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Tangentopoli

Mani pulite (pronounced , Italian for "clean hands") was a nationwide judicial investigation into political corruption in Italy held in the 1990s. Mani pulite led to the demise of the so-called "First Republic", resulting in the disappearance of many political parties. Some politicians and industry leaders committed suicide after their crimes were exposed. Antonio Di Pietro was the main judicial figure in charge of the operation.

In some accounts, as many as 5,000 public figures fell under suspicion. At one point, more than half of the members of the Italian Parliament were under indictment. More than 400 city and town councils were dissolved because of corruption charges. The estimated value of bribes paid annually in the 1980s by Italian and foreign companies bidding for large government contracts reached 4 billion dollars (6.5 trillion lire).[1]

The corrupt system uncovered by these investigations was usually referred to as Tangentopoli (Italian pronunciation: ).[2] The term derives from tangente, which means kickback and in this context refers to kickbacks given for public works contracts,[1] and poli meaning city;[3] it is thus sometimes translated as "Bribesville" or "Kickback City."

Arrest of Mario Chiesa

Tangentopoli began on 17 February 1992 when judge Antonio Di Pietro had Mario Chiesa, a member of the Italian Socialist Party (PSI), arrested for accepting a bribe from a Milan cleaning firm. The PSI distanced themselves from Chiesa, with PSI leader Bettino Craxi calling him mariuolo, or "villain", a "wild splinter" of the otherwise clean party. Upset over this treatment by his former colleagues, Chiesa began to give information about corruption implicating them. This marked the beginning of the mani pulite investigation; news of political corruption began spreading in the press.

Extension of anti-corruption investigations

In the 1992 elections, the centre-right Christian Democracy (DC) held on to power when its coalition government kept a small majority, while leftist opposition parties gained support. However, the Italian Communist Party split after the fall of the Soviet Union, depriving the opposition of leadership. Many votes went to the far-right Lega Nord, which was not inclined to form alliances with other parties at the time. The resulting parliament was therefore weak and difficult to bring to an agreement.

During April 1992, many industrial figures and politicians from both the government and the opposition were arrested on charges of corruption. While the investigations started in Milan, they quickly spread to other towns as more politicians confessed. One grotesque situation occurred when a Socialist politician immediately confessed to all of his crimes to two Carabinieri who had come to his house, only to later discover that they had come to deliver a mere fine for a traffic violation.

Fundamental to this increased exposure was the general attitude of the main politicians to drop support for subordinates who got caught; this made many of them feel betrayed, and they often implicated many other figures, who in turn would implicate even more. On 2 September 1992, the Socialist politician Sergio Moroni, charged with corruption, committed suicide. He left a letter pleading guilty, declaring that crimes were not for his personal gain but for the party's benefit, and accused the financing system of all the political parties.

Effect on national politics

In the local December elections, DC lost half of their votes. The day after that, Bettino Craxi, leader of the Italian Socialist Party, was officially accused of corruption. After many other politicians were accused and jailed, Craxi eventually resigned.

On 5 March 1993, the Italian government of Giuliano Amato and his justice minister Giovanni Conso tried to find a solution with a decree, which allowed criminal charges for several bribery-related crimes to be replaced by administrative charges instead; according to Italian popular opinion at the time, that would have resulted in a de facto amnesty for most corruption charges. Amid public outrage and nationwide rallies, the Italian president of the Republic Oscar Luigi Scalfaro refused to sign the decree, deeming it unconstitutional. The following week, a US$250 million affair involving Eni, the government-controlled national energy company, was revealed. The stream of accusation, jailing and confessions continued.

On 25 March 1993, the Italian parliament changed the municipal electoral law in favor of a majoritarian system. Later, on 18 April, the public overwhelmingly backed the abrogation of the existing proportional representation parliamentary electoral law in a referendum (a mixed system was introduced that August), causing Amato to resign three days later. Still shocked by the recent events, the Parliament was unable to produce a new government. Carlo Azeglio Ciampi, former governor of the national bank, was appointed head of the government and appointed a technical government without political influences. In the meantime, the investigation of Craxi was blocked by the parliament. Several members of the government, having been in office just three days, resigned in protest; among them were Francesco Rutelli, Minister of the Environment and Vincenzo Visco, Minister of Finance. In new local elections on 6 June 1993, DC lost half of its votes once again; the Socialist Party virtually disappeared. Instead Lega Nord, a protest movement with some ideological elements ranging from xenophobia and racism to independence from the rest of Italy and a general loathing of the political system, became the strongest political force in Northern Italy. The left-wing opposition was approaching majority, but still lacked unity and leadership.

Eventually, all four parties in government in 1992 disappeared, at different times in different ways: the Christian Democracy, the Italian Socialist Party, the Italian Socialist Democratic Party, and the Italian Liberal Party. The Democratic Party of the Left, the Italian Republican Party and the Movimento Sociale Italiano were the only surviving national parties; the Republican party is the only one that has maintained its name since.

According to the American ambassador Reginald Bartholomew, behind the operation there was the CIA who helped the Italian prosecutors to accuse the politicians.[4] [5] [6]

The Cusani trial
Di Pietro during the Cusani trial.

On 20 July 1993, the former Eni president, Gabriele Cagliari, committed suicide in jail. His wife later gave back $3 million of illegal funds.

Meanwhile, the trial of Sergio Cusani began. Mr. Cusani was accused of crimes connected to a joint venture between Eni and Montedison, named Enimont. It was broadcast on national television, and was a sort of showcase of the old politics being brought to their responsibilities. While Cusani himself was not a major figure, the connection of his crimes to the Enimont affair called in all the nation's major politicians as witnesses.

A high note was reached in the Cusani trial when former head of government Arnaldo Forlani, answering a question, simply said "I don't remember"; he also happened to be very nervous and did not notice that sweat was accumulating on his lips, and that image was by many considered symbolic of the people's disgust for the corruption system. Bettino Craxi, instead, admitted that his party received $93 million of illegal funds. His defense was that "everyone was doing this" anyway.

Even the Lega Nord was implicated in the trial; secretary Umberto Bossi and former treasurer Alessandro Patelli were convicted for receiving 200 million lire of illegal funding (approx. $100,000 at the time).

A bribe to the Italian Communist Party was alleged, but it was not established who had committed the offence. A number of Milanese members of the Democratic Party of the Left were charged with corruption during their time as members of the PCI but they were acquitted. As prosecutor Antonio Di Pietro stated, "Penal responsibility is personal. I cannot bring here a person with first name Communist and last name Party".

The Enimont trial itself was carried out after the Cusani trial, with much less public interest.

Investigations on other fronts

In the meantime, the investigation expanded outside the political range: on 2 September 1993 the Milan judge Diego Curtò was arrested. On 21 April 1994, 80 financial policemen and 300 industry personalities were charged with corruption. A few days later, the secretary of the large Fiat corporation admitted corruption with a letter to a newspaper.

In 1994, Silvio Berlusconi entered politics by storm and won the elections. Many think that this move was to preserve his many industries from possible corruption charges. This suspicion was reinforced on 11 February, when Silvio Berlusconi's brother, Paolo, admitted to corruption crimes. On 13 July 1994, the Berlusconi government made a new law to avoid jail time for most corruption crimes.

The law was carefully timed as Italy had defeated Bulgaria in the 1994 Football World Cup's semifinals, and it is likely that the government expected to exploit an eventual victory to pass the law under silence in a football-crazy country. However, as Roberto Baggio shot high the last penalty against Brazil, and the news was showing images of hated, corrupt politicians getting out of jail, the public opinion became enraged; the images of Francesco De Lorenzo, former minister of Health, were especially striking, since the general public perceived stealing money from hospitals an especially hateful act.

Just a few days before, the arrested policemen had been talking about corruption in the Fininvest media industry, the biggest Berlusconi family property. Most of the Mani pulite investigation pool declared that they would respect the state's laws, but they could not work in a situation where duty and conscience were to conflict: they requested therefore to be reassigned to other duties.

Since the government could not afford to be seen as an adversary of the popular judge pool, the decree was hastily revoked and marked a "misunderstanding"; minister for internal affairs Roberto Maroni from Lega Nord claimed that he had not even had the chance to read it. While the minister of Justice was Alfredo Biondi, allegations that Cesare Previti, a lawyer from Berlusconi's company Fininvest, had written it, are at least credible.

On 29 July Berlusconi's brother was again arrested and immediately released.

Escalating conflict between Silvio Berlusconi and Antonio Di Pietro

At this point there began what has been described by many as the "Berlusconi-Di Pietro battle". While Berlusconi's industries were being investigated, "inspectors" were sent from the government to the Milanese judges' office to look for formal irregularities. None were ever found, but this tactic, coupled with Berlusconi's firm grip on the information system, helped spread what is described in other environments as FUD (Fear, Uncertainty, and Doubt). The battle ended without winners: on 6 December Di Pietro resigned. Two weeks later, the Berlusconi government resigned before a critical confidence vote in Parliament, which was generally expected to go against them.

During 1995, many investigations were started against Antonio Di Pietro, who would years later be cleared of all charges, while Silvio Berlusconi incurred other charges of corruption. It was later found that the main prosecutor of Antonio Di Pietro in these times, Fabio Salamone from Brescia, was the brother of a man that Antonio Di Pietro himself had prosecuted, and who was sentenced to 18 months of jail for various corruption charges. It took however some time before the authorities realized this and ordered Salamone to other duties even though his investigations had taken a completely different direction: Paolo Berlusconi (Silvio's brother) and Cesare Previti (former minister) were accused of a conspiracy against Di Pietro but the prosecutor who later replaced Salamone asked for their acquittal and so did the court.

After being cleared, Antonio Di Pietro went into politics, something he had previously ruled out on the grounds that he did not want to exploit the popularity gained doing what he perceived to be just his duty. His movement is named Italia dei Valori ("Italy of values").

In 1998, Cesare Previti, former manager of Fininvest and then sitting in parliament after the Berlusconi government, avoided jailing thanks to parliamentary intervention, even though Berlusconi and his allies were in opposition. Bettino Craxi was sentenced to several years cumulative jail time in definitive convictions and fled to Tunisia, where he remained until his death on 19 January 2000.

Statutory term strategy

After 1994, the danger of trials being cancelled due to the expiration of statutory terms was becoming very real. This was clear to the judges and to the politicians, and the latter ones (with no distinction between Berlusconi's coalition and the Olive Tree, especially under the leadership of Massimo D'Alema) either ignored the pleas of the judiciary system for more funding to buy equipment, or passed laws that made the notoriously slow Italian trials even slower and subject to earlier prescription.

Furthermore, the intricate nature of Italian laws allowed cunning lawyers to use many delaying tactics: an instructive example was a prosecution of Silvio Berlusconi, where he was accused of misappropriation of funds of his own company, Fininvest, in order to prepare black funds that could have been used for bribes or other illegitimate purposes; on the last possible day, a lawyer from Fininvest appeared in court and complained that his company had not been formally notified of the trial. While this trial was well publicized in the media (and also in Fininvest's media themselves), the formality forced the trial to be restarted from scratch, and Berlusconi was finally acquitted by expiration of statutory terms. Being acquitted in this first trial, he could later benefit from a general reduction of terms for other trials, which in turn expired earlier with a domino effect.

After Silvio Berlusconi's victory in 2001, public opinion had turned so far against judges, where it is not only openly acceptable to criticize judges for having carried out Mani pulite, but also increasingly difficult to broadcast opinions favorable to Milan's pool. Some blame Berlusconi's power in media as having played a role in this change or the inability of the opposite parties to gain the consent of the conservative electors. Even Umberto Bossi, whose Lega Nord has been an opposition party became highly critical of judges.

Lottizzazione

The term lottizzazione, meaning the way a terrain is divided up in minor parts or lotti, came to indicate the procedure of awarding top positions in important state conglomerates such as IRI, ENEL or ENI to political figures, or at least managers with a clear political orientation. This usually trickled down to lower levels, creating power centres depending on political parties that controlled a significant part of the production system. The available seats were usually awarded so that government parties (and opposition parties like the Italian Communist Party) would get a share of power corresponding to their perceived influence in the government.

In modern culture

In 2005, artist Gianni Motti created a piece of soap, named Mani Pulite, based on the scandal. This piece was claimed to have been created out of the fat from a liposuction of Silvio Berlusconi. It was sold at the 36th edition of Art Basel for 15,000 euros.[7]

A 2015 television series titled 1992 is based on the events of mani pulite.[8]

See also
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Mani pulite

topic

Mani pulite ( pronounced  , Italian for "clean hands") was a nationwide judicial investigation into political corruption in Italy held in the 1990s. Mani pulite led to the demise of the so-called " First Republic ", resulting in the disappearance of many political parties. Some politicians and industry leaders committed suicide after their crimes were exposed. Antonio Di Pietro was the main judicial figure in charge of the operation. In some accounts, as many as 5,000 public figures fell under suspicion. At one point, more than half of the members of the Italian Parliament were under indictment. More than 400 city and town councils were dissolved because of corruption charges. The estimated value of bribes paid annually in the 1980s by Italian and foreign companies bidding for large government contracts reached 4 billion dollars (6.5 trillion lire). The corrupt system uncovered by these investigations was usually referred to as Tangentopoli ( Italian pronunciation:  ). The term derives from tangente, which m



Raul Gardini

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Raul Gardini (1933 - 1993) was an Italian businessman. Caught up in the Tangentopoli scandal of the early 1990s following his involvement in the Enimont scandal, he committed suicide using a pistol shot to the head. Raul Gardini (1933 - 1993) was an Italian businessman. Caught up in the Tangentopoli scandal of the early 1990s following his involvement in the Enimont scandal, he committed suicide using a pistol shot to the head.



Kickback (bribery)

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Carlo De Benedetti

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1992 (TV series)

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1992 is an Italian political drama television series created by Alessandro Fabbri, Ludovica Rampoldi, Stefano Sardo and based on an idea by Stefano Accorsi . The first season, comprising ten episodes, premiered on March 24, 2015, on pay-tv Sky Italia channels Sky Atlantic and Sky Cinema 1 . Set in Rome , Milan and different Italian cities , the TV series offers a thrilling story following six people whose lives are intertwined with the rapidly changing political landscape in the early 1990s, during which Italy was gripped by the Clean Hands investigation into political corruption . Subsequently, this led to the end of the "First Republic" as well as the termination of several Italian political parties, who created the Italian democratic system after WWII. This controversial period in Italy resulted in the suicide of various political figures. The series will be followed by 1993 The series has been compared to House of Cards , The Sopranos , and The West Wing . Series synopses Season 1 (2015) In the winter of



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Carlo Vizzini (born 28 April 1947 in Palermo ) is an Italian politician. He got involved in Tangentopoli and Mafia scandals. Political life Vizzini was Secretary of the Italian Democratic Socialist Party from 1992 to 1993, Minister of Mails, and Minister for Cultural Assets and Activities (1987–88), and was a member of the Italian Senate from Sicily for Forza Italia and latterly The People of Freedom (PdL). Vizzini was a leading member of one of Forza Italia's social-democratic factions , a group known as the Reformist Inititiative Circles . The faction was succeeded by the social-democratic European Reformists when Forza Italian merged in the PdL. In 1992, as leader of the Social Democrats Italian, Italian is one of the three founders (along with Bettino Craxi and Achille Occhetto) of the Party of European Socialists. He was a member of the Italian Antimafia Commission from 2001-2009. In 2008 he became vice president of the Commission, but relinquished his position in June 2009 after being accused of having



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This is a list of major political scandals in Italy : Former Prime Minister Silvio Berlusconi underage prostitution charges Lockheed bribery scandals , which caused President Giovanni Leone to resign Masonic lodge Propaganda Due scandal, 1980s Tangentopoli , diffuse corruption cases in national politics in the early 1990s Revelation of Gladio , a NATO anti-communist stay-behind network Niger uranium forgeries used by George W. Bush as pretext for the 2003 invasion of Iraq SISMI-Telecom scandal , domestic surveillance program Bancopoli , bank takeover-merger scandal of 2005, involving insider trading , audiotapes and political influences Abu Omar case 2014 Rome corruption scandal New findings In last years, a successful initiative of moral revolt against political malpractice, entrusted to the Internet as a blog on "the list of parties with no convicted criminals on their electoral lists", has sparked the race to discover criminal records of candidates. References http://www.beppegrillo.it/partiti_puliti.php



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Mario Chiesa ( Italian pronunciation:  ; born in Milan, December 12, 1944 ) was an Italian politician and member of the Italian Socialist Party . In 1992 Chiesa was arrested on charges of corruption, leading to the mani pulite trials, and eventually to a restructuring of Italian politics. In 2009 he was arrested again, under charges related to waste treatment in Milan . Notes See Buccini, Goffredo (19 February 1992), "da politico a manager, una carriera all’ombra del Garofano" , Corriere della Sera, p. 34 , which describes him as aged forty-seven in February 1986. http://www.corriere.it/cronache/09_marzo_31/chiesa_arresto_tangentopoli_5f46433c-1db5-11de-84d3-00144f02aabc.shtml Mario Chiesa ( Italian pronunciation:  ; born in Milan, December 12, 1944 ) was an Italian politician and member of the Italian Socialist Party . In 1992 Chiesa was arrested on charges of corruption, leading to the mani pulite trials, and eventually to a restructuring of Italian politics. In 2009 he was arrested again, under charges r



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Italian Democratic Socialist Party

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Carlo Tognoli (born 16 June 1938) was an Italian politician, who was Mayor of Milan and minister of the Italian republic. Biography Tognoli was born at Milan and entered the Italian Socialist Party (Partito Socialista Italian, or PSI) in 1958. Elected into the Italian Chamber of Deputies , he was also Mayor of Milan from 1976 to 1986. In 1984–1987 he was also elected into the European Parliament ; in the latter year he was appointed as Minister of Problems of Urban Areas in the cabinets of Giovanni Goria and Ciriaco De Mita . Later he was Minister of Tourism and Spectacles in the 6th and 7th Andreotti governments. In 1992 he was involved in the Tangentopoli scandal together with his fellow party colleague Paolo Pillitteri (who had been his successor as mayor of Milan). He subsequently abandoned the political activity and in 1995 he obtained a position in Mediobanca thanks to the intercession of Enrico Cuccia References [ http://archiviostorico.corriere.it/2000/giugno/24/sindaco_Milano_Carlo_Tognoli_anni_co_0_



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Paolo Mieli

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Paolo Cirino Pomicino

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Lazio regional election, 1990

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The Lazio regional election of 1990 took place on 6 May 1990. Christian Democracy was by far the largest party, largely ahead of the Italian Communist Party , which placed second. After the election Christian Democrat Rodolfo Gigli formed a government which included the Italian Socialist Party and some minor parties. After 1992, following the Tangentopoli scandals, Gigli was succeeded by a succession of governments led by Giorgio Pasetto (Christian Democrat, 1992–1994), Carlo Proietti ( Democratic Party of the Left , 1994–1995) and Arturo Osio ( Green , 1995). Results Parties votes votes (%) seats Christian Democracy 1,123,076 34.5 22 Italian Communist Party 776,485 23.8 15 Italian Socialist Party 464,958 14.3 9 Italian Social Movement 213,174 6.5 4 Italian Republican Party 155,179 4.8 3 Green List 125,460 3.9 2 Italian Democratic Socialist Party 90,300 2.8 2 Rainbow Greens 78,683 2.4 1 Anti-Prohibition List 58,720 1.8 1 Italian Liberal Party 58,720 1.8 1 Proletarian Democracy 30,165 0.9 - Others 85,452 2.6 -



Apulian regional election, 1990

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The Apulian regional election of 1990 took place on 6 May 1990. Christian Democracy was by far the largest party, largely ahead of its major competitors, the Italian Communist Party , which had its worst result ever in a regional election, and the Italian Socialist Party , that gained its best result ever and even surpassed the Communists. After the election Christian Democrat Michele Bellomo was elected President of the Region at the head of a centre-left coalition. After the Tangentopoli scandals, Bellomo was replaced by a succession of short-lived governments . Results Parties votes votes (%) seats Christian Democracy 978,734 40.7 22 Italian Socialist Party 474,404 19.7 10 Italian Communist Party 449,969 18.7 10 Italian Social Movement 149,707 6.2 3 Italian Democratic Socialist Party 104,055 4.3 2 Italian Republican Party 71,554 3.0 1 Green List 53,232 2.2 1 Italian Liberal Party 52,871 2.2 1 Rainbow Greens 27,253 1.1 - Proletarian Democracy 19,032 0.8 - Anti-Prohibition Party 17,989 0.8 - Others 6,072 0.3



Piedmontese regional election, 1990

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The Piedmontese regional election of 1990 took place on 6 May 1990. Christian Democracy and the Italian Communist Party lost many votes, especially to the regionalist parties and the Greens. After the election Christian Democrat Gian Paolo Brizio formed a government comprising the Italian Socialist Party , the Italian Liberal Party , the Italian Republican Party and the Italian Democratic Socialist Party . In 1994, following the Tangentopoli -crisis and the dissolution of Christian Democracy, Brizio, who had joined to the Italian People's Party , formed a new government which included the Democratic Party of the Left , successor party of the Communists, and the Socialists. Results Parties votes votes (%) seats Christian Democracy 814,359 27.9 18 Italian Communist Party 663,468 22.8 14 Italian Socialist Party 445,768 15.3 9 Autonomist Piedmont 148,450 5.1 3 Italian Liberal Party 120,677 4.1 2 Italian Republican Party 116,344 4.0 2 Green List 113,760 3.9 2 Italian Social Movement 104,851 3.6 2 Italian Democrati



Agnelli family

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The Agnelli family is an Italian multi-industry business dynasty founded by Giovanni Agnelli , one of the original founders in Piedmont (in 1899) of what became the FIAT motor company. They are also primarily known for other activities in the automotive industry as the owners of Ferrari since 1969, Lancia (1969), Alfa Romeo (1986) and Chrysler (2009) through their own multinational corporation , as well as for having been the main operators of the Juventus F.C. of the Italian Serie A since 1923 and its majority owners since its conversion to a public limited company in 1967. By 2010 the family controlled Italy’s largest manufacturer, Fabbrica Italiana Automobili Torino (FIAT), through its holding company EXOR N.V. . The family has sometimes been described in the English-speaking world as "the Kennedys of Italy" and compared in the Italian-speaking world to the historic Florentine Republic 's Medici family and the House of Savoy , from the duchy of the same name , for their role in the country's contemporary h



Franco Frigo

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Franco Frigo (born 13 August 1950 in Cittadella ) is an Italian politician from Veneto . A long-time Christian Democrat , he was President of the Province of Padua from 1985 to 1990. He was first elected to the Regional Council of Veneto in 1990 and in the midst of the Tangentopoli scandals he was briefly President of Veneto (1992–1993). He returned in the Regional Council in 2000 and was re-elected in 2005 . He retired in 2010, after an unsuccessful bid to become member of the European Parliament in 2009. However, in 2013 he entered the European Parliament , succeeding to Debora Serracchiani . References http://www.openpolis.it/politico/4609 http://www.eunews.it/2013/04/23/serracchiani-vince-in-friuli-e-lascia-bruxelles-lex-governatore-veneto-frigo-in-pole-per-il-posto/6624 http://www.europarl.europa.eu/meps/en/118999/FRANCO_FRIGO_history.html Franco Frigo (born 13 August 1950 in Cittadella ) is an Italian politician from Veneto . A long-time Christian Democrat , he was President of the Province of Padua fr



Fabrizio Cicchitto

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Fabrizio Cicchitto (Rome, 26 October 1940) is an Italian politician. Career Fabrizio Cicchitto entered politics during the earlier 1960s, supporting the Marxist left wing of Riccardo Lombardi in the Italian Socialist Party and then becoming secretary of the party's youth organization (Federazione Giovanile Socialista Italiana, Italian Young Socialist Federation). Cicchitto also became sympathetic to Eurocommunism and the Historic Compromise path taken by the Italian Communist Party (PCI), while being highly critical of Christian Democracy (DC) itself, as well as of the American CIA and the Italian Servizio Informazioni Difesa . According to him, DC would have taken profit from the Red Brigades ' activities and the Aldo Moro case to cut off relations with the PCI. In 1981, he confessed being a member of the masonic lodge Propaganda Due (P2). Shortly after this move, Cicchitto was excluded from the Socialist Party. Readmitted toward the end of the Eighties, he followed the policies of Bettino Craxi and held mi



Alex Zanotelli

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Father Alex Zanotelli Father Alex Zanotelli born August 26, 1938, Livo , Trentino ( Italy ) is a member of the Combonian missionaries in Verona . He is the founder of Italian movements whose goals include social harmony and equality. Biography Early life In the early 1960s, Zanotelli moved to Cincinnati, Ohio to attend a course on theology while he was in high school. In 1964, after completing his theological studies in Cincinnati, he was ordained a priest. Sudan and the Nuba As a Combonian missionary, he left for Southern Sudan , which was plagued by civil war and where he stayed for eight years. The local government eventually pressured him to leave because of his open Christian witness and the active solidarity he showed the Nuba people. The reasons cited by the government included Zanotelli's inclusion of African traditional ceremonials in mass celebrations. Vatican authorities also objected to this practice, although Zanotelli received permission from local Catholic bishops . This annoyed both the local



Claudio Martelli

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Claudio Martelli (born 24 September 1943) is an Italian politician, and was the right-hand man of Bettino Craxi , the socialist Prime Minister from 1983–1987. Biography Martelli was born at Gessate , in the province of Milan . He graduated in Philosophy and joined the Italian Socialist Party in 1966. In 1976, he was called by the leader of the party, Bettino Craxi, to continue his career in Rome . He was elected to the Italian Parliament in 1979 and became vice-leader (with Valdo Spini ) of the party in 1981. He was also elected for the PSI at the European Parliament in 1984. In 1989, he was nominated as vice- President of the Council and in 1991 became Minister for Justice in both of the governments of Giulio Andreotti (1989–1992). During Tangentopoli , he ran for the party leadership after the resignation of Bettino Craxi, after Craxi was accused of corruption. However, his candidacy was blown off by his involvement in the 7 million dollar bribe in 1980 and resigned as Minister of Justice. He exited the pol



Sergio Mattarella

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Sergio Mattarella , OMRI , OMCA ( Italian pronunciation:  ; born 23 July 1941) is an Italian politician, lawyer and judge who has been the 12th and current President of Italy since 2015. He was a member of Parliament from 1983 to 2008, serving as Minister of Education from 1989 to 1990 and as Minister of Defence from 1999 to 2001. In 2011, he became an elected judge on the Constitutional Court . On 31 January 2015, he was elected by parliament to be the 12th President of the Italian Republic . He is the first Sicilian to have held the post. Early life Sergio Mattarella was born in Palermo of a prominent Sicilian family. His father, Bernardo Mattarella , was an anti-fascist who, alongside Alcide De Gasperi and other prominent Catholic politicians, helped found the Christian Democracy (DC) party, which dominated the Italian political scene for almost fifty years, with Bernardo serving as a minister several times. Sergio Mattarella's brother, Piersanti Mattarella , was also a Christian Democratic politician an



Pentapartito

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The Pentapartito (from Italian Penta, five, and partito, party), commonly shortened to CAF (from the initials of Craxi, Andreotti and Forlani) refers to the coalition government of five Italian political parties that formed between June 1981 and April 1991. The coalition comprised the Christian Democracy (DC) party and four secular parties: the Italian Socialist Party (PSI), Italian Democratic Socialist Party (PSDI), Italian Liberal Party (PLI) and Italian Republican Party (PRI). History The new majority Giulio Andreotti The Pentapartito began in 1981 at a meeting of the Congress of the Italian Socialist Party (PSI) when the Christian Democrat Arnaldo Forlani and Socialist Secretary Bettino Craxi signed an agreement with the "blessing" of Giulio Andreotti . As the agreement was signed in a trailer, it was called the "pact of the camper." The pact was also called "CAF" for the initials of the signers, Craxi-Andreotti-Forlani. With this agreement, the DC party recognized the equal dignity of the so-called "se



Venetian regional election, 1990

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The Venetian regional election of 1990 took place on 6 May 1990. Christian Democracy was by far the largest party, but it was four seats short of an outright majority in the Regional Council. The Greens and the regionalist parties did surprisingly well. After the election Christian Democrat Franco Cremonese formed a government comprising the Italian Socialist Party , the Italian Republican Party and the Italian Democratic Socialist Party . The government fell in 1992 in the verge of Tangentopoli scandals and was replaced by a succession of governments , which included both Liga Veneta and the Democratic Party of the Left , the successor party of the Communists. Results Parties votes votes (%) seats Christian Democracy 1,294,996 42.4 27 Italian Communist Party 475,342 15.6 10 Italian Socialist Party 419,087 13.7 8 Green List – Rainbow Greens 217,440 7.1 4 Liga Veneta 180,676 5.9 3 Italian Social Movement 83,225 2.7 1 Italian Republican Party 77,932 2.6 1 Italian Democratic Socialist Party 65,424 2.1 1 Union of



Nicola Capria

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Nicola Capria (November 6, 1932 – January 31, 2009) was an Italian Socialist Party politician. He served in the cabinets of Prime Ministers Cossiga (April–October 1980), Forlani (1980–1981), Spadolini (1981–1982), Fanfani (1982–1983), Craxi (1983-1987) and Andreotti (1991–1992). He served in the Chamber of Deputies of Italy in Legislature VII (1976–1979), Legislature VIII (1979–1983), Legislature IX (1983–1987), Legislature X (1987–1992) and Legislature XI (1992–1994). External links IL PSI A MESSINA ERA LUI: E' MORTO NICOLA CAPRIA. NEL 1994 (PIENA TANGENTOPOLI) CHIUSE LA SUA CARRIERA Nicola Capria (November 6, 1932 – January 31, 2009) was an Italian Socialist Party politician. He served in the cabinets of Prime Ministers Cossiga (April–October 1980), Forlani (1980–1981), Spadolini (1981–1982), Fanfani (1982–1983), Craxi (1983-1987) and Andreotti (1991–1992). He served in the Chamber of Deputies of Italy in Legislature VII (1976–1979), Legislature VIII (1979–1983), Legislature IX (1983–1987), Legislature X (1



Party system

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A party system is a concept in comparative political science concerning the system of government by political parties in a democratic country. The idea is that political parties have basic similarities: they control the government , have a stable base of mass popular support, and create internal mechanisms for controlling funding, information and nominations. The concept was originated by European scholars studying the United States, especially James Bryce and Moisey Ostrogorsky , and has been expanded to cover other democracies. Giovanni Sartori devised the most widely used classification method for party systems. He suggested that party systems should be classified by the number of relevant parties and the degree of fragmentation. Party systems can be distinguished by the effective number of parties . Types of party systems Dominant-party system : a system where there is "a category of parties/political organizations that have successively won election victories and whose future defeat cannot be envisaged



Ottaviano Del Turco

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Ottaviano Del Turco (born 7 November 1944) is an Italian politician. Early life Del Turco was born in Collelongo on 7 November 1944. Career After a career in trade unionism in the Italian General Confederation of Labour (CGIL) Del Turco rose to the top of Bettino Craxi 's Italian Socialist Party (PSI) before it was swept away in the Tangentopoli scandals of 1992-94. Del Turco was the president of the Antimafia Commission from December 1996 to May 2000. He was minister of finance in the cabinet led by the then prime minister Giuliano Amato from 2000-2001. He was elected to the European Parliament in 2004 on the Italian Democratic Socialists (SDI) ticket and sat with the Party of European Socialists group. On 20 July 2004, he was elected chair of the committee on employment and social affairs at the parliament. On 4 April 2005 he won the election as president of his native Abruzzo as candidate for centre-left coalition The Union and on 1 May resigned his seat in the European Parliament to take up this post. In



Chiara Moroni

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Chiara Moroni ( Iseo , BS , 23 October 1974) is an Italian politician, daughter of Sergio Moroni , a Socialist politician who killed himself during Tangentopoli . She is currently Vice President of Forza Italia 's caucus in the Chamber of Deputies . Chiara Moroni was elected deputy in the 2001 general election for the constituency of Rezzato under the banner of the Socialist Party – New PSI , at the age of 26. When Gianni De Michelis and Bobo Craxi disputed on the collocation of the party in 2005, she supported De Michelis and his line of continuing the alliance with Silvio Berlusconi 's House of Freedoms coalition. She was re-elected in 2006 into the list of Forza Italia (thanks to a pact between Berlusconi and her party), but, when it was clear that also the NPSI was heading toward the centre-left, on 3 May, she left the party and officially joined Forza Italia. References "La deputata Chiara Moroni passa dal Pdl ai finiani - IL SALVAGENTE - quotidiano on-line dei consumatori" . Il Salvagente (in Italian).



Lega Nord

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Lega Nord ( LN ; literally "North League"), whose complete name is Lega Nord per l'Indipendenza della Padania ("North League for the Independence of Padania"), is a regionalist political party in Italy . The party is often referred to as Northern League by English-language sources, while in Italy it is also referred to simply as Lega or Carroccio . The LN was founded in 1991 as a federation of several regional parties of Northern and Central Italy , notably including Liga Veneta , Lega Lombarda , Piemont Autonomista , Uniun Ligure , Lega Emiliano-Romagnola and Alleanza Toscana . The party advocates the transformation of Italy into a federal state , fiscal federalism and greater regional autonomy , especially for Northern regions . At times the LN has advocated Padanian nationalism and the secession of the North, referred to by party members as Padania . Prior to the party's adoption of the term, Padania was infrequently used to name the Po Valley and was promoted since 1963 by sports journalist Gianni Brera a



Snowclone

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Snowclone is a cliché and phrasal template originally defined as "a multi-use, customizable, instantly recognizable, time-worn, quoted or misquoted phrase or sentence that can be used in an entirely open array of different variants". The term was coined as a neologism in 2004, described as "some-assembly-required adaptable cliché frames for lazy journalists." It was derived from journalistic clichés which referred to the number of Eskimo words for snow . History In October 2003, linguist Geoffrey K. Pullum described the phenomenon in a post on Language Log , a collaborative blog by several linguistics professors, and solicited ideas for what the phenomenon should be called. In response to the request, the word "snowclone" was coined by Glen Whitman on January 15, 2004, and Pullum endorsed it as a term of art the next day. The term has since been adopted by other linguists, journalists, and authors. Notable examples Eskimo words for snow The term "snowclone" alludes to one of Pullum's example template phrase



Propaganda Due

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Propaganda Due ( Italian pronunciation:  ; P2 ) was a Masonic lodge founded in 1945 that, by the time its Masonic charter was withdrawn in 1976, had transformed into a clandestine, pseudo- Masonic, ultraright organization operating in contravention of Article 18 of the Constitution of Italy that banned secret associations . In its latter period, during which the lodge was headed by Licio Gelli , P2 was implicated in numerous Italian crimes and mysteries, including the collapse of the Vatican -affiliated Banco Ambrosiano , the murders of journalist Mino Pecorelli and banker Roberto Calvi , and corruption cases within the nationwide bribe scandal Tangentopoli . P2 came to light through the investigations into the collapse of Michele Sindona 's financial empire. P2 was sometimes referred to as a " state within a state " or a " shadow government ". The lodge had among its members prominent journalists, members of parliament, industrialists, and military leaders—including Silvio Berlusconi , who later became Pri



Duilio Poggiolini

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Duilio Poggiolini (born 25 July 1929 in Rome ), was general manager of the pharmaceutical department of the National Ministry of Health under Francesco De Lorenzo and was involved in the Mani Pulite (Clean Hands) scandal of Tangentopoli. He was member of the P2 Masonic lodge. He graduated in medicine in 1954, majored in physiology and in 1963 achieved a position as professor of microbiology, in 1966 professor in chemotherapy, then in 1972 professor of hygiene. In 1972 he became inspector general at the Ministry of Health. In 1981 he became the Italian representative in the World Health Organization for the essential drugs program. In 1991 he was elected President of the Commission for pharmaceuticals concerned with EEC harmonization of medicine between the Member States of the European Economic Community . He was also vice president of the Italian Pharmacopoeia Commission. On 20 September 1993 he was arrested at Lausanne, in Switzerland, due to a series of charges related to forgery and bribery in the manage



Vittorio Sgarbi

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Vittorio Umberto Antonio Maria Sgarbi (born 8 May 1952 in Ferrara ) is an Italian art critic , art historian, politician, cultural commentator and television personality. In 1996 he was condemned for fraud against the Italian State and in 2012 he ceased to be Mayor of Salemi because of Mafia infiltration. He was appointed curator of the Italian Pavilion at the 2011 Venice Biennale . Several times a member of the Italian Parliament , he served also in Milan 's municipal government. Biography His Sgarbi Quotidiani (Daily Sgarbi) TV show during the 1990s was a 15-minute daily discussion of current events. During some of those shows he furiously attacked some Italian judges during the Tangentopoli corruption scandal. This scandal led to great turmoil in Italian politics, with the fall of many traditional parties and the subsequent rise of Silvio Berlusconi , subsequently himself convicted of tax fraud. Sgarbi attacked the use of preventive detention in prison; he declared that many people had been arrested with



Milan

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Milan ( English: or US : ; Italian : Milano ; Lombard : Milan ( Milanese variant )) is the capital of Lombardy and the second most populous city in Italy after Rome , with the city proper having a population of 1,351,562 while its province-level municipality has a population of 3,219,000. Its continuously built-up urban area (that stretches beyond the boundaries of the Metropolitan City of Milan ) has a population estimated to be about 5,270,000 over 1,891 square kilometres (730 square miles), ranking 4th in the European Union. The wider Milan metropolitan area , known as Greater Milan , is a polycentric metropolitan region that extends over central Lombardy and eastern Piedmont and which counts an estimated total population of 7.5 million. Milan is considered a leading Alpha Global City , with strengths in the arts , commerce , design , education , entertainment , fashion , finance , healthcare , media , services , research , and tourism . Its business district hosts Italy's Stock Exchange and the head



Brunellopoli

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Brunellopoli is the name given by Italian press for a scandal involving producers of Brunello di Montalcino under suspicion of wine fraud , first reported by Italian wine journalist Franco Ziliani and American wine critic James Suckling of Wine Spectator . The name "Brunellopoli" bears reference to Tangentopoli , or "Bribesville", the Italian political scandal of the 1990s, while some English language reporters have applied the name "Brunellogate". Events On March 21, 2008, Ziliani and Suckling reported that an investigation had begun into allegations that some Brunello producers had secretly and illegally added other types of grapes into what are by law wines made only from Sangiovese , allegedly to inflate production and increase profit on this typically expensive product. The story received wider attention on April 4, 2008 when the Italian newsweekly L'espresso reported that 20 firms were suspected of commercial fraud after investigators alleged that possibly millions of liters of Brunello di Montalcino



History of Italy

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The history of Italy begins with the arrival of the first hominins 850,000 years ago at Monte Poggiolo . Italy shows evidence of habitation by anatomically modern humans beginning about 43,000 years ago. It is reached by the Neolithic as early as 6000–5500 BC Cardium Pottery and Impressed ware. The Italian Bronze Age begins around 1500 BC, likely corresponding to the arrival of Indo-European speakers whose descendants would become the Italic peoples of the Iron Age; alongside the early Italic cultures, however, the Etruscan civilization in central Italy, Celts in northern Italy and Greek colonies in the south flourished during 8th to 5th centuries BC. Among the Italic peoples, the Latins , originally situated in the Latium region, and their Latin language would come to dominate the peninsula with the Roman conquest of Italy in the 3rd century BC. The Roman Republic and later the Roman Empire dominated Italy for many centuries, and furthermore established the culture and civilization of Western Europe in gener



Italian general election, 1994 (Veneto)

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The Italian general election of 1994 took place on 27–28 March 1994. In 1993–1994 the Tangentopoli scandals led to the disappearance of the main government parties, including Christian Democracy (DC) and the Italian Socialist Party (PSI). The DC successor, the Italian People's Party (PPI), was not able to retain the votes of its predecessor, which were largely absorbed by Liga Veneta – Lega Nord and Forza Italia , the new party launched by entrepreneur Silvio Berlusconi . In a highly fragmented party system, Forza Italia came first with 23.6% and Liga Veneta second with 21.6%. Results Chamber of Deputies   Coalitions Single-seat constituencies Proportional system Total votes votes (%) seats Parties votes votes (%) seats tot. seats Pole of Freedoms ? ? 36 Forza Italia 767,121 23.6 2 4 40 Lega Nord 701,615 21.6 2 Alliance of Progressives ? ? 1 Democratic Party of the Left 394,699 12.2 2 3 4 Communist Refoundation Party 143,998 4.4 1 Federation of the Greens 124,107 3.8 - Italian Socialist Party 54,090 1.7 - Dem



Christian Democracy (Italy)

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Christian Democracy ( Italian : Democrazia Cristiana , DC ) was a Christian democratic political party in Italy . The DC was founded in 1943 as the ideal successor of the Italian People's Party , which had the same symbol, a crossed shield (scudo crociato). A Catholic -inspired, centrist , catch-all party comprising both right- and left-leaning political factions , the DC played a dominant role in the politics of Italy for fifty years, from its inception in 1944 until its final demise in 1994 amid the Tangentopoli scandals. The party was nicknamed the White Whale (Balena bianca). From 1946 until 1994 the DC was the largest party in Parliament, governing in successive coalitions. It originally supported governments based on liberal-conservative political positions, before moving to centre-left coalitions. The party was succeeded by a string of smaller parties, including the Italian People's Party , the Christian Democratic Centre , the United Christian Democrats , and the still active Union of the Centre . For



Publio Fiori

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Publio Fiori (born 25 March 1938) is an Italian politician. He was born in Rome and graduated in jurisprudence. He became a member of Christian Democracy , to which he belonged for much of his political career. In 1977 a commando of Brigate Rosse (communist terrorists) shot him at legs and thorax. Fiori is often included in the list of those belonging to Propaganda Due (P2), a Masonic lodge operating illegally (in contravention of the Italian constitution banning secret lodges, and membership of government officials in secret membership organizations) from 1976 to 1981. In 2001, however, the Court of Rome ruled out his membership of P2. On 1 July 1992 he became undersecretary of the Ministry of Mail and Telecommunications in the Giuliano Amato cabinet, while on 6 May of the following year he was appointed as undersecretary in the Ministry of Public Health. When in 1993 Christian Democracy, then being wiped out by the Tangentopoli corruption scandal, voted for an alliance with former communist Democratic Part



Clelio Darida

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Clelio Darida (3 May 1927 – 11 May 2017) was an Italian politician. He was mayor of Rome and minister of the Italian Republic. Biography Darida was born and died in Rome . Starting from June 1960, he was member of Rome's communal council for his party, Democrazia Cristiana (Christian Democracy, or DC). He was a member of the corrente (political movement within DC) of Amintore Fanfani first, and Arnaldo Forlani later. He was elected mayor of Rome on 30 July 1969, being confirmed on 17 March 1972. In 1974 he formed a city council including only DC member, with indirect support by the councillors of the Italian Communist Party . In 1976 he resigned as mayor to participate in the 1976 general elections . He was elected in the Chamber of Deputies , being confirmed until 1992, when he was not elected. Darida was undersecretary of the Minister of the Interior in 1976–1980, and, from 1980 to 1987, Minister for the Relationship with the Parliament, Minister of the Mail, of the Public Functions, of Justice and State Pa



European Parliament election, 1994 (Italy)

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The European Parliament election of 1994 in Italy was the election of the delegation from Italy to the European Parliament in 1994. It was the first continental election after the scandal of Tangentopoli which destroyed the traditional republican parties of Italy: consequently, all new parties contested the race. Electoral system The pure party-list proportional representation was the traditional electoral system of the Italian Republic since its foundation in 1946, so it had been adopted to elect the Italian representatives to the European Parliament too. Two levels were used: a national level to divide seats between parties, and a constituency level to distribute them between candidates. Italian regions were united in 5 constituencies, each electing a group of deputies. At national level, seats were divided between party lists using the largest remainder method with Hare quota . All seats gained by each party were automatically distributed to their local open lists and their most voted candidates. Results T



Giulio Andreotti

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Giulio Andreotti OMI SMOM OCSG OESSH ( Italian:  ; 14 January 1919 – 6 May 2013) was an Italian politician and statesman who served as the 41st Prime Minister of Italy and leader of the Christian Democracy party; he is the sixth longest-serving Prime Minister since the Italian Unification and the second longest-serving post-war Prime Minister, after Silvio Berlusconi . Andreotti is widely considered the most powerful and prominent politician of the so-called First Republic . Beginning as a protégé of Alcide De Gasperi , Andreotti achieved cabinet rank at a young age and occupied all the major offices of state over the course of a forty-year political career, being seen as a reassuring figure by the civil service, business community, and Vatican. In foreign policy, he guided Italy's European Union integration, and established closer relations with the Arab world. Admirers of Andreotti saw him as having mediated political and social contradictions, enabling the transformation of a substantially rural country i



Umberto Bossi

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Umberto Bossi (born 19 September 1941) is an Italian politician, former leader of the Lega Nord , a party seeking autonomy or independence for Northern Italy or Padania . He is married to Manuela Marrone and has four sons (of whom one was from his first wife). Birth and education Umberto Bossi was born in 1941 in Cassano Magnago , in the province of Varese , Lombardy . He graduated from scientific high school (liceo scientifico) and later began studying medicine at the University of Pavia , though he did not get a degree. While there, in February 1979 he met Bruno Salvadori, leader of the Valdostan Union . Politics Before becoming a politician, Bossi was a sympathiser of the Italian Communist Party in his early years. After the death of Salvadori in a car accident during the summer of 1980, Bossi began focusing more on Lombardy . After two years, the autonomist Lega Lombarda was born. In that period Bossi met his second wife, Manuela Marrone. The Lega Lombarda would later seek alliances with similar movement




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