The Imperial Dictionary of the English Language

The Imperial Dictionary of the English Language: A Complete Encyclopedic Lexicon, Literary, Scientific, and Technological, edited by Rev. John Ogilvie (1797–1867), was an expansion of the 1841 second edition of Noah Webster's American Dictionary. It was published by W. G. Blackie and Co. of Scotland, 1847–1850 in two large volumes.[1]

With the addition of a third supplement volume in 1855, Ogilvie increased Webster's 70,000 word coverage to over 100,000. He included words from science, technology, and the arts; much British usage omitted by Webster; an unusual number of provincial and Scottish words; and added quotations and encyclopedic information for many words. With over 2,000 woodcut illustrations, it was the first significantly illustrated dictionary, setting the trend which continues today.

A revised and expanded edition by Charles Annandale was published in 1882 at London in four volumes, over 3,000 pages, with about 130,000 entries, revised definitions and etymologies, and 3,000 illustrations. Although the vocabulary coverage was small by today's standards, it was the largest English dictionary at the time. This edition went through numerous printings in various forms well into the twentieth century.

Due to disputes with the publisher of Webster's American Dictionary (G. & C. Merriam Company), the American edition of the Imperial, published by The Century Company of New York in 1883, contained a copyright notice stating:

Certain owners of American copyrights having claimed that undue use of matter so protected has been made in the compilation of the Imperial Dictionary, notice is hereby given that arrangement has been made with the proprietors of such copyright matter for the sale of this work in this country. The Century Co. May 1st, 1883.

The Century Company acquired rights to Annandale's Imperial and used it as the basis for the much larger American work, the Century Dictionary and Cyclopedia, published 1889–1891.

An adaptation of the Imperial by George W. Ogilvie, called Webster's Imperial Dictionary, was published in 1904, versions and revisions of which have been issued under various titles, including Webster's Universal Dictionary and Webster's Twentieth Century Dictionary.

Notes
  1. Haigh, John D. "Ogilvie, John". Oxford Dictionary of National Biography (online ed.). Oxford University Press. doi:10.1093/ref:odnb/20588. (Subscription or UK public library membership required.)
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Roasting jack

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Roasting jack

A bottle jack A roasting jack is a machine which rotates meat roasting on a spit.[1] It can also be called a spit jack, a spit engine or a turnspit, although this name can also refer to a human turning the spit, or a turnspit dog.[2] Cooking meat on a spit dates back at least to the 1st century BC, but at first spits were turned by human power. In Britain, starting in the Tudor period, dog-powered turnspits were used; the dog ran in a treadmill linked to the spit by belts and pulleys. Other forms of roasting jacks included the steam jack, driven by steam, the smoke jack, driven by hot gas rising from the fire,[3] and the bottle jack or clock jack, driven by weights or springs. Weight or clock jacks A great majority of the jacks used prior to the 19th century were powered by a descending weight, often made of stone or iron, sometimes of lead. Although most commonly referred to as spit engines or jacks, these were also termed weight or clock jacks (clock jacks was the more common term in North America). Ear ...more...

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Imperial College London

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Imperial College London

Imperial College London (officially Imperial College of Science, Technology and Medicine)[5] is a public research university located in London, United Kingdom. Its founder, Prince Albert, envisioned an area composed of the Victoria and Albert Museum, Natural History Museum, Royal Albert Hall, and the Imperial Institute.[6][7] His wife, Queen Victoria, laid the foundation stone for the Imperial Institute in 1888.[8] In 1907, the college joined the University of London, before leaving it a century later.[9] The Imperial College School of Medicine was formed in 1988 by merging with St Mary's Hospital Medical School, and then in 1997 with Charing Cross and Westminster Medical School. In 2004, Queen Elizabeth II opened the Imperial College Business School.[8] The main campus is located in South Kensington, with a new innovation campus in White City. Imperial is organised through faculties of science, engineering, medicine, and business. The university's emphasis is on technology and its practical application. Im ...more...

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The English Schoole-Master

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The English Schoole-Master

The English Schoole-Maister: Teaching all his schollers, the order of distinct reading, and true writing our English tongue is a dictionary compiled by Edmund Coote, former Headmaster of King Edward VI School, Bury St Edmunds, and first published in London in 1596. At least 40 editions were published between its first publication and the end of the 17th century.[1] It went through several editions, with later editions having slightly different subtitles. The publishing of the book most likely lead to him losing his job as headmaster. References Fenton, Mary C. (2006). Milton's Places of Hope: Spiritual And Political Connections of Hope With Land. Ashgate Publishing. p. 104. ISBN 9780754657682. "Edmund Coote's English Schoole-maister". University of Toronto library. ...more...

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List of calques

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List of calques

A calque or loan translation is a word or phrase borrowed from another language by literal, word-for-word (Latin: "verbum pro verbo") or word-for-word translation. This list contains examples of calques in various languages. EnglishFrom Chinese Running dog calques Chinese: 走狗; pinyin: zǒu gǒu.[1] brainwashing calques simplified Chinese: 洗脑; traditional Chinese: 洗腦; pinyin: xǐ nǎo[2] – usage via U.S. military during Korean War. Chop chop calques Cantonese Chinese: 快快; pinyin: kuài kuài, via Chinese Pidgin English[3] Look-see calques Chinese: 看見; pinyin: kànjiàn or Chinese: 睇見; pinyin: (Cantonese) táigin(?) (via Chinese Pidgin English) lose face calques simplified Chinese: 丢脸; traditional Chinese: 丟臉; pinyin: diū liǎn[4] Paper tiger calques simplified Chinese: 纸老虎; traditional Chinese: 紙老虎; pinyin: zhǐ lǎohǔ[5] [6][7][8] From French Adam's apple calques pomme d'Adam[9] Bushmeat calques viande de brousse deaf-mute calques French sourd-muet By heart (or off by heart) calques Frenc ...more...

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English brewery cask units

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English brewery cask units

Capacities of brewery casks were formerly measured and standardised according to a specific system of English units. The system was originally based on the ale gallon of 282 cubic inches (4.62 L; 1.22 US gal). In United Kingdom and its colonies, with the adoption of the imperial system in 1824, the units were redefined in terms of the slightly smaller imperial gallon (1.2 US gal; 4.5 L). The older units continued in use in the United States. Historically the terms beer and ale referred to distinct brews.[nb 1] From the mid 15th century until 1803 in Britain "ale" casks and "beer" casks differed in the number of gallons they contained. Units Tun The tun is a cask that is double the size of a butt and is equal to six barrels and has a capacity of 216 imperial gallons (259 US gal; 980 L). Invented in Brentford, a tun was used in local breweries to measure large amounts of alcohol. Butt The butt of beer was equal to half a tun, two hogsheads, three barrels or 108 imperial gallons (129.7 US gal; 491.0 L). ...more...

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Hogshead

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Hogshead

A hogshead (abbreviated "Hhd", plural "Hhds") is a large cask of liquid (or, less often, of a food commodity). More specifically, it refers to a specified volume, measured in either imperial or US customary measures, primarily applied to alcoholic beverages, such as wine, ale, or cider. A tobacco hogshead was used in British and American colonial times to transport and store tobacco. It was a very large wooden barrel. A standardized hogshead measured 48 inches (1,219 mm) long and 30 inches (762 mm) in diameter at the head (at least 550 L or 121 imp gal or 145 US gal, depending on the width in the middle). Fully packed with tobacco, it weighed about 1,000 pounds (454 kg). A wine hogshead contains about 300 L (66 imp gal; 79 US gal).[1] The Oxford English Dictionary (OED) notes that the hogshead was first standardized by an act of Parliament in 1423, though the standards continued to vary by locality and content. For example, the OED cites an 1897 edition of Whitaker's Almanack, which specified the number of ...more...

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World Book Dictionary

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World Book Dictionary

The World Book Dictionary is a two-volume English dictionary published as a supplement to the World Book Encyclopedia. It was originally published in 1963 under the editorship of Clarence Barnhart, who wrote definitions for the Thorndike-Barnhart graded dictionary series for children, based on the educational works of Edward Thorndike whom Clarence Barnhart had known and worked with decades before. In some editions it was called the World Book Encyclopedia Dictionary. The writing and editing of special articles was carried out by the staff of the World Book Encyclopedia. Encyclopedia staff also reviewed the work for consistency with the encyclopedia and appropriateness of its users. Like the encyclopedia, it is designed to be user friendly to young people, yet comprehensive enough to be useful to adults. The definitions are designed with consideration for the age at which a person usually encounters the word. Quotations or sample sentences are offered with many words. Most proper names are excluded, leaving ...more...

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Lifeguard (military)

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Lifeguard (military)

Changing of the guard in Whitehall, London Leibgarde (also life-guard, or household troops[1]) has been, since the 15th century, the designation for the military security guards who protected Fürsten (royals and nobles) — usually members of the highest nobility who ruled over states of the Holy Roman Empire and later its former territory — from danger. The Leibgarde should not be mixed up with bodyguard (Leibwächter), which may refer also to a single private individual.[2] In the Kingdom of France, the Garde du Corps was established (with reference to the sargeants d'arms) in 1440. It was abolished after the French Revolution, re-established in 1815, and finally dissolved in 1830. In addition, Napoleon III set up the Cent-gardes for his own protection. Lifeguard elite units Denmark: Royal Life Guards – part of the Danish Army Germany: Royal Bavarian Infantry Lifeguards Regiment – part of the Bavarian Army Russia: Imperial Guard (Leib Guard) – regiments of lifeguards that evolved into many elite comba ...more...

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Mandarin Chinese

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Mandarin Chinese

Mandarin ( ( listen); simplified Chinese: 官话; traditional Chinese: 官話; pinyin: Guānhuà; literally: "speech of officials") is a group of related varieties of Chinese spoken across most of northern and southwestern China. The group includes the Beijing dialect, the basis of Standard Mandarin or Standard Chinese. Because most Mandarin dialects are found in the north, the group is sometimes referred to as the Northern dialects (北方话; běifānghuà). Many local Mandarin varieties are not mutually intelligible. Nevertheless, Mandarin is often placed first in lists of languages by number of native speakers (with nearly a billion). Mandarin is by far the largest of the seven or ten Chinese dialect groups, spoken by 70 percent of all Chinese speakers over a large geographical area, stretching from Yunnan in the southwest to Xinjiang in the northwest and Heilongjiang in the northeast. This is generally attributed to the greater ease of travel and communication in the North China Plain compared to the more mountainous sout ...more...

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Ainu language

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Ainu language

Ainu (;[4] Ainu: アイヌ・イタㇰ Aynu=itak; Japanese: アイヌ語 Ainu-go) is a language spoken by members of the Ainu ethnic group on the northern Japanese island of Hokkaido. Until the 20th century, Ainu languages were also spoken throughout the southern half of the island of Sakhalin and by small numbers of people in the Kuril Islands. There are three main dialects[5] along with 19 other dialects of the Ainu languages. Only the Hokkaido variant survives, the last speaker of Sakhalin Ainu having died in 1994. Hokkaido Ainu is moribund, though attempts are being made to revive it. The Japanese government made a decision to recognize Ainu as indigenous in June 2008.[5] Currently, the Japanese government is constructing a facility dedicated to preserving Ainu culture, including the language.[6] Ainu has no generally accepted genealogical relationship to any other language family. Speakers Pirka Kotan Museum, an Ainu language and cultural center in Sapporo (Jozankei area) Depending on the classification system used, ...more...

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Emperor

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Emperor

An emperor (through Old French empereor from Latin imperator[1]) is a monarch, usually the sovereign ruler of an empire or another type of imperial realm. Empress, the female equivalent, may indicate an emperor's wife (empress consort), mother (empress dowager), or a woman who rules in her own right (empress regnant). Emperors are generally recognized to be of a higher honour and rank than kings. In Europe the title of Emperor has been used since the Middle Ages, considered in those times equal or almost equal in dignity to that of Pope, due to the latter's position as visible head of the Church and spiritual leader of the Catholic part of Western Europe. The Emperor of Japan is the only currently reigning monarch whose title is translated into English as "Emperor". Both emperors and kings are monarchs, but emperor and empress are considered the higher monarchical titles. In as much as there is a strict definition of emperor, it is that an emperor has no relations implying the superiority of any other ruler, ...more...

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English literature

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English literature

Selected English-language writers: (left to right, top to bottom) Geoffrey Chaucer, William Shakespeare, Jane Austen, Mark Twain, Virginia Woolf, T. S. Eliot, Vladimir Nabokov, Toni Morrison, Salman Rushdie. This article is focused on English-language literature rather than the literature of England, so that it includes writers from Scotland, Wales, and the whole of Ireland, as well as literature in English from countries of the former British Empire, including the United States. However, until the early 19th century, it only deals with the literature of the United Kingdom and Ireland. It does not include literature written in the other languages of Britain. The English language has developed over the course of more than 1,400 years.[1] The earliest forms of English, a set of Anglo-Frisian dialects brought to Great Britain by Anglo-Saxon settlers in the fifth century, are called Old English. Middle English began in the late 11th century with the Norman conquest of England.[2] Early Modern English began in ...more...

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British "stuff"

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Myanmar English

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Myanmar English

Myanmar English is the register of the English language used in Myanmar, spoken as first or second language by an estimated 2.4 million people, about 5% of the population (1997).[1] History The British Empire annexed modern-day Myanmar in three stages over a six-decade span (1824–1885). It administered Myanmar as a province of British India until 1937, and as a separate colony until 1948. During the British colonial period, English was the medium of instruction in higher education, although it did not replace Burmese as the vernacular. English was the medium of instruction in universities and two types of secondary schools: English schools and Anglo-Vernacular schools (where English was taught as a second language). Burmese English resembles Indian English to a degree because of historical ties to India during British colonization. On 1 June 1950, a new education policy was implemented to replace Burmese as the medium of instruction at all state schools, although universities, which continued to use English ...more...

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Official language

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Official language

An official language is a language that is given a special legal status in a particular country, state, or other jurisdiction. Typically a country's official language refers to the language used within government (judiciary, legislature, administration).[1] Since "the means of expression of a people cannot be changed by any law",[2] the term "official language" does not typically refer to the language used by a people or country, but by its government.[3] About half the countries of the world have declared one or more official languages. The government of Italy officialised Italian only in 1999,[4] and some nations (such as the United States) have never declared official languages at the national level.[5] Other nations have declared non-indigenous official languages. "The Philippines and parts of Africa live with a peculiar cultural paradox. Although the official languages [in Africa] may be French or English, these are not the languages most widely spoken by [the country's] residents."[6] Worldwide, 178 c ...more...

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England

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England

England is a country that is part of the United Kingdom.[6][7][8] It shares land borders with Scotland to the north and Wales to the west. The Irish Sea lies northwest of England and the Celtic Sea lies to the southwest. England is separated from continental Europe by the North Sea to the east and the English Channel to the south. The country covers five-eighths of the island of Great Britain, which lies in the North Atlantic, and includes over 100 smaller islands, such as the Isles of Scilly and the Isle of Wight. The area now called England was first inhabited by modern humans during the Upper Palaeolithic period, but takes its name from the Angles, a Germanic tribe deriving its name from the Anglia peninsula, who settled during the 5th and 6th centuries. England became a unified state in the 10th century, and since the Age of Discovery, which began during the 15th century, has had a significant cultural and legal impact on the wider world.[9] The English language, the Anglican Church, and English law – th ...more...

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MYTHOLOGY

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Korean table d'hôte

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Korean table d'hôte

Korean table d'hôte,[1] called han-jeongsik (한정식; 韓定食) in Korean,[1] is a Korean-style full-course meal characterized by the array of small banchan plates in varied colours.[2][3][4][5] See also Bap (rice) Guk (soup) Banchan (side dishes) Table d'hôte Meze (Middle Eastern/Balkan meal) Smörgåsbord (Scandinavian meal) Thali (Indian meal) References National Institute of Korean Language (30 July 2014). "주요 한식명(200개) 로마자 표기 및 번역(영, 중, 일) 표준안" (PDF) (in Korean). Retrieved 14 February 2017. Lay summary – National Institute of Korean Language. "han-jeongsik" 한정식 [Korean table d'hôte]. Korean–English Learners' Dictionary. National Institute of Korean Language. Retrieved 14 February 2017. Chandler, Michael Alison (18 June 2011). "Discovering Korea's imperial past". The Washington Post. Retrieved 14 February 2017. Slattery, Luke (21 April 2016). "How Korea's Seoul food puts other cuisines in the shade". Financial Review. Retrieved 14 February 2017. Ali, Shereen (15 June 2016). "The beauty ...more...

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National Assembly

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National Assembly

National Assembly politically is either a legislature, or the lower house[n 1] of a bicameral legislature in some countries. In the English language it generally means "an assembly composed of the representatives of the nation."[1] The population base represented by this name is manifestly the nation as a whole, as opposed to a geographically select population, such as that represented by a provincial assembly. Its powers vary according to the type of government. It may possess all the powers, generally governing by committee, or it may function within the legislative branch of the government. The name also must be distinguished from the concept. Conceptually such an institution may appear under variety of names, especially if "national assembly" is being used to translate foreign names of the same concept into English. Also, the degree to which the National Assembly speaks for the nation is a variable. To achieve a quorum, the ancient Athenian Assembly employed Scythian police to arrest citizens at random f ...more...

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Loanword

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Loanword

A loanword (also loan word or loan-word) is a word adopted from one language (the donor language) and incorporated into another language without translation. This is in contrast to cognates, which are words in two or more languages that are similar because they share an etymological origin, and calques, which involve translation. Examples and related terms A loanword is distinguished from a calque (loan translation), which is a word or phrase whose meaning or idiom is adopted from another language by translation into existing words or word-forming roots of the recipient language. Examples of loanwords in the English language include café (from French café, which literally means "coffee"), bazaar (from Persian bāzār, which means "market"), and kindergarten (from German Kindergarten, which literally means "children's garden"). In a bit of heterological irony, the word calque is a loanword from the French noun, derived from the verb calquer (to trace, to copy);[1] the word loanword is a calque of the German w ...more...

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Holy Roman Empire

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Holy Roman Empire

The Holy Roman Empire (Latin: Sacrum Romanum Imperium; German: Heiliges Römisches Reich) was a multi-ethnic but mostly German[6] complex of territories in central Europe that developed during the Early Middle Ages and continued until its dissolution in 1806.[7] The largest territory of the empire after 962 was the Kingdom of Germany, though it also came to include the Kingdom of Bohemia, the Kingdom of Burgundy, the Kingdom of Italy, and numerous other territories.[8][9][10] On 25 December 800, Pope Leo III crowned the Frankish king Charlemagne as Emperor, reviving the title in Western Europe, more than three centuries after the fall of the Western Roman Empire. The title continued in the Carolingian family until 888 and from 896 to 899, after which it was contested by the rulers of Italy in a series of civil wars until the death of the last Italian claimant, Berengar, in 924. The title was revived in 962 when Otto I was crowned emperor, fashioning himself as the successor of Charlemagne[11] and beginning a ...more...

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Names of the Romani people

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Names of the Romani people

Distribution of the Romani people in Europe based on self-designation. The Romani people are also known by a variety of other names; in English as gypsies or gipsies (seen by some as a slur, as discussed below) and Roma, in Greek as γύφτοι (gíftoi) or τσιγγάνοι (tsingánoi), in Central and Eastern Europe as Tsingani (and variants), in France as gitans besides the dated bohémiens, manouches, in Italy as zingari and gitani, in Spain as gitanos, and in Portugal as ciganos. Self-designation also varies: In Central and Eastern Europe, Roma is common. The Romani of England call themselves (in Angloromani) Romanichal, those of Scandinavia (in Scandinavian romanidialect) Romanisæl. In German-speaking Europe, the self-designation is Sinti, in France Manush, while the groups of Spain, Wales and Finland use Kalo/Kale (from kalo meaning "black"). There are numerous subgroups and clans with their own self-designations, such as the Kalderash, Machvaya, Boyash, Lovari, Modyar, Xoraxai, Lăutari, etc. In the English langua ...more...

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Roman Empire

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Roman Empire

The Roman Empire (Latin: Imperium Rōmānum, Classical Latin: ; Koine and Medieval Greek: Βασιλεία τῶν Ῥωμαίων, tr. Basileia tōn Rhōmaiōn) was the post-Roman Republic period of the ancient Roman civilization, characterized by government headed by emperors and large territorial holdings around the Mediterranean Sea in Europe, Africa and Asia. The city of Rome was the largest city in the world c. 100 BC – c. AD 400, with Constantinople (New Rome) becoming the largest around AD 500,[5][6] and the Empire's populace grew to an estimated 50 to 90 million inhabitants (roughly 20% of the world's population at the time).[n 7][7] The 500-year-old republic which preceded it was severely destabilized in a series of civil wars and political conflict, during which Julius Caesar was appointed as perpetual dictator and then assassinated in 44 BC. Civil wars and executions continued, culminating in the victory of Octavian, Caesar's adopted son, over Mark Antony and Cleopatra at the Battle of Actium in 31 BC and the annexation o ...more...

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Hebrew language

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Hebrew language

Hebrew (; עִבְרִית, Ivrit  ( listen) or  ( listen)) is a Northwest Semitic language native to Israel, spoken by over 9 million people worldwide.[10] Historically, it is regarded as the language of the Israelites and their ancestors, although the language was not referred to by the name Hebrew in the Tanakh.[note 1] The earliest examples of written Paleo-Hebrew date from the 10th century BCE.[11] Hebrew belongs to the West Semitic branch of the Afroasiatic language family. Hebrew is the only living Canaanite language left, and the only truly successful example of a revived dead language.[12][13] Hebrew had ceased to be an everyday spoken language somewhere between 200 and 400 CE, declining since the aftermath of the Bar Kokhba revolt.[2][14][note 2] Aramaic and to a lesser extent Greek were already in use as international languages, especially among elites and immigrants.[16] It survived into the medieval period as the language of Jewish liturgy, rabbinic literature, intra-Jewish commerce, and poetry. Then, i ...more...

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Jurchen language

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Jurchen language

Jurchen language (Chinese: 女真語; pinyin: Nǚzhēn Yǔ) is the Tungusic language of the Jurchen people of eastern Manchuria, the founders of the Jin Empire in northeastern China of the 12th–13th centuries. It is ancestral to Manchu. In 1635 Hong Taiji renamed the Jurchen people and Jurchen language, "Manchu". Writing A silver pass with the Jurchen inscription gurun ni xada-xun, meaning "Trust of the Country". A writing system for Jurchen language was developed in 1119 by Wanyan Xiyin. A number of books were translated into Jurchen, but none have survived, even in fragments. Surviving samples of Jurchen writing are quite scarce. One of the most important extant texts in Jurchen is the inscription on the back of "the Jin Victory Memorial Stele" (Chinese: 大金得勝陀頌碑; pinyin: Dà jīn déshèngtuó sòngbēi), which was erected in 1185, during the reign of Emperor Shizong. It is apparently an abbreviated translation of the Chinese text on the front of the stele.[2] A number of other Jurchen inscriptions exist as well. ...more...

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Taikun

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Taikun

Letter of Abraham Lincoln to "Tycoon" Tokugawa Iemochi, announcing the departure of Townsend Harris. 14 November 1861. Letter of Napoleon III to the Japanese "Taïcoun" nominating Léon Roches, in replacement of Duchesne de Bellecourt, 23 October 1863. Diplomatic Record Office of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs (Japan). Taikun (大君) is an archaic Japanese term of respect derived from Chinese I Ching which once referred to an independent ruler who did not have an imperial lineage.[1] Its literal meaning is "Great Lord/Prince" or "Supreme Commander". In the Edo period, this word was used as a diplomatic title designating the shōgun of Japan in relations with foreign countries, as an attempt to convey that the shōgun was more important than the Japanese Emperor.[2] The official name is "Nihon-koku Taikun" (日本国大君, Tycoon of Japan). The term was first used by the Tokugawa shogunate in an attempt to extricate Japan from the Sino-centric system of relations. As Shogun, he certainly could not call himself the E ...more...

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Mirza

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Mirza

Mirza ( or ; Persian: میرزا‎)[1][a] is a name of Persian origin. It is used as a surname or prefix to identify patriarchal lineage. It is derived from a historical title of Persian origin (Mīrzā),[2] denoting the rank of a royal prince,[3] high nobleman,[4] distinguished military commander,[5] or a scholar.[6] Specifically, it was used as a title by and today signifies patriarchal lineage to the various Persian Empires, the Shirvanshahs and Circassians of the Caucasus, and mainly the Mughals / Moguls or Muslim Rajputs of the Indian Subcontinent.[7] It was also a title bestowed upon members of the highest aristocracies in Tatar states, such as the Khanates of Kazan and Astrakhan. Etymology The word Mīrzā is derived from the Persian term Amīrzādeh which literally means child of the Amīr or child of the ruler.[8] Amīrzādeh in turn consists of the Arabic title Amīr (English: Emir), meaning "commander" and the Persian suffix zādeh, meaning "son of" or "lineage of".[9] Due to vowel harmony in Turkic languages, t ...more...

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Ell

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Ell

An ell (from Proto-Germanic *alinō, cognate with Latin ulna)[1] is a unit of measurement, originally a cubit, i.e., approximating the length of a man's arm from the elbow (elbow literally meant the bend (bow) of the arm (ell)) to the tip of the middle finger, or about 18 inches (457 mm); in later usage, any of several longer units.[2][3] In English-speaking countries, these included (until the 19th century) the Flemish ell (​3⁄ of a yard), English ell (​1 1⁄ yards) and French ell (​1 1⁄ yards), some of which are thought to derive from a "double ell".[4][5] An ell-wand or ellwand was a rod of length one ell used for official measurement. Edward I of England required that every town have one. In Scotland, the Belt of Orion was called "the King's Ellwand".[6][7] Several national forms existed, with different lengths, including the Scottish ell (≈37 inches or 94 centimetres), the Flemish ell [el] (≈27 in or 68.6 cm), the French ell [aune] (≈54 in or 137.2 cm),[8] the Polish ell (≈31 in or 78.7 cm), the Danish a ...more...

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Palatine

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Palatine

A palatine or palatinus (in Latin; plural palatini; cf. derivative spellings below) is a high-level official attached to imperial or royal courts in Europe since Roman times.[1] The term palatinus was first used in Ancient Rome for chamberlains of the Emperor due to their association with the Palatine Hill.[2] The imperial palace guard, after the rise of Constantine I, were also called the Scholae Palatinae for the same reason. In the Early Middle Ages the title became attached to courts beyond the imperial one; the highest level of officials in the Roman Catholic Church were called the judices palatini. Later the Merovingian and Carolingian dynasties had counts palatine, as did the Holy Roman Empire. Related titles were used in Hungary, Poland, Lithuania, the German Empire, and the Duchy of Burgundy, while England, Ireland, and parts of British North America referred to rulers of counties palatine as palatines.[1] Derivative terms The different spellings originate from the different languages that used the ...more...

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Military ranks of ancient Rome

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Imperator

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Imperator

The Latin word imperator derives from the stem of the verb imperare, meaning ‘to order, to command’. It was originally employed as a title roughly equivalent to commander under the Roman Republic. Later it became a part of the titulature of the Roman Emperors as part of their cognomen. The English word emperor derives from imperator via Old French Empereür. The Roman emperors themselves generally based their authority on multiple titles and positions, rather than preferring any single title. Nevertheless, imperator was used relatively consistently as an element of a Roman ruler's title throughout the principate (derived from princeps, from which prince in English is derived) and the dominate. In Latin, the feminine form of imperator is imperatrix, denoting a ruling female. English words such as imperial derive from this Latin word. Imperatores in the ancient Roman Kingdom When Rome was ruled by kings,[1] to be able to rule, the king had to be invested with the full regal authority and power. So, after the c ...more...

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Manchu language

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Manchu language

Manchu (Manchu: ᠮᠠᠨᠵᡠ ᡤᡳᠰᡠᠨ manju gisun) is a severely endangered Tungusic language spoken in Manchuria; it was the native language of the Manchus and one of the official languages of the Qing dynasty (1636–1911) of China. Most Manchus now speak Mandarin Chinese. According to data from UNESCO, there are 10 native speakers of Manchu out of a total of nearly 10 million ethnic Manchus. However, many Manchu have started to learn the language recently. Now several thousand can speak Manchu as a second language through governmental primary education or free classes for adults in classrooms or online.[3][4][5] The Manchu language enjoys high historical value for historians of China, especially for the Qing dynasty. They supply information that is unavailable in Chinese and when both Manchu and Chinese versions of a given text exist they provide controls for understanding the Chinese.[7] Like most Siberian languages, Manchu is an agglutinative language that demonstrates limited vowel harmony. It has been demonstrat ...more...

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Vowel-harmony languages

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Ruble

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Ruble

5000 Russian rubles issued in 2006 100,000 Belarusian rubles issued in 2000 100 Russian rubles issued in 2013, printed to commemorate the Olympic Games in Sochi-2014 The ruble or rouble (; Russian: рубль, IPA: ) is or was a currency unit of a number of countries in Eastern Europe closely associated with the economy of Russia. Originally, the ruble was the currency unit of Imperial Russia and then the Soviet Union (as Soviet ruble), and it is currently the currency unit of Russia (as Russian ruble) and Belarus (as Belarussian ruble). The Russian ruble is also used in the partially recognised states of Abkhazia and South Ossetia. In the past, several other countries influenced by Russia and the Soviet Union had currency units that were also named rubles. One ruble is divided into 100 kopeks (Russian: копе́йка, tr. kopeyka, IPA: ). EtymologyOrigins According to one version, the word "ruble" is derived from the Russian verb рубить (rubit), "to cut, to chop, to hack", as a ruble was considered a cut ...more...

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Numismatics

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1797

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1797

Wikimedia Commons has media related to 1797. Napoleon Bonaparte at the Battle of Rivoli 1797 (MDCCXCVII) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar and a common year starting on Thursday of the Julian calendar, the 1797th year of the Common Era (CE) and Anno Domini (AD) designations, the 797th year of the 2nd millennium, the 97th year of the 18th century, and the 8th year of the 1790s decade. As of the start of 1797, the Gregorian calendar was 11 days ahead of the Julian calendar, which remained in localized use until 1923. EventsJanuary–March January 3 – The Treaty of Tripoli, a peace treaty between the United States and Ottoman Tripolitania, is signed at Algiers (see also 1796). January 7 – The parliament of the Cisalpine Republic adopts the Italian green-white-red tricolour as the official flag (this is considered the birth of the flag of Italy). January 13 – Action of 13 January 1797, part of the French Revolutionary Wars: Two British Royal Navy frigates, HMS Indefatigab ...more...

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1797

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Latin

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Latin

Latin (Latin: lingua latīna, IPA: ) is a classical language belonging to the Italic branch of the Indo-European languages. The Latin alphabet is derived from the Etruscan and Greek alphabets, and ultimately from the Phoenician alphabet. Latin was originally spoken in Latium, in the Italian Peninsula.[3] Through the power of the Roman Republic, it became the dominant language, initially in Italy and subsequently throughout the Roman Empire. Vulgar Latin developed into the Romance languages, such as Italian, Portuguese, Spanish, French, and Romanian. Latin, Greek, and French have contributed many words to the English language. In particular, Latin and Ancient Greek roots are used in theology, biology, science, medicine, and law. By the late Roman Republic (75 BC), Old Latin had been standardised into Classical Latin. Vulgar Latin was the colloquial form spoken during the same time and attested in inscriptions and the works of comic playwrights like Plautus and Terence.[4] Late Latin is the written language fr ...more...

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Ancient languages

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Pashto

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Pashto

Pashto (,[8][9][10] rarely ,[Note 1] Pashto: پښتو‎ Pax̌tō ), sometimes spelled Pukhto,[Note 2] is the language of the Pashtuns. It is known in Persian literature as Afghāni (افغانی)[13] and in Urdu and Hindi literature as Paṭhānī.[14] Speakers of the language are called Pashtuns or Pakhtuns and sometimes Afghans or Pathans.[15] It is an Eastern Iranian language, belonging to the Indo-European family.[16][17][18] Pashto is one of the two official languages of Afghanistan,[4][19][20] and it is the second-largest regional language of Pakistan, mainly spoken in the west and northwest of the country.[21] In Pakistan, it is the majority language of the province of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa and the northern districts of Balochistan. Along with Dari Persian, Pashto is the main language among the Pashtun diaspora around the world. The total number of Pashto-speakers is estimated to be 45–60 million people worldwide.[1][22][23][24] Pashto belongs to the Northeastern Iranian group of the Indo-Iranian branch,[25][26] but Ethno ...more...

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Languages with ISO 639-1 code

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Fathom

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Fathom

A fathom is a unit of length in the imperial and the U.S. customary systems equal to 6 feet (1.8288 m), used especially for measuring the depth of water. There are two yards (6 feet) in an imperial fathom.[1] Originally the span of a man's outstretched arms, the size of a fathom has varied slightly depending on whether it was defined as a thousandth of an (Admiralty) nautical mile or as a multiple of the imperial yard. Formerly, the term was used for any of several units of length varying around 5–5 1⁄ feet (1.5–1.7 m). Name The name derives from the Old English word fæðm, cognate to the Old High German word "fadum" meaning embracing arms or a pair of outstretched arms.[2][3][4][5] In Middle English it was fathme. Forms Ancient fathoms The Ancient Greek measure known as the orguia (Greek: ὀργυιά, orgyiá, lit. "outstretched") is usually translated as "fathom".[6] By the Byzantine period, this unit came in two forms: a "simple orguia" (ἁπλὴ ὀργυιά, haplē orguiá) roughly equivalent to the old Greek fathom ...more...

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Imperial examination

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Imperial examination

Candidates gathering around the wall where the results are posted. This announcement was known as "releasing the roll" (放榜). (c. 1540, by Qiu Ying) The Chinese imperial examinations were a civil service examination system in Imperial China to select candidates for the state bureaucracy. Although there were imperial exams as early as the Han dynasty, the system became widely utilized as the major path to office only in the mid-Tang dynasty, and remained so until its abolition in 1905 . Since the exams were based on knowledge of the classics and literary style, not technical expertise, successful candidates were generalists who shared a common language and culture, one shared even by those who failed. This common culture helped to unify the empire and the ideal of achievement by merit gave legitimacy to imperial rule, while leaving clear problems resulting from a systemic lack of technical and practical expertise. The examination helped to shape China's intellectual, cultural, political, shopping, arts and c ...more...

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Tang dynasty

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Ain't

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Ain't

Ain't is a contraction for am not, is not, are not, has not, and have not in the common English language vernacular. In some dialects ain't is also used as a contraction of do not, does not, and did not. The development of ain't for the various forms of to be not, to have not, and to do not occurred independently, at different times. The usage of ain't for the forms of to be not was established by the mid-18th century, and for the forms of to have not by the early 19th century. The usage of ain't is a continuing subject of controversy in English. Ain't is commonly used by many speakers in oral and informal settings, especially in certain regions and dialects. Its usage is often highly stigmatized, and it can be used by the general public as a marker of low socio-economic or regional status or education level. Its use is generally considered non-standard by dictionaries and style guides except when used for rhetorical effect. Etymology Ain't has several antecedents in English, corresponding to the various fo ...more...

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American slang

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List of words having different meanings in American and British English (M–Z)

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List of words having different meanings in American and British English (M–Z)

This is the list of words having different meanings in British and American English: M–Z. For the first portion of the list, see List of words having different meanings in British and American English: A–L. Asterisked (*) meanings, though found chiefly in the specified region, also have some currency in the other dialect; other definitions may be recognised by the other as Briticisms or Americanisms respectively. Additional usage notes are provided when useful. M Word British English meanings Meanings common to British and American English American English meanings mac raincoat (short form of Mackintosh) (Mac) brand of Apple Inc. computers (short form of Macintosh) (Uncommon slang; proper n.) A term of informal address used with male strangers;[1][2] generally implies more unfriendliness or disapproval than the more neutral 'pal' or 'buddy': "Get your car out of my way, Mac!" UK generally 'mate'. Cf. 'Jack.' type of pasta (short form of macaroni) – as in 'mac and cheese' Mackintosh, Macintosh, ...more...

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Lists of English words

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Shades of green

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Shades of green

Varieties of the color green may differ in hue, chroma (also called saturation or intensity) or lightness (or value, tone, or brightness), or in two or three of these qualities. Variations in value are also called tints and shades, a tint being a green or other hue mixed with white, a shade being mixed with black. A large selection of these various colors is shown below. Green Moray eel (Gymnothorax funebris) Green dress Green hairstreak Green in nature Green is common in nature, especially in plants. Many plants are green mainly because of a complex chemical known as chlorophyll which is involved in photosynthesis.[2] Many shades of green have been named after plants or are related to plants. Due to varying ratios of chlorophylls (and different amounts as well as other plant pigments being present), the plant kingdom exhibits many shades of green in both hue (true color) and value (lightness/darkness). The chlorophylls in living plants have distinctive green colors, while dried or cooked p ...more...

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Shades of green

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Chinese encyclopedia

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Chinese encyclopedia

A page from a Qing edition of the 983 CE Taiping Imperial Reader concerning the seasons. Chinese encyclopedias comprise both Chinese-language encyclopedias and foreign-language ones about China or Chinese topics. There is a type of native Chinese reference work called leishu (lit. "categorized writings") that is sometimes translated as "encyclopedia", but although these collections of quotations from classic texts are expansively "encyclopedic", a leishu is more accurately described as a "compendium" or "anthology". The long history of Chinese encyclopedias began with the (222 CE) Huanglan ("Emperor's Mirror") leishu and continues with online encyclopedias such as the Baike Encyclopedia. Terminology The Chinese language has several translation equivalents for the English word encyclopedia. Diǎn 典 "standard; ceremony; canon; allusion; dictionary; encyclopedia" occurs in compounds such as zìdiǎn 字典 "character dictionary; lexicon", cídiǎn 辭典 "word/phrase dictionary; encyclopedia", dàdiǎn 大典 "collection of gr ...more...

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Chinese encyclopedias

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List of gairaigo and wasei-eigo terms

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List of gairaigo and wasei-eigo terms

This is a selected list of gairaigo, Japanese words originating or based on foreign language (generally Western) terms, including wasei-eigo (Japanese pseudo-Anglicisms). Many of these words derive from Portuguese, due to Portugal's early role in Japanese-Western interaction; Dutch, due to the Netherlands' relationship with Japan amidst the policy of sakoku during the Edo period; and from French and German, due to France and Germany's cultural and scientific prominence during Japan's modernization in the Meiji period. However, most come from English, the dominant world language today. Due to the large number of western concepts imported into Japanese culture during modern times, there are thousands of these English borrowings. These English words are informally referred to as having been "Nipponized". Japanese vocabulary also includes large numbers of words from Chinese, borrowed at various points throughout history. However, since the Japanese language has such strong historical ties to the Chinese langua ...more...

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Society-related lists

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List of words having different meanings in American and British English (A–L)

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List of words having different meanings in American and British English (A–L)

This is the List of words having different meanings in British and American English: A–L. For the second portion of the list, see List of words having different meanings in British and American English: M–Z. Asterisked (*) meanings, though found chiefly in the specified region, also have some currency in the other dialect; other definitions may be recognised by the other as Briticisms or Americanisms respectively. Additional usage notes are provided when useful. A Word British English meanings Meanings common to British and American English American English meanings AA The Automobile Association (US: AAA) Alcoholics Anonymous American Airlines A&E the accident and emergency (casualty) department of a hospital (US: emergency room, ER)[1]   Arts & Entertainment (name of a television network)[1] accumulator rechargeable battery [2] (technical)a type of bet [3] (US: parlay) one that accumulates, as a type of computer processor register or a hydraulic accumulator[2]   ace good, ...more...

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Lists of English words

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Edgar the Peaceful

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Edgar the Peaceful

Edgar (Old English: Ēadgār; c. 943—8 July 975), known as the Peaceful or the Peaceable, was King of England from 959 until his death. He was the younger son of Edmund I and Ælfgifu of Shaftesbury, and came to the throne as a teenager, following the death of his older brother Eadwig. As king, Edgar further consolidated the political unity achieved by his predecessors, with his reign being noted for its relative stability. His most trusted advisor was Dunstan, whom he recalled from exile and made Archbishop of Canterbury. The pinnacle of Edgar's reign was his coronation at Bath in 973, which was organised by Dunstan and forms the basis for the current coronation ceremony. After his death he was succeeded by his son Edward, although the succession was disputed. Early years and accession Edgar was the son of Edmund I and Ælfgifu of Shaftesbury. Upon the death of King Edmund in 946, Edgar's uncle, Eadred, ruled until 955. Eadred was succeeded by his nephew, Eadwig, the son of Edmund and Edgar's older brother. Ea ...more...

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Roman Catholic royal saints

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Japanization

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Japanization

Japanization is the process in which Japanese culture dominates, assimilates, or influences other cultures, in general. According to The American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language, "Japanize" means "To make or become Japanese in form, idiom, style, or character".[1] Modern period In modern sense and day, many countries in East Asia particularly South Korea and Taiwan, has absorbed and incorporated Japanese popular culture such as music and video for many years after Japanese growth during the 1980s and 1990s. Many Japanese films, especially soap operas are popular in South Korea, Taiwan and China among the younger generations after the movies are translated to their local languages. Japanese electronic products and food are found throughout East Asia (except for North Korea) and Singapore Imperial period In terms of World War II and military conquests, Japanization takes a negative meaning because of military conquests and forced introduction of Japanese culture by the government. During pre-impe ...more...

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Japanese culture

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Names of China

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Names of China

The names of China include the many contemporary and historical appellations given in various languages for the East Asian country known as Zhongguo (中國/中国) in its official language. China, the name in English for the country, was derived from Portuguese in the 16th century, and became popular in the mid 19th century.[1] It is believed to be a borrowing from Middle Persian, and some have traced it further back to Sanskrit. It is also generally thought that the ultimate source of the name China is the Chinese word "Qin" (Chinese: 秦), the name of the dynasty that unified China but also existed as a state for many centuries prior. There are however other alternative suggestions for the origin of the word. Chinese names for China, aside from Zhongguo, include Zhonghua (中華/中华), Huaxia (華夏/华夏), Shenzhou (神州) and Jiuzhou (九州). Han (漢/汉) and Tang (唐) are common names given for the Chinese ethnicity. The People's Republic of China (Zhōnghuá Rénmín Gònghéguó) and Republic of China (Zhōnghuá Mínguó) are the official na ...more...

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Language comparison

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List of lingua francas

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List of lingua francas

This is a list of lingua francas. A lingua franca (English plural "lingua francas", although the pseudo-Latin form "linguae francae" is also seen) is a language systematically used to make communication possible between people not sharing a first language, in particular when it is a third language, distinct from both speakers' first languages. Examples of lingua francas are numerous, and exist on every continent. The most obvious modern example is English, which is the current dominant lingua franca of international diplomacy, business, science, technology and aviation, but many other languages serve, or have served at different historical periods, as lingua francas in particular regions, or in special contexts. AfricaAfrikaans During apartheid, the South African government aimed to establish Afrikaans as the primary lingua franca in South Africa and South African-controlled South-West Africa (now Namibia), although English was also in common use. Since the end of apartheid, English has been widely adopted ...more...

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Tonne

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Tonne

The tonne ( ( listen)) (Non-SI unit, symbol: t), commonly referred to as the metric ton in the United States, is a non-SI metric unit of mass equal to 1,000 kilograms;[1][2][3][4] or one megagram (Mg); it is equivalent to approximately 2,204.6 pounds,[5] 1.102 short tons (US) or 0.984 long tons (imperial). Although not part of the SI, the tonne is accepted for use with SI units and prefixes by the International Committee for Weights and Measures.[6] Symbol and abbreviations The SI symbol for the tonne is "t", adopted at the same time as the unit in 1879.[2] Its use is also official for the metric ton in the United States, having been adopted by the United States National Institute of Standards and Technology.[7] It is a symbol, not an abbreviation, and should not be followed by a period. Informal and non-approved symbols or abbreviations include "T", "mT", "MT", and "mt".[8] Some of these are SI symbols for other units: "T" is the SI symbol for the tesla and "Mt" is the SI symbol for megatonne (equivalent to ...more...

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Units of mass

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Corpus of Contemporary American English

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Corpus of Contemporary American English

The Corpus of Contemporary American English (COCA) is 450-million-word corpus of American English. It was created by Mark Davies, Professor of Corpus Linguistics at Brigham Young University.[1] Content The corpus is composed of more than 560 million words from more than 160,000 texts, including 20 million words each year from 1990 to 2017. The most recent update was made in December 2017. The corpus is used by approximately tens of thousands of people each month, which may make it the most widely used "structured" corpus currently available. For each year, the corpus is evenly divided between the five genres: spoken, fiction, popular magazines, newspapers, and academic journals. The texts come from a variety of sources: Spoken: (85 million words) Transcripts of unscripted conversation from nearly 150 different TV and radio programs. Fiction: (81 million words) Short stories and plays, first chapters of books 1990–present, and movie scripts. Popular magazines: (86 million words) Nearly 100 different maga ...more...

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Online databases

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Myanmar units of measurement

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Myanmar units of measurement

The traditional Burmese units of measurement are still in everyday use in Myanmar (also known as Burma). According to the CIA Factbook, Myanmar is one of three countries that have not adopted the International System of Units (SI) metric system as their official system of weights and measures.[1] However, in June 2011, the Burmese government's Ministry of Commerce began discussing proposals to reform the measurement system in Burma and adopt the metric system used by most of its trading partners,[2] and in October 2013, Dr. Pwint San, Deputy Minister for Commerce, announced that the country was preparing to adopt the metric system.[3] Most of the nation uses Burmese units only, although Burmese government web pages in English use imperial and metric units inconsistently. For instance, the Ministry of Construction uses miles to describe the length of roads[4] and square feet for the size of houses,[5] but square kilometres for the total land area of new town developments in Yangon City.[5] The Ministry of Agr ...more...

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Systems of units

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Andrey Matveyev

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Andrey Matveyev

Count Andrey A. Matveyev. Count Andrey Artamonovich Matveev (Russian: Андрей Артамонович Матвеев) (1666–1728) was a Russian statesman of the Petrine epoch best remembered as one of the first Russian ambassadors and Peter the Great's agent in London and the Hague. Andrey Matveyev was the son of the more famous Artamon Matveyev by a Scottish woman, Eudoxia Hamilton. At the age of eight he was granted a rank of chamber stolnik (комнатный стольник) but was exiled together with his father during Feodor III's early reign. The Matveyevs returned to Moscow on 11 May 1682, and four days later Artamon Matveyev was killed by the rebellious Streltsy during the Moscow Uprising of 1682, while Andrey fled the capital again. In 1691–1693 he served as voyevoda in the Dvina Region. Peter the Great, who had deeply respected Matveyev the elder and whose own mother had been brought up in the Matveyev family, sent him in 1700 as ambassador extraordinary and plenipotentiary, firstly in the Dutch Republic (1699–1712), afterwards ...more...

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1728 deaths

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Chinese postal romanization

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Chinese postal romanization

Postal romanization[1] was a system of transliterating Chinese place names developed by the Imperial Post Office in the early 1900s. The system was in common use until the 1980s. For major cities and other places that already had widely accepted European names, traditional spellings were retained.[2] With regard to other place names, the post office revised policy several times. Spellings given could reflect the local pronunciation, Nanjing pronunciation, or Beijing pronunciation. Although pronunciation-based arguments were made for each option, using postal romanization to determine any form of Chinese pronunciation was limited by the fact that the system dropped all dashes, diacritics, and apostrophes, to facilitate telegraphic transmission.[3] At a conference held in 1906 in Shanghai, the post office selected a system of romanization developed by Herbert Giles called "Nanking syllabary."[3] Although Beijing dialect had served as a national standard since the mid-19th century, the system adopted was based ...more...

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Romanization of Chinese

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