Sikandar Lodi

Sikandar Lodi (died 21 November 1517), born Nizam Khan, was the Sultan of Delhi between 1489 and 1517.[1] He became the next ruler of the Lodi dynasty after the death of his father Bahlul Lodi in July 1489. The second and most successful ruler of the Lodi dynasty of the Delhi sultanate, he was also a poet of the Persian language and prepared a diwan of 9000 verses.[2]

Of the three Lodi Sultans namely Bahlol Lodi (1451 to 1489), Sikandar Lodi (1489 to 1517) and Ibrahim Lodi (1517 to 1526), Sikandar Lodi is regarded as the ablest, the greatest and the most successful Sultan. As compared with these two Sultans, Sikandar Lodi gave ample evidence of his qualities as a general, as an administrator, a consolidator of the empire and a man of letters.

Biography
The top two storeys of the Qutub Minar were reconstructed in marble by Sikandar Lodi

Sikandar was the second son of Sultan Bahlul Khan Lodi and Bibi Ambha, the daughter of a Hindu goldsmith of Sirhind. He was of Afghan origin through his father.[3]

He became Sultan upon the death of his father on 17 July 1489 under the full name Abu Al-Muzzafar Ghazi Sultan Sikandar Lodi. His rise to power was troubled, as his older brother, Barbak Shah, the viceroy of Jaunpur, also laid claim to the throne, even though their father had nominated Sikandar. However, he was able to ascend to the throne without massive bloodshed, and even allowed his brother to continue ruling Jaunpur. He also settled differences with an uncle, Alam Khan, who was also suspected of seeking to seize power.

Sikandar was a capable ruler who encouraged trade across his territory, but discriminated against Hindu subjects. He expanded Lodi territory into the regions of Gwalior and Bihar. He made a treaty with Alauddin Hussain Shah and his kingdom of Bengal. In 1503, he commissioned the building of the present-day city of Agra. Agra was founded by him.[4]

He has a reputation for religious intolerance, and is said to have burned Bodhan, a Hindu sadhu alive for saying that Islam and Hinduism were equally acceptable to God.

Coin of Sikandar Lodi

He wrote poetry in Persian using the pen name Gulrukhi. He introduced auditing in accounts. He took good care of justice and agriculture for the welfare of people. He introduced a system of Gaz-i-sikandari, means 32 digit of measuring system of cultivated lands.

Among the administrative changes made by Sikandar Lodi was the installation of Persian language as the official language for the accountancy in India in 1514.

Conquests

First of all Sikandar Lodi defeated his elder brother and seized Jaunpur and brought it under his direct control. He afterwards led his attack on Bihar, defeated its ruler and annexed it. He conquered the states of Dholpur, Bidar, Chanderi and other nearby kingdoms. But defeated by the ruler of Gawilor Man Singh Tomar. He entered into a friendship treaty with the ruler of Bengal. Sikandar’s empire extended from the Punjab to the borders of Bengal and included the territories between Sutlej and Bundelkhand.

Occasional tours in disguise
Sikandar Lodi's tomb

Very often the Sultan toured in disguise to have the first hand information about the condition of the people and the activities of the Amirs and the Ulemas.

He died in 1517 and has an elaborate burial tomb that resides in Lodi Gardens, Delhi.

References
  1. Sen, Sailendra (2013). A Textbook of Medieval Indian History. Primus Books. pp. 122–125. ISBN 978-9-38060-734-4.
  2. Ram Nath Sharma, History Of Education In India, Atlantic (1996), p. 61
  3. Lodī dynasty - Encyclopædia Britannica
  4. Kishori Saran Lal (1963). Twilight of the Sultanate. Asia Publishing House. p. 176. OCLC 500687579.
Preceded byBahlul Khan Lodi Sultan of Delhi 1489–1517 Succeeded byIbrahim Lodi
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Ghazi Saiyyad Salar Masud

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Ghazi Saiyyad Salar Masud

See also Ghazi Ghazi Saiyyad Salar Masud or Ghazi Miyan (1014 – 1034 CE) was a semi-legendary Ghaznavid army general, said to have been the nephew of Sultan Mahmud. He supposedly accompanied his uncle in the conquest of India during early 11th century, although the Ghaznavid chronicles do not mention him. By the 12th century, Salar Masud had become reputed as a warrior-saint, and his tomb (dargah) at Bahraich, Uttar Pradesh, India, had become a place of pilgrimage. However, his association with the Ghaznavids appears only in later sources. The main source of his biography is the 17th century historical romance Mirat-i-Masudi. Mirat-i-Masudi legend The Mirat-i-Masudi narrates the legend of Salar Masud as follows: Early life In 1011 CE, the Muslims of Ajmer, whose rights were being infringed upon by the local Hindu rulers, appealed Sultan Mahmud of Ghazni for help. Mahmud agreed to help them on the condition that they would mention his name in the Friday sermons (Khutbah), which would signify their acknowle ...more...

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Satna

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Satna

Satna is a city in the Satna District of Indian state of Madhya Pradesh. It is home for district's administrative headquarters. HistoryFrom antiquity to the mutiny of 1857 At nearby Bharhut are the remains of a 2nd-century BC Buddhist stupa, first discovered in 1873 by the archaeologist Alexander Cunningham; most of the finds from this site were sent to the Indian Museum. The Mahabharata associates this site with rulers of the Haihaya, Kalchuri or Chedi clans. The chiefs of Rewash, descended from Baghel Rajputs (who were in turn descended from the Solanki), ruled over Gujrat from the tenth to the thirteenth century. Vyaghra Deo, brother of the ruler of Gujrat, is said to have made his way into northern India about the middle of the thirteenth century and obtained the fort of Marpha, 18 miles north-east of Kalinjar. of Bandhavgarh (now in the tehsil of the same name in Shahdoldistrict), which, until its destruction in 1597 by Akbar the Great, was the Baghel capital. In 1298, general prince Ulugh Khan, actin ...more...

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Ballia

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Ballia

Ballia is a city with a municipal board in the Indian state of Uttar Pradesh bordering Bihar. The eastern boundary of the city lies at the junction of two major rivers, the Ganges and the Ghaghara. The city is situated 140 km (87 mi) east of Varanasi. Bhojpuri is the primary local language. Ballia was independent on 19 August 1942; it was the first independent city of India. The headquarters of the Ballia district are located here. Due to its significant contribution to the Indian independence movement, Ballia is also known as Bagi Ballia ("Rebel Ballia"), because Ballia got freedom twice, first on 19 August 1942 for one day, and the second time with India. It has a bird century protected area, the Jai Prakash Narayan bird sanctuary. The other name of this is Suraha Taal which is natural lake. Primarily foreign and local migratory birds flock to the Jai Prakash Narayan Bird Sanctuary during the winter months. According to estimation approximately 10,000 birds of 15 species can be sighted in ‘Surha Taal’ the ...more...

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Bhil Pal

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Bhil Pal

Raja Bhil Pal (1473–1513 CE) was a Rajput ruler of the kingdom of Nurpur, in the Himalayan foot hills. He was a contemporary of Sikandar Lodi of Delhi (1488–1516), and assisted him in his wars and therefore increased his own territory.[1] The Punjab had come under Muslim rule from the time of its conquest by Mahmud of Ghazni, and the states bordering on the plains were probably the first to suffer. The Pathania Kings were in good terms with the Sultans at Delhi, at that period of time, therefore their territory was independent, and as a result it was greatly enlarged during Raja Bhil Pal's reign. During his rule the kingdom of the Pathania Rajputs extended far into the plains of Punjab and in the opposite direction to the borders of Chamba and Kangra. He was succeeded by his son, Raja Bakht Mal on the throne. References Hutchison, John; Vogel, Jean Philippe. History of the Panjab hill states. Books.google.co.uk. p. 221. Retrieved 2012-03-12. ...more...

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Bairam Khan

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Bairam Khan

Bairam Khan also Bayram Khan (c. 1501 – c. 31 January 1561) was an important military commander, later commander-in-chief of the Mughal army, a powerful statesman and regent at the court of the Mughal Emperors, Humayun and Akbar. He was also guardian, chief mentor, adviser, teacher and the most trusted ally of Akbar.[6] Humayun honored him as Khan-i-Khanan, which means "King of Kings". Bairam was originally called Bairam "Beg", but later became honored as 'Kha' or Khan.[7][8] Bairam Khan was an aggressive general who was determined to restore Mughal authority in India.[6] Early life and ancestors Bairam Khan was born in the region of Badakhshan in Central Asia, and belonged to the Baharlu Turkoman clan of the Kara Koyunlu confederation.[9][10] The Kara Koyunlu had ruled Western Persia for decades before being overthrown by their Ak Koyunlu rivals. Bairam Khan's father Seyfali beg Baharlu and grandfather Janali beg Baharlu had been part of Babur's service.[7] His great-grandfather was Pirali beg Baharlu, a b ...more...

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Khajuraho Group of Monuments

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Khajuraho Group of Monuments

The Khajuraho Group of Monuments is a group of Hindu, Buddhist and Jain temples in Madhya Pradesh, India, about 175 kilometres (109 mi) southeast of Jhansi. They are one of the UNESCO World Heritage Sites in India.[1][2] The temples are famous for their nagara-style architectural symbolism and their erotic sculptures.[3] Most Khajuraho temples were built between 950 and 1050 by the Chandela Rajput dynasty.[4] Historical records note that the Khajuraho temple site had 85 temples by the 12th century, spread over 20 square kilometers Of these, only about 25 temples have survived, spread over 6 square kilometers.[2] Of the various surviving temples, the Kandariya Mahadeva Temple is decorated with a profusion of sculptures with intricate details, symbolism and expressiveness of ancient Indian art.[5] The Khajuraho group of temples were built together but were dedicated to two religions, Hinduism and Jainism, suggesting a tradition of acceptance and respect for diverse religious views among Hindus and Jains in th ...more...

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List of state leaders in 1494

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List of state leaders in 1494

This is a list of heads of state, government leaders, and other rulers in the year 1494. Africa Ethiopian Empire – Eskender (1478–1494) Amda Seyon II (1494) Na'od (1494–1508) Adal Sultanate – Muhammad ibn Azhar ad-Din (1488–1518) Kingdom of Kongo – João I (1470–1509) Songhai Empire – Askia Mohammad I (1493–1528) Americas Aztec Empire – Ahuitzotl (1486–1502) Inca Empire – Huayna Capac (1493–1527) Muisca Confederation zipa - Nemequene (1490–1514) zaque - Quemuenchatocha (1490–1538) Texcoco – Nezahualpilli, King of Texcoco (1472–1515) Asia Ahmadnagar Sultanate – Ahmad Shah I, Nizam of Ahmadnagar (1490–1509) Ava Kingdom (Burma) - Minkhaung II (1481–1502) Ayutthaya Kingdom (Siam) - Ramathibodi II (1491–1529) Bahmani Sultanate – Muhammad Shah IV (1482–1518) Bengal Sultanate – Alauddin Husain Shah (1494–1518) Berar Sultanate – Fath-Allah 'Imad ul-Mulk (1490–1504) Bidar Sultanate – Qasim Shah I (1492–1504) Bijapur Sultanate – Yusuf Adil Shah (1490–1510) Cambodi ...more...

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Narwar

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Narwar

Narwar is a town and a nagar panchayat in Shivpuri district in the Indian state of Madhya Pradesh. Narwar is a historic town and the Narwar Fort is just east of the Kali Sindh River and is situated at a distance of 42 km from Shivpuri. Narwar was known as Narwar District during the times of Gwalior State. It is mentioned as Nalpura (Nala's town) in many medieval Sanskrit inscriptions. The Narwar Fort is surrounded by the Kali Sindh River. There are three dams, Harsi Dam, Mohini Sagar and Atal Sagar. Presently the Fort is being renovated by the Archaeological Survey of India. History The town was known as Nalapura (named after Raja Nala) until the 12th century. At one time it was the capital of Raja Nala of Naisadha, whose love for Damayanti has been mentioned in detail in Mahabharata. There is a myth that when Raja Nala left Damayanti asleep in the forests of Narwar she moved through dense forests and reached Chanderi protecting herself from wild animals. The route through forests from Narwar to Chanderi is ...more...

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1501 in India

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1501 in India

The following lists events that happened during 1501 in India. Incumbents Prabhat Ray, founder and ruler of the Jaintia Kingdom, 1500–1516[1] Miran Adil Khan II, Sultan of the Faruqi dynasty, 1457–1501 Rudra Pratap Singh, Raja of Orchha State, 1501-1531 Dhanya Manikya, Maharaja of Tripura, 1463-1515 Events The 2nd Portuguese India Armada (Cabral, 1500) left India in January The 3rd Portuguese India Armada (Nova, 1501), funded by Bartolomeo Marchionni, landed in India in August The Portuguese Armada fought the navy of the Zamorin of Calicut in the First Battle of Cannanore on 31 December Pedro Álvares Cabral left India on 16 January and returned to Portugal with pepper, ginger, cinnamon, cardamom, nutmeg, mace, and cloves. The profits made from this trip were huge.[2] Guru Nanak made his first Udaasis, stopping in Gwarighat on the way back Mallabairegowda built Devanahalli Fort[3] Rudra Pratap Singh founded Orchha State[4] Devanahalli fort Sikandar Lodi conquered Dholpur in R ...more...

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Gujarat

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Gujarat

Gujarat ( Gujarat   ( listen)) is a state in Western India[3][8][9][10][11] and Northwest India[12][13][14][15] with an area of 196,024 km2 (75,685 sq mi), a coastline of 1,600 km (990 mi) – most of which lies on the Kathiawar peninsula – and a population in excess of 60 million. It is bordered by Rajasthan to the northeast, Daman and Diu to the south, Dadra and Nagar Haveli and Maharashtra to the southeast, Madhya Pradesh to the east, and the Arabian Sea and the Pakistani province of Sindh to the west. Its capital city is Gandhinagar, while its largest city is Ahmedabad.[16] The Gujarati-speaking people of India are indigenous to the state. Gujarat is the third-largest state economy in India with ₹14.96 lakh crore (US$220 billion) in gross domestic product. The state encompasses some sites of the ancient Indus Valley Civilisation, such as Lothal, Dholavira, and Gola Dhoro. Lothal is believed to be one of the world's first seaports. Gujarat's coastal cities, chiefly Bharuch and Khambhat, served as ports and ...more...

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Barh

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Barh

Barh is a town and subdivision in Patna district of Bihar, India. It is located on the southern bank of the Ganga River. It is well known for Umanath (Shiv Temple on shore of the Ganga). Umanath is a famous place for Hindu ritual cremation. It is also famous for the Alakhnath Temple. Lai (लाई) of Barh is famous for its rich taste. Lai is a sweet that looks like Laddu. Etymology Barh was one of the largest lentil- and pulse-producing regions of India during the British Raj. Situated on the southern bank of the river Ganges, some 60 km (37 mi) east of Patna, the town was a stopover for ships sailing to and from Calcutta, ferrying grains and lentils. The town's name may have derived from the Persian word bargah, which translates as 'twelfth' in English, as Barh's position in the order of such stopovers was twelfth. The town is low-lying and was frequently flooded by the Ganges before the Bandh Road was constructed. The Hindi word for a flood is barh, and it has been alternatively suggested as the etymological ...more...

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List of tourist attractions in Delhi

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List of tourist attractions in Delhi

Government buildingsSansad Bhavan Sansad Bhavan or the Parliament of India is a circular building designed by the British architects Sir Edwin Lutyens and Sir Herbert Baker in 1912–1913. Construction began in 1921, and in 1927 the building was opened as the home of the Council of State, the Central Legislative Assembly, and the Chamber of Princes. Rashtrapati Bhavan Built with a mix of European and Mughal/Indian styles, Rashtrapati Bhavan was originally built for the Governor General of India. Inaugurated in 1931 as the Viceregal Lodge, the name was changed in 1959 after India became a republic. Now it is the Presidential Palace of India. Red Fort Red Fort is a is a historic fort in Delhi where every year on the Independence day of India (15 August), the Prime Minister hoists the Indian "tricolour flag" at the main gate of the fort and delivers a nationally-broadcast speech from its ramparts.[1] India Gate The India Gate located astride the Rajpath is a war memorial to 70,000 soldiers of the Indian Army wh ...more...

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Satna district

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Satna district

Satna District is a district of Madhya Pradesh state in central India. The town of Satna is the district headquarters. The district has an area of 7,502 km², and a population of 768,648 (2011 census), 20.63% of which is urban. The district has a population density of 249 persons per km². Geography Satna district has Uttar Pradesh on the north, Rewa on the east, Shahdol on the southwest, Umaria and Katni districts on the south, and Panna on the west.[1] The district is part of Rewa Division. The district is divided into the tehsils of Amarpatan, Maihar, Nagod, Uchehara, Birsinghpur, Kotar, Majhgawan, Ramnagar, Rampur baghelan & Sohawal. Satna town is situated in Sohawal tehsil. History Satna district is part of the Baghelkhand region, a very large portion of which was ruled by the Rewa. A small portion of the western region was ruled by feudatory chiefs under the British. There were eleven such states, namely saluted state (Baroundha).Maihar, Nagod State, Sohawal, Kothi, Jaso, and the five Chaube Jagirs ...more...

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Narwar Fort

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Narwar Fort

Narwar Fort Narwar Fort is situated atop a hill, at Narwar in Madhya Pradesh, about 500 feet above ground level spread over an area of 8 km², which stands on a steep scarp of the Vindhya Range. Kachwaha Rajputs are said to have built (or rebuilt) the fort when they occupied Narwar in the 10th century. Kachwaha, Parihara, and Tomara Rajputs held Narwar successively from 12th century onwards, until its capture by the Mughals in the 16th century. It was conquered by the Maratha chief Scindia in the early 19th century. It is now in a dilapidated condition, but the remains suggest that, in the flourishing days, it might have been only second to the Gwalior Fort in magnificence. The interior of the fort is divided by cross walls into four 'ahata' and 'dholaahata'. The architecture of the fort and palaces is basically Rajput in style with flat ceiling, fluted columns and multifold arches. The inner walls of the palaces have been decorated with bright paint and glass beads. Near the fort are the Jai Stambha, Sati ...more...

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History of Lahore

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History of Lahore

The recorded history of Lahore (Punjabi: لہور دی تریخ‬, Urdu: تاریخ لاہور ‬‎), the second largest city-district of Pakistan, covers thousands of years. Originally the capital and largest city of the Punjab region, it has since its creation changed hands from Hindu, Buddhist, Greek, Muslim, Sikh, British and back to Muslim rule, thereby becoming the cultural capital and the heart of modern-day Pakistan. Origins An old street-scene in Lahore. A mythological legend, based on oral traditions, states that Lahore was named after Lava, son of the Hindu god Rama, who supposedly founded the city. Lahore Fort has a vacant temple dedicated in honour of Lava. Likewise, the Ravi River that flows through northern Lahore was said to be named in honour of the Hindu goddess Durga.[1] Ptolemy, the celebrated astronomer and geographer, mentions in his Geographia a city called Labokla[2] situated on the route between the Indus river in a region described as extending along the rivers Bidastes or Vitasta (Jhelum), Sandaba ...more...

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Bara Gumbad

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Bara Gumbad

Bara Gumbad (literally "big dome") is an ancient monument located in Lodhi Gardens in Delhi, India. It is part of a group of monuments that include a Friday mosque (Jama Masjid) and the "mehman khana" (guest house) of Sikandar Lodhi, the ruler of the Delhi Sultanate. The Bara Gumbad was constructed in 1490 CE, during the reign of the Lodhi dynasty. Its construction is generally attributed to Sikandar Lodhi, and it is believed to have the earliest constructed full dome of any building in Delhi. The monument is situated near the Tomb of Sikandar Lodhi and Shisha Gumbad. Although the three structures, which share a common raised platform, were all built during the Lodhi reign, they were not constructed at the same time. The intended purpose of the builders of Bara Gumbad is unclear: it may have been intended as a free-standing tomb, but no tombstone has been identified. The area in which Bara Gumbad is situated was formally called Khairpur village. History Bada Gumbad was constructed in 1490 CE, and is believe ...more...

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Sayyid

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Sayyid

In the Ottoman Empire, Muhammad's descendants formed a kind of nobility with the privilege of wearing green turbans. Syed Hussain Ali Khan Barha was a leading administrator during the reign of the Mughal Emperor Farrukhsiyar. Muhammad Rizvi, a Shia Islamic scholar, wearing a black turban. A black turban is worn by Ithna Ashari Shi'ite Sayyid clergymen, whilst a white turban is worn by non-Sayyid Ithna Ashari Shi'ite clergymen. Shah Syed Hasnain Baqai, a Sufi Islamic scholar, wearing a chishtiya turban. A chishtiya colour turban is mostly worn by Sufi Syed. Sayyid (also spelt Syed, Saiyed,Seyit,Seyd, Said, Sayed, Sayyed, Saiyid, Seyed and Seyyed) (Arabic: سيد‎ , Persian: ; meaning "Mister"; plural سادة sādah) is an honorific title denoting people (sayyidah سيدة for females) accepted as descendants of the Islamic prophet Muhammad through his grandsons, Hasan ibn Ali and Husayn ibn Ali (combined Hasnain),[1]:31 sons of Muhammad's daughter Fatimah and son-in-law Ali (Ali ibn Abi Talib).[2]:149 ...more...

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List of state leaders in 1515

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List of state leaders in 1515

This is a list of heads of state, government leaders, and other rulers in the year 1515. Africa Adal Sultanate – Muhammad ibn Azhar ad-Din (1488–1518) Mamluk Sultanate of Egypt – Al-Ashraf Qansuh al-Ghawri (1501–1516) Ethiopian Empire – Dawit II (1508–1540) Kingdom of Kongo – Alfonso I (1509–1542) Sultanate of Morocco – Abu Abdallah Muhammad (1505–1524) Sennar Sultanate – Amara Dunqas (1503–1533/4) Songhai Empire – Askia Mohammad I, Askia of the Songhai Empire (1493–1528) Americas Aztec Empire – Moctezuma II, Hueyi Tlatoani (1502–1520) Inca Empire – Huayna Capac, Qhapaq Inka (1493–1527) Muisca Confederation zipa - Tisquesusa (1514–1537) zaque - Quemuenchatocha (1490–1538) Asia Aceh Sultanate-Ali Mughayat Syah China - Zhengde Emperor (1505–1521) Kingdom of Cochin – Unniraman Koyikal II (1503–1537) Delhi Sultanate – Sikandar Lodi (1489–1517) Japan (Sengoku period) Monarch – Emperor Go-Kashiwabara (1500–1526) Ashikaga shogunate - Ashikaga Yoshitane (1508–1521) K ...more...

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Syed Nagli

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Syed Nagli

Syed Nagli ( सैयद नगली) سید نگلی or Said Nagli ( सैद नगली) is an approximately 500-year-old town in Amroha district in the Indian state of Uttar Pradesh. It is situated on State Highway 51, which is 35 kilometres (22 miles) away from the District Headquarters of Amroha. From Gajraula, Syed Nagli is 30 kilometres (19 miles) away and it lies 18 kilometres (11 miles) from Sumrri. History The town derives its name from the Saiyid clan سید, who founded it in approximately 1520. Legend has it that the town dates to the battle of Narwar Kot, wherein Mir Syed Mohammad al Hussain al Hussaini lost his life fighting on behalf of Sikander Lodi, as commander of the expedition. His index finger with a ring was brought back to the family as proof of his death. The finger was buried in the center of the town and the place came to be known as Mazar Syed Ungli, or, in English, Mausoleum of Syed's Finger. The name later popularized as simply Syed Nagli or Said Nagli. Earlier, Baquari Syeds had migrated from Termez in present ...more...

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List of state leaders in 1500

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List of state leaders in 1500

This is a list of heads of state, government leaders, and other rulers in the year 1500. Africa Akan state of Twifo-Heman – Ofusu Kwabi (c. 1500-c. 1520) Buganda – Kiggala, King of Buganda (c. 1474-c. 1501) Ethiopian Empire – Na'od (1494–1508) Adal Sultanate – Muhammad ibn Azhar ad-Din (1488–1518) Mali Empire – Mahmud III. Mansa of Mali (1496–1559) Kingdom of Kongo – João I (1470–1509) Kingdom of Rwanda – Cyirima I (c. 1428-c. 1506) Songhai Empire – Askia Mohammad I, Askia of the Songhai Empire (1493–1528) Americas Aztec Empire – Ahuitzotl (1486–1502) Inca Empire – Huayna Capac (1493–1527) Muisca Confederation zipa - Nemequene (1490–1514) zaque - Quemuenchatocha (1490–1538) Texcoco – Nezahualpilli, King of Texcoco (1472–1515) Asia Ahmadnagar Sultanate – Ahmad Shah I (1490–1509) Ava (Burma) - Minkhaung II (1480–1501) Ayutthaya Kingdom – Ramathibodi II (1491–1529) Bahmani Sultanate – Muhammad Shah IV (1482–1518) Bengal Sultanate – Alauddin Husain Shah (1494–1518) ...more...

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Mathura district

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Mathura district

Mathura district situated along the banks of the river Yamuna is a district of Uttar Pradesh state of northern India. The historic town of Mathura is the district headquarters. The District is part of Agra division. Mathura is bounded on the northeast by Aligarh District, on the southeast by Hathras District, on the south by Agra District, and on the west by Rajasthan and northwest by Haryana state. Mathura district is an important pilgrimage centre of Hindus. Historical background Kusuma Sarovar bathing ghat, in the Goverdhan area Vishnu with ayudhapurushas, Mathura, India Mathura has an ancient history. According to the Archaeological Survey of India plaque at the Mathura Museum, the city is mentioned in the oldest Indian epic, the Ramayana. In the epic, the Ikshwaku prince Shatrughna slays a demon called Lavanasura and claims the land. Afterwards, the place came to be known as Madhuvan as it was thickly wooded, then Madhupura and later Mathura. In the 6th century BCE Mathura became the capita ...more...

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List of state leaders in 1489

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List of state leaders in 1489

This is a list of heads of state, government leaders, and other rulers in the year 1489. Africa Adal Sultanate – Muhammad ibn Azhar ad-Din (1488–1518) Kingdom of Bamum - Monjou, Sultan of Bamum (1461–1498) Benin Empire – Ozolua, Oba of Benin (1480–1504) Bornu Empire – Ali Gazi, Mai of Bornu (1465–1497) Buganda – Kiggala, Kabaka of Buganda (1474–1501) Ethiopian Empire – Eskender (1478–1494) Ethiopian Empire – Eskender (1478–1494) Jolof Empire – Birayma Kuran Kan (1488–1492) Sultanate of Kano – Muhammad Rumfa (1463–1499) Kilwa Sultanate – al-Hassan ibn Suleiman (1486–1490) Kingdom of Kongo – João I, Manikongo (1470–1509) Mali Empire – Mahmud II, Mansa of Mali (1481–1496) Kingdom of Mutapa – Nyahuma Mukombero, Mwenemutapa (1480–1490) Kingdom of Nungu - Gima, Nunbado (1470–1520) Kingdom of Nri – Eze Nri Anyamata (1465–1511) Kingdom of Rwanda – Cyirima I (1482–1506) Songhai Empire – Sonni Ali (1464–1492) Warsangali Sultanate - Garaad Omar (1487–1495) Americas Aztec Empire – ...more...

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List of Monuments of National Importance in Delhi

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List of Monuments of National Importance in Delhi

This is a list of Monuments of National Importance (ASI) as officially recognized by and available through the website of the Archaeological Survey of India in the Indian union territory Delhi.[1] The monument identifier is a combination of the abbreviation of the subdivision of the list (state, ASI circle) and the numbering as published on the website of the ASI. 174 Monuments of National Importance have been recognized by the ASI in Delhi.[2] List of monuments of national importance SL. No. Description Location Address District Coordinates Image N-DL-1 Bastion, where a wall of Jahanpanah meets the wall of Rai Pithora fort. Adchini Delhi 28°37′56″N 77°13′09″E / 28.6322°N 77.2193°E Upload another image N-DL-2 Ramp and gateway of Rai Pithora's Fort Adchini Delhi 28°37′56″N 77°13′10″E / 28.6322°N 77.2194°E Upload another image N-DL-3 Marble Tomb reputed to be that of Newab Bahadur Jawid Khan Aliganj Delhi 28°34′51″N 77°12′48″E / 28.58078°N 77.21338°E Upload an image N-DL-4 Lal Bangla, c ...more...

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List of state leaders in 1510

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List of state leaders in 1510

This is a list of heads of state, government leaders, and other rulers in the year 1510. Africa Adal Sultanate – Muhammad ibn Azhar ad-Din (1488–1518) Ethiopian Empire – Dawit II (1508–1540) Kingdom of Kongo – Alfonso I (1509–1542) Sennar Sultanate – Amara Dunqas (1503–1533/4) Songhai Empire – Askia Mohammad I, Askia of the Songhai Empire (1493–1528) Americas Mesoamerica Aztec Empire – Moctezuma II (1502–1520) Purépecha Empire – Zuangua (1479–1520) South America Inca Empire – Huayna Capac (1493–1527) Muisca Confederation zipa - Nemequene (1490–1514) zaque - Quemuenchatocha (1490–1538) Asia Ava – Shwenankyawshin, King of Ava (1501–1527) Sultanate of Brunei – Bolkiah (1485–1524) China (Ming dynasty) - Zhengde Emperor (1505–1521) Kingdom of Cochin – Unniraman Koyikal II (1503–1537) Sultanate of Delhi - Sikandar Lodi (1489–1517) Japan (Sengoku period) Monarch – Emperor Go-Kashiwabara (1500–1526) Ashikaga shogunate - Ashikaga Yoshitane (1508–1521) J ...more...

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List of state leaders in 1492

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List of state leaders in 1492

This is a list of heads of state, government leaders, and other rulers in the year 1492. Africa Adal Sultanate – Muhammad ibn Azhar ad-Din (1488–1518) Kingdom of Bamum – Monjou, Mfon of Bamum (1461–1498) Benin Empire – Ozolua, Oba of Benin (1480–1504) Bornu Empire (Sayfawa dynasty) – Ali Gazi (1465–1497) Kingdom of the Buganda – Kiggala, Kabaka of Buganda (1474–1501) Ethiopian Empire – Eskender (1478–1494) Empire of Great Fulo – Tenguella (1490–1512) Kanem-Bornu Empire – Ali Gazi Sultanate of Kano – Muhammad Rumfa (1463–1499) Kilwa Sultanate – Ibrahim ibn Muhammad (1490–1495) Kingdom of Kongo – Nzinga a Nkuwu, Manikongo (1470–1509) Mali Empire – Mahmud II, Mansa of Mali (1481–1496) Kingdom of Mutapa – Changamire, Mwenemutapa (1490–1494) Kingdom of Nri – Eze Nri Anyamata (1465–1611) Kingdom of Nungu – Gima, Nunbado (1470–1520) Kingdom of Rwanda – Cyirima I (1482–1506) Shilluk Kingdom – Nyikaangø (1490–1517) Songhai Empire – Sonni Ali (1464–1492) Sonni Baru (1492–1493) ...more...

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List of state leaders in 1490

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List of state leaders in 1490

This is a list of heads of state, government leaders, and other rulers in the year 1490. Africa Adal Sultanate – Muhammad ibn Azhar ad-Din (1488–1518) Kingdom of Bamum - Monjou, Sultan of Bamum (1461–1498) Benin Empire – Ozolua, Oba of Benin (1480–1504) Bornu Empire – Ali Gazi, Mai of Bornu (1465–1497) Buganda – Kiggala, Kabaka of Buganda (1474–1501) Ethiopian Empire – Eskender (1478–1494) Jolof Empire – Birayma Kuran Kan (1488–1492) Sultanate of Kano – Muhammad Rumfa (1463–1499) Kilwa Sultanate – al-Hassan ibn Suleiman (1486–1490) Ibrahim ibn Muhammad (1490–1495) Kingdom of Kongo – Nzinga a Nkuwu, Manikongo (1470–1509) Mali Empire – Mahmud II, Mansa of Mali (1481–1496) Kingdom of Mutapa – Nyahuma Mukombero, Mwenemutapa (1480–1490) Changamire, Mwenemutapa (1490–1494) Kingdom of Nungu - Gima, Nunbado (1470–1520) Kingdom of Nri – Eze Nri Anyamata (1465–1511) Kingdom of Rwanda – Cyirima I (1482–1506) Songhai Empire – Sonni Ali (1464–1492) Warsangali Sultanate - Gara ...more...

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Second Battle of Panipat

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Second Battle of Panipat

The Second Battle of Panipat was fought on November 5, 1556, between the forces of Hemu, the Hindu general and the army of the Mughal emperor, Akbar. Hemu had conquered Delhi a month earlier by defeating the Mughals led by Tardi Beg Khan at the Battle of Delhi and proclaimed himself Raja Vikramaditya. Akbar and his guardian, Bairam Khan, had immediately marched to Delhi to reclaim the city. The two armies clashed at Panipat not far from the site of the First Battle of Panipat of 1526. Although Hemu had lost his artillery to the Mughals before the battle, his forces held the numerical superiority. However, Hemu was wounded by a chance arrow in the middle of the battle and fell unconscious. Seeing their leader going down, his army panicked and dispersed. Hemu was captured and subsequently beheaded. The battle ended in a decisive victory for Akbar. Background c. 1910s portrayal of Hemu Vikramaditya Humayun, the successor of Babur, the founder of the Mughal Empire, had lost his inheritance when he was cha ...more...

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1480s

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1480s

The 1480s decade ran from January 1, 1480, to December 31, 1489. Events1480 January–December March 6 – Treaty of Toledo: Ferdinand and Isabella of Spain recognize the African conquests of Afonso of Africa, and he cedes the Canary Islands to Spain. (see Treaty of Alcáçovas) July 28 Mehmed II fails in his attempt to capture Rhodes from the Knights of Rhodes. An Ottoman army lands near Otranto, Italy. Pope Sixtus IV calls for a crusade to drive it away. August 12 - Ottoman invasion of Otranto: Ottoman troops behead 800 Christians for refusing to convert to Islam. The Martyrs of Otranto are canonized in 2013. September 27 – Consorts and co-rulers Ferdinand II of Aragon and Isabella I of Castile initiate the Spanish Inquisition (looking for heretics and unconverted Jews). October – Great stand on the Ugra river: Muscovy becomes independent from the Golden Horde. The Theotokos of Vladimir icon is credited with saving Moscow. Date unknown The Lighthouse of Alexandria's final remains disappear w ...more...

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List of state leaders in 1501

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List of state leaders in 1501

This is a list of heads of state, government leaders, and other rulers in the year 1501. Africa Akan state of Twifo-Heman – Ofusu Kwabi (c. 1500-c. 1520) Kingdom of Buganda – Kiggala, Kabaka of Buganda (c. 1474-c. 1501) Kiyimba, Kabaka of Buganda (c. 1501) Ethiopian Empire – Na'od (1494–1508) Adal Sultanate – Muhammad ibn Azhar ad-Din (1488–1518) Kingdom of Kongo – João I, Manikongo (bef.1482–1505) Kingdom of Rwanda – Cyirima I (c. 1428-c. 1506) Songhai Empire – Askia Mohammad I, Askia of the Songhai Empire (1493–1528) Americas Aztec Empire – Ahuitzotl (1486–1502) Inca Empire – Huayna Capac (1493–1527) Muisca Confederation zipa - Nemequene (1490–1514) zaque - Quemuenchatocha (1490–1538) Texcoco – Nezahualpilli, King of Texcoco (1472–1515) Asia Ahmadnagar Sultanate – Ahmad Shah I (1490–1509) Ava Kingdom (Burma) - Minkhaung II (1480–1501) Ayutthaya Kingdom (Siam) - Ramathibodi II (1491–1529) Bahmani Sultanate – Muhammad Shah IV (1482–1518) Bengal Sultanate – ...more...

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Tarwara

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Tarwara

Tarwara is a village panchayat, and the most developed village located in the Siwan district of Bihar state, India, around 90.6 kilometres (56.3 mi) from Patna, the state capital. The other surrounding state capitals are Ranchi (326.5 km or 202.9 mi), Lucknow (390.3 km or 242.5 mi), and Gangtok (428.6 km or 266.3 mi). Geography Situated on the bank of Gandak River one of the major rivers of Nepal and a left bank tributary of the Ganges in India. It is also called Krishna Gandaki in Nepal.[1] It originates between Tibet and Mount Everest at an elevation of 6,268 metres (20,564 ft) at the Nhubine Himal Glacier in the Mustang region of Nepal. The Gandak river is mentioned in the ancient Sanskrit epic Mahabharata and Its evolution is described in Shiva Purana, Kumarakhand, in the chapter of the killing of Shankhachuda. Tarwara is located in the UTC 5:30 time zone and follows Indian standard time (IST). Demographics According to the 2011 census Tarwara has a population of 10,244,[2] There are 1,640 househol ...more...

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List of state leaders in 1511

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List of state leaders in 1511

This is a list of heads of state, government leaders, and other rulers in the year 1511. Africa Adal Sultanate – Muhammad ibn Azhar ad-Din (1488–1518) Cameroon (Bamum people) – Mengap (1498–1519) Ethiopian Empire – Dawit II (1508–1540) Kingdom of Kano – Muhammad Kisoki (1509–1565) Kingdom of Kongo – Alfonso I (1509–1542) Kingdom of Mutapa – Chikuyo Chisamarengu (1494-C. 1530) Sennar Sultanate – Amara Dunqas (1503–1533/1534) Songhai Empire – Askia Mohammad I, Askia of the Songhai Empire (1493–1528) Warsangali Sultanate – Gerad Liban (1503–1525) Wolof Empire – Bukaar Biye-Sungule (1492–1527) Americas Aztec Empire – Moctezuma II (1502–1520) Inca Empire – Huayna Capac (1493–1527) K'iche' Kingdom of Q'umarkaj – Oxib Keh (1500–1524) Muisca Confederation zipa - Nemequene (1490–1514) zaque - Quemuenchatocha (1490–1538) Asia Ava Kingdom – Shwenankyawshin (1501–1527) Sultanate of Brunei – Bolkiah (1485–1524) Cambodia - Srei Sokunbat, King of Cambodia (1504–1512)\ Kingdom ...more...

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List of state leaders in 1491

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List of state leaders in 1491

This is a list of heads of state, government leaders, and other rulers in the year 1491. Africa Adal Sultanate – Muhammad ibn Azhar ad-Din (1488–1518) Kingdom of Bamum - Monjou, Mfon of Bamum (1461–1498) Benin Empire – Ozolua, Oba of Benin (1480–1504) Bornu Empire – Ali Gazi, Mai of Bornu (1465–1497) Buganda – Kiggala, Kabaka of Buganda (1474–1501) Ethiopian Empire – Eskender (1478–1494) Jolof Empire – Birayma Kuran Kan (1488–1492) Sultanate of Kano – Muhammad Rumfa (1463–1499) Kilwa Sultanate – Ibrahim ibn Muhammad (1490–1495) Kingdom of Kongo – Nzinga a Nkuwu, Manikongo (1470–1509) Mali Empire – Mahmud II, Mansa of Mali (1481–1496) Kingdom of Mutapa – Changamire, Mwenemutapa (1490–1494) Kingdom of Nri - Eze Nri Anyamata (1465–1611) Kingdom of Nungu – Gima, Nunbado (1470–1520) Kingdom of Rwanda – Cyirima I (1482–1506) Shilluk Kingdom - Nyikaangø (1490–1517) Songhai Empire – Sonni Ali (1464–1492) Warsangali Sultanate - Garaad Omar (1487–1495) Americas Aztec Empire – Ah ...more...

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List of state leaders in 1499

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List of state leaders in 1499

This is a list of heads of state, government leaders, and other rulers in the year 1499. Africa Ethiopian Empire – Na'od (1494–1508) Adal Sultanate – Muhammad ibn Azhar ad-Din (1488–1518) Kingdom of Kongo – João I (1470–1509) Songhai Empire – Askia Mohammad I, Askia of the Songhai Empire (1493–1528) Americas Aztec Empire – Ahuitzotl (1486–1502) Inca Empire – Huayna Capac (1493–1527) Muisca Confederation zipa - Nemequene (1490–1514) zaque - Quemuenchatocha (1490–1538) Texcoco – Nezahualpilli, King of Texcoco (1472–1515) Asia Ahmadnagar Sultanate – Ahmad Shah I (1490–1509) Ava Kingdom (Burma) - Minkhaung II (1480–1501) Ayutthaya Kingdom (Siam) - Ramathibodi II (1491–1529) Bahmani Sultanate – Muhammad Shah IV (1482–1518) Bengal Sultanate – Alauddin Husain Shah (1494–1518) Berar Sultanate – Fath-Allah 'Imad ul-Mulk (1490–1504) Bidar Sultanate – Qasim Shah I (1492–1504) Bijapur Sultanate – Yusuf Adil Shah (1490–1510) Cambodia - Sri Sukonthor, King of Cambodia (1486– ...more...

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Bakht Mal

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Bakht Mal

Raja Bakht-Mal Pathania (1513–1558) was a King of Nurpur, who succeeded Raja Bhil Pal in 1513. Raja Bakht-Mal's reign covered an eventful period in Indian history. Like his father he was in good terms with the Lodi dynasty of Delhi. After the conquest of India by Babar in 1526 the Pathania Kingdom must not have come under Mughal control, because on the flight of babar's son Humayun in 1540 and the accession of Sher Shah Suri at Delhi, Bakht-Mal was still in good terms with the Sur dynasty. The Tarikh-i-Daudi says that the famous fortress of Maukot was erected within the pathania Kingdom by Islam Shah Suri (1545–53), that is during the reign of Raja Bakht-Mal. But it cannot be true because the practice of erecting forts in an independent Kingdom was only done after conquering it, which is not the case here because the Pathania kings ruled an independent Kingdom with a minimal submission i.e., to assist the power at Delhi in times of war. Maukot fort was probably built by the predecessors of Bakht-Mal, or he h ...more...

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Siege of Bijapur

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Siege of Bijapur

The Siege of Bijapur began in March 1685 and ended in September 1686 with a Mughal victory. The siege began when the Mughal Emperor Aurangzeb dispatched his son Muhammad Azam Shah with a force of nearly 50,000 men to capture Bijapur Fort and defeat Sikandar Adil Shah, the then ruler of Bijapur who refused to be a vassal of the Mughal Empire. The Siege of Bijapur was among the longest military engagements by the Mughals, lasting more than 15 months until the Mughal Emperor Aurangzeb personally arrived to organize a victory. Historical background A map of Bijapur Fort. In 1637, the young Prince Aurangzeb was the Subedar of Deccan under the reign of his father the Mughal Emperor Shah Jahan. He led a 25,000 strong Mughal Army and besieged Bijapur Fort and its ruler Mohammed Adil Shah. The siege, however, was unsuccessful because the Adil Shahi dynasty sought peace with Shah Jahan mainly through the cooperation of Dara Shikoh. Ali Adil Shah II inherited a troubled kingdom. He had to face the onslaught of t ...more...

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Conflicts in 1685

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Battle of Tughlaqabad

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Battle of Tughlaqabad

The Battle of Tughlaqabad (also known as the Battle of Delhi) was a notable battle fought on 7 October 1556 between Hemu, the general and chief minister of Adil Shah Suri, and the forces of the Mughal led by Tardi Beg Khan at Tughlaqabad near Delhi. The battle ended in a decisive victory for Hemu who took possession of Delhi and claimed royal status, assuming the title of Raja Vikramaditya. Following his failure, Tardi Beg was murdered by Akbar's regent, Bairam Khan. The two armies would meet again at Panipat a month later. Background Agra Fort won by Hemu before his attack on Delhi. Since the days of the Delhi Sultanate, the city of Delhi had acquired the reputation of being the political centre of India. No ruler could be considered to truly hold sway over Hindustan until he had control of Delhi.[1] Babur, the founder of the Mughal Empire, called it the "capital of all Hindustan",[2] and his son and successor, Humayun, constructed his Din Panah at its outskirts. Humayun, however, lost his inheritance ...more...

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Kohi Safi District

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Kohi Safi District

Districts of Parwan Kohi Safi District (Dari: ولسوالی کوه صافی‎) is now one major historical district located in South-eastern Parwan province, Kohi Safi district is one of the most single districts where almost all of the region is populated by Safi tribe. Although in 1930s Kohi Safi was said to be one of the 2nd most populous district of Parwan after Charakar, but during 1930s-1940s the region was depopulated due to Governments pressure to evacuation of area due to Saf's War on the King. Majority of its population were displaced or escaped further in the north away from borders of capital Kabul, few escaped to west in modern Herat and many into it India (After 1947 came to be Pakistan). The root of the conflict seems to be started due to King Amanuallah Khan's proposal of modernization, Safi and with few other Afghan tribes armed against the ruling family of Durrani. Although some annalists assume the other factor behind the conflict and rise of Safi was mainly due to Safi's not being of ruling Durrani tr ...more...

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Districts of Parwan Province

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List of songs recorded by Udit Narayan

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List of songs recorded by Udit Narayan

This is an alphabetical list of Hindi songs performed by Udit Narayan from 1980 to date. Over 1200 songs are listed here.[1] He has also sung in several other different languages which is not included here. A "A.B.C.D." Hum Saath Saath Hain 1999 "A B C D E F G" Anari No.1 1999 "A.B.C.D. Hum Nahi Jani" Hum Haee Ganwar 2007 "A Bhi Jao Mere Paas" "A Ding Dang Do" Paagalpan 2001 "Aa Ab Laut Chalen" Aa Ab Laut Chalen 1999 "Aa Gaya Aa Gaya" Hum Tumhare Hain Sanam 2002 "Aa Jee Le Ek Pal Mein" Kyon Ki 2005 "Aa Kahin Dur Chale" Laawaris 1998 "Aa Sajan Akhon Main" Abhimanyu "Aage Aage Chahat Chali" Chand Sa Roshan Chehra 2004 "Aage Se Peechhe Se" Hasti 1992 "Aahista Aahista" Swades 2004 "Aaj Hoke Rahe Apna Milan" Kudrat 1998 "Aaj Kehna Zaroori Hai" Andaaz 2003 "Aaj Nachna" Dil Ne Phir Yaad Kiya 2000 "Aaja Mahiya" Fiza 2000 "Aakhir Tumhe Aana hai Zara Der Lagegi" Yalgaar 1992 "Aan Milo Ya Milne Se" Biwi No.1 1999 "Aankhein Hain Teri Badi Badi" Chor Machaaye Shor 2002 "Aankhein Khuli" Mohabbatein ...more...

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Dholpur

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Dholpur

Dholpur Bus Stand Dholpur is a city in eastern-most parts of the Rajasthan state of India. It is the administrative headquarters of Dholpur District and was formerly seat of the Dholpur princely state, before Independence. Dhaulpur became a separate district in 1982 comprising Dholpur, Rajakhera, Saramathura, Bari and Baseri Tehsils. Dholpur district is a part of Bharatpur Division/Commissionerate. It is bordered by Bharatpur district of Rajasthan and Uttar Pradesh to the north, Madhya Pradesh to the south, Karauli district to the west and Uttar Pradesh and Madhya Pradesh to the east. Geography The geographical coordinates for Dholpur (Dhaulpur) are 26° 42' 0" North, 77° 54' 0" East.[3] Total area of Dholpur district is 3,034 sq. kilometers.[4] Tasimo HistoryTasimo Ke Veer Shaheed To liberate the country, many people sacrificed their lives for the country. Similarly, the names of martyrs of Tasimo village of Dholpur come as martyrs Chhatar Singh Parmar and Shaheed Pancham Singh Kushwah. Who sacrificed hi ...more...



Bahadur Shah of Gujarat

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Bahadur Shah of Gujarat

Qutb-ud-Din Bahadur Shah, born Bahadur Khan was a sultan of the Muzaffarid dynasty who reigned over the Gujarat Sultanate, a late medieval kingdom in India from 1526 to 1535 and again from 1536 to 1537.[1][2] He ascended to throne after competing with his brothers. He expanded his kingdom and made expeditions to help neighbouring kingdoms. In 1532, Gujarat came under attack of the Mughal Emperor Humayun and fell. Bahadur Shah regained the kingdom in 1536 but he was killed by the Portuguese on board the ship when making a deal with them. Early years Bahadur Shah's father was Shams-ud-Din Muzaffar Shah II, who had ascended to the throne of the Gujarat Sultanate in 1511.[1] Muzaffar Shah II nominated Sikandar Shah (Bahadur Shah's elder brother) as the heir apparent to the throne. Bahadur Khan's relationship with his brother and father became tense as Sikandar Shah began to assume greater administrative control.[1] Fearing for his life, Bahadur Khan fled Gujarat, first seeking refuge with Chittor, and then with ...more...

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Hemu

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Hemu

Hemu (; also known as Hemu Vikramaditya and Hemchandra Vikramaditya) (died 5 November 1556) was a Hindu general and Chief Minister of Adil Shah Suri of the Suri Dynasty during a period in Indian history when the Mughals and Afghans were vying for power across North India. He fought Afghan rebels across North India from the Punjab to Bengal and the Mughal forces of Humayun and Akbar in Agra and Delhi, winning 22 battles for Adil Shah.[1][2] Hemu claimed royal status after defeating Akbar's Mughal forces on 7 October 1556 in the Battle of Delhi and assumed the ancient title of Vikramaditya that had been adopted by many Hindu kings in the past.[3] A month later, Hemu was wounded by a chance arrow and captured during the Second Battle of Panipat. Akbar's regent, Bairam Khan beheaded him shortly thereafter.[4] Early life Contemporary accounts of Hemu's early life are fragmentary, due to his humble background, and often biased, because they were written by Mughal historians such as Bada'uni and Abu'l-Fazl who wer ...more...

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List of populated places in Khyber Pakhtunkhwa

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List of populated places in Khyber Pakhtunkhwa

The following is a list of populated places in the Khyber Pakhtunkhwa province of Pakistan: Name Type District A Aba Khel Village Tank Abazai Town Charsadda Abbottabad City Abbottabad Abdul Khel Town Lakki Marwat Adezai Village Peshawar Ahmed Khel Town Lakki Marwat Akhun Kalai Village Swat Akora Khattak City Nowshera Aliabad Village Abbottabad Aloch Town Shangla Alpuri Capital Shangla Amandi Town Bannu Amirabad Village Abbottabad Aral Hathi Khel Town Bannu Arandu, Pakistan Town Chitral Asperka Waziran Town Bannu B Bagh Maidan Village Lower Dir Baist Khel Town Lakki Marwat Bakhshali Village Mardan Balakot Town Mansehra Bandi Dhundan Village Abbottabad Bannu City Bannu Banseri Village Bara Bandai Village Bara Gali Town Abbottabad Barat Village Bannu Barikot City Basian Town Batakara Town Swabi Batamori Town Battagram Batangi Village Abbottabad Batkhela Capital City Malakand Batnara Village Battagram Capital City Battagram Beng ...more...

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Sur Empire

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Sur Empire

The Sur Empire was an empire established by a Muslim dynasty of Pashtun[2] origin who ruled a large territory in northern part of the Indian subcontinent for nearly 16 years,[3] between 1540 and 1556, with Delhi serving as its capital.[3] History The Rohtas Fort in northern Pakistan was built under Sher Shah Suri, and is now a UNESCO World Heritage Site. The empire was founded by Sher Shah Suri, a ethnic Afghan of the tribal house of Sur,[3] who supplanted the Mughal dynasty as rulers of North India during the reign of the relatively ineffectual second Mughal Humayun. Sher Shah defeated badshah-i-Hind ('Hindustani emperor') Humayun in the Battle of Chausa (26 June 1539) and again in the Battle of Bilgram (17 May 1540).[4] The Sur dynasty held control of nearly all the Mughal territories, from modern-day eastern Afghanistan in the west to Bengal in modern-day Bangladesh in the east. During the almost 17-year rule of the Sur dynasty, until the return of the Mughals to the throne, the region of the Sout ...more...

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Muzaffar Shah II

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Muzaffar Shah II

Shams-ud-Dīn Muzaffar Shah II or Muzafar II, born Khalil Khan, was a ruler of the Muzaffarid dynasty, who reigned over the Gujarat Sultanate from 1511 to 1526. He subdued Idar but came in conflict with Rana Sanga of Mewar when he captured Malwa. Rana invaded Gujarat but later returned due to resistance. Reign Mahmud Begada, the most prominent ruler of the dynasty. He had four sons; Khalíl Khán, Muhammad Kála, Ápá Khán, and Áhmed Khán. Mahmud Begada was succeeded by Khalíl Khán, the son of Ráni Hírábái the daughter of a Rájput chieftain named Nága Rána who lived on the bank of the Mahi river. On ascending the throne, at the age of twenty-seven, Khalíl adopted the title of Muzaffar Sháh.[1] For some time before his father’s death, Prince Khalíl Khán had been living at Baroda (now Vadodara) and shortly after his accession he visited that neighbourhood, and founded a town which he named Daulatábád. In 1514 Ráo Bhím, the son of Ráo Bhán of Idar State, defeated Ain-ul-Mulk, governor of Pátan, who was coming to Áh ...more...

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Gujarat Sultanate

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Azad Bilgrami

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Azad Bilgrami

Azad Bilgrami (29 June 1704 – 15 September 1786) was a scholar of Arabic, Persian and Urdu languages in 18th century India. The King of Yemen had acknowledged his poetic qualities and accorded him the title of Hassan Al-Hind.[3] [4][5] Early life His original name was Mir Ghulam Ali Husaini Wasiti, although he is best known as Ghulam 'Ali Azad Bilgrami. He was born in Bilgram, India, a small town in the Indian state of Uttar Pradesh. He gained a reputation for possessing command over all topics of literature and learning. He was instructed in language by Mir Abdul Jalil of Selsibil; in prosody and literature by Mir Saiad Muhammad; in the Koran by Muhammad Hayat; and in all excellences by 'Abdul Wabhat Tantawi. According to the Masalati Shuara, he studied eloquence with Muhammad Aslam Salim and Shaikh Saad Ullah Gulshan of Ahmedabad.[6] As a youth he left Bilgram and stayed for two years in Delhi. He visited Lahore and Multan and made acquaintance with scholars of these cities, and lived for five years in the ...more...

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1704 births

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Nawabs of Bengal and Murshidabad

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Nawabs of Bengal and Murshidabad

The Nawabs of Bengal (full title, the Nawab Nizam of Bengal and Orissa) were the rulers of the then provinces of Bengal and Orissa. Between 1717 and 1765, they served as the rulers of the subah (or province) of Bengal. However, they were only nominally subordinate to the Mughal Empire. Siraj ud-Daulah, the last independent Nawab of Bengal was betrayed in the Battle of Plassey by Mir Jafar. He lost to the British, who took over the charge of Bengal in 1757, installed Mir Jafar on the Masnad (throne) and established itself to a political power in Bengal.[2] In 1765 the system of Dual Government was established, in which the Nawabs ruled on behalf of the British and were mere puppets to the British. In 1772 the system was abolished and Bengal was brought under direct control of the British. In 1793, when the Nizamat (governorship) of the Nawab was also taken away from them, they remained as the mere pensioners of the British East India Company.[3][4] The last Nawab of Bengal, Mansur Ali Khan abdicated on 1 Nove ...more...

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Former countries in Asia

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dacca zamindar

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British Raj

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British Raj

The British Raj (; from rāj, literally, "rule" in Hindustani)[2] was the rule by the British Crown in the Indian subcontinent between 1858 and 1947.[3][4][5][6] The rule is also called Crown rule in India,[7] or direct rule in India.[8] The region under British control was commonly called British India or simply India in contemporaneous usage, and included areas directly administered by the United Kingdom, which were collectively called British India, and those ruled by indigenous rulers, but under British tutelage or paramountcy, and called the princely states. The de facto political amalgamation was also called the Indian Empire and after 1876 issued passports under that name.[9][10] As India, it was a founding member of the League of Nations, a participating nation in the Summer Olympics in 1900, 1920, 1928, 1932, and 1936, and a founding member of the United Nations in San Francisco in 1945.[11] This system of governance was instituted on 28 June 1858, when, after the Indian Rebellion of 1857, the rule o ...more...

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States and territories disestablished in 1947

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Dpj

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Deccan sultanates

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Deccan sultanates

The Deccan Sultanates were five dynasties that ruled late medieval Indian kingdoms, namely, Bijapur, Golkonda, Ahmadnagar, Bidar, and Berar in south-western India. The Deccan sultanates were located on the Deccan Plateau, between the Krishna River and the Vindhya Range. These kingdoms became independent during the break-up of the Bahmani Sultanate.[1][2] In 1490, Ahmadnagar declared independence, followed by Bijapur and Berar in the same year. Golkonda became independent in 1518 and Bidar in 1528.[3] The five sultanates were of diverse origin; Ahmadnagar Sultanate and Berar Sultanate were of Hindu lineage (Ahmadnagar being Brahmin-Hindu and Berar being Kanarese-Hindu),[4] Bidar Sultanate were of former Turkic slave,[5] Bijapur Sultanate were of former Georgian-Oghuz Turkic slave,[6] and Golconda Sultanate were of Turkman origin.[7] Although generally rivals, they did ally against the Vijayanagara Empire in 1565, permanently weakening Vijayanagar in the Battle of Talikota. In 1574, after a coup in Berar, Ahm ...more...

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Former countries in Asia

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Persecution of Hindus

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Persecution of Hindus

Hindus have experienced religious persecution in the form of forceful conversions, documented massacres, demolition and desecrations of temples, as well as the destruction of universities and schools. In modern times, Hindus in the Muslim-majority regions of Kashmir, Pakistan, Bangladesh, Afghanistan and other countries have suffered persecution. Medieval persecution by Muslim rulers Muslim conquest of the Indian subcontinent began during the early 8th century AD. According to a 1900 translation of Persian text Chachnamah by Mirza Kalichbeg Fredunbeg, the Umayyad governor of Damascus, Hajjaj responded to a plea by men and women attacked and imprisoned by a tribe off the coast of Debal (Karachi), who had gone there to purchase some Indian female slaves and rich goods.[1] Hajjaj mobilised an expedition of 6,000 cavalry under Muhammad bin-Qasim in 712 CE. Records from the campaign recorded in the Chach Nama record temple demolitions, and mass executions of resisting Sindhi forces and the enslavement of their de ...more...

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Religious persecution

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Shaikh Gadai Kamboh

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Shaikh Gadai Kamboh

Shaikh Gadai Kamboh was the son, disciple and successor of famous scholar, philosopher and poet-laureate[1] Shaikh Jamali Kamboh of Delhi and brother of the 'Master of Expression' —Shaikh Abd-al-Hai Hayati. His real name was Abdur Rehman but he became famous as Gadai. He was well-renowned for his sanctity and learning and was in high favour with emperor Humayun and Bairam Khan. He is also said to have remained a Musahib of the Afghan emperor Salim Shah Suri.[2] During Akbar’s reign, he occupied the high office of “Sadr-i-sadur” of Hindustan. Early career Shaikh Gadai’s father Shaikh Jamali Kamboh had been an important courtier of Mughal emperors Babur as well as Humayun’s court. On Jamali’s death, emperor Humayun appointed Shaikh Gadai as his courtier. But after Humayun's defeat by Sher Shah Suri near Kanawdi in 1540 AD, Shaikh Gadai went to Gujarat. After the disastrous battle of Kanauj and the consequent troubles, Bairam Khan, an important Turkoman noble of emperor Humayun, took refuge in Gujarat where he ...more...

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1574 deaths

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