The Imperial Dictionary of the English Language: A Complete Encyclopedic Lexicon, Literary, Scientific, and Technological, edited by Rev. John Ogilvie (1797–1867), was an expansion of the 1841 second edition of Noah Webster's American Dictionary. It was published by W. G. Blackie and Co. of Scotland, 1847–1850 in two large volumes.
With the addition of a third supplement volume in 1855, Ogilvie increased Webster's 70,000 word coverage to over 100,000. He included words from science, technology, and the arts; much British usage omitted by Webster; an unusual number of provincial and Scottish words; and added quotations and encyclopedic information for many words. With over 2,000 woodcut illustrations, it was the first significantly illustrated dictionary, setting the trend which continues today.
A revised and expanded edition by Charles Annandale was published in 1882 at London in four volumes, over 3,000 pages, with about 130,000 entries, revised definitions and etymologies, and 3,000 illustrations. Although the vocabulary coverage was small by today's standards, it was the largest English dictionary at the time. This edition went through numerous printings in various forms well into the twentieth century.
Due to disputes with the publisher of Webster's American Dictionary (G. & C. Merriam Company), the American edition of the Imperial, published by The Century Company of New York in 1883, contained a copyright notice stating:
Certain owners of American copyrights having claimed that undue use of matter so protected has been made in the compilation of the Imperial Dictionary, notice is hereby given that arrangement has been made with the proprietors of such copyright matter for the sale of this work in this country. The Century Co. May 1st, 1883.
The Century Company acquired rights to Annandale's Imperial and used it as the basis for the much larger American work, the Century Dictionary and Cyclopedia, published 1889–1891.
An adaptation of the Imperial by George W. Ogilvie, called Webster's Imperial Dictionary, was published in 1904, versions and revisions of which have been issued under various titles, including Webster's Universal Dictionary and Webster's Twentieth Century Dictionary.
The Imperial Dictionary of the English Language : A Complete Encyclopedic Lexicon, Literary, Scientific, and Technological, edited by Rev. John Ogilvie (1797–1867), was an expansion of the 1841 second edition of Noah Webster 's American Dictionary . It was published by W. G. Blackie and Co . of Scotland, 1847–1850 in two large volumes. With the addition of a third supplement volume in 1855, Ogilvie increased Webster's 70,000 word coverage to over 100,000. He included words from science , technology , and the arts ; much British usage omitted by Webster; an unusual number of provincial and Scottish words; and added quotations and encyclopedic information for many words. With over 2,000 woodcut illustrations, it was the first significantly illustrated dictionary, setting the trend which continues today. A revised and expanded edition by Charles Annandale was published in 1882 at London in four volumes, over 3,000 pages, with about 130,000 entries, revised definitions and etymologies, and 3,000 illustrations. Al
Published on 15 April 1755 and written by Samuel Johnson , A Dictionary of the English Language , sometimes published as Johnson's Dictionary , is among the most influential dictionaries in the history of the English language . There was dissatisfaction with the dictionaries of the period, so in June 1746 a group of London booksellers contracted Johnson to write a dictionary for the sum of 1,500 guineas (£1,575), equivalent to about £220,000 in 2017. Johnson took seven years to complete the work, although he had claimed he could finish it in three. Remarkably, he did so single-handedly, with only clerical assistance to copy out the illustrative quotations that he had marked in books. Johnson produced several revised editions during his life. Until the completion of the Oxford English Dictionary 173 years later, Johnson's was viewed as the pre-eminent English dictionary. According to Walter Jackson Bate , the Dictionary "easily ranks as one of the greatest single achievements of scholarship, and probably the
The American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language ( AHD ) is an American dictionary of English published by Boston publisher Houghton Mifflin , the first edition of which appeared in 1969. Its creation was spurred by the controversy over the Webster's Third New International Dictionary . History James Parton, the publisher (and co-owner) of the history magazine American Heritage , was appalled by the permissiveness of Webster's Third , published in 1961, and tried to buy the G. and C. Merriam Company so he could undo the changes. When that failed, he contracted with Houghton to publish a new dictionary. The AHD was edited by William Morris and relied on a usage panel of 105 writers, speakers, and eminent persons chosen for their well-known conservatism in the use of language. However, Morris made inconsistent use of the panels, often ignoring their advice and inserting his own opinions. Linguistics The AHD broke ground among dictionaries by using corpus linguistics for compiling word frequencies and o
The Oxford Dictionary of English ( ODE ) is a single-volume English dictionary published by Oxford University Press , first published in 1998 as The New Oxford Dictionary of English ( NODE ). The word "new" was dropped from the title with the Second Edition in 2003. This dictionary is not based on the Oxford English Dictionary and should not be mistaken for a new or updated version of the OED. It is a completely new dictionary which strives to represent as faithfully as possible the current usage of English words. The Revised Second Edition contains 355,000 words, phrases, and definitions, including biographical references and thousands of encyclopaedic entries. The Third Edition was published in August 2010, with some new words, including " vuvuzela ". It is currently the largest single-volume English-language dictionary published by Oxford University Press. Editorial principles and practices The first editor, Judy Pearsall, wrote in the introduction that it is based on a modern understanding of language an
English -English and English- Persian dictionaries A dictionary is a collection of words in one or more specific languages , often arranged alphabetically (or by radical and stroke for ideographic languages), which may include information on definitions , usage, etymologies , phonetics , pronunciations , translation, etc. or a book of words in one language with their equivalents in another, sometimes known as a lexicon . It is a lexicographical product which shows inter-relationships among the data. A broad distinction is made between general and specialized dictionaries . Specialized dictionaries include words in specialist fields, rather than a complete range of words in the language. Lexical items that describe concepts in specific fields are usually called terms instead of words, although there is no consensus whether lexicology and terminology are two different fields of study. In theory, general dictionaries are supposed to be semasiological , mapping word to definition , while specialized dictionarie
The Oxford English Dictionary ( OED ) is a descriptive dictionary of the English language , published by the Oxford University Press . It traces the historical development of the English language, providing a comprehensive resource to scholars and academic researchers, as well as describing usage in its many variations throughout the world. The second edition came to 21,728 pages in 20 volumes, published in 1989. Work began on the dictionary in 1857, but it was not until 1884 that it began to be published in unbound fascicles as work continued on the project, under the name of A New English Dictionary on Historical Principles; Founded Mainly on the Materials Collected by The Philological Society. In 1895, the title The Oxford English Dictionary (OED) was first used unofficially on the covers of the series, and in 1928 the full dictionary was republished in ten bound volumes. In 1933, the title The Oxford English Dictionary fully replaced the former name in all occurrences in its reprinting as twelve volume
An 1888 advertisement for Webster's Unabridged Dictionary Webster's Dictionary is any of the dictionaries edited by Noah Webster in the early nineteenth century, and numerous unrelated dictionaries that have adopted the Webster's name. "Webster's" has become a genericized trademark in the U.S. for dictionaries of the English language, and is widely used in English dictionary titles, or even to dictionaries in general. The only modern dictionaries that trace their lineage to Noah Webster's are published by Merriam-Webster . Noah Webster's American Dictionary of the English Language Noah Webster (1758–1843), the author of the readers and spelling books which dominated the American market at the time, spent decades of research in compiling his dictionaries. His first dictionary, A Compendious Dictionary of the English Language, appeared in 1806. In it, he popularized features which would become a hallmark of American English spelling (center rather than centre, honor rather than honour, program rather than pro
The Shorter Oxford English Dictionary ( SOED ) is an English language dictionary published by the Oxford University Press . The SOED is a two-volume abridgement of the twenty-volume Oxford English Dictionary (OED). Print Editions Prequel The first editor, William Little, worked on the book from 1902 until his death in 1922. The dictionary was completed by H. W. Fowler, Jessie Coulson, and C. T. Onions. An abridgement of the complete work was contemplated from 1879, when the Oxford University Press took over from the Philological Society on what was then known as A New English Dictionary on Historical Principles. However, no action was taken until 1902, when the work was begun by William Little, a fellow of Corpus Christi College, Oxford . He laboured until his death in 1922, at which point he had completed "A" to "T" and "V". The remaining letters were completed by Henry Watson Fowler ("U", "X", "Y", and "Z") and Mrs. E. A. Coulson (Jessie Coulson) ("W") under the direction of Charles Talbut Onions , who succ
The Imperial Dictionary may be: The Imperial Dictionary of the English Language (Ogilvie, 1855; Annandale, 1882), or Webster's Imperial Dictionary based on it The Kangxi Dictionary of Chinese (17th century) Imperial Dictionary of Universal Biography (1863) The Imperial Dictionary may be: The Imperial Dictionary of the English Language (Ogilvie, 1855; Annandale, 1882), or Webster's Imperial Dictionary based on it The Kangxi Dictionary of Chinese (17th century) Imperial Dictionary of Universal Biography (1863)
The Century Dictionary and Cyclopedia was one of the largest encyclopedic dictionaries of the English language. The first edition was published from 1889 to 1891 by The Century Company of New York, in six, eight, or ten volume versions (originally issued in 24 fascicles ) in 7,046 pages with some 10,000 wood-engraved illustrations. It was edited by Sanskrit scholar and linguist William Dwight Whitney , with Benjamin Eli Smith 's assistance. It was a great expansion of the smaller Imperial Dictionary of the English Language , which in turn had been based on the 1841 edition of Noah Webster 's American Dictionary . Meredith Publishing Company 's 1963 edition of The New Century Dictionary. Volume One: A — pocket veto and Volume Two: pock-mark — zymurgy & Supplements After Whitney's death in 1894, supplementary volumes were published under Smith's supervision, including The Century Cyclopedia of Names (1894) and The Century Atlas (1897). A two-volume Supplement of new vocabulary, published in 1909, completed
Merriam–Webster's Dictionary of English Usage is a usage dictionary published by Merriam-Webster , Inc., of Springfield, Massachusetts . It is currently available in a reprint edition (1994) ISBN 0-87779-132-5 or ISBN 978-0-87779-132-4 . (The 1989 edition did not include Merriam– in the title. It was added as part of the rebranding campaign to emphasize the differences between Merriam–Webster's dictionaries and dictionaries of other publishers using the generic trademark Webster's.) The book has been praised by language experts. Stan Carey at the blog Sentence First concludes that it operates "in such a thorough and unbiased way is what elevates MWDEU so far above the ordinary. Each entry is presented in a much broader context than is typically the case in books that advise on English usage and style." It is critically acclaimed by the linguist Geoffrey Pullum , who calls it "the best usage book I know of... utterly wonderful." It is known for its historical scholarship, analysis, use of examples, and
Cambridge Advanced Learner's Dictionary 3rd Edition CD-ROM Cambridge Advanced Learner's Dictionary (unofficially Cambridge English Dictionary or Cambridge Dictionary ) was first published in 1995 under the name Cambridge International Dictionary of English , by the Cambridge University Press. The dictionary has over 140,000 words, phrases, and meanings. It is suitable for learners at CEF levels B2-C2. Editions First edition first published in 2003 Second edition first published in 2005 Third edition first published in 2008 Fourth edition first published in 2013 See also Advanced learner's dictionary External links Cambridge Advanced Learner's Dictionary online Cambridge Advanced Learner's Dictionary 3rd Edition CD-ROM Cambridge Advanced Learner's Dictionary (unofficially Cambridge English Dictionary or Cambridge Dictionary ) was first published in 1995 under the name Cambridge International Dictionary of English , by the Cambridge University Press. The dictionary has over 140,000 words, phrases, and meanings.
8th edition cover Oxford Advanced Learner's English-Chinese Dictionary, 7th edition ( Simplified Chinese version) The Oxford Advanced Learner's Dictionary ( OALD ) was the first advanced learner's dictionary of English. It was first published 69 years ago. It is the largest English-language dictionary from Oxford University Press aimed at a non-native audience. Users with a more linguistic interest, requiring etymologies or copious references, usually prefer the Concise Oxford English Dictionary , or indeed the magnum opus , the Oxford English Dictionary , or other dictionaries aimed at speakers of English with native-level competence. Publications English dictionaries Oxford Advanced Learner's Dictionary of Current English Oxford Advanced Learner's Dictionary of Current English was first published in 1948; the current edition is the ninth. The following editions exist: First edition first published in 1948 (12 impressions ) Second edition first published in 1963 (19 impressions) Third edition first published
The Concise Oxford English Dictionary (officially titled The Concise Oxford Dictionary until 2002, and widely abbreviated COD or COED ) is probably the best-known of the 'smaller' Oxford dictionaries . The latest edition of the Concise Oxford English Dictionary contains over 240,000 entries and 1,728 pages (concise only compared to the OED at over 21,000 pages). Its 12th edition, published in 2011, is used by both the United Nations and NATO as the current authority for spellings in documents written in English for international use. It is available as an e-book for a variety of handheld device platforms. In addition to providing information for general use, it documents local variations such as United States and United Kingdom usage. It was started as a derivative of the Oxford English Dictionary (OED), although section S–Z had to be written before the Oxford English Dictionary reached that stage. However, starting from the 10th edition, it is based on the Oxford Dictionary of English (also known as the NO
The Dictionary of Old English ( DOE ) is a dictionary of the Old English language , published by the Centre for Medieval Studies, University of Toronto , under the direction of Angus Cameron , Ashley Crandell Amos, and Antonette diPaolo Healey. It complements the Oxford English Dictionary ' s comprehensive survey of modern English and the Middle English Dictionary ' s comprehensive survey of Middle English . The dictionary is still under production. As of March 2015 the entries for 8 of the 24 letters of the Old English alphabet have been published, and over 60% of the total entries have been written. The dictionary has made extensive use of digital technology , and is based on a corpus of at least one copy of every known surviving text written in Old English. History The dictionary was conceived in 1968 as a replacement for the Bosworth–Toller Anglo-Saxon Dictionary , which had been compiled at a time when both the study of the Old English language and lexicographical techniques were less advanced. From the
Longman Dictionary of Contemporary English ( LDOCE ) was first published by Longman in 1978. The dictionary is available in various formats: paper only; paper with a bundled premium website; online access only or a gratis online version. LDOCE is an advanced learner's dictionary , providing definitions by using a restricted vocabulary, helping non-native English speakers to understand meanings easily. The latest version of Longman Dictionary of Contemporary English is the sixth edition. The premium website was revised during 2014 and 2015 and offers over a million corpus examples, exceeding that of the paper version and also supplying sound files for every word and 88,000 example sentences, along with various tools for study, teaching, examinations and grammar. The 9000 most important English words to learn have been highlighted via the Longman Communication 9000. The gratis LDOCE online was updated to its current layout in 2008 and offers a search (with spelling assistance), definitions; collocations; many
The Collins English Dictionary is a printed and online dictionary of English. It is published by HarperCollins in Glasgow . The first edition of the dictionary, in 1979, with Patrick Hanks as editor and Lawrence Urdang as editorial director, was the first British dictionary to use the full power of computer databases and typesetting in its preparation. This meant that, for instance, subject editors could control separate definitions of the same word and the results could be blended into the result, rather than one editor being responsible for a word. By the third edition, they increasingly used the Bank of English established by Hanks at COBUILD to provide typical definitions rather than examples composed by the lexicographer . Editions The current edition is the 12th edition, which was published in October 2014. The previous edition was the 11th edition, which was published in October 2011. A special "30th Anniversary" 10th edition was published in 2010, with earlier editions published once every 3–4 years.
A Dictionary of Slang and Unconventional English is a dictionary of slang originally compiled by the noted lexicographer of the English language, Eric Partridge . The first edition was published in 1937 and seven editions were eventually published by Partridge. An eighth edition was published in 1984, after Partridge's death, by editor Paul Beale; in 1990 Beale published an abridged version, Partridge's Concise Dictionary of Slang and Unconventional English . The dictionary was updated in 2005 by Tom Dalzell and Terry Victor as The New Partridge Dictionary of Slang and Unconventional English , and again in 2007 as the The Concise New Partridge Dictionary of Slang and Unconventional English , which has additional entries compared to the 2005 edition, but omits the extensive citations. Original publication Partridge published seven editions of his "hugely influential" slang dictionary before his death in 1979. The dictionary was "regarded as filling a lexicographical gap" in the English language because i
An idiom is a common word or phrase with a culturally understood meaning that differs from what its composite words' denotations would suggest. For example, an English speaker would understand the phrase "kick the bucket" to mean "to die" – and also to actually kick a bucket. Furthermore, they would understand when each meaning is being used in context. An idiom is not to be confused with other figures of speech such as a metaphor , which invokes an image by use of implicit comparisons (e.g., "the man of steel" ); a simile , which invokes an image by use of explicit comparisons (e.g., "faster than a speeding bullet"); and hyperbole , which exaggerates an image beyond truthfulness (e.g., like "missed by a mile" ). Idioms are also not to be confused with proverbs , which are simple sayings that express a truth based on common sense or practical experience. An idiom is a phrase where the words together have a meaning that is different from the dictionary definitions of the individual words. In another definit
The Dictionary of American Regional English ( DARE ) is a record of American English as spoken in the United States , from its beginnings to the present. It differs from other dictionaries in that it does not document the standard language used throughout the country. Instead, it contains regional and folk speech, those words, phrases, and pronunciations that vary from one part of the country to another, or that we learn from our families and friends rather than from our teachers and books. For DARE, a "region" may be as small as a city or part of a city, or as large as most (but not all) of the country. Humanities magazine has described it as "a bold synthesis of linguistic atlas and historical dictionary", and William Safire called it "the most exciting new linguistic project in the twentieth century". The Dictionary is based both on face-to-face interviews with 2,777 people carried out in 1,002 communities across the country between 1965 and 1970, and on a large collection of print and (recently) electron
Random House Webster's Unabridged Dictionary is a large American dictionary , first published in 1966 as The Random House Dictionary of the English Language: The Unabridged Edition. Edited by Jess Stein, it contained 315,000 entries in 2256 pages, as well as 2400 illustrations. The CD-ROM version in 1994 also included 120,000 spoken pronunciations. History The Random House publishing company entered the reference book market after World War II. They acquired rights to the Century Dictionary and the Dictionary of American English , both out of print. Their first dictionary was Clarence Barnhart 's American College Dictionary , published in 1947, and based primarily on The New Century Dictionary, an abridgement of the Century. In the late 1950s, it was decided to publish an expansion of the American College Dictionary , which had been modestly updated with each reprinting since its publication. Under editors Jess Stein and Laurence Urdang , they augmented the American College Dictionary with large numbers of en
The Canadian Oxford Dictionary is a dictionary of Canadian English . First published by Oxford University Press Canada in 1998, it became a well-known reference for Canadian English. The second edition, published in 2004, contains about 300,000 entries, including about 2,200 true Canadianisms . It also provides information on Canadian pronunciation and on Canadian spelling, which has features of both British and American spelling: colour, centre, and travelling, but tire, aluminum and realize. Editorial staff and development method Until September 2008, Oxford maintained a permanent staff of lexicographers in Canada, led by editor Katherine Barber . With its Canadian dictionary division closed, Oxford has since been outsourcing work on Canadian dictionary products to freelance editors. Editions and versions Barber, Katherine , ed. (2005). Canadian Oxford Dictionary (2nd ed.). Don Mills, Ontario: Oxford University Press . ISBN 978-0-19-541816-3 . Prior editions Barber, Katherine, ed. (2002). The Canadian Oxf
Webster's Third New International Dictionary of the English Language, Unabridged (commonly known as Webster's Third, or W3) was published in September 1961. It was edited by Philip Babcock Gove and a team of lexicographers who spent 757 editor-years and $3.5 million. It contained more than 450,000 entries, including more than 100,000 new entries and as many new senses for entries carried over from previous editions. The final definition, Zyzzogeton , was written on October 17, 1960; the final etymology was recorded on October 26; and the final pronunciation was transcribed on November 9. The final copy went to the typesetters, RR Donnelley , on December 2. The book was printed by the Riverside Press in Cambridge, Massachusetts . The first edition had 2,726 pages (measuring 9 in (23 cm) wide by 13 in (33 cm) tall by 3 in (7.6 cm) thick), weighed 13½ lbs (6.12 kg), and originally sold for $47.50 ($381 in 2016 dollars ). The changes were the most radical in the history of the Unabridged. Although it was an unpre
A Dictionary of American English on Historical Principles ( DAE ) is a dictionary of terms appearing in English in the United States that was published in four volumes from 1938 to 1944 by the University of Chicago Press . Intended to pick up where the Oxford English Dictionary left off, it covers American English words and phrases in use from the first English settlements up to the start of the 20th century. History The work was begun in 1925 by William A. Craigie . The first volume appeared in 1936 under the editorship of Craigie and James R. Hulbert, a professor of English at the University of Chicago. The four volume edition was completed with the help of George Watson and Allen Walker Read . The work was one of the sources for the Dictionary of Americanisms , c. 1952, prepared under the direction of Mitford Mathews. A similar, but unrelated modern work, the Dictionary of American Regional English , has been compiled to show dialect variation. Volumes II. Corn pit-Honk. III. Honk-Record. IV. Recorder-
The Penguin English Dictionary is a one-volume English-language dictionary published by Penguin Books . It is their flagship dictionary with over 70,000 entries, first published in 2000. The Penguin English Dictionary is currently in its third edition, and its chief editor is Robert Allen . The specialist contributors and advisers involve writers for books, newspapers , magazines etc. The dictionary is also variously known as The New Penguin English Dictionary (1st edition) or The Penguin Complete English Dictionary . The second edition was published in 2003 and the third in late 2007. The Penguin English Dictionary is a one-volume English-language dictionary published by Penguin Books . It is their flagship dictionary with over 70,000 entries, first published in 2000. The Penguin English Dictionary is currently in its third edition, and its chief editor is Robert Allen . The specialist contributors and advisers involve writers for books, newspapers , magazines etc. The dictionary is also variously known as T
The Middle English Dictionary is a dictionary of Middle English published by the University of Michigan . "Its 15,000 pages offer a comprehensive analysis of lexicon and usage for the period 1100-1500, based on the analysis of a collection of over three million citation slips, the largest collection of this kind available." The project began in the 1920s. The first instalment, "Plan and Bibliography", containing a list of Middle English texts used for the Middle English Dictionary, was published by Hans Kurath and Sherman Kuhn in 1954. More fascicles were published in numerous volumes (in alphabetical order) over the next several decades. The dictionary was completed in 2001. In 2007, the full dictionary was made freely available and searchable online in an HTML format. See also Middle English Dictionary of Old English Oxford English Dictionary Notes Middle English Dictionary . External links Official website The Middle English Dictionary is a dictionary of Middle English published by the University of Michig
A New English Dictionary: or, a complete collection of the most proper and significant words, commonly used in the language was an English dictionary compiled by philologist John Kersey and first published in London in 1702. Unlike previous dictionaries, which had focused on documenting difficult words, A New English Dictionary was one of the first to focus on words in common usage. It was also the first to be written by a professional lexicographer . Kersey later continued his lexicographic career by enlarging Edward Phillips ' The New World of English Words in 1706 and editing the Dictionarium Anglo-Britannicum in 1708. The original title of the Oxford English Dictionary was A New English Dictionary on Historical Principles, and it was sometimes given the abbreviation NED, for New English Dictionary. A New English Dictionary: or, a complete collection of the most proper and significant words, commonly used in the language was an English dictionary compiled by philologist John Kersey and first published in L
The Open Dictionary of English ( ODE , after the OED ) is a multimedia learners' dictionary, published by 501(c)3 nonprofit organization LearnThat Foundation . It is fully integrated with LearnThatWord, the vocabulary and spelling tutoring program by LearnThat Foundation, and can also be used as a standalone dictionary. The Open Dictionary of English cherishes English as a global language. Its goal is to connect learners with words illustrating their usage and nuances in a lively multimedia format. Genesis The ODE contains around 180,000 words. Word data is assorted from a range of online sources. The Open Dictionary of English is a collaborative project, based on Open Source materials, LearnThat's own resources, and partner APIs. It contains data from WordNet /Princeton University and Wiktionary , Google, Wordnik.com, Dictionary.com, Stands4.com, YouTube.com, OEDILF.com, Kylescholz.com, Best-Practice.com, and Forvo.com. Features The Open Dictionary of English offers: • Videos and video snippets showing word
The Collaborative International Dictionary of English ( CIDE ) was derived from the 1913 Webster's Dictionary and has been supplemented with some of the definitions from WordNet . It is being proof-read and supplemented by volunteers from around the world. This electronic dictionary is also made available as a potential starting point for development of a modern comprehensive encyclopedic dictionary, to be accessible freely on the Internet , and developed by the efforts of all individuals willing to help build a large and freely available knowledge base . There are several derivative versions of this dictionary on the Internet, in some cases reformatted or provided with an interface: Project Gutenberg , in the etext96 directory The DICT development group The GNU project's GCIDE The University of Chicago ARTFL Project References Readme file Documentation accompanying the GNU version of the set of files containing the electronic version of the CIDE. ARTFL Project External links ARTFL Project's online Webster's
The advanced learner's dictionary is the most common type of monolingual learner's dictionary , that is, a dictionary written for someone who is learning a foreign language and who has a proficiency level of B2 or above according to the Common European Framework . It differs from a bilingual or translation dictionary, on the one hand, and a standard dictionary written for native speakers or linguistic scholars, on the other. The definitions are usually built on defining vocabulary . Although advanced learner's dictionaries have been produced for learners of several languages (including Chinese, Dutch, German, and Spanish) the majority are written for learners of English. Printed The best-known advanced learner's dictionaries are: Oxford Advanced Learner's Dictionary , first published in 1948. Longman Dictionary of Contemporary English , first published in 1978. Collins Cobuild English Dictionary, first published in 1987 and now published as Collins COBUILD Advanced Learner’s Dictionary . Cambridge Internation
The Chinese and English Dictionary: Containing All the Words in the Chinese Imperial Dictionary, Arranged According to the Radicals (1842), compiled by the English Congregationalist missionary Walter Henry Medhurst (1796-1857), is the second major Chinese-English dictionary after Robert Morrison 's pioneering (1815-1823) A Dictionary of the Chinese Language . Medhurst's intention was to publish an abridged and cheaper dictionary that still contained all the 47,035 head characters from the (1716) Kangxi Dictionary , which Morrison's huge dictionary included. Medhurst reversed and revised into his Chinese-English dictionary in compiling the (1847-1848) English and Chinese Dictionary in Two Volumes . History Walter Henry Medhurst with Choo Tih Lang and a Malay student In 1816, when Walter Henry Medhurst was 20 years old, the London Missionary Society (LMS) initially employed him as a printer, and then chose him to become a missionary printer in China. After studying at Hackney College under George Collison , Mi
English is a West Germanic language that was first spoken in early medieval England and is now a global lingua franca . Named after the Angles , one of the Germanic tribes that migrated to England , it ultimately derives its name from the Anglia (Angeln) peninsula in the Baltic Sea . It is closely related to the Frisian languages , but its vocabulary has been significantly influenced by other Germanic languages particularly Norse (a North Germanic language ), as well as by Latin and Romance languages , particularly French . English has developed over the course of more than 1,400 years. The earliest forms of English, a set of Anglo-Frisian dialects brought to Great Britain by Anglo-Saxon settlers in the 5th century, are called Old English . Middle English began in the late 11th century with the Norman conquest of England , and was a period in which the language was influenced by French. Early Modern English began in the late 15th century with the introduction of the printing press to London and the King Jam
The Compact Oxford English Dictionary of Current English is a one-volume dictionary published by Oxford University Press . It is intended for a family or upper secondary school readership. The third edition (revised), published in 2008, has 1,264 pages, somewhat smaller than the Concise Oxford English Dictionary , and should not be confused with the "Compact" (single- and two-volume photo-reduced) editions of the multi-volume Oxford English Dictionary . Publications Compact Oxford English Dictionary of Current English Third edition revised ( ISBN 978-0-19-953296-4 ): Includes over 150,000 words, phrases, and definitions. Compact Oxford Thesaurus Third edition revised ( ISBN 978-0-19-953295-7 ): Includes over 300,000 synonyms and antonyms.k References Soanes, Catherine; Sara Hawker (19 June 2008). Compact Oxford English Dictionary of Current English (3rd ed.). Oxford University Press . ISBN 978-0-19-953296-4 . External links Compact Oxford English Dictionary of Current English Compact Oxford Thesaurus Th
Australian English is a major variety of the English language spoken throughout Australia . Most of the vocabulary of Australian English is shared with British English , though there are notable differences. The vocabulary of Australia is drawn from many sources, including various dialects of British English as well as Gaelic languages , some Indigenous Australian languages , and Polynesian languages . One of the first dictionaries of Australian slang was Karl Lentzner 's Dictionary of the Slang-English of Australia and of Some Mixed Languages in 1892. The first dictionary based on historical principles that covered Australian English was E. E. Morris 's Austral English: A Dictionary of Australasian Words, Phrases and Usages (1898). In 1981, the more comprehensive Macquarie Dictionary of Australian English was published. Oxford University Press published their own Australian Oxford Dictionary in 1999, as a joint effort with the Australian National University . Oxford University Press also published The Austr
Macmillan English Dictionary for Advanced Learners , also known as MEDAL , was first published in 2002 by Macmillan Education . MEDAL is an advanced learner’s dictionary and shares most of the features of this type of dictionary: it provides definitions in simple language, using a controlled defining vocabulary ; most words have example sentences to illustrate how they are typically used; and information is given about how words combine grammatically or in collocations . MEDAL also introduced a number of innovations. These include: ‘collocation boxes’ giving lists of high-frequency collocates, identified using Sketch Engine software word frequency information, with the most frequent 7500 English words shown in red and categorised in three frequency bands, based on the idea, derived from Zipf's law , that a relatively small number of high-frequency words account for a high percentage of most texts ‘metaphor boxes’, showing how the vocabulary used for expressing common concepts (such as ‘anger’) tends to refl
An Anglo-Saxon Dictionary is a dictionary of Old English , a language that is also known as Anglo-Saxon. Four editions of the dictionary were published. It has often (especially in earlier times) been considered the definitive lexicon for Old English. It is often referred to by the names of its compilers, for example Bosworth or Bosworth & Toller. Editions 1838 edition This was written by Joseph Bosworth , who in 1858 became the Rawlinsonian Professor of Anglo-Saxon at the University of Oxford : the post was renamed in 1916 as the Rawlinson and Bosworth Professorship of Anglo-Saxon , in Bosworth's honour. 1898 edition While being attributed to "J. Bosworth & T. N. Toller", this was a revision by Thomas Northcote Toller , based on Bosworth's 1838 dictionary, Bosworth's papers, and additions by Toller. 1921 edition Thomas Northcote Toller issued a supplement in 1921. 1972 edition Alistair Campbell issued an edition with "enlarged addenda and corrigenda" in 1972. See also Toronto Dictionary of Old Engl
A Dictionary of the Chinese Language, in Three Parts or Morrison's Chinese dictionary (1815-1823), compiled by the Anglo-Scottish missionary Robert Morrison was the first Chinese-English, English-Chinese dictionary. Part I is Chinese-English arranged by the 214 Kangxi radicals , Part II is Chinese-English arranged alphabetically, and Part III is English-Chinese also arranged alphabetically. This groundbreaking reference work is enormous, comprising 4,595 pages in 6 quarto volumes and including 47,035 head characters taken from the 1716 Kangxi Dictionary . However, Morrison's encyclopedic dictionary had flaws, notably failing to distinguish aspirated consonants: the pronunciation taou is given for both aspirated táo ( 桃 , "peach") and unaspirated dào ( 道 , "way; the Tao "). History An engraving of George Chinnery 's lost Robert Morrison Translating the Bible (c. 1828 ). Morrison is assisted by Li Shigong (left) and Chen Laoyi (right). Robert Morrison (1782-1834) is credited with several historical firsts in a
The Macquarie Dictionary is a dictionary of Australian English . It is generally held by universities and the legal profession to be the authoritative source on Australian English . It also pays considerable attention to New Zealand English . Originally it was a publishing project of Jacaranda Press, a Brisbane educational publisher, for which an editorial committee was formed, largely from the Linguistics department of Macquarie University in Sydney , Australia. It is now published by Macquarie Dictionary Publishers an imprint of Pan Macmillan Australia Pty Ltd. In October 2007 it moved its editorial office away from Macquarie University to the University of Sydney . History First Edition The original version of the Macquarie Dictionary was based on Hamlyn's Encyclopedic World Dictionary of 1971, which in turn was based on Random House 's American College Dictionary of 1947, which was based on the 1927 New Century Dictionary , which was based on The Imperial Dictionary of the English Language , which itse
The Encarta Webster's Dictionary of the English Language (2004) is the second edition of the Encarta World English Dictionary, published in 1999 (Anne Soukhanov, editor). Slightly larger than a college dictionary , it is similar in appearance and scope to the American Heritage Dictionary , which Soukhanov previously edited. Created using the Bloomsbury dictionary database, it draws on English as it is spoken in all parts of the English-speaking world. A distinctive feature of the dictionary is the abbreviated definitions, highlighted prior to the full definition, for a quick glance meaning or to identify the sense being sought. The Encarta name is also used for the abbreviated college dictionary editions. Publication data Encarta World English Dictionary (1999), Anne Soukhanov, editor. St. Martin's Press, 2078 p., ISBN 978-0-312-22222-2 Microsoft Encarta College Dictionary: The First Dictionary For The Internet Age, (2001), Anne Soukanov, editor. St. Martin's Press, 1728 p., ISBN 978-0-312-28087-1 Encarta Web
The Historical Thesaurus of the Oxford English Dictionary ( HTOED ) is the print edition of the largest thesaurus in the world, the Historical Thesaurus of English ( HTE ), conceived and compiled by the English Language Department of the University of Glasgow . The HTE is a complete database of all the words in the second edition of The Oxford English Dictionary , arranged by semantic field and date. In this way, the HTE arranges the whole vocabulary of English , from the earliest written records in Old English to the present, alongside types and dates of use. It is the first historical thesaurus to be compiled for any of the world's languages and contains 800,000 meanings for 600,000 words, within 230,000 categories, covering more than 920,000 words and meanings. As the HTE website states, "in addition to providing hitherto unavailable information for linguistic and textual scholars, the Historical Thesaurus online is a rich resource for students of social and cultural history, showing how concepts develop
An Universal Etymological English Dictionary was a dictionary compiled by Nathan Bailey (or Nathaniel Bailey) and first published in London in 1721. It was the most popular English dictionary of the eighteenth century. As an indicator of its popularity it reached its 20th edition in 1763 and its 27th edition in 1794. Its last edition (30th) was in 1802. It was a little over 900 pages long. In compiling his dictionary, Bailey borrowed greatly from John Kersey 's Dictionarium Anglo-Britannicum (1706), which in turn drew from the later editions of Edward Phillips 's The New World of English Words . Like Kersey's dictionary, Bailey's dictionary was one of the first monolingual English dictionaries to focus on defining words in common usage, rather than just difficult words. Although Bailey put the word "etymological" in his title, he gives definitions for many words without also trying to give the word's etymology – because he doesn't know what the etymology is. A very high percentage of the etymologies he does
A Chinese-English Dictionary (1892), compiled by the British consular officer and sinologist Herbert Allen Giles (1845-1935), is the first Chinese-English encyclopedic dictionary . Giles started compilation after being rebuked for criticizing mistranslations in Samuel Wells Williams ' (1874) A Syllabic Dictionary of the Chinese Language . The 1,461-page first edition contains 13,848 Chinese character head entries alphabetically collated by Beijing Mandarin pronunciation romanized in the Wade-Giles system, which Giles modified from Thomas Wade 's (1867) system. Giles' dictionary furthermore gives pronunciations from nine regional varieties of Chinese , and three Sino-Xenic languages Japanese , Korean , and Vietnamese . Giles revised his dictionary into the 1,813-page second edition (1912) with the addition of 67 more entries and numerous usage examples. History Photograph of Herbert Allen Giles Herbert Giles served as a British consular officer in late Qing dynasty China until from 1867 to 1892. After his retu
Urban Dictionary is a crowdsourced online dictionary of slang words and phrases that was founded in 1999 as a parody of Dictionary.com and Vocabulary.com by then-college freshman Aaron Peckham. Some of the definitions on the website can be found as early as 1999, but most early definitions are from 2003. At the start of 2014, the dictionary featured over seven million definitions, while 2,000 new daily entries were being added. In November 2014, the Advertise page of the website states that, on a monthly basis, Urban Dictionary averages 72 million impressions and 18 million unique readers. Anyone with either a Facebook or Gmail account can make a submission to the dictionary, and it has been stated that entries are reviewed by 20,000 volunteer editors. History 1999–2003: Founding, UK high court incident, advertising The site was founded in 1999 by Aaron Peckham while he was a freshman computer science major at California Polytechnic State University, San Luis Obispo (Cal Poly). Peckham had previously create
The New Oxford American Dictionary ( NOAD ) is a single-volume dictionary of American English compiled by American editors at the Oxford University Press . NOAD is based upon the New Oxford Dictionary of English (NODE), published in the United Kingdom in 1998, although with substantial editing, additional entries, and the inclusion of illustrations. It is based on a corpus linguistics analysis of Oxford's 200 million word database of contemporary American English . NOAD includes a diacritical respelling scheme to convey pronunciations, as opposed to the Gimson phonemic IPA system that is used in NODE. Editions First Published in September 2001, the first edition was edited by Elizabeth J. Jewell and Frank Abate. Second edition Published in May 2005, the second edition was edited by Erin McKean . The edition added nearly 3,000 new words, senses, and phrases. It was in a large format, with 2096 pages, and was 8½" by 11" in size. It included a CD-ROM with the full text of the dictionary for Palm OS devices. Sinc
The Chambers Dictionary ( TCD ) was first published by William and Robert Chambers as Chambers's English Dictionary in 1872. It was an expanded version of Chambers's Etymological Dictionary of 1867, compiled by James Donald. A second edition came out in 1898, and was followed in 1901 by a new compact edition called Chambers's Twentieth Century Dictionary. TCD is widely used by British crossword solvers and setters, and by Scrabble players (though it is no longer the official Scrabble dictionary). It contains many more dialectal , archaic, unconventional and eccentric words than its rivals, and is noted for its occasional wryly humorous definitions. Examples of such definitions include those for éclair ("a cake, long in shape but short in duration") and middle-aged ("between youth and old age, variously reckoned to suit the reckoner"). These jocular definitions were removed by the publisher in the 1970s, but many of them were reinstated in 1983 because of the affection in which they were held by readers. The
Wiktionary is a multilingual , web -based project to create a free content dictionary of all words in all languages . It is collaboratively edited via a wiki , and its name is a portmanteau of the words wiki and dictionary . It is available in 171 languages and in Simple English . Like its sister project Wikipedia , Wiktionary is run by the Wikimedia Foundation , and is written collaboratively by volunteers , dubbed "Wiktionarians". Its wiki software , MediaWiki , allows almost anyone with access to the website to create and edit entries. Because Wiktionary is not limited by print space considerations, most of Wiktionary's language editions provide definitions and translations of words from many languages, and some editions offer additional information typically found in thesauri and lexicons . The English Wiktionary includes a Wikisaurus (thesaurus) of synonyms of various words. Wiktionary data are frequently used in various natural language processing tasks . History and development Wiktionary was brought o
List of Canadian English dictionaries : Canadian Oxford Dictionary ISBN 0195418166 Collins Canadian Dictionary ISBN 0007337523 A Dictionary of Canadianisms on Historical Principles ISBN 0771519761 Gage Canadian Dictionary ISBN 0771519818 Houghton Mifflin Canadian Dictionary ISBN 0395296544 ITP Nelson Canadian Dictionary ISBN 0176065911 Penguin Canadian Dictionary ISBN 0773050078 Reader's Digest Webster's Canadian Dictionary and Thesaurus ISBN 1554750520 Websters Canadian Dictionary ISBN 1596951311 Winston Canadian Dictionary ISBN 0176425691 Variants Dictionary of Prince Edward Island English ISBN 0802057810 Dictionary of Newfoundland English ISBN 0802068197 Dictionary of Newfoundland & Labrador ISBN 1895109345 See also List of Canadian English dictionaries : Canadian Oxford Dictionary ISBN 0195418166 Collins Canadian Dictionary ISBN 0007337523 A Dictionary of Canadianisms on Historical Principles ISBN 0771519761 Gage Canadian Dictionary ISBN 0771519818 Houghton Mifflin Canadian Dictionary ISBN 0395296544
The Kangxi Dictionary ( Chinese : 康熙字典 ; pinyin : Kāngxī Zìdiǎn ) was the standard Chinese dictionary during the 18th and 19th centuries. The Kangxi Emperor of the Manchu Qing Dynasty ordered its compilation in 1710. It used the earlier Zihui system of 214 radicals, today known as 214 Kangxi radicals , and was published in 1716. The dictionary is named after the Emperor's era name . The dictionary contains more than 47,000 characters, though some 40% of them are graphic variants. In addition, there are rare or archaic characters, some of which are attested only once. Less than a quarter of these characters are now in common use. Compilation The Kangxi Dictionary editors, including Zhang Yushu ( 張玉書 ) and Chen Tingjing ( 陳廷敬 ), based it partly on two Ming Dynasty dictionaries: the 1615 Zihui ( 字彙 "Character Collection") by Mei Yingzuo ( 梅膺祚 ), and the 1627 Zhengzitong ( 正字通 "Correct Character Mastery") by Zhang Zilie ( 張自烈 ). Since the imperial edict required that the Kangxi Dictionary be compiled within five
The New World of English Words, or, a General Dictionary is a dictionary compiled by Edward Phillips and first published in London in 1658. It was the first folio English dictionary. Contents As well as containing common words, the dictionary featured many unusual words, foreign terms, proper nouns and other specialist terms. In total, the original edition featured 11,000 entries, increasing to 17,000 by the fifth edition in 1696. It was later revised and enlarged by John Kersey in 1706, eventually containing 38,000 entries. Kersey had already compiled his own dictionary, A New English Dictionary , in 1702, and used this revised edition of The New World of English Words as the basis for his more concise Dictionarium Anglo-Britannicum in 1708. Plagiarism At least half of the entries were copied directly, without permission, from Thomas Blount 's Glossographia , which had been published a couple of years before. Blount responded by publishing A world of errors discovered in the Interpreter of Hard Words, writte
The Merriam-Webster's Advanced Learner's English Dictionary ( ISBN 978-0-87779-550-6 ) is a dictionary that was published in 2008. See also Advanced learner's dictionary External links Merriam-Webster's Advanced Learner's English Dictionary online The Merriam-Webster's Advanced Learner's English Dictionary ( ISBN 978-0-87779-550-6 ) is a dictionary that was published in 2008. See also Advanced learner's dictionary External links Merriam-Webster's Advanced Learner's English Dictionary online