision of Frederick W. Baller 's out-of-print (1900) An Analytical Chinese-English Dictionary, Compiled for the China Inland Mission, but ended up compiling a new dictionary. Mathews copied, without any acknowledgment, from Herbert Allen Giles ' (1892, 1912) A Chinese-English Dictionary . The 1,250-page first edition contained 7,783 Chinese character head entries , alphabetically collated by romanized syllabic order in modified Wade-Giles system, and includes 104,000 words and phrases taken from the classics, general literature, and news media. Owing to a World War II shortage of Chinese-English dictionaries, Harvard University Press published a revised American edition (1943) M
The World Book Dictionary is a two-volume English dictionary published as a supplement to the World Book Encyclopedia . It was originally published in 1963 under the editorship of Clarence Barnhart , who wrote definitions for the Thorndike-Barnhart graded dictionary series for children, based on the educational works of Edward Thorndike whom Clarence Barnhart had known and worked with decades before. In some editions it was called the World Book Encyclopedia Dictionary. The writing and editing of special articles was carried out by the staff of the World Book Encyclopedia. Encyclopedia staff also reviewed the work for consistency with the encyclopedia and appropriateness of its users. Like the encyclopedia, it is designed to be user friendly to young people, yet comprehensive enough to be useful to adults. The definitions are designed with consideration for the age at which a person usually encounters the word. Quotations or sample sentences are offered with many words. Most proper names are excluded, leaving
The former Weights and Measures office in Seven Sisters, London (590 Seven Sisters Road). The system of imperial units or the imperial system (also known as British Imperial or Exchequer Standards of 1825) is the system of units first defined in the British Weights and Measures Act of 1824, which was later refined and reduced. The Imperial units replaced the Winchester Standards, which were in effect from 1588 to 1825. The system came into official use across the British Empire . By the late 20th century, most nations of the former empire had officially adopted the metric system as their main system of measurement, although some imperial units are still used in the United Kingdom, Canada and other countries formerly part of the British Empire. The imperial system developed from what were first known as English units , as did the related system of United States customary units . Implementation The Weights and Measures Act of 1824 was initially scheduled to go into effect on 1 May 1825. However, the Weights a
New Zealand English ( NZE ) is the variant of the English language spoken by most English-speaking New Zealanders . Its language code in ISO and Internet standards is en-NZ . English is one of New Zealand's three official languages (along with New Zealand Sign Language and the Māori language ) and is the first language of the majority of the population. The English language was established in New Zealand by colonists during the 19th century. It is one of "the newest native-speaker variet[ies] of the English language in existence, a variety which has developed and become distinctive only in the last 150 years". The most distinctive influences on New Zealand English have come from Australian English , English in southern England , Irish English , Scottish English , the prestige Received Pronunciation (RP), and Māori. New Zealand English is most similar to Australian English in pronunciation, with some key differences. Dictionaries The first comprehensive dictionary dedicated to New Zealand English was proba
Late Latin is the scholarly name for the written Latin of Late Antiquity . The English dictionary definition of Late Latin dates this period from the 3rd to the 6th centuries AD, extending in the Iberian Peninsula of southwestern Europe to the 7th century. This somewhat-ambiguously-defined period fits between Classical Latin and Medieval Latin . There is no scholarly consensus about exactly when Classical Latin should end or exactly when Medieval Latin should begin. However, Late Latin is characterized (with variations and disputes) by an identifiable style. Being a written language, Late Latin is not identical with Vulgar Latin . The latter served as Proto-Romance, a reconstructed ancestor of the Romance languages . Although Late Latin reflects an upsurge of the use of Vulgar Latin vocabulary and constructs, it remains largely classical in its overall features, depending on the author. Some are more literary and classical, but some are more inclined to the vernacular. Also, Late Latin is not identical to
Chinese dictionaries date back over two millennia to the Eastern Zhou dynasty , which is a significantly longer lexicographical history than any other language. There are hundreds of dictionaries for the Chinese language , and this article introduces some of the most important. Terminology The Chinese language has two words for dictionary: zidian (character/logograph dictionary) for written forms, that is, Chinese characters , and cidian (word/phrase dictionary), for spoken forms. For character dictionaries , zidian ( Chinese : 字典 ; pinyin : zìdiǎn ; Wade–Giles : tzu-tien ; literally: "character dictionary") combines zi ( 字 "character, graph; letter, script, writing; word") and dian ( 典 "dictionary, encyclopedia; standard, rule; statute, canon; classical allusion"). For word dictionaries, cidian is interchangeably written ( 辭典 /辞典; cídiǎn; tz'u-tien; "word dictionary") or ( 詞典 /词典; cídiǎn; tz'u-tien; "word dictionary"); using cí ( 辭 ; "word, speech; phrase, expression; diction, phraseology; statement; a kind
This is a list of words that occur in both the English language and the Spanish language , but which have different meanings and/or pronunciations in each language. Such words are called interlingual homographs . Homographs are two or more words that have the same written form. This list includes only homographs that are written precisely the same in English and Spanish: They have the same spelling , hyphenation , capitalization , word dividers , etc. It excludes proper nouns and words that have different diacritics (e.g., invasion/invasión, pâté/paté). Relationships between words How words in one or more languages can differ in pronunciation, spelling, and meaning (click to enlarge) The words below are categorised based on their relationship: cognates , false friends , and modern loanwords . Cognates are words that have a common etymological origin. False friends are words in two languages that look or sound similar, but differ significantly in meaning. Loanwords are words that are adopted from one language
Canadian English ( CanE , CE , en-CA ) is the set of varieties of the English language native to Canada . According to the 2011 census, English was the first language of approximately 19 million Canadians , or 57% of the population; the remainder of the population were native speakers of Canadian French (22%) or other languages ( allophones , 21%). A larger number, 28 million people, reported using English as their dominant language. 82% of Canadians outside the province of Quebec reported speaking English natively, but within Quebec the figure was just 7.7% as most of its residents are native speakers of Quebec French . Canadian English contains elements of British English and American English , as well as many Canadianisms (meaning 2) : elements "distinctively characteristic of Canadian usage". While, broadly speaking, Canadian English varieties tend to be close to American English varieties in terms of linguistic distance, the precise influence of American English, British English and other unique sou
The Australian Oxford Dictionary , sometimes abbreviated as AOD, is a dictionary of Australian English published by Oxford University Press . The AOD combines elements of the previous Oxford publication, The Australian National Dictionary (sometimes abbreviated as AND), which was a comprehensive, historically based record of 10,000 words and phrases representing Australia's contribution to English . However, The Australian National Dictionary was not a full dictionary, and could not be used as one in the normal sense. The AOD borrowed its scholarship both from the AND and from The Oxford English Dictionary , and competed with the Macquarie Dictionary when it was released in 1999. Like the Macquarie, the AOD combines elements of a normal dictionary with those of an encyclopaedic volume. It is a joint effort of Oxford University and the Australian National University . The AOD ' s current editor is Bruce Moore. Its content is largely sourced from the databases of Australian English at the Australian National D
John Ogilvie (17 April 1797 – 21 November 1867) was a Scottish lexicographer who edited the Imperial Dictionary of the English Language . Life He was born 17 April 1797 in Marnoch , Banffshire (now in Aberdeenshire ), the son of William Ogilvie, farmer, and Ann Leslie, daughter of a farmer in a neighbouring parish. After receiving some elementary education at home, and attending the parish school for two quarters, Ogilvie worked as a ploughman till he was twenty-one. In 1818, after an accident, one of his legs had to be amputated above the knee. Afterwards Ogilvie taught successively in two subscription schools, in the parishes of Fordyce and Gamrie , both in Banffshire. With the help of a local schoolmaster, he prepared for university, and in October 1824 he entered Marischal College, Aberdeen . Adding to his income by private tuition, he graduated M.A. on 14 April 1828. He remained in Aberdeen as a tutor till 13 May 1831, when he was appointed mathematical master in Gordon's Hospital , an educational establ
Australian English ( AuE , en-AU ) is a major variety of the English language , used throughout Australia . Although English has no official status in the Constitution , Australian English is the country's national and de facto official language as it is the first language of the majority of the population . Australian English began to diverge from British English after the founding of the Colony of New South Wales in 1788 and was recognised as being different from British English by 1820. It arose from the intermingling of early settlers from a great variety of mutually intelligible dialectal regions of the British Isles and quickly developed into a distinct variety of English. As a distinct dialect, Australian English differs considerably from other varieties of English in vocabulary , accent , pronunciation , register , grammar and spelling . History The earliest form of Australian English was first spoken by the children of the colonists born into the colony of New South Wales . This first generation of c
Military slang is colloquial language used by and associated with members of various military forces. This page lists slang words or phrases that originate with military forces, are used exclusively by military personnel, or are strongly associated with military organizations. Acronym slang A number of military slang terms are acronyms . These include SNAFU, SUSFU, FUBAR and similar terms used by various branches of the United States military during World War II. BOHICA BOHICA (bend over, here it comes again) is an item of acronym slang which grew to regular use amongst the United States armed forces during the Vietnam War . It is used colloquially to indicate that an adverse situation is about to repeat itself, and that acquiescence is the wisest course of action. It is commonly understood as a reference to being sodomized . An alternative etymology relates the expression to the days of sail and avoiding being struck by the boom , which would swing around the mast due to shifts in wind or the vessel's cour
A Dictionary of Modern Slang, Cant and Vulgar Words is a dictionary of slang originally compiled by publisher and lexicographer John Camden Hotten in 1859. The first edition was published in 1859, with the full title and subtitle: A dictionary of modern slang, cant, and vulgar words: used at the present day in the streets of London, the universities of Oxford and Cambridge, the houses of Parliament, the dens of St. Giles, and the palaces of St. James : preceded by a history of cant and vulgar language : with glossaries of two secret languages, spoken by the wandering tribes of London, the costermongers, and the patterers. It has also been published as The Slang Dictionary: Etymological, Historical, and Anecdotal . The dictionary included criminal slang, back slang, rhyming slang , and other types of slang. Its author, Hotten, included histories of some slangs (back slang and rhyming slang), a detailed bibliography, and a noted definition: Hotten's work was arguably the most important work on English slang s
Filipino (Wikang Filipino ), in this usage, refers to the national language (Wikang pambansa/Pambansang wika) of the Philippines . Filipino is also designated, along with English , as an official language of the country. It is the standard register of the Tagalog language , an Austronesian , regional language that is widely spoken in the Philippines. As of 2007, Tagalog is the first language of 28 million people, or about one-third of the Philippine population , while 45 million speak Filipino as their second language . Filipino is among the 185 languages of the Philippines identified in the Ethnologue . Officially, Filipino is defined by the Commission on the Filipino Language (Komisyon sa Wikang Filipino in Filipino or simply KWF) as "the native language, spoken and written, in Metro Manila , the National Capital Region, and in other urban centers of the archipelago." Filipino is taken to be a pluricentric language . Indeed, there have been observed "emerging varieties of Filipino which deviate from t
International Association for World Englishes World Englishes is a term for emerging localized or indigenized varieties of English, especially varieties that have developed in territories influenced by the United Kingdom or the United States. The study of World Englishes consists of identifying varieties of English used in diverse sociolinguistic contexts globally and analyzing how sociolinguistic histories, multicultural backgrounds and contexts of function influence the use of English in different regions of the world. The issue of World Englishes was first raised in 1978 to examine concepts of regional Englishes globally. Pragmatic factors such as appropriateness, comprehensibility and interpretability justified the use of English as an international and intra-national language. In 1988, at a Teachers of English to Speakers of Other Languages (TESOL) conference in Honolulu , Hawaii , the International Committee of the Study of World Englishes (ICWE) was formed. In 1992, the ICWE formally launched the Inter
Wordnik, a nonprofit organization, is an online English dictionary and language resource that provides dictionary and thesaurus content. Some of the content is based on print dictionaries such as the Century Dictionary , the American Heritage Dictionary , WordNet , and GCIDE . Wordnik has collected a corpus of billions of words which it uses to display example sentences, allowing it to provide information on a much larger set of words than a typical dictionary. Wordnik uses as many real examples as possible when defining a word. Wiktionary , the free open dictionary project, is one major source of words and citations used by Wordnik. History Wordnik.com was launched as a closed beta in March 2009 and opened to all in June 2009. Co-founders of the site are CEO Erin McKean , editorial director Grant Barrett , and chief computational lexicographer Orion Montoya. McKean, Barrett, and Montoya all formerly worked in the US Dictionaries Department of Oxford University Press . In September 2009, Wordnik purchase
In politics , a diet is a formal deliberative assembly . The term is mainly used historically for the Imperial Diet , the general assembly of the Imperial Estates of the Holy Roman Empire , and for the legislative bodies of certain countries. Modern usage mainly relates to the Kokkai of Japan , called "Diet" in English, or the German Bundestag , the Federal Diet. Etymology The term (also in the nutritional sense) is derived from Medieval Latin dieta, meaning both "parliamentary assembly" and "daily food allowance", from earlier Latin diaeta transcribing Classical Greek δίαιτα diaita, meaning "way of living", and hence also "diet", "regular (daily) work". Through a false etymology , reflected in the spelling change replacing ae by e, the word came to be associated with Latin dies, "day". The word came to be used in the sense of "an assembly" because of its use for the work of an assembly meeting on a daily basis, and hence for the assembly itself. The association with dies is reflected in the German language
The Oxford American Dictionary ( OAD ) is a single-volume dictionary of American English . It was the first dictionary published by the Oxford University Press to be prepared by American lexicographers and editors. The work was based on the Oxford Paperback Dictionary, published in 1979. It is no longer in print and has been superseded by the New Oxford American Dictionary . See also Other Oxford Dictionaries: New Oxford American Dictionary (NOAD) Oxford English Dictionary (OED) Shorter Oxford English Dictionary (SOED) Oxford Dictionary of English (ODE) Concise Oxford English Dictionary (COED) Australian Oxford Dictionary (AOD) Canadian Oxford Dictionary (CanOD) Oxford Advanced Learner's Dictionary (OALD) References The Oxford American Dictionary ( OAD ) is a single-volume dictionary of American English . It was the first dictionary published by the Oxford University Press to be prepared by American lexicographers and editors. The work was based on the Oxford Paperback Dictionary, published in 1979. It is no
The Gage Canadian Dictionary ISBN 0771519818 is a dictionary for Canadian English published by Gage Publishers in Vancouver, British Columbia , Canada. The dictionary contains over 140,000 entry words with definitions, International Phonetic Alphabet pronunciation key, homonyms and synonyms . In addition, the dictionary contains many illustrations and photos. It was first published in 1967 as Dictionary of Canadian English: The Senior Dictionary, with a subsequent edition under the same title in 1973, and a further one as Canadian Senior Dictionary in 1979. This was followed by an edition as The Gage Canadian Dictionary in 1983, and a revised edition in 1997. ( ISBN 9780771573996 ). The most recent editions are under the title Collins Gage Canadian dictionary (2009) and Nelson Gage Canadian paperback dictionary in 2013. An abridged version was published as Gage Canadian concise dictionary in 2002, and a children's and intermediate versions in various years. See also List of Canadian English dictionarie
A New Dictionary of the Terms Ancient and Modern of the Canting Crew is a dictionary of English cant and slang by a compiler known only by the initials B. E., first published in London c. 1698. With over 4,000 entries, it was the most extensive dictionary of non-standard English in its time, until it was superseded in 1785 by Francis Grose 's Classical Dictionary of the Vulgar Tongue . B. E.'s New Dictionary was used as a source by many subsequent dictionaries. Its full title is A new dictionary of the terms ancient and modern of the canting crew, in its several tribes, of gypsies, beggers, thieves, cheats, &c. with an addition of some proverbs, phrases, figurative speeches, &c. See also Cant (language) Notes Coleman (2004): pp. 41–42. References Coleman, Julie (2001). "Some of the sources of B.E.'s New Dictionary of the Terms Ancient and Modern of the Canting Crew". Notes and Queries. 48 (4): 400–401. doi : 10.1093/nq/48.4.400 . Coleman, Julie (2004). "Cant and slang dictionaries: A statistical ap
A Syllabic Dictionary of the Chinese Language: Arranged According to the Wu-Fang Yuen Yin, with the Pronunciation of the Characters as Heard in Peking, Canton, Amoy, and Shanghai or the Hàn-Yīng yùnfǔ 漢英韻府 (1874), compiled by the American sinologist and missionary Samuel Wells Williams , is the third major Chinese-English dictionary after Robert Morrison 's (1815-1823) A Dictionary of the Chinese Language and Walter Henry Medhurst 's (1842) Chinese and English Dictionary . Williams' 1056-page bilingual dictionary includes 10,940 character headword entries, alphabetically collated under 522 syllables . Williams was the first Chinese-English lexicographer to correctly distinguish the phonemic contrast between unaspirated-aspirated stop consonant pairs, for instance, giving t'ao for aspirated táo 桃 "peach" and tao for unaspirated dào 道 "way; the Dao ". While most previous Chinese-English dictionaries only gloss standard Beijing dialect pronunciations, Williams' dictionary also includes variant ones from Middle C
Baba ( Persian : بابا, Turkish : baba , Urdu : بابا, Pashto : بابا; Sanskrit , Hindi and Marathi : बाबा ; Assamese and Bengali : বাবা; Punjabi : ਬਾਬਾ; father; grandfather; wise old man; sir, ) is a Persian and Turkish honorific term used in several West Asian and South Asian cultures. It is used as a mark of respect to refer to Sufi saints. The Bektashi Order , headquartered in Albania , uses the term baba for all its priesthood. During Muslim rule in South Asia , it was also used for Hindu and Sikh ascetics ( sannyasis ) and is used as a suffix or prefix to their names e.g.: Ramdev Baba , Baba Ramdevji , etc. Baba is also a title accorded to the head of certain order of Sufi saints: Baba Bulleh Shah and Rehman Baba . The Persian term was also adopted in Malaysia as an honorific form of respect to address Chinese people born in British Straits Settlement . In Shona , a language spoken in Zimbabwe , and also in Yoruba , a language spoken by the Yoruba culture in the south western part of Nigeria , Baba
As Indo-European languages , English and Persian are daughter languages of their common ancestral Proto-Indo-European , and still share many cognate words of similar forms. Examples of these include: English (mother) and Persian (mādar), English (father) and Persian (pedar), English (daughter) and Persian (dokhtar), English (brother) and Persian (barādar) and English (name) and Persian (nām). However, this article will be concerned with loanwords , that is, words in English that derive from Persian, either directly, or more often, from one or more intermediary languages. Many words of Persian origin have made their way into the English language through different, often circuitous, routes. Some of them, such as " paradise ", date to cultural contacts between the Persians and the ancient Greeks or Romans and through Greek and Latin found their way to English. Persian as the second important language of Islam has influenced many languages in the Islamic world, and its words have found their way beyond that regio
Chinese ( 汉语 / 漢語 ; Hànyǔ or 中文 ; Zhōngwén) is a group of related, but in many cases mutually unintelligible , language varieties , forming a branch of the Sino-Tibetan language family . Chinese is spoken by the Han majority and many other ethnic groups in China . Nearly 1.2 billion people (around 16% of the world's population) speak some form of Chinese as their first language . The varieties of Chinese are usually described by native speakers as dialects of a single Chinese language, but linguists note that they are as diverse as a language family . The internal diversity of Chinese has been likened to that of the Romance languages , but may be even more varied. There are between 7 and 13 main regional groups of Chinese (depending on classification scheme), of which the most spoken by far is Mandarin (about 960 million), followed by Wu (80 million), Min (70 million), and Yue (60 million). Most of these groups are mutually unintelligible, although some, for example like Xiang and certain Southwest Mandarin
The Australian National Dictionary: Australian Words and Their Origins is the historical dictionary of Australian English , recording over 16,000 English words and phrases of Australian origin and use. The dictionary was originally edited by Bill Ramson and published by Oxford University Press in 1988; the second edition was edited by Bruce Moore, Amanda Laugesen, Mark Gwynn and Julia Robinson, and was published in two volumes in August 2016. History The first lexicographer to attempt a systematic documentation of Australian English words was Edward E Morris whose Austral English was published in 1898. The next significant works on Australian words were Sidney Baker’s The Australian Language (1945) and GA Wilke’s Dictionary of Australian Colloquialisms published in 1978. The first general dictionary of Australian English that did not label Australian words specifically was Grahame Johnston’s Australian Pocket Oxford Dictionary (1976) and the Heinemann Australian Dictionary (1976). Five years later, the Macqu
The inch (abbreviation: in or ″ ) is a unit of length in the (British) imperial and United States customary systems of measurement now formally equal to ⁄ yard but usually understood as ⁄ of a foot . Derived from the Roman uncia ("twelfth"), inch is also sometimes used to translate related units in other measurement systems, usually understood as deriving from the width of the human thumb . Traditional standards for the exact length of an inch have varied in the past, but since the adoption of the international yard during the 1950s and 1960s it has been based on the metric system and defined as exactly 2.54 cm . Name The English word "inch" ( Old English : ynce ) was an early borrowing from Latin uncia ("one-twelfth; Roman inch ; Roman ounce ") not present in other Germanic languages . The vowel change from Latin /u/ to English /ɪ/ is known as umlaut . The consonant change from the Latin /k/ to English /tʃ/ or /ʃ/ is palatalisation . Both were features of Old English phonology . "Inch" is cognate with
Noah Webster painted by Samuel F. B. Morse Webster's New Haven home, where he wrote An American Dictionary of the English Language. Now relocated to Greenfield Village in Dearborn, Michigan. Noah Webster, Jr. (October 16, 1758 – May 28, 1843) was an American lexicographer , textbook pioneer, English-language spelling reformer , political writer, editor, and prolific author. He has been called the "Father of American Scholarship and Education". His blue-backed speller books taught five generations of American children how to spell and read. Webster's name has become synonymous with "dictionary" in the United States, especially the modern Merriam-Webster dictionary that was first published in 1828 as An American Dictionary of the English Language . Born in West Hartford, Connecticut , Webster graduated from Yale College in 1778. He passed the bar examination after studying law under Oliver Ellsworth and others, but was unable to find work as a lawyer. He found some financial success by opening a private school
A marquess ( UK : ; French : marquis , ; Italian : marchese, Spanish : marqués, Portuguese : marquês ) is a nobleman of hereditary rank in various European peerages and in those of some of their former colonies. The term is also used to translate equivalent Asian styles, as in imperial China and Japan . In the German lands, a Margrave was a ruler of an immediate Imperial territory (examples include the Margrave of Brandenburg , the Margrave of Baden and the Margrave of Bayreuth ), not simply a nobleman like a marquess or marquis in Western and Southern Europe. German rulers did not confer the title of marquis; holders of marquisates in Central Europe were largely associated with the Italian and Spanish crowns. Etymology A 17th-century engraving of a marquis in the robe worn during his creation ceremony. The word "marquess" entered the English language from the Old French marchis ("ruler of a border area") in the late 13th or early 14th century. The French word was derived from marche ("frontier"), itself desc
Access the dictionary: www.dchp.ca/dchp2 . Access is free and always will be (funded to a great part by the Canadian taxpayer. See the tabs "Project History" and "Acknowledgements" for details) A Dictionary of Canadianisms on Historical Principles ( DCHP ) is available in a 1967 edition (Avis et al. 1967) and in a 2017 expanded, updated and partially revised edition (Dollinger and Fee 2017). DCHP is a historical usage dictionary of words, expressions, or meanings which are native to Canada or which are distinctively characteristic of Canadian usage though not necessarily exclusive to Canada. The first edition was edited by Walter S. Avis (ed.-in-chief), C. Crate, P. Drysdale, D. Leechman, M. H. Scargill, C. J. Lovell, and published in 1967 by W. J. Gage Limited. DCHP-1 was published after a period of about 12 years, and had a sizeable collection by C. J. Lovell at its base. W. J. Gage Publishers, the leading dictionary publisher for Canadian English (CanE) dictionaries at the time, contributed to the project
The Catholicon Anglicum was an English-to-Latin bilingual dictionary compiled in the later 15th century. History Writing and publishing The Catholicon Anglicum was written in 1483. The author of the Catholicon Anglicum was anonymous at the time of its writing in the 15th century, their true identity remains unknown to the present day. From the dialect of English that they have used, it has been speculated that they might have been a native of Yorkshire in the north east of England. The book was republished by the Camden Society in 1882. The dictionary was edited by Sidney Herrtage prior to its republication. Current status There are two known copies of the dictionary still in existence, only one of which is complete. One of the dictionaries resides in the British Library ; some of the leaves in this copy are missing. It has been edited from the manuscript no. 168 and has been collated with the manuscript no. 15562. The British Museum acquired it from the library of Lord Monson. The British Library is a suc
Mandarin ( simplified Chinese : 官话 ; traditional Chinese : 官話 ; pinyin : Guānhuà ; literally: "official speech") was the common spoken language of administration of the Chinese empire during the Ming and Qing dynasties. It arose as a practical measure, to circumvent the mutual unintelligibility of the varieties of Chinese spoken in different parts of China. Knowledge of this language was thus essential for an official career, but it was never formally defined. The language was a koiné based on Mandarin dialects , initially those spoken around Nanjing but later switching to Beijing , and developed into Standard Chinese in the 20th century. It has also been referred to as the Court dialect . History By the late imperial period, local varieties of Chinese had diverged to the extent that people from different provinces could not understand one another. In order to facilitate communication between officials from different provinces, and between officials and the inhabitants of the areas to which they were posted
Pashto ( , rarely , Pashto: پښتو Pax̌tō ), sometimes spelled Pushtu or Pushto , is the South - Central Asian language of the Pashtuns . It is known in Persian literature as Afghāni ( افغانی ) and in Urdu and Hindi literature as Paṭhānī . Speakers of the language are called Pashtuns or Pukhtuns and sometimes Afghans or Pathans. It is an Eastern Iranian language , belonging to the Indo-European family . Pashto is one of the two official languages of Afghanistan , and it is the second-largest regional language of Pakistan , mainly spoken in the west and northwest of the country. Pakistan's Federally Administered Tribal Areas (FATA) are almost 100% Pashto-speaking, while it is the majority language of the province of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa and the northern districts of Balochistan . Pashto is the main language among the Pashtun diaspora around the world. The total number of Pashto-speakers is estimated to be 45–60 million people worldwide. Pashto belongs to the Northeastern Iranian group of the Indo-Ira
Korean table d'hôte , called han-jeongsik ( 한정식 ; 韓定食 ) in Korean, is a Korean -style full-course meal characterized by the array of small banchan plates in varied colours. See also Bap (rice) Guk (soup) Banchan (side dishes) Table d'hôte Smörgåsbord (Scandinavian meal) Thali (Indian meal) References National Institute of Korean Language (30 July 2014). "주요 한식명(200개) 로마자 표기 및 번역(영, 중, 일) 표준안" (PDF) (in Korean) . Retrieved 14 February 2017 . Lay summary – National Institute of Korean Language . "han-jeongsik" 한정식 [Korean table d'hôte]. Korean–English Learners' Dictionary . National Institute of Korean Language . Retrieved 14 February 2017 . Chandler, Michael Alison (18 June 2011). "Discovering Korea’s imperial past" . The Washington Post . Retrieved 14 February 2017 . Slattery, Luke (21 April 2016). "How Korea's Seoul food puts other cuisines in the shade" . Financial Review . Retrieved 14 February 2017 . Ali, Shereen (15 June 2016). "The beauty of Hansik" . Trinidad and Tobago Guardian . Retrieved 14 Februa
Hokkaido Ainu ( ; Ainu: アイヌ・イタㇰ Aynu=itak; Japanese : アイヌ語 Ainu-go) is the sole survivor of the Ainu languages . It is spoken by members of the Ainu ethnic group on the northern Japanese island of Hokkaido . Until the 20th century, Ainu languages were also spoken throughout the southern half of the island of Sakhalin and by small numbers of people in the Kuril Islands . There were at least 19 dialects of the Ainu languages. Only the Hokkaido variant survives, the last speaker of Sakhalin Ainu having died in 1994. Hokkaido Ainu is moribund , though attempts are being made to revive it. Ainu has no generally accepted genealogical relationship to any other language family. (For the most frequent proposals, see Ainu languages .) Speakers Pirka Kotan Museum, an Ainu language and cultural center in Sapporo (Jozankei area) Depending on the classification system used, Ainu could be considered a moribund language or a critically endangered language. As of 2016, Ethnologue lists Ainu as class 8b: "nearly extinct." It
Historical definition – 1 nautical mile Visual comparison of a kilometer, statute mile, and nautical mile A nautical mile is a unit of measurement defined as 1,852 meters (6,076.1 ft ; 1.1508 mi ). Historically, it was defined as one minute of latitude , which is equivalent to one sixtieth of a degree of latitude . Today, it is an SI derived unit , being rounded to an even number of meters for its continued use in both air and marine navigation , and for the definition of territorial waters . One tenth of a nautical mile is a cable length . The derived unit of speed is the knot , defined as one nautical mile per hour. The geographical mile is the length of one minute of longitude along the Equator, about 1,855 m on the WGS 84 ellipsoid. Unit symbol There is no internationally agreed symbol. M is used as the abbreviation for the nautical mile by the International Hydrographic Organization and by the International Bureau of Weights and Measures . NM is used by the International Civil Aviation Organization .
Manchu (Manchu: ᠮᠠᠨᠵᡠ ᡤᡳᠰᡠᠨ manju gisun) is a severely endangered Tungusic language spoken in Manchuria ; it was the native language of the Manchus and one of the official languages of the Qing dynasty (1636–1911) of China. Most Manchus now speak Mandarin Chinese . According to data from UNESCO, there are 10 native speakers of Manchu out of a total of nearly 10 million ethnic Manchus. Therefore, many Manchus began to learn the language over the years. Now several thousands can speak Manchu as a second language through governmental primary education or free classes for adults in classroom or online. Manchu language enjoys high historical value for historians of China, especially for the Qing dynasty. They supply information that is unavailable in Chinese and, when both Manchu and Chinese versions of a given text exist, they provide controls for understanding the Chinese. Like most Siberian languages, Manchu is an agglutinative language that demonstrates limited vowel harmony . It has been demonstrated that it
A full pint glass The pint ( , listen ; symbol pt , sometimes abbreviated as "p" ) is a unit of volume or capacity in both the imperial and United States customary measurement systems. In both of those systems it is traditionally one-eighth of a gallon . The British pint is about 20% larger than the American pint since the two systems are not compatible . Almost all other countries have standardized on the metric system, so the size of what may be called a pint varies depending on local custom. The imperial pint (≈ 568 ml ) is used in the United Kingdom and Ireland and to a limited extent in Commonwealth nations. In the United States, two pints are used: a liquid pint (≈ 473 ml) and a less-common dry pint (≈ 551 ml). Each of these pints is one-eighth of its respective gallon , but the gallons differ and the imperial pint is about 20% larger than the US liquid pint. This difference dates back to 1824, when the British Weights and Measures Act standardised various liquid measures throughout the British E
The 18th edition of the dictionary, published in 2009. Brewer's Dictionary of Phrase and Fable , sometimes referred to simply as Brewer's , is a reference work containing definitions and explanations of many famous phrases, allusions and figures, whether historical or mythical. The "Revised and Updated Edition" from the 1890s is now in the public domain , and web-based versions are available online. The most recent version is the 19th edition, published in August 2012 by Chambers Harrap Publishers . History Originally published in 1870 by the Reverend E. Cobham Brewer , it was aimed at the growing number of people who did not have a university education, but wanted to understand the origins of phrases and historical or literary allusions. The 'phrase' part of the title refers mainly to the explanation of various idioms and proverbs, while the 'fable' part might more accurately be labelled ' folklore ' and ranges from classical mythology to relatively recent literature. On top of this, Brewer added notes on im
An emperor (through Old French empereor from Latin imperator ) is a monarch , usually the sovereign ruler of an empire or another type of imperial realm. Empress , the female equivalent, may indicate an emperor's wife ( empress consort ), mother ( empress dowager ), or a woman who rules in her own right ( empress regnant ). Emperors are generally recognized to be of a higher honour and rank than kings . In Europe the title of Emperor has been used since the Middle Ages , considered in those times equal or almost equal in dignity to that of Pope , due to the latter's position as visible head of the Church and spiritual leader of the Catholic part of Western Europe . The Emperor of Japan is the only currently reigning monarch whose title is translated into English as "Emperor". Both kings and emperors are monarchs , but emperor and empress are considered the higher monarchical titles. In as much as there is a strict definition of emperor, it is that an emperor has no relations implying the superiority of any ot
The Pale (red) in 1450 The Pale (An Pháil in Irish ) or the English Pale ( An Pháil Shasanach or An Ghalltacht ) was the part of Ireland that was directly under the control of the English government in the late Middle Ages . It had been reduced by the late 15th century to an area along the east coast stretching from Dalkey , south of Dublin , to the garrison town of Dundalk . The inland boundary went to Naas and Leixlip around the Earldom of Kildare , towards Trim and north towards Kells . In this district, many townlands have English or French names. History The Pale was a strip of land, centred on Dublin, that stretched from Dundalk in Louth to Bray in Wicklow and became the base of English Rule in Ireland. The Norman invasion of Ireland , beginning in 1169, brought much of Ireland briefly under the theoretical control of the Plantagenet Kings of England. From the 13th century onwards the Hiberno-Norman occupation in the rest of Ireland at first faltered, then waned. Across most of Ireland the Normans incr
5000 Russian rubles issued in 2006 100,000 Belarusian rubles issued in 2000 100 Russian rubles issued in 2013, printed to commemorate the Olympic Games in Sochi-2014 The ruble or rouble ( ; Russian : рубль ; IPA: ) is or was a currency unit of a number of countries in Eastern Europe closely associated with the economy of Russia . Originally, the ruble was the currency unit of Imperial Russia and then the Soviet Union (as Soviet ruble ), and it is currently the currency unit of Russia (as Russian ruble ) and Belarus (as Belarussian ruble ). The Russian ruble is also used in the partially recognised states of Abkhazia and South Ossetia . In the past, several other countries influenced by Russia and the Soviet Union had currency units that were also named rubles. One ruble is divided into 100 kopeks ( Russian : копе́йка , tr. kopeyka; IPA: ). Etymology Origins According to one version, the word "ruble" is derived from the Russian verb рубить (rubit), "to cut, to chop, to hack", as ruble was considered as a cut
The Romani people are also known by a variety of other names; in English as gypsies or gipsies (seen by some as a slur, as discussed below) and Roma , in Greek as γύφτοι (gífti ) or τσιγγάνοι (tsingánoi), in Central and Eastern Europe as Tsingani (and variants), in France as gitans besides the dated bohémiens, manouches, in Italy as zingari and gitani, and in Spain as gitanos. Self-designation also varies: In Central and Eastern Europe , Roma is common. The Romani of England call themselves (in Angloromani ) Romanichal , those of Scandinavia (in Scandinavian romanidialect) Romanisæl . In German-speaking Europe , the self-designation is Sinti , in France Manush , while the groups of Spain , Wales and Finland use Kalo/Kale (from kalo meaning "black"). There are numerous subgroups and clans with their own self-designations, such as the Kalderash , Machvaya , Boyash , Lovari , Modyar , Xoraxai , Lăutari , etc. In the English language (according to OED), Rom is a noun (with the plural Romá or Roms) and an adjectiv
Urdu ( ; Urdu : اُردُو ALA-LC : Urdū , or Modern Standard Urdu ) is a Persianised and standardised register language of the Hindustani language . It is the official national language and lingua franca of Pakistan . Urdu is an official language of six states of India — Jammu and Kashmir , Telangana , Uttar Pradesh , Bihar , Jharkhand , and West Bengal —as well as Delhi . It is also one of the 22 official languages recognized in the Constitution of India . The Urdu presence in India dates back to the Islamic Mughal Empire , from which this language was born. Apart from specialized vocabulary , Urdu is mutually intelligible with Standard Hindi , another recognized register of Hindustani. The Urdu variant of Hindustani received recognition and patronage under British rule when the British replaced the local official languages with English and Hindustani written in Nastaʿlīq script , as the official language in North and Northwestern India . Religious, social, and political factors pushed for a distinction
Myanmar English is the register of the English language used in Myanmar , spoken as a second language by an estimated 2.4 million people, about 5% of the population (1997). History The British Empire annexed modern-day Myanmar in three stages over a six-decade span (1824–1885). It administered Myanmar as a province of British India until 1937, and as a separate colony until 1948. During the British colonial period , English was the medium of instruction in higher education, although it did not replace Burmese as the vernacular. English was the medium of instruction in universities and two types of secondary schools: English schools and Anglo-Vernacular schools (where English was taught as a second language). Burmese English resembles Indian English to a degree because of historical ties to India during British colonization. On 1 June 1950, a new education policy was implemented to replace Burmese as the medium of instruction at all state schools, although universities, which continued to use English as the me
Kumeyaay (Kumiai), also known as Central Diegueño, Kamia, and Campo, is the Native American language spoken by the Kumeyaay people of southern San Diego and Imperial counties in California. Hinton (1994:28) suggested a conservative estimate of 50 native speakers of Kumeyaay. A more liberal estimate (including speakers of Ipai and Tipai ), supported by the results of the Census 2000, is 110 people in the US, including 15 persons under the age of 18. There were 377 speakers reported in the 2010 Mexican census, including 88 who called their language "Cochimi". Kumeyaay belongs to the Yuman language family and to the Delta–California branch of that family. Kumeyaay and its neighbors, Ipai to the north and Tipai to the south, were often considered to be dialects of a single Diegueño language, but the current consensus among linguists seems to be that at least three distinct languages are present within the dialect chain (e.g., Langdon 1990). Confusingly, Kumeyaay is commonly used as a designation both for the cent
An official language is a language that is given a special legal status in a particular country, state, or other jurisdiction . Typically a country's official language refers to the language used within government (e.g., courts, parliament, administration). Since "the means of expression of a people cannot be changed by any law", the term "official language" does not typically refer to the language used by a people or country, but by its government. Worldwide, 178 countries have at least one official language, and 101 of these countries recognise more than one language. Many of the world's constitutions mention one or more official or national languages . Some countries use the official language designation to empower indigenous groups by giving them access to the government in their native languages. In countries that do not formally designate an official language, a de facto national language usually evolves. English is the most common official language, with recognized status in 51 countries. Arabic ,
Webster's New World Dictionary of the American Language is an American dictionary first published in 1951 and since 2012 published by Houghton Mifflin Harcourt . The first edition was published by the World Publishing Company of Cleveland, Ohio , in two volumes or one large volume, including a large encyclopedic section. In 1953, World published a one-volume college edition, without the encyclopedic material. It was edited by Joseph H. Friend and David B. Guralnik and contained 142,000 entries, said to be the largest American desk dictionary available at the time. The second college edition, edited by Guralnik, was published in 1970. World Publishing was acquired by Simon & Schuster in 1980 and they continued the work with a third edition in 1989 edited by Victoria Neufeldt. A fourth edition was published by John Wiley & Sons in 1999, containing 160,000 entries; a fifth, published by Houghton Mifflin Harcourt in 2014, contains around 165,000. One of the salient features of Webster's New World dictio
Shah ( ; Persian : شاه , translit. Šāh , pronounced , "king") is a title given to the emperors, kings, princes and lords of Iran (historically also known as Persia). It was also adopted by the kings of Shirvan (a historical Iranian region in Transcaucasia ) namely the Shirvanshahs , the rulers and offspring of the Ottoman Empire (in that context spelled as Şah and Şeh), Mughal emperors of the Indian Subcontinent , the Bengal Sultanate , as well as in Afghanistan. In Iran (Persia and Greater Persia ) the title was continuously used; rather than King in the European sense, each Persian ruler regarded himself as the Šāhanšāh (King of Kings) or Emperor of the Persian Empire. The word descends from Old Persian xšāyaθiya "king", which (for reasons of historical phonology) must be a borrowing from Median , and is derived from the same root as Avestan xšaϑra-, "power" and "command", corresponding to Sanskrit (Old Indic) kṣatra- (same meaning), from which kṣatriya- , "warrior", is derived. The full, Old Persian