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Mani pulite

Mani pulite (pronounced , Italian for "clean hands") was a nationwide judicial investigation into political corruption in Italy held in the 1990s. Mani pulite led to the demise of the so-called "First Republic", resulting in the disappearance of many political parties. Some politicians and industry leaders committed suicide after their crimes were exposed. Antonio Di Pietro was the main judicial figure in charge of the operation.

In some accounts, as many as 5,000 public figures fell under suspicion. At one point, more than half of the members of the Italian Parliament were under indictment. More than 400 city and town councils were dissolved because of corruption charges. The estimated value of bribes paid annually in the 1980s by Italian and foreign companies bidding for large government contracts reached 4 billion dollars (6.5 trillion lire).[1]

The corrupt system uncovered by these investigations was usually referred to as Tangentopoli (Italian pronunciation: ).[2] The term derives from tangente, which means kickback and in this context refers to kickbacks given for public works contracts,[1] and poli meaning city;[3] it is thus sometimes translated as "Bribesville" or "Kickback City."

Arrest of Mario Chiesa

Tangentopoli began on 17 February 1992 when judge Antonio Di Pietro had Mario Chiesa, a member of the Italian Socialist Party (PSI), arrested for accepting a bribe from a Milan cleaning firm. The PSI distanced themselves from Chiesa, with PSI leader Bettino Craxi calling him mariuolo, or "villain", a "wild splinter" of the otherwise clean party. Upset over this treatment by his former colleagues, Chiesa began to give information about corruption implicating them. This marked the beginning of the mani pulite investigation; news of political corruption began spreading in the press.

Extension of anti-corruption investigations

In the 1992 elections, the centre-right Christian Democracy (DC) held on to power when its coalition government kept a small majority, while leftist opposition parties gained support. However, the Italian Communist Party split after the fall of the Soviet Union, depriving the opposition of leadership. Many votes went to the far-right Lega Nord, which was not inclined to form alliances with other parties at the time. The resulting parliament was therefore weak and difficult to bring to an agreement.

During April 1992, many industrial figures and politicians from both the government and the opposition were arrested on charges of corruption. While the investigations started in Milan, they quickly spread to other towns as more politicians confessed. One grotesque situation occurred when a Socialist politician immediately confessed to all of his crimes to two Carabinieri who had come to his house, only to later discover that they had come to deliver a mere fine for a traffic violation.

Fundamental to this increased exposure was the general attitude of the main politicians to drop support for subordinates who got caught; this made many of them feel betrayed, and they often implicated many other figures, who in turn would implicate even more. On 2 September 1992, the Socialist politician Sergio Moroni, charged with corruption, committed suicide. He left a letter pleading guilty, declaring that crimes were not for his personal gain but for the party's benefit, and accused the financing system of all the political parties.

Effect on national politics

In the local December elections, DC lost half of their votes. The day after that, Bettino Craxi, leader of the Italian Socialist Party, was officially accused of corruption. After many other politicians were accused and jailed, Craxi eventually resigned.

On 5 March 1993, the Italian government of Giuliano Amato and his justice minister Giovanni Conso tried to find a solution with a decree, which allowed criminal charges for several bribery-related crimes to be replaced by administrative charges instead; according to Italian popular opinion at the time, that would have resulted in a de facto amnesty for most corruption charges. Amid public outrage and nationwide rallies, the Italian president of the Republic Oscar Luigi Scalfaro refused to sign the decree, deeming it unconstitutional. The following week, a US$250 million affair involving Eni, the government-controlled national energy company, was revealed. The stream of accusation, jailing and confessions continued.

On 25 March 1993, the Italian parliament changed the municipal electoral law in favor of a majoritarian system. Later, on 18 April, the public overwhelmingly backed the abrogation of the existing proportional representation parliamentary electoral law in a referendum (a mixed system was introduced that August), causing Amato to resign three days later. Still shocked by the recent events, the Parliament was unable to produce a new government. Carlo Azeglio Ciampi, former governor of the national bank, was appointed head of the government and appointed a technical government without political influences. In the meantime, the investigation of Craxi was blocked by the parliament. Several members of the government, having been in office just three days, resigned in protest; among them were Francesco Rutelli, Minister of the Environment and Vincenzo Visco, Minister of Finance. In new local elections on 6 June 1993, DC lost half of its votes once again; the Socialist Party virtually disappeared. Instead Lega Nord, a protest movement with some ideological elements ranging from xenophobia and racism to independence from the rest of Italy and a general loathing of the political system, became the strongest political force in Northern Italy. The left-wing opposition was approaching majority, but still lacked unity and leadership.

Eventually, all four parties in government in 1992 disappeared, at different times in different ways: the Christian Democracy, the Italian Socialist Party, the Italian Socialist Democratic Party, and the Italian Liberal Party. The Democratic Party of the Left, the Italian Republican Party and the Movimento Sociale Italiano were the only surviving national parties; the Republican party is the only one that has maintained its name since.

According to the American ambassador Reginald Bartholomew, behind the operation there was the CIA who helped the Italian prosecutors to accuse the politicians.[4] [5] [6]

The Cusani trial

On 20 July 1993, the former Eni president, Gabriele Cagliari, committed suicide in jail. His wife later gave back $3 million of illegal funds.

Meanwhile, the trial of Sergio Cusani began. Mr. Cusani was accused of crimes connected to a joint venture between Eni and Montedison, named Enimont. It was broadcast on national television, and was a sort of showcase of the old politics being brought to their responsibilities. While Cusani himself was not a major figure, the connection of his crimes to the Enimont affair called in all the nation's major politicians as witnesses.

A high note was reached in the Cusani trial when former head of government Arnaldo Forlani, answering a question, simply said "I don't remember"; he also happened to be very nervous and did not notice that sweat was accumulating on his lips, and that image was by many considered symbolic of the people's disgust for the corruption system. Bettino Craxi, instead, admitted that his party received $93 million of illegal funds. His defense was that "everyone was doing this" anyway.

Even the Lega Nord was implicated in the trial; secretary Umberto Bossi and former treasurer Alessandro Patelli were convicted for receiving 200 million lire of illegal funding (approx. $100,000 at the time).

A bribe to the Italian Communist Party was alleged, but it was not established who had committed the offence. A number of Milanese members of the Democratic Party of the Left were charged with corruption during their time as members of the PCI but they were acquitted. As prosecutor Antonio Di Pietro stated, "Penal responsibility is personal. I cannot bring here a person with the first name Communist and last name Party". (La responsabilità penale è personale, non posso portare in giudizio una persona che si chiami Partito di nome e Comunista di cognome.)

The Enimont trial itself was carried out after the Cusani trial, with much less public interest.

Investigations on other fronts

In the meantime, the investigation expanded outside the political range: on 2 September 1993 the Milan judge Diego Curtò was arrested. On 21 April 1994, 80 financial policemen and 300 industry personalities were charged with corruption. A few days later, the secretary of the large Fiat corporation admitted corruption with a letter to a newspaper.

In 1994, Silvio Berlusconi entered politics by storm and won the elections. Many think that this move was to preserve his many industries from possible corruption charges. This suspicion was reinforced on 11 February, when Silvio Berlusconi's brother, Paolo, admitted to corruption crimes. On 13 July 1994, the Berlusconi government made a new law to avoid jail time for most corruption crimes.

The law was carefully timed as Italy had defeated Bulgaria in the 1994 Football World Cup's semifinals, and it is likely that the government expected to exploit an eventual victory to pass the law under silence in a football-crazy country. However, as Roberto Baggio shot high the last penalty against Brazil, and the news was showing images of hated, corrupt politicians getting out of jail, the public opinion became enraged; the images of Francesco De Lorenzo, former minister of Health, were especially striking, since the general public perceived stealing money from hospitals an especially hateful act.

Just a few days before, the arrested policemen had been talking about corruption in the Fininvest media industry, the biggest Berlusconi family property. Most of the Mani pulite investigation pool declared that they would respect the state's laws, but they could not work in a situation where duty and conscience were to conflict: they requested therefore to be reassigned to other duties.

Since the government could not afford to be seen as an adversary of the popular judge pool, the decree was hastily revoked and marked a "misunderstanding"; minister for internal affairs Roberto Maroni from Lega Nord claimed that he had not even had the chance to read it. While the minister of Justice was Alfredo Biondi, allegations that Cesare Previti, a lawyer from Berlusconi's company Fininvest, had written it, are at least credible.

On 29 July Berlusconi's brother was again arrested and immediately released.

Escalating conflict between Silvio Berlusconi and Antonio Di Pietro

At this point there began what has been described by many as the "Berlusconi-Di Pietro battle". While Berlusconi's industries were being investigated, "inspectors" were sent from the government to the Milanese judges' office to look for formal irregularities. None were ever found, but this tactic, coupled with Berlusconi's firm grip on the information system, helped spread what is described in other environments as FUD (Fear, Uncertainty, and Doubt). The battle ended without winners: on 6 December Di Pietro resigned. Two weeks later, the Berlusconi government resigned before a critical confidence vote in Parliament, which was generally expected to go against them.

During 1995, many investigations were started against Antonio Di Pietro, who would years later be cleared of all charges, while Silvio Berlusconi incurred other charges of corruption. It was later found that the main prosecutor of Antonio Di Pietro in these times, Fabio Salamone from Brescia, was the brother of a man that Antonio Di Pietro himself had prosecuted, and who was sentenced to 18 months of jail for various corruption charges. It took however some time before the authorities realized this and ordered Salamone to other duties even though his investigations had taken a completely different direction: Paolo Berlusconi (Silvio's brother) and Cesare Previti (former minister) were accused of a conspiracy against Di Pietro but the prosecutor who later replaced Salamone asked for their acquittal and so did the court.

After being cleared, Antonio Di Pietro went into politics, something he had previously ruled out on the grounds that he did not want to exploit the popularity gained doing what he perceived to be just his duty. His movement is named Italia dei Valori ("Italy of values").

In 1998, Cesare Previti, former manager of Fininvest and then sitting in parliament after the Berlusconi government, avoided jailing thanks to parliamentary intervention, even though Berlusconi and his allies were in opposition. Bettino Craxi was sentenced to several years cumulative jail time in definitive convictions and fled to Tunisia, where he remained until his death on 19 January 2000.

Statutory term strategy

After 1994, the danger of trials being cancelled due to the expiration of statutory terms was becoming very real. This was clear to the judges and to the politicians, and the latter ones (with no distinction between Berlusconi's coalition and the Olive Tree, especially under the leadership of Massimo D'Alema) either ignored the pleas of the judiciary system for more funding to buy equipment, or passed laws that made the notoriously slow Italian trials even slower and subject to earlier prescription.

Furthermore, the intricate nature of Italian laws allowed cunning lawyers to use many delaying tactics: an instructive example was a prosecution of Silvio Berlusconi, where he was accused of misappropriation of funds of his own company, Fininvest, in order to prepare black funds that could have been used for bribes or other illegitimate purposes; on the last possible day, a lawyer from Fininvest appeared in court and complained that his company had not been formally notified of the trial. While this trial was well publicized in the media (and also in Fininvest's media themselves), the formality forced the trial to be restarted from scratch, and Berlusconi was finally acquitted by expiration of statutory terms. Being acquitted in this first trial, he could later benefit from a general reduction of terms for other trials, which in turn expired earlier with a domino effect.

After Silvio Berlusconi's victory in 2001, public opinion had turned so far against judges, where it is not only openly acceptable to criticize judges for having carried out Mani pulite, but also increasingly difficult to broadcast opinions favorable to Milan's pool. Some blame Berlusconi's power in media as having played a role in this change or the inability of the opposite parties to gain the consent of the conservative electors. Even Umberto Bossi, whose Lega Nord has been an opposition party became highly critical of judges.


The term lottizzazione, meaning the way a terrain is divided up in minor parts or lotti, came to indicate the procedure of awarding top positions in important state conglomerates such as IRI, ENEL or ENI to political figures, or at least managers with a clear political orientation. This usually trickled down to lower levels, creating power centres depending on political parties that controlled a significant part of the production system. The available seats were usually awarded so that government parties (and opposition parties like the Italian Communist Party) would get a share of power corresponding to their perceived influence in the government.

In modern culture

In 2005, artist Gianni Motti created a piece of soap, named Mani Pulite, based on the scandal. This piece was claimed to have been created out of the fat from a liposuction of Silvio Berlusconi. It was sold at the 36th edition of Art Basel for 15,000 euros.[7]

A 2015 television series titled 1992 is based on the events of mani pulite.[8]

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Mani pulite


Mani pulite (pronounced , Italian for "clean hands") was a nationwide judicial investigation into political corruption in Italy held in the 1990s. Mani pulite led to the demise of the so-called "First Republic", resulting in the disappearance of many political parties. Some politicians and industry leaders committed suicide after their crimes were exposed. Antonio Di Pietro was the main judicial figure in charge of the operation. In some accounts, as many as 5,000 public figures fell under suspicion. At one point, more than half of the members of the Italian Parliament were under indictment. More than 400 city and town councils were dissolved because of corruption charges. The estimated value of bribes paid annually in the 1980s by Italian and foreign companies bidding for large government contracts reached 4 billion dollars (6.5 trillion lire). The corrupt system uncovered by these investigations was usually referred to as Tangentopoli (Italian pronunciation: ). The term derives from tangente, which means ...more...

Kickback (bribery)


A kickback is a form of negotiated bribery in which a commission is paid to the bribe-taker in exchange for services rendered. Generally speaking, the remuneration (money, goods, or services handed over) is negotiated ahead of time. The kickback varies from other kinds of bribes in that there is implied collusion between agents of the two parties, rather than one party extorting the bribe from the other. The purpose of the kickback is usually to encourage the other party to cooperate in the illegal scheme. The term "kickback" comes from colloquial English language, and describes the way a recipient of illegal gain "kicks back" a portion of it to another person for that person's assistance in obtaining it. Types and methods The most common form of kickback involves a vendor submitting a fraudulent or inflated invoice (often for goods or services which were not needed, of inferior quality, or both), with an employee of the victim company assisting in securing payment. For his or her assistance in securing p ...more...

Italian Democratic Socialist Party


The Italian Democratic Socialist Party (Italian: Partito Socialista Democratico Italiano, PSDI) was a minor social-democratic political party in Italy. The PSDI, before the 1990s decline in votes and members, had been an important force in Italian politics, being the longest serving partner in government for Christian Democracy. The party's founder and longstanding leader was Giuseppe Saragat, who served as President of the Italian Republic from 1964 to 1971. History The years of the First Republic The party was founded as the Socialist Party of Italian Workers (Partito Socialista dei Lavoratori Italiani, PSLI) in 1947 by a splinter group of the Italian Socialist Party (PSI), due to the decision of the latter to join the Italian Communist Party (PCI) in the Popular Democratic Front's electoral list for the 1948 general election. The split, led by Giuseppe Saragat and the sons of Giacomo Matteotti, took the name of scissione di Palazzo Barberini from the name of a palace in Rome where it took place. In ...more...

Carlo De Benedetti


Carlo De Benedetti (born 14 November 1934) is an Italian industrialist, engineer and publisher. He is both an Italian and naturalized Swiss citizen. He was awarded the Order of Merit for Labour by the Italian state in 1983, the Medaglia d'oro ai benemeriti della cultura e dell'arte (Gold medal of culture and art) and the Legion d'Honneur in 1987. De Benedetti is chairman of the Rodolfo De Benedetti Foundation (Fondazione Rodolfo Debenedetti) in Milan, which he founded in 1998 in memory of his father. It promotes research into economic policy decisions regarding the labor market and welfare systems in Europe. He is currently married to the former actress Silvia Monti. Life and career Born into a wealthy Jewish family, on 14 November 1934, Carlo De Benedetti is the brother of Italian Senator Franco Debenedetti, whose surname is different owing to a spelling error. In 1943, during the World War II, the De Benedetti family fled to Switzerland. After Carlo returned to Italy, he received a degree in electric ...more...

Carlo Vizzini


Carlo Vizzini (born 28 April 1947 in Palermo) is an Italian politician. Political life Vizzini was Secretary of the Italian Democratic Socialist Party from 1992 to 1993, Minister of Mails, and Minister for Cultural Assets and Activities (1987–88), and was a member of the Italian Senate from Sicily for Forza Italia and latterly The People of Freedom (PdL). Vizzini was a leading member of one of Forza Italia's social-democratic factions, a group known as the Reformist Inititiative Circles. The faction was succeeded by the social-democratic European Reformists when Forza Italian merged in the PdL. In 1992, as leader of the Social Democrats Italian, Italian is one of the three founders (along with Bettino Craxi and Achille Occhetto) of the Party of European Socialists. He was a member of the Italian Antimafia Commission from 2001-2009. In 2008 he became vice president of the Commission, but relinquished his position in June 2009 after being accused of having been bribed by Massimo Ciancimino, the son of Vito ...more...

Mario Chiesa (politician)


Mario Chiesa (Italian pronunciation: ; born in Milan, December 12, 1944 ) was an Italian politician and member of the Italian Socialist Party. In 1992 Chiesa was arrested on charges of corruption, leading to the mani pulite trials, and eventually to a restructuring of Italian politics. In 2009 he was arrested again, under charges related to waste treatment in Milan. Notes See Buccini, Goffredo (19 February 1992), "da politico a manager, una carriera all'ombra del Garofano", Corriere della Sera, p. 34, which describes him as aged forty-seven in February 1986. Mario Chiesa (Italian pronunciation: ; born in Milan, December 12, 1944 ) was an Italian politician and member of the Italian Socialist Party. In 1992 Chiesa was arrested on charges of corruption, leading to the mani pulite trials, and eventually to a restructuring of Italian politics. In 2009 he was arrested again, under charges r ...more...

Paolo Scaroni


Paolo Scaroni , born on 28 November 1946 in Vicenza , Italy , is an Italian businessman and the former chief executive officer of Italian energy company Eni . Education In 1969, Scaroni graduated from Bocconi University of Milan in the field of economics. In 1973 he obtained an MBA from Columbia Business School as his son Alvise Scaroni . Career In 1969, Scaroni joined Chevron Corporation for three years. After obtaining MBA, Scaroni was an associate at McKinsey & Company . In 1973, he joined Saint-Gobain , where he held different positions, culminating with his appointment as president of flat glass division. In 1985, he was appointed CEO of Techint . In 1996, he moved to the United Kingdom to become Chief Executive Officer of Pilkington . From May 2002 to May 2005, he served as CEO of Enel , Italy's leading electricity company. At Enel, Scaroni made a real breakthrough by abandoning the traditional multi-utility corporate model, supported by his predecessor Franco Tatò, in favour of placing greater fo ...more...

Antonio Di Pietro


Antonio Di Pietro (born October 2, 1950) is an Italian politician and lawyer. He was a minister in government of Romano Prodi, a Senator, and a Member of the European Parliament. He was a prosecutor in the Mani Pulite corruption trials in the early 1990s. Prosecutor Di Pietro was born into a poor rural family from Montenero di Bisaccia, Molise, Italy. As a young man he travelled to Germany where he worked in a factory in the mornings and in a sawmill in the afternoons to pay for his studies. He graduated from night school in Italy with a degree in law in 1978 and became a police officer. After a few years, he started a judicial career as a prosecutor. Mani Pulite In February 1992, Di Pietro began investigating Milan's politicians and business leaders for corruption and kickbacks. Together with other well-known magistrates such as Francesco Saverio Borrelli, Ilda Boccassini, Gherardo Colombo, and Piercamillo Davigo, he worked on the Mani Pulite ("Clean Hands") team, which investigated political corruption ...more...

Italian Socialist Party


The Italian Socialist Party ( Italian : Partito Socialista Italiano , PSI ) was a socialist and later social-democratic political party in Italy . Founded in Genoa in 1892, the PSI dominated the Italian left until after World War II , when it was eclipsed in status by the Italian Communist Party . The Socialists came to special prominence in the 1980s, when their leader Bettino Craxi , who had severed the residual ties with the Soviet Union and re-branded the party as " liberal-socialist ", served as Prime Minister (1983–1987). The PSI was disbanded in 1994 as a result of the Tangentopoli scandals. Prior to World War I , future dictator Benito Mussolini was a member of the PSI. History Early years The Italian Socialist Party was founded in 1892 as the Partito dei Lavoratori Italiani (Party of Italian Workers) by delegates of several workers' associations and parties, notably including the Italian Labour Party and the Italian Revolutionary Socialist Party . It was part of a wave of new socialist parties a ...more...



The Pentapartito (from Italian Penta, five, and partito, party), commonly shortened to CAF (from the initials of Craxi, Andreotti and Forlani) refers to the coalition government of five Italian political parties that formed between June 1981 and April 1991. The coalition comprised the Christian Democracy (DC) party and four secular parties: the Italian Socialist Party (PSI), Italian Democratic Socialist Party (PSDI), Italian Liberal Party (PLI) and Italian Republican Party (PRI). History The new majority Giulio Andreotti The Pentapartito began in 1981 at a meeting of the Congress of the Italian Socialist Party (PSI) when the Christian Democrat Arnaldo Forlani and Socialist Secretary Bettino Craxi signed an agreement with the "blessing" of Giulio Andreotti . As the agreement was signed in a trailer, it was called the "pact of the camper." The pact was also called "CAF" for the initials of the signers, Craxi-Andreotti-Forlani. With this agreement, the DC party recognized the equal dignity of the so-called "se ...more...

Raul Gardini


Raul Gardini (1933 - 1993) was an Italian businessman. In 1980 he took the helm of his father in law Serafino Ferruzzi's family wealth, leading an aggressive campaign that led to the acquisition of the French sugar and paper company Beghin-Say SA, turning Ferruzzi into Europe's leading sugar producer. In 1985, Gardini focused his interest on chemicals and bought stock in the Montedison chemicals group. By 1987, he had acquired 42 per cent of the group, turning Ferruzzi-Montedison into Italy's second largest industrial group after the state-owned company Eni. In 1989 Eni and Montedison formed a joint-venture called Enimont. In 1992 Gardini built a sailing team to compete in the America's Cup. Paul Cayard was hired as manager and skipper, leading Il Moro di Venezia to win the 1992 Louis Vuitton Cup. In 1993 Gardini was embroiled in the Tangentopoli scandal following a failed power bid to take control of Enimont and committed suicide in an hotel room in Milan. References ...more...

Years of Mud


The expression Years of Mud (Italian: Anni di fango) is used to identify a period of Italian history that coincides roughly with the 1980s. This expression is now in the common language to describe a long period of time marked by particularly adverse events. It refers to a strong negative opinion of a decade in which Italian companies, despite their economic prosperity and the beginning of the technological development that took place in those years, began a steady decline due to a particularly corrupt political class, and sometimes colluding with criminal organizations such as Cosa Nostra (the Sicilian Mafia). At that time the Propaganda Due, a secret Masonic organization, was also discovered. The expression owes its success primarily to the Italian journalist Indro Montanelli, which he called L'Italia degli anni di fango (Italy of the Years of Mud) the volume of Storia d'Italia dedicated to the years 1978-1993, a period that begins roughly with the election of Sandro Pertini as President of the Italian ...more...

List of political scandals in Italy


This is a list of major political scandals in Italy: Former Prime Minister Silvio Berlusconi underage prostitution charges Lockheed bribery scandals, which caused President Giovanni Leone to resign Masonic lodge Propaganda Due scandal, 1980s Tangentopoli, diffuse corruption cases in national politics in the early 1990s Revelation of Gladio, a NATO anti-communist stay-behind network Niger uranium forgeries used by George W. Bush as pretext for the 2003 invasion of Iraq SISMI-Telecom scandal, domestic surveillance program Bancopoli, bank takeover-merger scandal of 2005, involving insider trading, audiotapes and political influences Abu Omar case 2014 Rome corruption scandal New findings In last years, a successful initiative of moral revolt against political malpractice, entrusted to the Internet as a blog on "the list of parties with no convicted criminals on their electoral lists", has sparked the race to discover criminal records of candidates. References ...more...

Sergio Mattarella


Sergio Mattarella OMRI, OMCA (Italian pronunciation: ; born 23 July 1941) is an Italian politician, lawyer and judge serving as the 12th and current President of Italy since 2015. He was previously Minister of Education from 1989 to 1990 and Minister of Defence from 1999 to 2001. In 2011, he became an elected judge on the Constitutional Court. On 31 January 2015, he was elected by the Italian Parliament to be the 12th President of the Italian Republic. He is the first Sicilian to have held the post. Early life Sergio Mattarella was born in Palermo of a prominent Sicilian family. His father, Bernardo Mattarella, was an anti-fascist who, alongside Alcide De Gasperi and other prominent Catholic politicians, helped found the Christian Democracy (DC) party, which dominated the Italian political scene for almost fifty years, with Bernardo serving as a minister several times. Sergio Mattarella's brother, Piersanti Mattarella, was also a Christian Democratic politician and President of Sicily from 1978 until his d ...more...

1992 (TV series)


1992 is an Italian political drama television series created by Alessandro Fabbri, Ludovica Rampoldi, Stefano Sardo and based on an idea by Stefano Accorsi. The first season, comprising ten episodes, premiered on March 24, 2015, on pay-tv Sky Italia channels Sky Atlantic and Sky Cinema 1. Set in Rome, Milan and different Italian cities, the TV series offers a thrilling story following six people whose lives are intertwined with the rapidly changing political landscape in the early 1990s, during which Italy was gripped by the Clean Hands investigation into political corruption. Subsequently, this led to the end of the "First Republic" as well as the termination of several Italian political parties, who created the Italian democratic system after WWII. This controversial period in Italy resulted in the suicide of various political figures. The series will be followed by 1993 The series has been compared to House of Cards, The Sopranos, and The West Wing. Series synopses Season 1 (2015) In the winter of ...more...

Carlo Tognoli


Carlo Tognoli (born 16 June 1938) was an Italian politician, who was Mayor of Milan and minister of the Italian republic. Biography Tognoli was born at Milan and entered the Italian Socialist Party (Partito Socialista Italian, or PSI) in 1958. Elected into the Italian Chamber of Deputies , he was also Mayor of Milan from 1976 to 1986. In 1984–1987 he was also elected into the European Parliament ; in the latter year he was appointed as Minister of Problems of Urban Areas in the cabinets of Giovanni Goria and Ciriaco De Mita . Later he was Minister of Tourism and Spectacles in the 6th and 7th Andreotti governments. In 1992 he was involved in the Tangentopoli scandal together with his fellow party colleague Paolo Pillitteri (who had been his successor as mayor of Milan). He subsequently abandoned the political activity and in 1995 he obtained a position in Mediobanca thanks to the intercession of Enrico Cuccia References [ ...more...

Lazio regional election, 1990


The Lazio regional election of 1990 took place on 6 May 1990. Christian Democracy was by far the largest party, largely ahead of the Italian Communist Party, which placed second. After the election Christian Democrat Rodolfo Gigli formed a government which included the Italian Socialist Party and some minor parties. After 1992, following the Tangentopoli scandals, Gigli was succeeded by a succession of governments led by Giorgio Pasetto (Christian Democrat, 1992–1994), Carlo Proietti (Democratic Party of the Left, 1994–1995) and Arturo Osio (Green, 1995). Results Parties votes votes (%) seats Christian Democracy 1,123,076 34.5 22 Italian Communist Party 776,485 23.8 15 Italian Socialist Party 464,958 14.3 9 Italian Social Movement 213,174 6.5 4 Italian Republican Party 155,179 4.8 3 Green List 125,460 3.9 2 Italian Democratic Socialist Party 90,300 2.8 2 Rainbow Greens 78,683 2.4 1 Anti-Prohibition List 58,720 1.8 1 Italian Liberal Party 58,720 1.8 1 Proletarian Democracy 30,165 0.9 - Others 85,452 2.6 - ...more...

Paolo Mieli


Paolo Mieli , son of Renato Mieli, (born 25 February 1949) is an Italian journalist who has been editor of Italy's leading newspaper, Corriere della Sera . Born in Milan , Mieli debuted as journalist at 18 for L'Espresso , where he remained for some 20 years. As a member of Potere Operaio he initially adhered to far-left positions. Later he took a more moderate stance under the influence and tutelage of his teachers, Rosario Romeo and Renzo De Felice . From the 1980s Mieli worked for the most important Italian newspapers. After one year and a half at La Repubblica , he was hired by La Stampa in 1987. He became director in 1990. Two years later he moved to Il Corriere della Sera during the Tangentopoli bribe scandal. In May 1997 he was replaced by Ferruccio De Bortoli , assuming the position of editor-in-chief of RCS MediaGroup , publisher of Corriere della Sera. He continued his collaboration for that newspaper and returned as its director on 24 December 2004. Mieli served as a member of RAI TV , Italy's stat ...more...

European Parliament election, 1994 (Italy)


The European Parliament election of 1994 in Italy was the election of the delegation from Italy to the European Parliament in 1994. It was the first continental election after the scandal of Tangentopoli which destroyed the traditional republican parties of Italy: consequently, all new parties contested the race. Electoral system The pure party-list proportional representation was the traditional electoral system of the Italian Republic since its foundation in 1946, so it had been adopted to elect the Italian representatives to the European Parliament too. Two levels were used: a national level to divide seats between parties, and a constituency level to distribute them between candidates. Italian regions were united in 5 constituencies, each electing a group of deputies. At national level, seats were divided between party lists using the largest remainder method with Hare quota . All seats gained by each party were automatically distributed to their local open lists and their most voted candidates. Results T ...more...

Lombard regional election, 1990


The Lombard regional election of 1990 took place on 6 May 1990. The 5th term of the Regional Council was chosen. Electoral law Election was held under proportional representation with provincial constituencies where the largest remainder method with a Droop quota was used. To ensure more proportionality, remained votes and seats were transferred at regional level and calculated at-large. Results Christian Democracy, which had been the leading political force in the region for twenty years, and the Italian Communist Party lost half million votes each and Lega Lombarda, a new autonomist party led by Umberto Bossi, obtained a sounding victory, entering the Regional Council with 15 councillors, along with one for the Lombard Alliance, and becoming the second largest party in the region. Since that point Lega Lombarda became a stable political force in Lombardy. After the election a cabinet led by Christian Democrat Giuseppe Giovenzana was formed but, after the Tangentopoli crisis, it was replaced by a succe ...more...

Paolo Cirino Pomicino


Paolo Cirino Pomicino (born 3 September 1939) is an Italian politician, and was elected to the Italian Chamber of Deputies in the 2006 General election representing the Christian Democracy for Autonomies. Biography Cirino Pomicino was born in Naples. He graduated in Medicine and Surgery and entered Democrazia Cristiana (Italian Christian Democracy, or DC) for which he became first a member of Naples' city council, and then member of the Italian Chamber of Deputies in 1976, a position he held until 1994. A member of Giulio Andreotti's corrente (political movement within DC), he was under minister of the Public Functions (1988-1989) and Minister of the Economical Balance (1989-1992). He was nicknamed o' ministro ("The minister" in Neapolitan dialect). During his membership of DC, he has been convicted for illegal financing (sentenced to 1 year and 8 months) and he negotiated (thereby admitting guilt) 2 months for corruption and hidden funds. He was also involved in the scandal of the funds management for th ...more...

Franco Frigo


Franco Frigo (born 13 August 1950 in Cittadella ) is an Italian politician from Veneto . A long-time Christian Democrat , he was President of the Province of Padua from 1985 to 1990. He was first elected to the Regional Council of Veneto in 1990 and in the midst of the Tangentopoli scandals he was briefly President of Veneto (1992–1993). He returned in the Regional Council in 2000 and was re-elected in 2005 . He retired in 2010, after an unsuccessful bid to become member of the European Parliament in 2009. However, in 2013 he entered the European Parliament , succeeding to Debora Serracchiani . References Franco Frigo (born 13 August 1950 in Cittadella ) is an Italian politician from Veneto . A long-time Christian Democrat , he was President of the Province of Padua fr ...more...

Nicola Capria


Nicola Capria (November 6, 1932 – January 31, 2009) was an Italian Socialist Party politician. He served in the cabinets of Prime Ministers Cossiga (April–October 1980), Forlani (1980–1981), Spadolini (1981–1982), Fanfani (1982–1983), Craxi (1983-1987) and Andreotti (1991–1992). He served in the Chamber of Deputies of Italy in Legislature VII (1976–1979), Legislature VIII (1979–1983), Legislature IX (1983–1987), Legislature X (1987–1992) and Legislature XI (1992–1994). External links IL PSI A MESSINA ERA LUI: E' MORTO NICOLA CAPRIA. NEL 1994 (PIENA TANGENTOPOLI) CHIUSE LA SUA CARRIERA Nicola Capria (November 6, 1932 – January 31, 2009) was an Italian Socialist Party politician. He served in the cabinets of Prime Ministers Cossiga (April–October 1980), Forlani (1980–1981), Spadolini (1981–1982), Fanfani (1982–1983), Craxi (1983-1987) and Andreotti (1991–1992). He served in the Chamber of Deputies of Italy in Legislature VII (1976–1979), Legislature VIII (1979–1983), Legislature IX (1983–1987), Legislature X (1 ...more...

Valerio Zanone


Valerio Zanone (22 January 1936 – 7 January 2016) was an Italian politician, who was secretary and president of the Italian Liberal Party. He was also a senator of the Democratic Party. He has been mayor of Turin from 1990 to 1991. Biography Zanone was born in Turin. He graduated in philosophy at the University of Turin. After entering the Italian Liberal Party (Partito Liberale Italiano, PLI), he was regional councillor in Piedmont, and then member of the Italian Chamber of Deputies from 1976 (being confirmed until 1994). In 1976 he was appointed as national secretary of PLI, and was later president of the same. In 1985 Zanone was appointed a Minister of Ecology in the first Bettino Craxi cabinet, and later was Minister of Industry under Craxi's second tenure (1986–1987), and Minister of Defence in Giovanni Goria and Ciriaco De Mita cabinets (1987–1989). He was also mayor of Turin for a year and a half (1990–1991). After the Tangentopoli scandal and the dissolution of PLI, he formed a centre-left moveme ...more...

Claudio Martelli


Claudio Martelli (born 24 September 1943) is an Italian politician, and was the right-hand man of Bettino Craxi, the socialist Prime Minister from 1983–1987. Biography Martelli was born at Gessate, in the province of Milan. He graduated in Philosophy and joined the Italian Socialist Party in 1966. In 1976, he was called by the leader of the party, Bettino Craxi, to continue his career in Rome. He was elected to the Italian Parliament in 1979 and became vice-leader (with Valdo Spini) of the party in 1981. He was also elected for the PSI at the European Parliament in 1984. In 1989, he was nominated as vice-President of the Council and in 1991 became Minister for Justice in both of the governments of Giulio Andreotti (1989–1992). During Tangentopoli, he ran for the party leadership after the resignation of Bettino Craxi, after Craxi was accused of corruption. However, his candidacy was blown off by his involvement in the 7 million dollar bribe in 1980 and resigned as Minister of Justice. He exited the ...more...

Clelio Darida


Clelio Darida (3 May 1927 – 11 May 2017) was an Italian politician. He was mayor of Rome and minister of the Italian Republic. Biography Darida was born and died in Rome . Starting from June 1960, he was member of Rome's communal council for his party, Democrazia Cristiana (Christian Democracy, or DC). He was a member of the corrente (political movement within DC) of Amintore Fanfani first, and Arnaldo Forlani later. He was elected mayor of Rome on 30 July 1969, being confirmed on 17 March 1972. In 1974 he formed a city council including only DC member, with indirect support by the councillors of the Italian Communist Party . In 1976 he resigned as mayor to participate in the 1976 general elections . He was elected in the Chamber of Deputies , being confirmed until 1992, when he was not elected. Darida was undersecretary of the Minister of the Interior in 1976–1980, and, from 1980 to 1987, Minister for the Relationship with the Parliament, Minister of the Mail, of the Public Functions, of Justice and State Pa ...more...

Apulian regional election, 1990


The Apulian regional election of 1990 took place on 6 May 1990. Christian Democracy was by far the largest party, largely ahead of its major competitors, the Italian Communist Party, which had its worst result ever in a regional election, and the Italian Socialist Party, that gained its best result ever and even surpassed the Communists. After the election Christian Democrat Michele Bellomo was elected President of the Region at the head of a centre-left coalition. After the Tangentopoli scandals, Bellomo was replaced by a succession of short-lived governments. Results Parties votes votes (%) seats Christian Democracy 978,734 40.7 22 Italian Socialist Party 474,404 19.7 10 Italian Communist Party 449,969 18.7 10 Italian Social Movement 149,707 6.2 3 Italian Democratic Socialist Party 104,055 4.3 2 Italian Republican Party 71,554 3.0 1 Green List 53,232 2.2 1 Italian Liberal Party 52,871 2.2 1 Rainbow Greens 27,253 1.1 - Proletarian Democracy 19,032 0.8 - Anti-Prohibition Party 17,989 0.8 - Others 6,072 0 ...more...

Christian Democracy (Italy)


Christian Democracy (Italian: Democrazia Cristiana, DC) was a Christian democratic political party in Italy. The DC was founded in 1943 as the ideal successor of the Italian People's Party, which had the same symbol, a crossed shield (scudo crociato). A Catholic-inspired, centrist, catch-all party comprising both right- and left-leaning political factions, the DC played a dominant role in the politics of Italy for fifty years, from its inception in 1944 until its final demise in 1994 amid the Tangentopoli scandals. The party was nicknamed the White Whale (Balena bianca). From 1946 until 1994 the DC was the largest party in Parliament, governing in successive coalitions. It originally supported governments based on liberal-conservative political positions, before moving to centre-left coalitions. The party was succeeded by a string of smaller parties, including the Italian People's Party, the Christian Democratic Centre, the United Christian Democrats, and the still active Union of the Centre. Former Christ ...more...

Álvaro Recoba


Álvaro Alexander Recoba Rivero ( Spanish pronunciation:  ; born 17 March 1976; nickname "El Chino" ) is a Uruguayan former footballer , who last played for Primera División Uruguaya side Nacional , as either a forward or midfielder . Although he began and ended his footballing career in his native country, he also played for several European clubs throughout his career, most notably Italian side Inter Milan , where he spent 11 seasons. At international level, Recoba won 69 caps for the Uruguay national team between 1995 and 2007, participating at the 2002 FIFA World Cup and two Copa América tournaments. Club career Early career Recoba started his career with Uruguay's Danubio . After several years in the Danubio youth teams, he appeared on the first team at age 17 and played for two full seasons, 1994–95 and 1995–96. At the start of the 1996–97 season, Danubio agreed to transfer Recoba to Nacional . The following season, Nacional agreed to send Recoba to Italy's Serie A club Internazionale . Internazionale R ...more...

Trentino-Alto Adige/Südtirol regional election, 1993


The Trentino-Alto Adige/Südtirol regional election of 1993 took place on 21 November 1993. The South Tyrolean People's Party (SVP) and Christian Democracy (DC) resulted the two most voted parties at the regional level. However, while the SVP retained its outright majority in South Tyrol, the DC was the real loser of the election. The party, severely damaged by the Tangentopoli scandals, lost half of its share of vote both in South Tyrol and the Trentino, where it lost many votes to the Trentino Tyrolean Autonomist Party (PATT) and Lega Nord Trentino (LNT). After the election, the SVP, DC and the PATT formed a coalition at the regional level. Luis Durnwalder (SVP) was confirmed President of South Tyrol, while Carlo Andreotti (PATT) became President of the Trentino. It was the first time that the Province was not led by a Christian Democrat. Results Regional totals Parties votes votes (%) seats South Tyrolean People's Party 160,186 26.0 19 Christian Democracy 87,896 14.3 11 Trentino Tyrolean Autonomist ...more...

Piedmontese regional election, 1990


The Piedmontese regional election of 1990 took place on 6 May 1990. Christian Democracy and the Italian Communist Party lost many votes, especially to the regionalist parties and the Greens. After the election Christian Democrat Gian Paolo Brizio formed a government comprising the Italian Socialist Party , the Italian Liberal Party , the Italian Republican Party and the Italian Democratic Socialist Party . In 1994, following the Tangentopoli -crisis and the dissolution of Christian Democracy, Brizio, who had joined to the Italian People's Party , formed a new government which included the Democratic Party of the Left , successor party of the Communists, and the Socialists. Results Parties votes votes (%) seats Christian Democracy 814,359 27.9 18 Italian Communist Party 663,468 22.8 14 Italian Socialist Party 445,768 15.3 9 Autonomist Piedmont 148,450 5.1 3 Italian Liberal Party 120,677 4.1 2 Italian Republican Party 116,344 4.0 2 Green List 113,760 3.9 2 Italian Social Movement 104,851 3.6 2 Italian Democrati ...more...

Umberto Bossi


Umberto Bossi (born 19 September 1941) is an Italian politician, former leader of the Lega Nord, a party seeking autonomy or independence for Northern Italy or Padania. He is married to Manuela Marrone and has four sons (of whom one was from his first wife). Implicated in the embezzlement of hundreds of thousands of euros in public funds, Bossi was sentenced to two years and six months' imprisonment in July 2017. Birth and education Umberto Bossi was born in 1941 in Cassano Magnago, in the province of Varese, Lombardy. He graduated from scientific high school (liceo scientifico) and later began studying medicine at the University of Pavia, though he did not get a degree. While there, in February 1979 he met Bruno Salvadori, leader of the Valdostan Union. Politics After the death of Salvadori in a car accident during the summer of 1980, Bossi began focusing more on Lombardy. After two years, the autonomist Lega Lombarda was born. In that period Bossi met his second wife, Manuela Marrone. The Lega Lomba ...more...

Venetian regional election, 1990


The Venetian regional election of 1990 took place on 6 May 1990. Christian Democracy was by far the largest party, but it was four seats short of an outright majority in the Regional Council. The Greens and the regionalist parties did surprisingly well. After the election Christian Democrat Franco Cremonese formed a government comprising the Italian Socialist Party , the Italian Republican Party and the Italian Democratic Socialist Party . The government fell in 1992 in the verge of Tangentopoli scandals and was replaced by a succession of governments , which included both Liga Veneta and the Democratic Party of the Left , the successor party of the Communists. Results Parties votes votes (%) seats Christian Democracy 1,294,996 42.4 27 Italian Communist Party 475,342 15.6 10 Italian Socialist Party 419,087 13.7 8 Green List – Rainbow Greens 217,440 7.1 4 Liga Veneta 180,676 5.9 3 Italian Social Movement 83,225 2.7 1 Italian Republican Party 77,932 2.6 1 Italian Democratic Socialist Party 65,424 2.1 1 Union of ...more...

History of the Italian Republic


After World War II and the overthrow of Mussolini's fascist regime, Italy's history was dominated by the Christian Democracy (Democrazia Cristiana, DC) political party for 48 years – from the 1946 election until the 1994 election – while the opposition was led by the Italian Communist Party (PCI). This situation changed due to an external shock – the crisis and Dissolution of the Soviet Union – and an internal one – the Tangentopoli corruption scandal and operation Mani pulite (Italian for "Clean Hands"). These international and national political turmoils led to the reform of the electoral system (from almost perfect proportional to uninominal/multi-seat circumscriptions) and radical restructuring of the Italian political system, including the dissolution of most traditional political parties, including Christian Democracy and Communist Party. In 1994, in the midst of the Mani Pulite operation which shook political parties, media magnate Silvio Berlusconi, owner of three private TV channels, several newspa ...more...

Fiorenzo Angelini


Fiorenzo Angelini (1 August 1916 – 22 November 2014) was an Italian Cardinal of the Roman Catholic Church . He is the former President of the Pontifical Council for the Pastoral Care of Health Care Workers in the Roman Curia , and was elevated to the cardinalate in 1991. When Cardinal Ersilio Tonini died on 28 July 2013, Cardinal Angelini became the oldest living cardinal until the next consistory where Pope Francis appointed 98-year-old Archbishop Loris Francesco Capovilla as a cardinal. Biography Born in Rome , Angelini studied at the Pontifical Roman Seminary , Pontifical Lateran University , and Pontifical Theological Faculty Marianum before being ordained to the priesthood on 3 February 1940. He did pastoral work in Rome until 1956, and served as a chaplain in Azione Cattolica from 1945 to 1959. Angelini served as Master of Pontifical Ceremonies from 1947 to 1954, and for a few months he was a delegate for Roman hospitals. On 27 June 1956, he was appointed Titular Bishop of Messene by Pope Pius XII . Ang ...more...

Reformist Socialist Party


The Reformist Socialist Party (Partito Socialista Riformista, PSR) was a tiny social-democratic political party in Italy. It was founded after the Tangentopoli scandal, in opposition to the decision of Ottaviano Del Turco, then secretary of the Italian Socialist Party (PSI), to place it within the centre-left Alliance of Progressives coalition, dominated by the Democratic Party of the Left. Its leading members included Fabrizio Cicchitto and Enrico Manca. The party merged into the Socialist Party in 1996. Fabrizio Cicchitto, who was a left-winger close to Riccardo Lombardi in the old PSI became the deputy-coordinator of Forza Italia and later member of The People of Freedom, while Enrico Manca, who was a centrist linked to Bettino Craxi, joined Democracy is Freedom – The Daisy in 2004 and the Democratic Party until his death in 2011. Leadership Secretary: Fabrizio Cicchitto (1994–1996) President: Enrico Manca (1994–1996) See also Italian Reformist Socialist Party References http://mephisto.alter ...more...

Franco Nicolazzi


Franco Nicolazzi (10 April 1924 – 22 January 2015) was an Italian politician. Nicolazzi was born in Gattico, in the province of Novara. During World War II HE fought against the German occupation of Italy in the Brigate Matteotti. He was one of the founders of the Italian Democratic Socialist Party (Partito Socialista Democratico Italiano, PSDI) in 1948, an offshoot of the Italian Socialist Party whose members were against the decision to ally with the Italian Communist Party. Nicolazzi was a member of the Italian Parliament from 1963 to 1990, and was ministry of Industry in 1979 and then ministry of Public Works until 1987. He retired from political activity after his encroachment in the Tangentopoli scandal, in which he was condemned to a one-year residence order. Fronm 2006 until his death he was the President of the Giuseppe Saragat Foundation. Nicolazzi died on 22 January 2015, aged 90. References Nicolazzi cittadino onorario di Gravellona Nicolazzi: "Ho salvato il Vco dalla morte" (in Itali ...more...

Bettino Craxi


Benedetto "Bettino" Craxi (Italian: ; 24 February 1934 – 19 January 2000) was an Italian politician, leader of the Italian Socialist Party from 1976 to 1993 and Prime Minister of Italy from 1983 to 1987. He was the first member of the PSI to hold the office and the third Prime Minister from a socialist party. He led the third-longest government in the Italian Republic, and he is considered one of the most powerful and prominent politicians of the so-called First Republic. Craxi was involved in investigations conducted by Mani Pulite judges in Milan, eventually being convicted for corruption and illicit financing of the Socialist Party. He always rejected the charges of corruption, while admitting to the illegal funding which permitted costly political activity, the PSI being less financially powerful than the two larger parties, Christian Democracy and the Communists. Craxi's government and party were also supported by future Prime Minister Silvio Berlusconi, a media magnate and personal friend of Craxi. B ...more...

Italian general election, 1992


General elections were held in Italy on 5 April 1992, , to select the Eleventh Republican Parliament . They were the first without the traditionally second most important political force in Italian politics , the Italian Communist Party (PCI), which had been disbanded in 1991. It was replaced by a more social-democratic oriented force, the Democratic Party of the Left (PDS), and by a minority entity formed by members who did not want to renounce the communist tradition, the Communist Refoundation Party (PRC). However, put together they gained around 4% less than what the already declining PCI had obtained in the 1987 Italian general election , despite PRC had absorbed the disbanded Proletarian Democracy (DP). The other major feature was the sudden rise of the federalist Northern League , which increased its vote from 0.5% of the preceding elections to more than 8%, increasing from a single member both in the Chamber and the Senate to 55 and 25, respectively. The long wave ("onda lunga") of Bettino Craxi 's n ...more...

Corruption in Italy


Corruption in Italy is a major problem in Italy. In Transparency International's annual surveys, Italy has consistently been regarded as one of the most corrupt countries in the Eurozone. Transparency International's 2017 Corruption Perception Index ranks the country 54th place out of 180 countries. Corruption costs Italy a reported €60 billion a year, which amount to four percent of its GDP. On the 2016 Corruption Perceptions Index, Italy took 61st place out of 174 countries, scoring on a par with Senegal, Montenegro, and South Africa. Political corruption remains a major problem particularly in Southern Italy including Calabria, parts of Campania and Sicily where corruption perception is at a high level. Political parties are ranked the most corrupt institution in Italy, closely followed by public officials and Parliament, according to Transparency International's Global Corruption Barometer 2013. Regarding business and corruption, foreign investments and economic growth are hindered by organized crime and ...more...

Italian general election, 1994 (Veneto)


The Italian general election of 1994 took place on 27–28 March 1994. In 1993–1994 the Tangentopoli scandals led to the disappearance of the main government parties, including Christian Democracy (DC) and the Italian Socialist Party (PSI). The DC successor, the Italian People's Party (PPI), was not able to retain the votes of its predecessor, which were largely absorbed by Liga Veneta – Lega Nord and Forza Italia , the new party launched by entrepreneur Silvio Berlusconi . In a highly fragmented party system, Forza Italia came first with 23.6% and Liga Veneta second with 21.6%. Results Chamber of Deputies   Coalitions Single-seat constituencies Proportional system Total votes votes (%) seats Parties votes votes (%) seats tot. seats Pole of Freedoms ? ? 36 Forza Italia 767,121 23.6 2 4 40 Lega Nord 701,615 21.6 2 Alliance of Progressives ? ? 1 Democratic Party of the Left 394,699 12.2 2 3 4 Communist Refoundation Party 143,998 4.4 1 Federation of the Greens 124,107 3.8 - Italian Socialist Party 54,090 1.7 - Dem ...more...

History of Italy


In archaic times, ancient Greeks, Etruscans and Celts established settlements in the south, the centre and the north of Italy respectively, while various Italian tribes and Italic peoples inhabitated the Italian peninsula and insular Italy. The Italic tribe of the Latins formed the city of Rome as a Kingdom, which eventually became a Republic that united Italy by the third century BC and emerged as the dominant power of Europe and the Mediterranean Sea as a consequence of the military victories of generals such as Scipio, Aemilius Paullus, Scipio Aemilianus, Gaius Marius, Lucius Sulla, Pompey and Julius Caesar. In 27 BC, Augustus established the Roman Empire and inaugurated the Pax Romana, a period of stability and relative peace in which Italy flourished as the leading cultural, political and economic centre of the known world. The death of  the last of the good emperors, Marcus Aurelius, and the crisis of the third century marked the beginning of the decline of Rome. The Empire went through major changes i ...more...

Gad Lerner


Gad Lerner (born 7 December 1954 in Beirut , Lebanon ) is an Italian journalist and writer.e montaggio del tg5 Career He began his news career in 1976, writing for the ultra-leftist daily Lotta Continua , belonging to the eponymous political entity, becoming its deputy director. He then worked for the Genoan daily Il Lavoro , as well as for Radio Popolare , the communist newspaper Il Manifesto and the weekly newsmagazine L'Espresso . Notoriety and success came when he started working for television broadcasts on Rai Tre , among which Profondo Nord and Milano, Italia. His reporting coincided with the infamous years of bribery scandals, known as Tangentopoli ( Italian for Bribesville), and the ascent of the Lega Nord separatist political movement - Lerner successfully portrayed in his shows the deep changes the country was experiencing. He later served as director deputy director of the national newspaper La Stampa and briefly as director of news broadcasts for TG1 and Rai Uno . He publicly resigned after a sel ...more...

Prime Minister of Italy


The President of the Council of Ministers of the Italian Republic (Italian: Presidente del Consiglio dei ministri della Repubblica Italiana), commonly referred to in Italy as Presidente del Consiglio and known in English as the Prime Minister of Italy, is the head of government of the Italian Republic. The office of Prime Minister is established by Articles 92 through to 96 of the Constitution of Italy. The Prime Minister is appointed by the President of the Republic after each general election and must have the confidence of the Parliament of Italy to stay in office. Prior to the establishment of the Italian Republic, the position was called "President of the Council of Ministers of the Kingdom of Italy" (Presidente del Consiglio dei ministri del Regno d'Italia). From 1925 to 1943 during the Fascist regime, the position was transformed into the dictatorial position of "Head of the Government, Prime Minister, Secretary of State" (Capo del Governo, Primo ministro, Segretario di Stato) held by Benito Mussolini ...more...

Ottaviano Del Turco


Ottaviano Del Turco (born 7 November 1944) is an Italian politician. Early life Del Turco was born in Collelongo on 7 November 1944. Career After a career in trade unionism in the Italian General Confederation of Labour (CGIL) Del Turco rose to the top of Bettino Craxi 's Italian Socialist Party (PSI) before it was swept away in the Tangentopoli scandals of 1992-94. Del Turco was the president of the Antimafia Commission from December 1996 to May 2000. He was minister of finance in the cabinet led by the then prime minister Giuliano Amato from 2000-2001. He was elected to the European Parliament in 2004 on the Italian Democratic Socialists (SDI) ticket and sat with the Party of European Socialists group. On 20 July 2004, he was elected chair of the committee on employment and social affairs at the parliament. On 4 April 2005 he won the election as president of his native Abruzzo as candidate for centre-left coalition The Union and on 1 May resigned his seat in the European Parliament to take up this post. In ...more...

Agnelli family


The Agnelli family is an Italian multi-industry business dynasty founded by Giovanni Agnelli, one of the original founders in Piedmont (in 1899) of what became the FIAT motor company. They are also primarily known for other activities in the automotive industry as the owners of Ferrari since 1969, Lancia (1969), Alfa Romeo (1986) and Chrysler (2009) through their own multinational corporation, as well as for having been the main operators of the Juventus F.C. of the Italian Serie A since 1923 and its majority owners since its conversion to a public limited company in 1967. By 2010 the family controlled Italy’s largest manufacturer, Fabbrica Italiana Automobili Torino (FIAT), through its holding company EXOR N.V.. The family has sometimes been described in the English-speaking world as "the Kennedys of Italy" and compared in the Italian-speaking world to the historic Florentine Republic's Medici family and the House of Savoy, from the duchy of the same name, for their role in the country's contemporary histor ...more...

Fabrizio Cicchitto


Fabrizio Cicchitto (Rome, 26 October 1940) is an Italian politician. Career Fabrizio Cicchitto entered politics during the earlier 1960s, supporting the Marxist left wing of Riccardo Lombardi in the Italian Socialist Party and then becoming secretary of the party's youth organization (Federazione Giovanile Socialista Italiana, Italian Young Socialist Federation). Cicchitto also became sympathetic to Eurocommunism and the Historic Compromise path taken by the Italian Communist Party (PCI), while being highly critical of Christian Democracy (DC) itself, as well as of the American CIA and the Italian Servizio Informazioni Difesa. According to him, DC would have taken profit from the Red Brigades' activities and the Aldo Moro case to cut off relations with the PCI. In 1981, he confessed being a member of the masonic lodge Propaganda Due (P2). Shortly after this move, Cicchitto was excluded from the Socialist Party. Readmitted toward the end of the Eighties, he followed the policies of Bettino Craxi and held mi ...more...

Alex Zanotelli


Father Alex Zanotelli Father Alex Zanotelli born August 26, 1938, Livo , Trentino ( Italy ) is a member of the Combonian missionaries in Verona . He is the founder of Italian movements whose goals include social harmony and equality. Biography Early life In the early 1960s, Zanotelli moved to Cincinnati, Ohio to attend a course on theology while he was in high school. In 1964, after completing his theological studies in Cincinnati, he was ordained a priest. Sudan and the Nuba As a Combonian missionary, he left for Southern Sudan , which was plagued by civil war and where he stayed for eight years. The local government eventually pressured him to leave because of his open Christian witness and the active solidarity he showed the Nuba people. The reasons cited by the government included Zanotelli's inclusion of African traditional ceremonials in mass celebrations. Vatican authorities also objected to this practice, although Zanotelli received permission from local Catholic bishops . This annoyed both the local ...more...

Publio Fiori


Publio Fiori (born 25 March 1938) is an Italian politician. He was born in Rome and graduated in jurisprudence. He became a member of Christian Democracy, to which he belonged for much of his political career. In 1977 a commando of Brigate Rosse (communist terrorists) shot him at legs and thorax. Fiori is often included in the list of those belonging to Propaganda Due (P2), a Masonic lodge operating illegally (in contravention of the Italian constitution banning secret lodges, and membership of government officials in secret membership organizations) from 1976 to 1981. In 2001, however, the Court of Rome ruled out his membership of P2. On 1 July 1992 he became undersecretary of the Ministry of Mail and Telecommunications in the Giuliano Amato cabinet, while on 6 May of the following year he was appointed as undersecretary in the Ministry of Public Health. When in 1993 Christian Democracy, then being wiped out by the Tangentopoli corruption scandal, voted for an alliance with former communist Democratic Part ...more...

Chiara Moroni


Chiara Moroni ( Iseo , BS , 23 October 1974) is an Italian politician, daughter of Sergio Moroni , a Socialist politician who killed himself during Tangentopoli . She is currently Vice President of Forza Italia 's caucus in the Chamber of Deputies . Chiara Moroni was elected deputy in the 2001 general election for the constituency of Rezzato under the banner of the Socialist Party – New PSI , at the age of 26. When Gianni De Michelis and Bobo Craxi disputed on the collocation of the party in 2005, she supported De Michelis and his line of continuing the alliance with Silvio Berlusconi 's House of Freedoms coalition. She was re-elected in 2006 into the list of Forza Italia (thanks to a pact between Berlusconi and her party), but, when it was clear that also the NPSI was heading toward the centre-left, on 3 May, she left the party and officially joined Forza Italia. References "La deputata Chiara Moroni passa dal Pdl ai finiani - IL SALVAGENTE - quotidiano on-line dei consumatori" . Il Salvagente (in Italian). ...more...

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