Sustainability marketing myopia

Sustainability marketing myopia is a term used in sustainability marketing referring to a distortion stemming from the overlooking of socio-environmental attributes of a sustainable product or service at the expenses of customer benefits and values.[1] The idea of sustainability marketing myopia is rooted into conventional marketing myopia theory, as well as green marketing myopia.

Background
Marketing myopia

The marketing myopia theory was originally proposed in 1960 by American economist Theodore Levitt. According to Levitt marketers should not overlook the importance of company potential and product attributes at the expenses of market needs; catering for market needs should receive first priority.[2]

A company, besides being technically sound and product oriented, also needs to be customer oriented in order to successfully cater for a market. Knowledge of customer needs and of innovations that can be implemented to maintain customer interest, as well as of how to adapt to the changing business market is crucial.

Marketing myopia has been highly influential in the formation of modern marketing theory, and was heeded by marketers to such an extent that some authors now speak of a “new marketing myopia” stemming from too narrow a focus on customer to the exclusion of other stakeholders.[3]

Green marketing myopia

Green marketing is the marketing of products that are presumed to be environmentally safe.[4] In order to be successful, green marketing must fulfill two objectives: improved environmental quality and customer satisfaction. Misjudging either or overemphasizing the former at the expense of the latter can be defined as green marketing myopia.[5]

The marketing discipline has long argued that innovation must consider an intimate understanding of the customer[2] and a close look at green marketing practices over time reveals that green products must be positioned on a consumer value sought by targeted consumers.[5]

As such, successful green products are able to appeal to mainstream consumers or lucrative market niches and frequently command price premiums by offering “non-green” consumer value (such as convenience and performance). When consumers are convinced of the desirable “non-green” benefits of environmental products, they are more inclined to adopt them.

Aside from offering environmental benefits that do not meet consumer preferences, green marketing myopia can also occur when green products fail to provide credible, substantive environmental benefits.[6]

Towards sustainability
Sustainability marketing myopia

Sustainability marketing aims at marketing sustainable products and services which “satisfy customer needs and significantly improve the social and environmental performance along the whole life cycle”,[7] while increasing customer value and achieving the company's objectives. In turns, sustainability marketing myopia is an exaggerated focus on the socio-ecological attributes of the product over the core consumer values, a distortion of the marketing process which is likely to lead to the product failing on the market or remaining confined in a small alternative niche.[8]

Just as an excessive focus on product attributes generates marketing myopia, and just as a single-minded focus on customers results in “new marketing myopia”, in both green and sustainability marketing an unbalanced strategy neglecting one aspect (namely, product attributes) is detrimental to the effectiveness of the marketing process.

However, it is important to note that sustainability marketing myopia differs from green marketing myopia in that the former follows a broader approach to the marketing myopia issue, taking into account the social attributes of a product, as well as the environmental ones. At the same time, sustainability marketing myopia encompasses sustainable services and product-related services,[9] not products alone.

Avoiding sustainability marketing myopia

Generally, sustainability marketing myopia can be avoided in two ways:

  • by identifying and stressing the inherent consumer’s values (efficiency and cost-effectiveness, health and safety, convenience, symbolism and status) of the socio-ecological features of the product. In other words, companies should highlight the personal customer benefits stemming from the socio-ecological features of the product;
  • by aligning socio-ecological attributes with core benefits of the product to create “motive alliances”.[10] Core benefits of the product can comprise functionality, performance, design, durability, taste, freshness, uniqueness, aesthetics, fashion. Motive alliances are the connections of such core benefits with the relevant socio-ecological attributes embedded in the product, an operation also known as bundling.[11]

Ottman et al.[12] provides examples of successful marketing communications based on the highlighting of inherent consumer’s values of the socio-ecological features of products, and on bundling:

Value Message and business product
Efficiency and cost effectiveness
  • “The only thing our washer will shrink is your water bill.” - ASKO
  • “Did you know that between 80 and 85 percent of the energy used to wash clothes comes from heating the water? Tide Coldwater—The Coolest Way to Clean." - Tide Coldwater Laundry Detergent
  • "mpg:” - Toyota Prius
Health and safety
  • “20 years of refusing to farm with toxic pesticides. Stubborn, perhaps. Healthy, most definitely.” - Earthbound Farm Organic
  • “Safer for You and the Environment.” - Seventh Generation Household Cleaners
Performance
  • “Environmentally friendly stain removal. It’s as simple as H2O.” - Mohawk EverSet Fibers Carpet
  • “Fueled by light so it runs forever. It’s unstoppable. Just like the people who wear it.” - Citizen Eco-Drive Sport Watch
Symbolism
  • “Think is the chair with a brain and a conscience.” - Steelcase’s Think Chair
  • “Make up your mind, not just your face.” - The Body Shop
Convenience
  • “Long life for hard-to-reach places.” - General Electric’s CFL Flood Lights
Bundling
  • “Performance and luxury fueled by innovative technology.” - Lexus RX400h Hybrid Sports Utility Vehicle

Besides striking a right balance of focus between product attributes and consumers’ benefits, sustainability marketers should also avoid employing unsubstantive claims about the socio-environmental benefits of their products.[13] This particular form of marketing myopia is best avoided by building an image of credibility for the brand through effective sustainability communication, so that consumers can easily associate their products with sound socio-environmental performances.[14]

Case studies
Myopia of sustainable services
Electrolux washing machines

According to the authors of Natural Capitalism “product dematerialisation” is one of the prerequisites for a more sustainable business model. In order to become more sustainable the future economy will transform from “sale of goods” to the “sale of services”.[15] Belz and Peattie also stress the role of services as a part of sustainable solution, talking of product-related, use-oriented and result-oriented services. Product-related services are offered additionally and they optimize the product use, e.g. automobile companies offering courses on a more ecological and safe driving manner. In the case of use-oriented services, a service and not a product is sold to the consumer e.g. car-sharing. As for result-oriented services, consumers neither own nor operate a product e. g. public transportation, with consumers only enjoying the outcome of the product, the transportation services.[16]

“Product dematerialisation” is, too, at risk of incurring in sustainability marketing myopia. In 1999 Electrolux piloted an use-oriented sustainable “pay-per-wash” service in Sweden, failing to succeed because of a myopic marketing approach. New energy and water efficient washing machines were distributed by Electrolux among consumers. Electrolux supplied customers with maintenance services through a central database via the Internet and took care of the disposal and upgrading of the machines. Consumers did not pay for the machines themselves; they were only charged with a small installation fee at the beginning, and through a pay-per-wash charging system (10 Swedish kronor (about 1 $) per wash). However, an excessive emphasis on the green component in the marketing of this service, achieved at the expenses of other consumer benefits and values, failed to convince the consumers.[17] According to A. Ottmann et al. not only environmental but also other inherent consumer values should have been better marketed by Electrolux: convenience of pay-per-wash, including easy trade-ins for upgrades, free service and saved money of a new washing machine. In addition, the sustainable service might have been successful if pay-per-wash convenience would have been bundled with more desirable features.[15]

Myopia of sustainable products
Fairtrade coffee

The initial idea of introducing the Fairtrade coffee certification was to abolish poverty among coffee farmers and their workers by supporting better working conditions and enabling growers to compete in the global market.[18] For this reason, Fairtrade coffee started to be acquired directly from the farmers for a higher price than standard coffee. A minimum price for coffee is guaranteed and if the market prices outreach the minimum, growers receive a premium.[19] In compliance with rising consumers´ demand for environmentally and social beneficial products the Fairtrade certification appears to be an evident indicator. Products marked with the label have to meet standards ensuring that strict social and environmental measures are taken.[18]

The first generation of Fairtrade coffee suffered from sustainability marketing myopia. First, due to the exaggerated focus on the socio-ecological aspects the quality and the taste of the coffee were put into the background. Most coffee farmers used to sell their coffee to both Fairtrade and open markets. As the price in the open market is entirely defined by quality, farmers sold their better quality beans in that market and then squandered their poorer beans into the Fairtrade market, where they were nonetheless ensured a good price. Furthermore, the certainty that Fairtrade buyers would mix supplies together discouraged farmers to improve the quality of their own beans without having any financial reward for that.[20]

Furthermore, Fairtrade coffee failed to guarantee the social and environmental benefits to the consumer as covenant.[21] Moreover, Fairtrade has been accused of misleading consumers about its ability to monitor production practices, with particular regards to salary conditions of temporary workers.[22]

The first generation Fairtrade coffee with a worse quality and bitter taste failed to satisfy all customers´ needs and supposedly to improve the social performance along the whole life cycle of the product.

Green buildings

As well as Electrolux and Fairtrade coffee suppliers, the producers of green buildings in Western Europe suffered from sustainability marketing myopia in the experimental stages of energy-efficient houses. Companies focussed on the energy-efficient attributes of the houses at the expenses of cost-effectiveness and affordability, marketing their products on the basis of intergenerational equity, ecology and energy-savings.[23] In addition, further inherent consumer values as comfort and design were also ignored at these early stages.[24]

Nevertheless, since the beginning of the twenty-first century marketers from construction companies have improved their strategies. Successful sustainability marketing concepts have been progressively adopted, including motive alliances and the use of a new marketing mix based on so-called 4 Cs: consumer solution, consumer cost, communication and convenience.[25][23] This new approach has fostered a rise in the market share of energy-efficient houses.[24]

81Fünf Holzbau is an example of such a company applying successful marketing strategies. It is a fast expanding German company which focuses on energy-efficient wooden houses. Conventional criteria as high-quality levels and comfort are aligned with sustainable components in the company marketing communication: healthy indoor environment created by using natural woods, energy savings and security from future oil price rises are among the arguments used.[23] Their interactive online toolkit “Energy Comfort House” allows to easily calculate the life cycle cost and savings compared to conventional houses and acts, therefore, as a credibility tool.[23] In order to offer the broadest choice in terms of consumer solutions, different house models are provided to various customer target groups according to their environmental consciousness and affordability.

Notes
References
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Sustainability marketing myopia

topic

Sustainability marketing myopia

Sustainability marketing myopia is a term used in sustainability marketing referring to a distortion stemming from the overlooking of socio-environmental attributes of a sustainable product or service at the expenses of customer benefits and values.[1] The idea of sustainability marketing myopia is rooted into conventional marketing myopia theory, as well as green marketing myopia. Background Marketing myopia The marketing myopia theory was originally proposed in 1960 by American economist Theodore Levitt. According to Levitt marketers should not overlook the importance of company potential and product attributes at the expenses of market needs; catering for market needs should receive first priority.[2] A company, besides being technically sound and product oriented, also needs to be customer oriented in order to successfully cater for a market. Knowledge of customer needs and of innovations that can be implemented to maintain customer interest, as well as of how to adapt to the changing business market i ...more...

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Sustainable development

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Sustainable development

Wind powers 5 MW wind turbines on a wind farm 28 km off the coast of Belgium. Sustainable development is the organizing principle for meeting human development goals while at the same time sustaining the ability of natural systems to provide the natural resources and ecosystem services upon which the economy and society depend. The desired result is a state of society where living conditions and resource use continue to meet human needs without undermining the integrity and stability of the natural system. Sustainable development can be classified as development that meet the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations While the modern concept of sustainable development is derived mostly from the 1987 Brundtland Report, it is also rooted in earlier ideas about sustainable forest management and twentieth century environmental concerns. As the concept developed, it has shifted to focus more on economic development, social development and environmental protection for future gene ...more...

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Green marketing

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Green marketing

Green marketing products that are presumed to be environmentally safe. It incorporates a broad range of activities, including product modification, changes to the production process, sustainable packaging, as well as modifying advertising. Yet defining green marketing is not a simple task where several meanings intersect and contradict each other; an example of this will be the existence of varying social, environmental and retail definitions attached to this term. Other similar terms used are environmental marketing and ecological marketing. Green, environmental and eco-marketing are part of the new marketing approaches which do not just refocus, adjust or enhance existing marketing thinking and practice, but seek to challenge those approaches and provide a substantially different perspective. In more detail green, environmental and eco-marketing belong to the group of approaches which seek to address the lack of fit between marketing as it is currently practiced and the ecological and social realities of t ...more...

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Human overpopulation

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Human overpopulation

Graph of human population from 10000 BCE to 2000 CE. It shows exponential rise in world population that has taken place since the eighteenth century. World population v3 Map of population density by country, per square kilometer. (See List of countries by population density.) Areas of high population densities, calculated in 1994 Map of countries and territories by fertility rate (See List of countries and territories by fertility rate.) Human population growth rate in percent, with the variables of births, deaths, immigration, and emigration – 2013 Human overpopulation (or population overshoot) occurs when the ecological footprint of a human population in a specific geographical location exceeds the carrying capacity of the place occupied by that group. Overpopulation can further be viewed, in a long term perspective, as existing if a population cannot be maintained given the rapid depletion of non-renewable resources or given the degradation of the capacity of the environment to give support ...more...

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Sustainability studies

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Sustainability studies

Sustainability studies focus on the interdisciplinary perspective of the sustainability concept. Programs include instruction in sustainable development, geography, environmental policies, ethics, ecology, landscape architecture, city and regional planning, economics, natural resources, sociology, and anthropology.[1] Sustainability studies also focuses on the importance of climate change, poverty and development. [2] Studies in Sustainability are now available in many different universities across America. The main goal of sustainability studies is for students to find ways to develop creative solutions to the crisis in environmental sustainability. [3] See also List of environmental degrees References Detail for CIP Code 30.3301, Title: Sustainability Studies.. Classification of Instructional Programs (CIP), The Integrated Postsecondary Education Data System (IPEDS), National Center for Education Statistics, US Department of Education Institute of Education Sciences. Accessed 05.10.2011 "Compar ...more...

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Social sustainability

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Social sustainability

Venn diagram of sustainable development: at the confluence of three constituent parts[1] The four domains of social sustainability according to the Circles of Sustainability approach used by the United Nations[2] Social life is the least defined and least understood of the different ways of approaching sustainability and sustainable development. Social sustainability has had considerably less attention in public dialogue than economic and environmental sustainability. There are several approaches to sustainability. The first, which posits a triad of environmental sustainability, economic sustainability, and social sustainability, is the most widely accepted as a model for addressing sustainability. The concept of "social sustainability" in this approach encompasses such topics as: social equity, livability, health equity, community development, social capital, social support, human rights, labour rights, placemaking, social responsibility, social justice, cultural competence, community resilience, ...more...

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Sustainable tourism

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Sustainable tourism

Sustainable tourism is the concept of visiting a place as a tourist and trying to make a positive impact on the environment, society, and economy.[1] Tourism can involve primary transportation to the general location, local transportation, accommodations, entertainment, recreation, nourishment and shopping. It can be related to travel for leisure, business and what is called VFR (visiting friends and relatives).[2] There is now broad consensus that tourism development should be sustainable; however, the question of how to achieve this remains an object of debate.[3] Without travel there is no tourism, so the concept of sustainable tourism is tightly linked to a concept of sustainable mobility.[4] Two relevant considerations are tourism's reliance on fossil fuels and tourism's effect on climate change. 72 percent of tourism's CO emissions come from transportation, 24 percent from accommodations, and 4 percent from local activities.[2] Aviation accounts for 55% of those transportation CO emissions (or 40% of t ...more...

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Global catastrophic risk

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Global catastrophic risk

Artist's impression of a major asteroid impact. An asteroid with an impact strength of a billion atomic bombs may have caused the extinction of the dinosaurs.[1] A global catastrophic risk is a hypothetical future event which could damage human well-being on a global scale,[2] even crippling or destroying modern civilization.[3] An event that could cause human extinction or permanently and drastically curtail humanity's potential is known as an existential risk.[4] Potential global catastrophic risks include anthropogenic risks (technology, governance, climate change) and natural or external risks.[3] Examples of technology risks are hostile artificial intelligence and destructive biotechnology or nanotechnology. Insufficient or malign global governance creates risks in the social and political domain, such as a global war, including nuclear holocaust, bioterrorism using genetically modified organisms, cyberterrorism destroying critical infrastructure like the electrical grid; or the failure to manage a na ...more...

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Rio Declaration on Environment and Development

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Rio Declaration on Environment and Development

The Rio Declaration on Environment and Development, often shortened to Rio Declaration, was a short document produced at the 1992 United Nations "Conference on Environment and Development" (UNCED), informally known as the Earth Summit. The Rio Declaration consisted of 27 principles intended to guide countries in future sustainable development. It was signed by over 170 countries. History The international community met twice to assess the progress made in implementing the principles of the document; first in New York in 1997 during a General Assembly Session of the UN, and then in Johannesburg in 2002. While the document helped to raise environmental awareness, evidence shows that little has been achieved in the document's environmental goals.[1] Content The Rio Declaration proclaims 27 principles. It includes formulations of the precautionary principle (principle 15) and of the polluter pays principle (principle 16). See also Three generations of human rights References Palmer, Robert; Nursey-B ...more...

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Water conservation

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Water conservation

United States 1960 postal stamp advocating water conservation. Water conservation includes all the policies, strategies and activities to sustainably manage the natural resource of fresh water, to protect the hydrosphere, and to meet the current and future human demand. Population, household size, and growth and affluence all affect how much water is used. Factors such as climate change have increased pressures on natural water resources especially in manufacturing and agricultural irrigation.[1] Many US cities have already implemented policies aimed at water conservation, with much success.[2] The goals of water conservation efforts include: Ensuring availability of water for future generations where the withdrawal of freshwater from an ecosystem does not exceed its natural replacement rate. Energy conservation as water pumping, delivery and wastewater treatment facilities consume a significant amount of energy. In some regions of the world over 15% of total electricity consumption is devoted to water ...more...

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Zero population growth

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Zero population growth

Zero population growth, sometimes abbreviated ZPG (also called the replacement level of fertility),[1] is a condition of demographic balance where the number of people in a specified population neither grows nor declines, considered as a social aim by some.[2] According to some, zero population growth, perhaps after stabilizing at some optimum population, is the ideal towards which countries and the whole world should aspire in the interests of accomplishing long-term environmental sustainability.[3] What it means by ‘the number of people neither grows nor declines’ is that births plus in-migrants equal deaths plus out-migrants.[4] History A loosely defined goal of ZPG is to match the replacement fertility rate, which is the average number of children per woman which would hold the population constant. This replacement fertility will depend on mortality rates and the sex ratio at birth, and varies from around 2.1 in developed countries to over 3.0 in some developing countries.[5] The American sociologist a ...more...

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Xeriscaping

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Xeriscaping

The Xeriscape Demonstration Garden at the headquarters of Denver Water in Denver, Colorado. Xeriscaping is landscaping and gardening that reduces or eliminates the need for supplemental water from irrigation.[1] It is promoted in regions that do not have easily accessible, plentiful, or reliable supplies of fresh water, and is gaining acceptance in other areas as access to water becomes more limited. Xeriscaping may be an alternative to various types of traditional gardening.[2][3] In some areas, terms as water-conserving landscapes, drought-tolerant landscaping, and smart scaping are used instead. Plants whose natural requirements are appropriate to the local climate are emphasized, and care is taken to avoid losing water to evaporation and run-off. The specific plants used in xeriscaping depend upon the climate. Xeriscaping is different from natural landscaping, because the emphasis in xeriscaping is on selection of plants for water conservation, not necessarily selecting native plants. Public perception ...more...

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Anthropocene

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Anthropocene

The Anthropocene is a proposed epoch dating from the commencement of significant human impact on the Earth's geology and ecosystems,including, but not limited to, anthropogenic climate change.[1][2][3] [4][5] As of August 2016, neither the International Commission on Stratigraphy nor the International Union of Geological Sciences has yet officially approved the term as a recognized subdivision of geological time,[3][6][7] although the Anthropocene Working Group (AWG) of the Subcommission on Quaternary Stratigraphy (SQS) of the International Commission on Stratigraphy (ICS), voted to proceed towards a formal golden spike (GSSP) proposal to define the Anthropocene epoch in the Geologic Time Scale and presented the recommendation to the International Geological Congress on 29 August 2016.[8] Various different start dates for the Anthropocene have been proposed, ranging from the beginning of the Agricultural Revolution 12–15,000 years ago, to as recent as the Trinity test in 1945. As of February 2018, the ratifi ...more...

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Cement-bonded wood fiber

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Cement-bonded wood fiber

Cement-bonded wood fiber is a composite material manufactured throughout the world. It is made from wood (usually waste wood), chipped into a specially graded aggregate that is then mineralized and combined with portland cement. Uses Cement-bonded wood fiber is used to manufacture a wide variety of products primarily for the construction industry (products like insulating concrete forms, siding materials and noise barriers). Cement bonded wood fiber materials can be classified as low density, medium density and high density. The density of the material will determine to a large extent, the various properties of the end product. Other factors determining the overall performance of a cement bonded wood fiber material are: Wood particle type Wood particle gradation cement to wood ratio Level of sugar content in the wood particle at the time of bonding Most common is low-density cement bonded wood fiber. It is known for its use in LEED-certified projects and other types of green building. The material i ...more...

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Natural building

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Natural building

A natural building involves a range of building systems and materials that place major emphasis on sustainability. Ways of achieving sustainability through natural building focus on durability and the use of minimally processed, plentiful or renewable resources, as well as those that, while recycled or salvaged, produce healthy living environments and maintain indoor air quality. Natural building tends to rely on human labor, more than technology. As Michael G. Smith observes, it depends on "local ecology, geology and climate; on the character of the particular building site, and on the needs and personalities of the builders and users."[1] The basis of natural building is the need to lessen the environmental impact of buildings and other supporting systems, without sacrificing comfort or health. To be more sustainable, natural building uses primarily abundantly available, renewable, reused or recycled materials. The use of rapidly renewable materials is increasingly a focus. In addition to relying on natura ...more...

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Overfishing

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Overfishing

Overfishing is the removal of a species of fish from a body of water at a rate that the species cannot replenish in time, resulting in those species either becoming depleted or very underpopulated in that given area. Overfishing has spread all over the globe and has been present for centuries.[1] 400 tons of jack mackerel caught by a Chilean purse seiner Overfishing can occur in water bodies of any sizes, such as ponds, rivers, lakes or oceans, and can result in resource depletion, reduced biological growth rates and low biomass levels. Sustained overfishing can lead to critical depensation, where the fish population is no longer able to sustain itself. Some forms of overfishing, for example the overfishing of sharks, has led to the upset of entire marine ecosystems.[2] The ability of a fishery to recover from overfishing depends on whether the ecosystem's conditions are suitable for the recovery. Dramatic changes in species composition can result in an ecosystem shift, where other equilibrium energy fl ...more...

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Human population planning

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Human population planning

A world map showing countries by fertility rate per woman, 2015. (See List of countries and territories by fertility rate.)   7–8 children   6–7 children   5–6 children   4–5 children   3–4 children   2–3 children   1–2 children   0–1 children Human population planning is the practice of intentionally managing the rate of growth of a human population. Historically human population planning has been implemented with the goal of increasing the rate of human population growth. However, in the period from the 1950s to the 1980s, concerns about global population growth and its effects on poverty, environmental degradation and political stability led to efforts to reduce human population growth rates. More recently, some countries, such as Iran and Spain, have begun efforts to increase their birth rates once again. While population planning can involve measures that improve people's lives by giving them greater control of their reproduction, a few programs, most notably the Chinese govern ...more...

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North American collegiate sustainability programs

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North American collegiate sustainability programs

North American collegiate sustainability programs are institutions of higher education in the United States, Mexico, and Canada that have majors and/or minors dedicated to the subject of sustainability. Sustainability as a major and minor is spreading to more and more colleges as the need for humanity to adopt a more sustainable lifestyle becomes increasingly apparent with the onset of global warming. The majors and minors listed here cover a wide array of sustainability aspects from business to construction to agriculture to simply the study of sustainability itself. Canada Acadia University Acadia University is located in Wolfville, Nova Scotia, Canada and offers an undergraduate major in Environmental and Sustainability Studies. This major gives students the skills they need to make the changes necessary to create a more "sustainable and just society".[1] There are four concentration areas (Sustainable Community Development, Innovation and Entrepreneurship for Sustainability, Environmental Thought and Pr ...more...

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Planetary boundaries

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Planetary boundaries

Planetary boundaries according to Rockström et al. 2009[1] and Steffen et al. 2015.[2] The green areas represent human activities that are within safe margins, the yellow areas represent human activities that may or may not have exceeded safe margins, the red areas represent human activities that have exceeded safe margins, and the gray areas with red question marks represent human activities for which safe margins have not yet been determined. Planetary boundaries is a concept of nine Earth system processes which have boundaries proposed in 2009 by a group of Earth system and environmental scientists led by Johan Rockström from the Stockholm Resilience Centre and Will Steffen from the Australian National University. The group wanted to define a "safe operating space for humanity" for the international community, including governments at all levels, international organizations, civil society, the scientific community and the private sector, as a precondition for sustainable development. The framework is bas ...more...

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Simple living

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Simple living

Mahatma Gandhi spinning yarn in 1942. Gandhi believed in a life of simplicity and self-sufficiency. Simple living encompasses a number of different voluntary practices to simplify one's lifestyle. These may include, for example, reducing one's possessions, generally referred to as minimalism, or increasing self-sufficiency. Simple living may be characterized by individuals being satisfied with what they have rather than want.[1][2] Although asceticism generally promotes living simply and refraining from luxury and indulgence, not all proponents of simple living are ascetics.[3] Simple living is distinct from those living in forced poverty, as it is a voluntary lifestyle choice. Adherents may choose simple living for a variety of personal reasons, such as spirituality, health, increase in quality time for family and friends, work–life balance, personal taste, financial sustainability, frugality, or reducing stress. Simple living can also be a reaction to materialism and conspicuous consumption. Some cite soc ...more...

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New Age

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New Age

A New Age Rainbow Gathering in Bosnia, 2007 New Age is a term applied to a range of spiritual or religious beliefs and practices that developed in Western nations during the 1970s. Precise scholarly definitions of the New Age differ in their emphasis, largely as a result of its highly eclectic structure. Although analytically often considered to be religious, those involved in it typically prefer the designation of spiritual or Mind, Body, Spirit and rarely use the term "New Age" themselves. Many scholars of the subject refer to it as the New Age movement, although others contest this term and suggest that it is better seen as a milieu or zeitgeist. As a form of Western esotericism, the New Age drew heavily upon a number of older esoteric traditions, in particular those that emerged from the occultist current that developed in the eighteenth century. Such prominent occult influences include the work of Emanuel Swedenborg and Franz Mesmer, as well as the ideas of Spiritualism, New Thought, and Theosophy. A n ...more...

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United Nations Millennium Declaration

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United Nations Millennium Declaration

On 8 September 2000, following a three-day Millennium Summit of world leaders at the headquarters of the United Nations, the General Assembly adopted the Millennium Declaration (Resolution 55/2).[1] A follow-up outcome of the resolution was passed by the General Assembly on 14 December 2000 to guide its implementation. Progress on implementation of the Declaration was reviewed at the 2005 World Summit of leaders.[2][3] The Declaration includes 8 chapters and 32 paragraphs. Chapters The Millennium Declaration has eight chapters and key objectives, adopted by 189 world leaders during the summit: The Declaration, after the Vienna Declaration and Programme of Action, stresses the observance of international human rights law and international humanitarian law under the Principles of United Nations Charter as well as the treaties on sustainable development. The Declaration also urges observance of the Olympic truce individually and collectively. Values and Principles Freedom Equality Solidarity Toleranc ...more...

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Green building on college campuses

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Green building on college campuses

Green building on college campuses is the purposeful construction of buildings on college campuses that decreases resource usage in both the building process and also the future use of the building. The goal is to reduce CO emissions, energy use, and water use, while creating an atmosphere where students can be healthy and learn. Universities across the country are building to green standards set forth by the USGBC, United States Green Building Council. The USGBC is a non-profit organization that promotes sustainability in how buildings are designed and built. This organization created the Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design (LEED) rating system, which is a certification process that provides verification that a building is environmentally sustainable. In the United States, commercial and residential buildings account for 70 percent of the electricity use and over 38 percent of CO emissions.[1] Because of these huge statistics regarding resource usage and emissions, the room for more efficient build ...more...

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Outline of marketing

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Outline of marketing

The following outline is provided as an overview of and topical guide to marketing: Marketing – social and managerial processes by which products, services, and value are exchanged in order to fulfill individuals' or groups' needs and wants. These processes include, but are not limited to, advertising, promotion, distribution, and product management. Core concepts in marketing Marketers may sell goods or services directly to consumers, known as business to customer (B2C marketing); commercial organisations (known as business to business marketing or B2B), to government; to not-for-profit organisations (Not-for-profit orgnanization (NFP)) or some combination of any of these. Actors and relationships At the centre of the marketing framework is the consumer lies the relationship between the consumer and the organisation with the implication that marketers must manage the way the organisation presents its public face. The consumer: Typically, the consumer refers to the end-user - but this may be an individ ...more...

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History of marketing

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History of marketing

The term, 'marketing', comes from the Latin, 'mercatus', meaning a marketplace. Pictured: La Boqueria, Barcelona, Spain Scholars have found evidence of marketing practices in the marketplaces of antiquity. Pictured: The Moorish Bazaar, painting by Edwin Lord Weeks, 1873 The study of the history of marketing, as a discipline, is meaningful because it helps to define the baselines upon which change can be recognised and understand how the discipline evolves in response to those changes.[1] The practice of marketing has been known for millennia, but the term "marketing" used to describe commercial activities buying and selling a products or services came into popular use in the late nineteenth century.[2] The study of the history of marketing as an academic field emerged in the early twentieth century.[3] Marketers tend to distinguish between the history of marketing practice and the history of marketing thought: (a) the history of marketing practice refers to an investigation into the ways that marketin ...more...

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Earth System Governance Project

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Earth System Governance Project

The Earth System Governance Project[1] is a long-term, interdisciplinary social science research programme originally developed under the auspices of the International Human Dimensions Programme on Global Environmental Change.[2] It started in January 2009. The Earth System Governance Project currently consists of a network of ca. 300 active and about 2,300 indirectly involved scholars from all continents. The project has evolved into the largest social science research network in the area of governance and global environmental change.[3] The Earth System Governance Project Office is hosted at Lund University, Sweden. Aims The Earth System Governance Project aims to contribute to science on the large, complex challenges of governance in an era of rapid and large-scale environmental change. The project seeks to create a better understanding of the role of institutions, organizations and governance mechanisms by which humans regulate their relationship with the natural environment.[1] The Earth System Govern ...more...

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EARTH SYSTEM GOVERNANCE

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Sustainable gardening

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Sustainable gardening

A water collector at the EVA Lanxmeer housing development in Culemborg, Netherlands Sustainable gardening includes the more specific sustainable landscapes, sustainable landscape design, sustainable landscaping, sustainable landscape architecture, resulting in sustainable sites. It comprises a disparate group of horticultural interests that can share the aims and objectives associated with the international post-1980s sustainable development and sustainability programs developed to address the fact that humans are now using natural biophysical resources faster than they can be replenished by nature.[1] Included within this compass are those home gardeners, and members of the landscape and nursery industries, and municipal authorities, that integrate environmental, social, and economic factors to create a more sustainable future. Organic gardening and the use of native plants are integral to sustainable gardening.[2] Historical development After the establishment of sustainable agriculture in the early 1 ...more...

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Jacquelyn Ottman

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Jacquelyn Ottman

Jacquelyn A. Ottman (born 1955) is a New York City-based consultant specializing in sustainability strategy, green marketing, and eco-innovation.[1] She is the author or co-author of four books on green marketing, including The New Rules of Green Marketing: Strategies, Tools, and Inspiration for Sustainable Branding[2] and Berrett-Koehler Publishers, February 2011). She has advised Fortune 500 companies,[3] including GE, Johnson & Johnson,[4] and Procter & Gamble,[5] along with the United States Environmental Protection Agency Energy Star Label[6] She blogs at GreenMarketing.com and at WeHateToWaste.com. Education Ottman is a graduate of Smith College, a private, independent women's liberal arts college in Northampton, Massachusetts. She has also been awarded an advanced certification from the Creative Education Foundation in facilitating the Osborn-Parnes Creative Problem Solving Process.[7] Career Ottman worked for over ten years in New York advertising agencies before setting up her own compa ...more...

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Earth system governance

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Earth system governance

Earth system governance is a recently developed paradigm that builds on earlier notions of environmental policy and nature conservation, but puts these into the broader context of human-induced transformations of the entire earth system. It conceptualizes the system of formal and informal rules, rule-making mechanisms and actor-networks at all levels of human society (from local to global) that are set up to steer societies towards preventing, mitigating, and adapting to global and local environmental change and earth system transformation, within the normative context of sustainable development.[1] Introduction The notion of governance refers to forms of steering that are less hierarchical than traditional governmental policy-making (even though most modern governance arrangements will also include some degree of hierarchy), rather decentralized, open to self-organization, and inclusive of non-state actors that range from industry and non-governmental organizations to scientists, indigenous communities, ci ...more...

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GOVERNANCE

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If Trash Could Talk

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If Trash Could Talk

If Trash Could Talk is a book of poems, stories, and musings written and published by Jacquelyn A. Ottman. The book is critical of overconsumption and subsequent waste in New York City. It was published in May 2018 by CreateSpace Independent Publishing Platform.[1] Contents The sixty entries in If Trash Could Talk were created over the course of Ottman’s life, and are a reflection of her personal experiences and insights. Each poem, story, and musing has a unique subject, but all bring attention to the flaws in consumer culture. Readers will discover new ways to use things up, use stuff longer, pass stuff along, and pass things up altogether in the name of reducing waste. [2][3] “By starting to talk about what we all can do to save a little this, spare a little that, readers will take the first meaningful steps towards making real changes in consumption culture that can eventually help everyone live a whole lot better.” – Jacquelyn Ottman [1] Reception What readers say about If Trash Could Talk: "Jacqui ...more...



List of photovoltaics companies

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List of photovoltaics companies

Monocrystalline solar cell This is a list of notable photovoltaics (PV) companies. Grid-connected solar photovoltaics (PV) is the fastest growing energy technology in the world, growing from a cumulative installed capacity of 7.7 GW in 2007, to 320 GW in 2016. In 2016, 93% of the global PV cell manufacturing capacity utilizes crystalline silicon (cSi) technology, representing a commanding lead over rival forms of PV technology, such as cadmium telluride (CdTe), amorphous silicon (aSi), and copper indium gallium selenide (CIGS). In 2016, manufacturers in China and Taiwan met the majority of global PV module demand, accounting for 68% of all modules, followed by the rest of Asia at 14%. The United States and Canada manufactured 6%, and Europe manufactured a mere 4%.[1] Photovoltaics companies include PV capital equipment producers, cell manufacturers, panel manufacturers and installers. The list does not include silicon manufacturing companies. Photovoltaic manufacturers Summary Notable PV production lin ...more...

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Lists of companies by industry

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PV companies

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Sustainability advertising

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Sustainability advertising

Sustainability advertising is communications geared towards promoting social, economic and environmental benefits of products, services or actions through paid advertising in media in order to encourage responsible behavior of consumers. Definition Conventional advertising is part of the promotion of products and services, which is one of the 4P's represented in the marketing mix (Product, Promotion, Price, Place).[1] The sustainability marketing mix includes the 4C's (Customer solution, Communication, Customer cost, Convenience) and makes sustainability advertising a part of the sustainability communication concept.[2] Sustainability advertising is used to advert customers to sustainable products, services and actions. It is not only focused on environmental issues and the product or service itself, but includes communication about the entire life cycle of the product. It furthermore informs about the sustainability of the producing company and communicates desirable lifestyles changes to consumers.[3] Ad ...more...

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Applied ecology

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Applied ecology

Applied ecology is a subfield within ecology, which considers the application of the science of ecology to real-world (usually management) questions. It is an integrated treatment of the ecological, social, and biotechnological aspects of natural resource conservation and management. It is also called ecological or environmental technology. Applied ecology typically focuses on geomorphology, soils, and plant communities as the underpinnings for vegetation and wildlife (both game and non-game) management. Aspects of applied ecology include: Yosemite National Park in the United States. Agro-ecosystem management Biodiversity conservation Biotechnology Conservation biology Ecosystem restoration Habitat management Invasive species management Protected areas management Rangeland management Restoration ecology Major journals in the field include: Journal of Applied Ecology Ecological Applications Applied Ecology and Environmental Research Related organizations include: Ecological S ...more...

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Sustainable urban planning

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Renewable heat

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Renewable heat

Renewable heat is an application of renewable energy and it refers to the renewable generation of heat, rather than electrical power (e.g. replacing a fossil fuel boiler using concentrating solar thermal to feed radiators). Renewable heat technologies include renewable biofuels, solar heating, geothermal heating, heat pumps and heat exchangers to recover lost heat. Significant attention is also applied to insulation. Many colder countries consume more energy for heating than electrical power. For example, in 2005 the United Kingdom consumed 354 TWh[1] of electric power, but had a heat requirement of 907 TWh, the majority of which (81%) was met using gas. The residential sector alone consumed a massive 550 TWh of energy for heating, mainly in the form of gas. Almost half of the final energy consumed in the UK (49%) was in the form of heat, of which 70% was used by households and in commercial and public buildings. Households used heat mainly for space heating (69%) and heating water.[2] The relative competit ...more...

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Sustainable technologies

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Strategic management

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Strategic management

In the field of management, strategic management involves the formulation and implementation of the major goals and initiatives taken by an organization's top management on behalf of owners, based on consideration of resources and an assessment of the internal and external environments in which the organization operates.[1][2][3] Strategic management provides overall direction to an enterprise and involves specifying the organization's objectives, developing policies and plans designed to achieve these objectives, and then allocating resources to implement the plans. Academics and practicing managers have developed numerous models and frameworks to assist in strategic decision-making in the context of complex environments and competitive dynamics.[4] Strategic management is not static in nature; the models often include a feedback loop to monitor execution and to inform the next round of planning.[5][6][7] Michael Porter identifies three principles underlying strategy:[8] creating a "unique and valuabl ...more...

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Management

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Organization Development

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Monarch butterfly conservation in California

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Monarch butterfly conservation in California

The U.S. state of California has instituted numerous conservation programs, policies, laws, reserves and Habitat restoration projects throughout the state to facilitate the health and migration of the western population of the monarch butterfly (Danaus plexippus). The population of western monarchs require very different breeding and overwintering habitat when compared to the eastern population of monarch butterflies. They require specific micro-climatic conditions to survive the winter and they are sensitive to habitat changes at the overwintering sites. The large aggregations of butterflies are seen as the most vulnerable at their overwintering locations along the coast. Many monarch overwintering sites are contained within the "coastal zone"; an area defined by the Coastal Zone Management Act[1] to be 1000 yards inland from the high tide mark. Large number of overwintering sites are outside the coastal zone. There are more than 450 overwintering sites in California documented since the 1980s. Protection o ...more...

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Insect ecology

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Colin Mason

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Colin Mason

Colin Victor James Mason (born 28 October 1926) is a New Zealand-born Australian journalist, author and former politician. Mason worked for 14 years as the first foreign correspondent of the Australian Broadcasting Corporation[1] and became deeply involved in Asian affairs. In 1968, he wrote Dragon Army, a popular history of Asian communism.[2] He joined the Australia Party and rose to become its national convener (1976). He joined the Australian Democrats and was elected to the Senate at the 1977 election as a senator for New South Wales. He and Don Chipp (Victoria) were the first two Australian Democrats elected to the Senate, although Janine Haines (South Australia) had earlier been appointed to a casual vacancy. He was re-elected at the 1983 double-dissolution election for a three-year term, and again at the 1984 election for a three-year term ending on 30 June 1988.[3] He retired in 1987 when another double-dissolution election was called. He later wrote A Short History of Asia (2000),[4] concerning ...more...

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Members of the Australian Senate for New South ...

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Garrett Hardin

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Garrett Hardin

Garrett James Hardin (April 21, 1915 – September 14, 2003) was an American ecologist and philosopher who warned of the dangers of overpopulation. His exposition of the tragedy of the commons, in a famous 1968 paper in Science,[1] called attention to "the damage that innocent actions by individuals can inflict on the environment".[2] He is also known for Hardin's First Law of Human Ecology: "We can never do merely one thing. Any intrusion into nature has numerous effects, many of which are unpredictable."[3]:112 Biography Hardin received a B.S. in zoology from the University of Chicago in 1936 and a PhD in microbiology from Stanford University in 1941 where his dissertation research addressed symbiosis among microorganisms.[4] Moving to the University of California, Santa Barbara in 1946, he served there as Professor of Human Ecology from 1963 until his (nominal) retirement in 1978. He was among the first members of the Society for General Systems Research. Major works and positions A major focus of his ca ...more...

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Joint suicides

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Scenario planning

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Scenario planning

Scenario planning, also called scenario thinking or scenario analysis, is a strategic planning method that some organizations use to make flexible long-term plans[1]. It is in large part an adaptation and generalization of classic methods used by military intelligence[2]. The original method was that a group of analysts would generate simulation games for policy makers. The methods combine known facts about the future, such as demographics, geography, military, political, industrial information, and mineral reserves, with key driving forces identified by considering social, technical, economic, environmental, and political (STEEP) trends[3]. In business applications, the emphasis on gaming the behavior of opponents was reduced (shifting more toward a game against nature). At Royal Dutch/Shell for example, scenario planning was viewed as changing mindsets about the exogenous part of the world, prior to formulating specific strategies[4][5]. Scenario planning may involve aspects of systems thinking, specific ...more...

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Types of marketing

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Logic, Brain, Philosophy, etc

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Hybrid vehicle

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Hybrid vehicle

A hybrid vehicle uses two or more distinct types of power, such as internal combustion engine to drive an electric generator that powers an electric motor,[1] e.g. in diesel-electric trains using diesel engines to drive an electric generator that powers an electric motor, and submarines that use diesels when surfaced and batteries when submerged. Other means to store energy include pressurized fluid in hydraulic hybrids. The basic principle with hybrid vehicles is that the different power sources work better at different speeds and then switching from one to the other at the proper time during the speed transform yields a win-win in terms of energy efficiency, as such that translates into greater fuel efficiency, for example. Power Power sources for hybrid vehicles include: Coal, wood or other solid combustibles Compressed or liquefied natural gas Petrol (gasoline) or Diesel fuel Human powered e.g. pedaling or rowing Electromagnetic fields, Radio waves Electric batteries/capacitors Over ...more...

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Engines

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Ambidextrous organization

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Ambidextrous organization

Organizational ambidexterity refers to an organization's ability to be efficient in its management of today's business and also adaptable for coping with tomorrow's changing demand. Just as being ambidextrous means being able to use both the left and right hand equally, organizational ambidexterity requires the organizations to use both exploration and exploitation techniques to be successful. Origin and development Organizational ambidexterity was defined as an organization's ability to be aligned and efficient in its management of today's business demands as well as being adaptive to changes in the environment at the same time.[1] This term of organizational ambidexterity was first used by Duncan,[1] however, it was March[2] that had been credited for developing and generating greater interest in this concept, especially in the late 20th and early 21st century. Ambidexterity in an organization is achieved by balancing exploration and exploitation, which allows the organization to be creative and adaptable ...more...

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Knowledge

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