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Sikandar Lodi

Sikandar Lodi (died 21 November 1517), born Nizam Khan, was the Sultan of Delhi between 1489 and 1517.[1] He became the next ruler of the Lodi dynasty after the death of his father Bahlul Lodi in July 1489. The second and most successful ruler of the Lodi dynasty of the Delhi sultanate, he was also a poet of the Persian language and prepared a diwan of 9000 verses.[2]

Of the three Lodi Sultans namely Bahlol Lodi (1451 to 1489), Sikandar Lodi (1489 to 1517) and Ibrahim Lodi (1517 to 1526), Sikandar Lodi is regarded as the ablest, the greatest and the most successful Sultan. As compared with these two Sultans, Sikandar Lodi gave ample evidence of his qualities as a general, as an administrator, a consolidator of the empire and a man of letters.

The top two storeys of the Qutub Minar were reconstructed in marble by Sikandar Lodi

Sikandar was the second son of Sultan Bahlul Khan Lodi and Bibi Ambha, the daughter of a Hindu goldsmith of Sirhind. He was of Afghan origin through his father.[3]

He became Sultan upon the death of his father on 17 July 1489 under the full name Abu Al-Muzzafar Ghazi Sultan Sikandar Lodi. His rise to power was troubled, as his older brother, Barbak Shah, the viceroy of Jaunpur, also laid claim to the throne, even though their father had nominated Sikandar. However, he was able to ascend to the throne without massive bloodshed, and even allowed his brother to continue ruling Jaunpur. He also settled differences with an uncle, Alam Khan, who was also suspected of seeking to seize power.

Sikandar was a capable ruler who encouraged trade across his territory, but discriminated against Hindu subjects. He expanded Lodi territory into the regions of Gwalior and Bihar. He made a treaty with Alauddin Hussain Shah and his kingdom of Bengal. In 1503, he commissioned the building of the present-day city of Agra. Agra was founded by him.[4]

He has a reputation for religious intolerance, and is said to have burned Bodhan, a Hindu sadhu alive for saying that Islam and Hinduism were equally acceptable to God.

Coin of Sikandar Lodi

He wrote poetry in Persian using the pen name Gulrukhi. He introduced auditing in accounts. He took good care of justice and agriculture for the welfare of people.he introduced a system of Gaz-i-sikandari,means 32 digit of measuring system of cultivated lands.

Among the administrative changes made by Sikandar Lodi was the installation of Persian language as the official language for the accountancy in India. 1514.

Sikandar Lodi was a great conqueror and a very good administrator. He revived the glory of Delhi Sultanates by expanding the boundaries of his empire. He took effective administrative steps for effective management. He also did a lot for the welfare of the poor people.


First of all Sikandar Lodi defeated his elder brother and seized Jaunpur and brought it under his direct control. He afterwards led his attack on Bihar, defeated its ruler and annexed it. He conquered the states of Dholpur, Bidar, Gwalior, Chanderi and other nearby kingdoms. He entered into a friendship treaty with the ruler of Bengal. Sikandar’s empire extended from the Punjab to the borders of Bengal and included the territories between Sutlej and Bundelkhand.

Occasional tours in disguise
Sikandar Lodi's tomb

Very often the Sultan toured in disguise to have the first hand information about the condition of the people and the activities of the Amirs and the Ulemas.

He died in 1517 and has an elaborate burial tomb that resides in Lodi Gardens, Delhi.

  1. Sen, Sailendra (2013). A Textbook of Medieval Indian History. Primus Books. pp. 122–125. ISBN 978-9-38060-734-4.
  2. Ram Nath Sharma, History Of Education In India, Atlantic (1996), p. 61
  3. Lodī dynasty - Encyclopædia Britannica
  4. Kishori Saran Lal (1963). Twilight of the Sultanate. Asia Publishing House. p. 176. OCLC 500687579.
Preceded byBahlul Khan Lodi Sultan of Delhi 1489–1517 Succeeded byIbrahim Lodi
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Sambhal  (   listen ) is a city in Uttar Pradesh , India. Sambhal district , which had a population of around 22 lakh (2,200,000), was carved out of Moradabad district in September 2011. It consists of three tehsils  : Sambhal and Chandausi , taken from Moradabad , and Gunnaur , taken from Badaun . Sambhal city is famous for its unique kind of horn and bone craft items which is manufactured in Sarai Tarin 4 km away from Sambhal city (but included in Sambhal) which are being exported. Sambhal headquarter is situated in Pawasa Sambhal. History The first Mughal Emperor Babur awards his troops before their expedition to Sambhal. Sambhal is said to have flourished under the Akbar rule but subsequently deteriorated in popularity when Akbar’s son Shah Jahan was made the in-charge of the city. Sambhal has a rich history and has been home to several rulers and emperors. It was found in Satyuga. At that time it was a very big city. From the Lodi ’s to the Mughal ’s, right from the 5th century BC and spanning up to the ...more...

Syed Nagli


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List of state leaders in 1489


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Siege of Bijapur


The Siege of Bijapur began in March 1685 and ended in September 1686 with a Mughal victory. The siege began when the Mughal Emperor Aurangzeb dispatched his son Muhammad Azam Shah with a force of nearly 50,000 men to capture Bijapur Fort and defeat Sikandar Adil Shah , the then ruler of Bijapur who refused to be a vassal of the Mughal Empire . The Siege of Bijapur was among the longest military engagements by the Mughals, lasting more than 15 months until the Mughal Emperor Aurangzeb personally arrived to organize a victory. Historical background A map of Bijapur Fort. In 1637, the young Prince Aurangzeb was the Subedar of Deccan under the reign of his father the Mughal Emperor Shah Jahan . He led a 25,000 strong Mughal Army and besieged Bijapur Fort and its ruler Mohammed Adil Shah . The siege, however, was unsuccessful because the Adil Shahi dynasty sought peace with Shah Jahan mainly through the cooperation of Dara Shikoh . Ali Adil Shah II inherited a troubled kingdom. He had to face the onslaught of the ...more...



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List of historic Indian texts


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Rewa (princely state)


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Battle of Tughlaqabad


The Battle of Tughlaqabad (also known as the Battle of Delhi ) was a notable battle fought on 7 October 1556 between Hemu , the general and chief minister of Adil Shah Suri , and the forces of the Mughal led by Tardi Beg Khan at Tughlaqabad near Delhi . The battle ended in a decisive victory for Hemu who took possession of Delhi and claimed royal status, assuming the title of Raja Vikramaditya. Following his failure, Tardi Beg was murdered by Akbar's regent, Bairam Khan . The two armies would meet again at Panipat a month later. Background Agra Fort won by Hemu before his attack on Delhi. Since the days of the Delhi Sultanate , the city of Delhi had acquired the reputation of being the political centre of India. No ruler could be considered to truly hold sway over Hindustan until he had control of Delhi. Babur , the founder of the Mughal Empire , called it the "capital of all Hindustan", and his son and successor, Humayun , constructed his Din Panah at its outskirts. Humayun, however, lost his inheritance wh ...more...

Bairam Khan


Bairam Khan also Bayram Khan ( c.  1501  – c.  31 January 1561 ) was an important military commander, later commander-in-chief of the Mughal army, a powerful statesman and regent at the court of the Mughal emperors Humayun and Akbar . He was also guardian, chief mentor, adviser, teacher and the most trusted ally of Akbar. Humayun honored him as Khan-i-Khanan, which means "King of Kings". Bairam was originally called Bairam "Beg", but later became honored as 'Kha' or Khan. Bairam Khan was an aggressive general who was determined to restore Mughal authority in India . Early life and ancestors Bairam Khan was born in the region of Badakhshan in Central Asia , and belonged to the Baharlu Turkoman clan of the Kara Koyunlu confederation. The Kara Koyunlu had ruled Western Persia for decades before being overthrown by their Ak Koyunlu rivals. Bairam Khan's father Seyfali beg Baharlu and grandfather Janali beg Baharlu had been part of Babur 's service. His great-grandfather was Pirali beg Baharlu, a brother to Ba ...more...

List of Indian monarchs


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Azad Bilgrami


Azad Bilgrami (29 June 1704 – 15 September 1786) was a scholar of Arabic , Persian and Urdu languages in 18th century India . The King of Yemen had acknowledged his poetic qualities and accorded him the title of Hassan Al-Hind. Early life His original name was Mir Ghulam Ali Husaini Wasiti, although he is best known as Ghulam 'Ali Azad Bilgrami. He was born in Bilgram , India, a small town in the Indian state of Uttar Pradesh . He gained a reputation for possessing command over all topics of literature and learning. He was instructed in language by Mir Abdul Jalil of Selsibil; in prosody and literature by Mir Saiad Muhammad; in the Koran by Muhammad Hayat; and in all excellences by 'Abdul Wabhat Tantawi. According to the Masalati Shuara, he studied eloquence with Muhammad Aslam Salim and Shaikh Saad Ullah Gulshan of Ahmedabad. As a youth he left Bilgram and stayed for two years in Delhi . He visited Lahore and Multan and made acquaintance with scholars of these cities, and lived for five years in the provinc ...more...

Bahadur Shah of Gujarat


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Sur Empire


The Sur Empire was an empire established by a Muslim dynasty of Afghan origin who ruled a large territory in northern part of South Asia for nearly 16 years, between 1540 and 1556, with Delhi serving as its capital. History The Rohtas Fort in northern Pakistan was built under Sher Shah Suri , and is now a UNESCO World Heritage Site . The empire was founded by Sher Shah Suri , an Afghan of the tribal house of Sur , who supplanted the Mughal dynasty as rulers of North India during the reign of the relatively ineffectual second Mughal Humayun . Sher Shah defeated badshah-i-Hind ('Hindustani emperor') Humayun in the Battle of Chausa (26 June 1539) and again in the Battle of Bilgram (17 May 1540). The Sur dynasty held control of nearly all the Mughal territories, from modern-day eastern Afghanistan in the west to Bengal in modern-day Bangladesh in the east. During the almost 17-year rule of the Sur dynasty, until the return of the Mughals to the throne, the region of the South Asia witnessed much economic develo ...more...

Kohi Safi District


Districts of Parwan Kohi Safi District , ( Dari : ولسوالی کوه صافی ‎), is now one major historical district located in South-eastern Parwan province , Kohi Safi district is one of the most single districts where almost all of the region is populated by Safi tribe . Although in 1930s Kohi Safi was said to be one of the 2nd most populous district of Parwan after Charakar, but during 1930s-1940s the region was depopulated due to Governments pressure to evacuation of area due to Saf's War on the King. Majority of its population were displaced or escaped further in the north away from borders of capital Kabul , few escaped to west in modern Herat and many into it India (After 1947 came to be Pakistan ). The root of the conflict seems to be started due to King Amanuallah Khan's proposal of modernization, Safi and with few other Afghan tribes armed against the ruling family of Durrani. Although some annalists assume the other factor behind the conflict and rise of Safi was mainly due to Safi's not being of ruling Du ...more...



Lahore ( ) ( Punjabi : لہور ‬ ; Urdu : لاہور ‬ ‎) is the capital city of the Pakistani province of Punjab . It is the second-most populous city in Pakistan after Karachi . The city is located in the north-eastern end of Pakistan's Punjab province, near the border with the Indian state of Punjab . Lahore is ranked as a beta-world city , and is one of Pakistan's wealthiest cities with an estimated GDP of $58.14 billion ( PPP ) as of 2014. Lahore is the historic cultural centre of the Punjab region , and is the largest Punjabi city in the world. The city has a long history, and was once under the rule of the Hindu Shahis , Ghaznavids , Ghurids , and the Delhi Sultanate . Lahore reached the height of its splendour under the Mughal Empire , serving as its capital city for a number of years. The city was captured by the forces of Persian Afsharid Emperor Nader Shah during his invasion of the Mughal Empire . The city was then contested between different powers before it became capital of the Sikh Empire , and ...more...

Religious violence in India


Religious violence in India includes acts of violence by followers of one religious group against followers and institutions of another religious group, often in the form of rioting. Religious violence in India, especially in recent times, has generally involved Hindus and Muslims , although incidents of violence have also involved atheists , Christians and Sikhs . There is also history of Muslim – Parsee riots ( List of riots in Mumbai ). Despite the secular and religiously tolerant constitution of India , broad religious representation in various aspects of society including the government, the active role played by autonomous bodies such as National Human Rights Commission of India and National Commission for Minorities , and the ground-level work being out by Non-governmental organisations, sporadic and sometimes serious acts of religious violence tend to occur as the root causes of religious violence often run deep in history, religious activities, and politics of India. Along with domestic organizatio ...more...

Khajuraho Group of Monuments


The Khajuraho Group of Monuments is a group of Hindu and Jain temples in Madhya Pradesh , India, about 175 kilometres (109 mi) southeast of Jhansi . They are one of the UNESCO World Heritage Sites in India. The temples are famous for their nagara -style architectural symbolism and their erotic sculptures . Most Khajuraho temples were built between 950 and 1050 by the Chandela dynasty. Historical records note that the Khajuraho temple site had 85 temples by the 12th century, spread over 20 square kilometers Of these, only about 25 temples have survived, spread over 6 square kilometers. Of the various surviving temples, the Kandariya Mahadeva Temple is decorated with a profusion of sculptures with intricate details, symbolism and expressiveness of ancient Indian art. The Khajuraho group of temples were built together but were dedicated to two religions, Hinduism and Jainism , suggesting a tradition of acceptance and respect for diverse religious views among Hindus and Jains in the region. Location The Khaju ...more...

List of state leaders in 1491


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List of state leaders in 1490


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R. Sarathkumar


Ramanathan Sarathkumar (born 14 July 1954) is an Indian film actor , journalist , politician , the former president of the South Indian Film Artistes' Association and former body builder . Sarathkumar has acted in more than 130 Tamil , Malayalam , Telugu and Kannada films. He can speak Tamil, Telugu, Malayalam, Kannada and English fluently. In 1986, Sarathkumar started his acting career in the Telugu film Samajamlo Sthree. He first acted in negative roles, and later played minor roles before establishing himself as a lead actor in subsequent years, earning him the title Supreme Star in Tamil cinema . He has won two Tamil Nadu State Film Awards and three Filmfare Awards South . In 2007, he launched a new political party All India Samathuva Makkal Katchi (AISMK) in Tamil Nadu , claiming to carry out the ideals of K. Kamaraj . He is the former Member of Legislative Assembly of Tenkasi constituency . He served as the president of the Nadigar Sangam from 2006 to 2015 for three consecutive terms. Early life R. Sara ...more...

Satna district


Satna District (सतना)(Cement City), was formed in 194 and is a district of Madhya Pradesh state in central India . The town of Satna is the district headquarters. The district has an area of 7,502 km², and a population of 768,648 (2011 census), 20.63% of which is urban. The district has a population density of 249 persons per km². Geography Satna district has Uttar Pradesh on the north, Rewa on the east, Shahdol on the southwest, Umaria and Katni districts on the south, and Panna on the west. The district is part of Rewa Division . The district is divided into the tehsils of Amarpatan , Maihar , Nagod , Uchehara, Birsinghpur, Kotar, Majhgawan, Ramnagar, Rampur baghelan & Sohawal. Satna town is situated in Sohawal tehsil. History Satna district is part of the Baghelkhand region, a very large portion of which was ruled by the Rewa . A small portion of the western region was ruled by feudatory chiefs under the British. There were eleven such states, namely Maihar , Nagod State , Sohawal , Kothi , Jaso , Ba ...more...

List of songs recorded by Udit Narayan


This is an alphabetical list of Hindi songs performed by Udit Narayan from 1980 to date. He has sung more than 19000 Hindi songs. Over 1200 songs are listed here. He has also sung in several other different languages which is not included here. A "A.B.C.D."* "A B C D E F G" "A.B.C.D. Hum Nahi Jani" "A Bhi Jao Mere Paas" "A Ding Dang Do" "Aa Ab Laut Chalen" "Aa Gaya Aa Gaya" "Aa Jee Le Ek Pal Mein" "Aa Kahin Dur Chale" "Aa Sajan Akhon Main" "Aage Aage Chahat Chali" "Aage Se Peechhe Se" "Aahista Aahista" "Aaj Hoke Rahe Apna Milan" "Aaj Kehna Zaroori Hai" "Aaj Nachna" "Aaja Mahiya" "Aakhir Tumhe Aana hai Zara Der Lagegi" "Aan Milo Ya Milne Se" "Aankhein Hain Teri Badi Badi" "Aankhein Khuli" "Aankhen Bandh Karke"..... "Aankhon Mein Hai Kya" "Aankhon Mein Leke Pyar" "Aap Ko Samjha" "Aashiq Hoon Main" "Aawaz Do Hamko" "Aaye Ho Meri Zindagi Mein" "ABCDEF" "Abhi Nahi Jaana" "Abhi Nahi Jana" "Ab Naam Mohobbat Ke" "Abhi To Mohabbath" "Auchi Lagti Ho" " Achi Lagti Ho " "Ae Ajnabi" "Ae Jaane Tamana Tughay Jabse Jana" "A ...more...

List of state leaders in 1510


This is a list of heads of state , government leaders , and other rulers in the year 1510 . Africa Adal Sultanate – Muhammad ibn Azhar ad-Din (1488–1518) Ethiopian Empire – Dawit II (1508–1540) Kingdom of Kongo – Alfonso I (1509–1542) Sennar Sultanate – Amara Dunqas (1503–1533/4) Songhai Empire – Askia Mohammad I , Askia of the Songhai Empire (1493–1528) Americas Mesoamerica South America Asia Ava – Shwenankyawshin , King of Ava (1501–1527) Sultanate of Brunei – Bolkiah (1485–1524) China ( Ming dynasty ) - Zhengde Emperor (1505–1521) Kingdom of Cochin – Unniraman Koyikal II (1503–1537) Sultanate of Delhi - Sikandar Lodi (1489–1517) Japan (Sengoku period) Monarch – Emperor Go-Kashiwabara (1500–1526) Ashikaga shogunate - Ashikaga Yoshitane (1508–1521) Joseon (Korea) – Jungjong (1506–1544) Ryukyu Kingdom – Shō Shin (1477–1526) Mongolia – Dayan Khan (1478–1516) Sunda Kingdom – Sri Baduga Maharaja (1482–1521) Vijayanagara Empire – Krishnadeva Raya (1509–1529) Europe Andorra – Pere de Cardona , Bishop of Urgell and ...more...

History of Lahore


The recorded history of Lahore ( Punjabi : لہور دی تریخ ‬ , Urdu : تاریخ لاہور ‬ ‎), the second largest city-district of Pakistan , covers thousands of years. Originally the capital and largest city of the Punjab region , it has since its creation changed hands from Hindu , Buddhist , Greek , Muslim , Sikh , British and back to Muslim rule, thereby becoming the cultural capital and the heart of modern-day Pakistan. Origins An old street-scene in Lahore. A mythological legend, based on oral traditions, states that Lahore was named after Lava , son of the Hindu god Rama , who supposedly founded the city. Lahore Fort has a vacant temple dedicated in honour of Lava. Likewise, the Ravi River that flows through northern Lahore was said to be named in honour of the Hindu goddess Durga . Ptolemy , the celebrated astronomer and geographer, mentions in his Geographia a city called Labokla situated on the route between the Indus river in a region described as extending along the rivers Bidastes or Vitasta (Jhelum), San ...more...

Persecution of Hindus


Hindus have experienced religious persecution in the form of forceful conversions , documented massacres , demolition and desecrations of temples , as well as the destruction of universities and schools. In modern times, Hindus in the Muslim -majority regions of Kashmir , Pakistan , Bangladesh , Afghanistan and other countries have suffered persecution. Medieval persecution by Muslim rulers Muslim conquest of the Indian subcontinent began during the early 8th century AD. According to a 1900 translation of Persian text Chachnamah by Mirza Kalichbeg Fredunbeg, the Umayyad governor of Damascus , Hajjaj responded to a plea by men and women attacked and imprisoned by a tribe off the coast of Debal (Karachi), who had gone there to purchase some Indian female slaves and rich goods. Hajjaj mobilised an expedition of 6,000 cavalry under Muhammad bin-Qasim in 712 CE. Records from the campaign recorded in the Chach Nama record temple demolitions, and mass executions of resisting Sindhi forces and the enslavement of the ...more...

Nawabs of Bengal and Murshidabad


The Nawabs of Bengal (full title, the Nawab Nizam of Bengal and Orissa) were the rulers of the then provinces of Bengal and Orissa . Between 1717 and 1765, they served as the rulers of the subah (or province) of Bengal . However, they were only nominally subordinate to the Mughal Empire . Siraj ud-Daulah , the last independent Nawab of Bengal was betrayed in the Battle of Plassey by Mir Jafar . He lost to the British, who took over the charge of Bengal in 1757, installed Mir Jafar on the Masnad (throne) and established itself to a political power in Bengal. In 1765 the system of Dual Government was established, in which the Nawabs ruled on behalf of the British and were mere puppets to the British. In 1772 the system was abolished and Bengal was brought under direct control of the British. In 1793, when the Nizamat (governorship) of the Nawab was also taken away from them, they remained as the mere pensioners of the British East India Company . The last Nawab of Bengal, Mansur Ali Khan abdicated on 1 Novemb ...more...

List of state leaders in 1492


This is a list of heads of state , government leaders , and other rulers in the year 1492 . Africa Adal Sultanate – Muhammad ibn Azhar ad-Din (1488–1518) Kingdom of Bamum – Monjou, Mfon of Bamum (1461–1498) Benin Empire – Ozolua , Oba of Benin (1480–1504) Bornu Empire ( Sayfawa dynasty ) – Ali Gazi (1465–1497) Kingdom of the Buganda – Kiggala , Kabaka of Buganda (1474–1501) Ethiopian Empire – Eskender (1478–1494) Empire of Great Fulo – Tenguella (1490–1512) Kanem-Bornu Empire – Ali Gazi Sultanate of Kano – Muhammad Rumfa (1463–1499) Kilwa Sultanate – Ibrahim ibn Muhammad (1490–1495) Kingdom of Kongo – Nzinga a Nkuwu , Manikongo (1470–1509) Mali Empire – Mahmud II , Mansa of Mali (1481–1496) Kingdom of Mutapa – Changamire , Mwenemutapa (1490–1494) Kingdom of Nri – Eze Nri Anyamata (1465–1611) Kingdom of Nungu – Gima, Nunbado (1470–1520) Kingdom of Rwanda – Cyirima I (1482–1506) Shilluk Kingdom – Nyikaangø (1490–1517) Songhai Empire – Sonni Ali (1464–1492) Sonni Baru (1492–1493) Kingdom of Swaziland – Mswati I ...more...

List of state leaders in 1500


This is a list of heads of state , government leaders , and other rulers in the year 1500 . Africa Akan state of Twifo-Heman – Ofusu Kwabi (c. 1500-c. 1520) Buganda – Kiggala , King of Buganda (c. 1474-c. 1501) Ethiopian Empire – Na'od (1494–1508) Adal Sultanate – Muhammad ibn Azhar ad-Din (1488–1518) Mali Empire – Mahmud III . Mansa of Mali (1496–1559) Kingdom of Kongo – João I (1470–1509) Kingdom of Rwanda – Cyirima I (c. 1428-c. 1506) Songhai Empire – Askia Mohammad I , Askia of the Songhai Empire (1493–1528) Americas Aztec Empire – Ahuitzotl (1486–1502) Inca Empire – Huayna Capac (1493–1527) Muisca Confederation zipa - Nemequene (1490–1514) zaque - Quemuenchatocha (1490–1538) Texcoco – Nezahualpilli , King of Texcoco (1472–1515) Asia Ahmadnagar Sultanate – Ahmad Shah I (1490–1509) Ava ( Burma ) - Minkhaung II (1480–1501) Ayutthaya Kingdom – Ramathibodi II (1491–1529) Bahmani Sultanate – Muhammad Shah IV (1482–1518) Bengal Sultanate – Alauddin Husain Shah (1494–1518) Berar Sultanate – Fath-Allah 'Imad ul-M ...more...

List of state leaders in 1511


This is a list of heads of state , government leaders , and other rulers in the year 1511 . Africa Adal Sultanate – Muhammad ibn Azhar ad-Din (1488–1518) Cameroon (Bamum people) – Mengap (1498–1519) Ethiopian Empire – Dawit II (1508–1540) Kingdom of Kano – Muhammad Kisoki (1509–1565) Kingdom of Kongo – Alfonso I (1509–1542) Kingdom of Mutapa – Chikuyo Chisamarengu (1494-C. 1530) Sennar Sultanate – Amara Dunqas (1503–1533/1534) Songhai Empire – Askia Mohammad I , Askia of the Songhai Empire (1493–1528) Warsangali Sultanate – Gerad Liban (1503–1525) Wolof Empire – Bukaar Biye-Sungule (1492–1527) Americas Aztec Empire – Moctezuma II (1502–1520) Inca Empire – Huayna Capac (1493–1527) K'iche' Kingdom of Q'umarkaj – Oxib Keh (1500–1524) Muisca Confederation zipa - Nemequene (1490–1514) zaque - Quemuenchatocha (1490–1538) Asia Ava Kingdom – Shwenankyawshin (1501–1527) Sultanate of Brunei – Bolkiah (1485–1524) Cambodia - Srei Sokunbat , King of Cambodia (1504–1512)\ Kingdom of Cochin – Unniraman Koyikal II (1503–1537 ...more...

Ghazi Saiyyad Salar Masud


Ghazi Saiyyad Salar Masud or Ghazi Miyan (1014 – 1034 CE) was a semi-legendary Ghaznavid army general, said to have been the nephew of Sultan Mahmud . He supposedly accompanied his uncle in the conquest of India during early 11th century, although the Ghaznavid chronicles do not mention him. By the 12th century, Salar Masud had become reputed as a warrior-saint, and his tomb ( dargah ) at Bahraich , Uttar Pradesh , India , had become a place of pilgrimage. However, his association with the Ghaznavids appears only in later sources. The main source of his biography is the 17th century historical romance Mirat-i-Masudi. Mirat-i-Masudi legend The Mirat-i-Masudi narrates the legend of Salar Masud as follows: Early life In 1011 CE, the Muslims of Ajmer , whose rights were being infringed upon by the local Hindu rulers, appealed Sultan Mahmud of Ghazni for help. Mahmud agreed to help them on the condition that they would mention his name in the Friday sermons ( Khutbah ), which would signify their acknowledgment of ...more...

List of populated places in Khyber Pakhtunkhwa


The following is a list of populated places in the Khyber Pakhtunkhwa province of Pakistan : Name Type District A Aba Khel Village Tank Abazai Town Charsadda Abbottabad City Abbottabad Abdul Khel Town Lakki Marwat Adezai Village Peshawar Ahmed Khel Town Lakki Marwat Akhun Kalai Village Swat Akora Khattak City Nowshera Aliabad Village Abbottabad Aloch Town Shangla Alpuri Capital Shangla Amandi Town Bannu Amirabad Village Abbottabad Aral Hathi Khel Town Bannu Arandu, Pakistan Town Chitral Asperka Waziran Town Bannu B Bagh Maidan Village Lower Dir Baist Khel Town Lakki Marwat Bakhshali Village Mardan Balakot Town Mansehra Bandi Dhundan Village Abbottabad Bannu City Bannu Banseri Village Bara Bandai Village Barat Village Bannu Barikot City Basian Town Batakara Town Swabi Batamori Town Battagram Batangi Village Abbottabad Batkhela Capital City Malakand Batnara Village Battagram Capital City Battagram Bengalai Town Shangla Bhanda Peeraan Village Mansehra Bilkanai Village Shangla C Chagam Town Shangla Chaghar Matti ...more...



Gujarat ( Gujǎrāt    (   listen ) ) is a state in Western India , It has an area of 196,024 km (75,685 sq mi) with a coastline of 1,600 km (990 mi), most of which lies on the Kathiawar peninsula, and a population in excess of 60 million. The state is bordered by Rajasthan to the north, Maharashtra to the south, Madhya Pradesh to the east, and the Arabian Sea and the Pakistani province of Sindh to the west. Its capital city is Gandhinagar , while its largest city is Ahmedabad . Gujarat is the native place to the Gujarati -speaking people of India. The state encompasses some sites of the ancient Indus Valley Civilisation , such as Lothal , Dholavira , and Gola Dhoro. Lothal is believed to be one of the world's first seaports. Gujarat's coastal cities, chiefly Bharuch and Khambhat , served as ports and trading centers in the Maurya and Gupta empires, and during the succession of royal Saka dynasties from the Western Satraps era. Gujarat is one of three states to prohibit the sale of alcohol . Etymology Modern- ...more...

List of state leaders in 1501


This is a list of heads of state , government leaders , and other rulers in the year 1501 . Africa Akan state of Twifo-Heman – Ofusu Kwabi (c. 1500-c. 1520) Kingdom of Buganda – Kiggala , Kabaka of Buganda (c. 1474-c. 1501) Kiyimba , Kabaka of Buganda (c. 1501) Ethiopian Empire – Na'od (1494–1508) Adal Sultanate – Muhammad ibn Azhar ad-Din (1488–1518) Kingdom of Kongo – João I , Manikongo (bef.1482–1505) Kingdom of Rwanda – Cyirima I (c. 1428-c. 1506) Songhai Empire – Askia Mohammad I , Askia of the Songhai Empire (1493–1528) Americas Aztec Empire – Ahuitzotl (1486–1502) Inca Empire – Huayna Capac (1493–1527) Muisca Confederation zipa - Nemequene (1490–1514) zaque - Quemuenchatocha (1490–1538) Texcoco – Nezahualpilli , King of Texcoco (1472–1515) Asia Ahmadnagar Sultanate – Ahmad Shah I (1490–1509) Ava Kingdom ( Burma ) - Minkhaung II (1480–1501) Ayutthaya Kingdom ( Siam ) - Ramathibodi II (1491–1529) Bahmani Sultanate – Muhammad Shah IV (1482–1518) Bengal Sultanate – Alauddin Husain Shah (1494–1518) Berar Su ...more...

Mathura district


Mathura district situated along the banks of the river Yamuna is a district of Uttar Pradesh state of northern India . The historic town of Mathura is the district headquarters. The District is part of Agra division . Mathura is bounded on the northeast by Aligarh District , on the southeast by Hathras District , on the south by Agra District , and on the west by Rajasthan and northwest by Haryana state. Mathura district is an important pilgrimage centre of Hindus. Historical background Kusuma Sarovar bathing ghat, in the Goverdhan area Vishnu with ayudhapurushas , Mathura, India Mathura has an ancient history. According to the Archaeological Survey of India plaque at the Mathura Museum , the city is mentioned in the oldest Indian epic, the Ramayana . In the epic, the Ikshwaku prince Shatrughna slays a demon called Lavanasura and claims the land. Afterwards, the place came to be known as Madhuvan as it was thickly wooded, then Madhupura and later Mathura. In the 6th century BCE Mathura became the capital of t ...more...

List of mausolea


This is a list of mausolea around the world. Afghanistan Ahmed Shah Masood , Panjshir The Shrine of Baba Wali near Kandahar Abdur Rahman Khan 's Mausoleum in Kabul Bagh-e Babur ,mausolea of the founder of the Mughal Empire Mausoleum of Mohammad Zaher Shah (Hill of Teppe Maranjan) in Kabul . Albania Mausoleum of the Albanian Royal Family National Martyrs Cemetery of Albania Algeria El Alia Cemetery Azerbaijan Pir-Hussein Mausoleum Nizami Mausoleum ( Ganja ) Mausoleum of Seyid Yahya Bakuvi in the Palace of the Shirvanshahs ( Baku ) Tomb of Shirvanshahs in the Palace of the Shirvanshahs ( Baku ) Momine Khatun Mausoleum ( Nakhchivan ) Yusif ibn Kuseyir Mausoleum ( Nakhchivan ) Huseyn Javid Mausoleum ( Nakhchivan ) Prophet Noah Mausoleum ( Nakhchivan ) Shamakhi mausoleum ( Şamaxı ) Seyyid Amin Mausoleum ( Beylagan Rayon ) Kerbalai Seyyid Agha Mausoleum ( Beylagan Rayon ) Sheikh Badraddin Mausoleum, Sheikh Mansur Mausoleum, Sheikh Mahomed Mausoleum ( Həzrə , Qabala Rayon ) Haji Mahmud Effendi Mausoleum or Blue maus ...more...



In the Ottoman Empire , Muhammad's descendants formed a kind of nobility with the privilege of wearing green turbans. Syed Hussain Ali Khan Barha was a leading administrator during the reign of the Mughal Emperor Farrukhsiyar . Sayyid Muhammad Rizvi , a Shia Islamic scholar, wearing a black turban. A black turban is worn by Ithna Ashari Shi'ite Sayyid clergymen, whilst a white turban is worn by non-Sayyid Ithna Ashari Shi'ite clergymen. Shah Syed Hasnain Baqai , a Sufi Islamic scholar, wearing a chishtiya turban. A chishtiya colour turban is mostly worn by Sufi Syed . Sayyid (also spelt Syed , Saiyed , Seyd , Sayed , Sayyad , Sayyed , Saiyid , Seyed , Said and Seyyed ) ( pronounced  , Arabic : سيد ‎; meaning Mister ) (plural Sadah Arabic : سادة ‎, Sāda(h), also spelled Sadat) is an honorific title denoting people (Sayyid for males, Sayyida for females) accepted as descendants of the Islamic prophet Muhammad through his grandsons, Hasan ibn Ali and Husayn ibn Ali (combined Hasnain ), sons of Muhammad's daugh ...more...



Satna is a city in the Satna District of Indian state of Madhya Pradesh , which shares a border with neighboring state Uttar Pradesh . It is home for district's administrative headquarters. History From antiquity to the mutiny of 1857 At nearby Bharhut are the remains of a 2nd-century BC Buddhist stupa , first discovered in 1873 by the archaeologist Alexander Cunningham ; most of the finds from this site were sent to the Indian Museum . The Mahabharata associates this site with rulers of the Haihaya, Kalchuri or Chedi clans. The chiefs of Rewash, descended from Baghel Rajputs (who were in turn descended from the Solanki ), ruled over Gujrat from the tenth to the thirteenth century. Vyaghra Deo, brother of the ruler of Gujrat, is said to have made his way into northern India about the middle of the thirteenth century and obtained the fort of Marpha, 18 miles north-east of Kalinjar . of Bandhavgarh (now in the tehsil of the same name in Shahdol district), which, until its destruction in 1597 by Akbar the Great ...more...

British Raj


The British Raj ( ; from rāj, literally, "rule" in Hindustani ) was the rule by the British Crown in the Indian subcontinent between 1858 and 1947. The rule is also called Crown rule in India , or direct rule in India . The region under British control was commonly called India in contemporaneous usage, and included areas directly administered by the United Kingdom , which were collectively called British India , and those ruled by indigenous rulers, but under British tutelage or paramountcy , and called the princely states . The de facto political amalgamation was also called the Indian Empire and after 1876 issued passports under that name. As India, it was a founding member of the League of Nations , a participating nation in the Summer Olympics in 1900 , 1920 , 1928 , 1932 , and 1936 , and a founding member of the United Nations in San Francisco in 1945 . This system of governance was instituted on 28 June 1858, when, after the Indian Rebellion of 1857 , the rule of the British East India Company ...more...

List of state leaders in 1499


This is a list of heads of state , government leaders , and other rulers in the year 1499 . Africa Ethiopian Empire – Na'od (1494–1508) Adal Sultanate – Muhammad ibn Azhar ad-Din (1488–1518) Kingdom of Kongo – João I (1470–1509) Songhai Empire – Askia Mohammad I , Askia of the Songhai Empire (1493–1528) Americas Aztec Empire – Ahuitzotl (1486–1502) Inca Empire – Huayna Capac (1493–1527) Muisca Confederation zipa - Nemequene (1490–1514) zaque - Quemuenchatocha (1490–1538) Texcoco – Nezahualpilli , King of Texcoco (1472–1515) Asia Ahmadnagar Sultanate – Ahmad Shah I (1490–1509) Ava Kingdom ( Burma ) - Minkhaung II (1480–1501) Ayutthaya Kingdom ( Siam ) - Ramathibodi II (1491–1529) Bahmani Sultanate – Muhammad Shah IV (1482–1518) Bengal Sultanate – Alauddin Husain Shah (1494–1518) Berar Sultanate – Fath-Allah 'Imad ul-Mulk (1490–1504) Bidar Sultanate – Qasim Shah I (1492–1504) Bijapur Sultanate – Yusuf Adil Shah (1490–1510) Cambodia - Sri Sukonthor , King of Cambodia (1486–1512) Kingdom of Kotte – Parakramabahu ...more...



Tarwara is a village panchayat, and the most developed village located in the Siwan district of Bihar state , India, around 90.6 kilometres (56.3 mi) from Patna, the state capital. The other surrounding state capitals are Ranchi (326.5 km or 202.9 mi), Lucknow (390.3 km or 242.5 mi), and Gangtok (428.6 km or 266.3 mi). Geography Situated on the bank of Gandak River one of the major rivers of Nepal and a left bank tributary of the Ganges in India. It is also called Krishna Gandaki in Nepal., . It originates between Tibet and Mount Everest at an elevation of 6,268 metres (20,564 ft) at the Nhubine Himal Glacier in the Mustang region of Nepal. The Gandak river is mentioned in the ancient Sanskrit epic Mahabharata and Its evolution is described in Shiva Purana, Kumarakhand, in the chapter of the killing of Shankhachuda. Tarwara is located in the UTC 5:30 time zone and follows Indian standard time (IST). Demographics According to the 2011 census Tarwara has a population of 10,244, There are 1,640 households in Ta ...more...

Deccan sultanates


The Deccan sultanates were five dynasties that ruled late medieval Indian kingdoms , namely, Bijapur , Golkonda , Ahmadnagar , Bidar , and Berar in south - western India . The Deccan sultanates were located on the Deccan Plateau , between the Krishna River and the Vindhya Range . These kingdoms became independent during the break-up of the Bahmani Sultanate . In 1490, Ahmadnagar declared independence, followed by Bijapur and Berar in the same year. Golkonda became independent in 1518 and Bidar in 1528. In 1510, Bijapur repulsed an invasion by the Portuguese against the city of Goa, but lost it later that year. Although generally rivals, they did ally against the Vijayanagara Empire in 1565, permanently weakening Vijayanagar in the Battle of Talikota . In 1574, after a coup in Berar, Ahmadnagar invaded and conquered it. In 1619, Bidar was annexed by Bijapur. The sultanates were later conquered by the Mughal Empire ; Berar was stripped from Ahmadnagar in 1596, Ahmadnagar was completely taken between 1616 and ...more...

Madurai Nayak dynasty


The Madurai Nayaks were rulers from around 1529 until 1736, of a region comprising most of modern-day Tamil Nadu , India, with Madurai as their capital. The Nayak reign was an era noted for its achievement in arts, cultural and administrative reforms, revitalization of temples previously ransacked by the Delhi Sultans , and inauguration of a unique architectural style. The dynasty consisted of 13 rulers, of whom 9 were kings, 2 were queens, and 2 were joint-kings. The most notable of these were the king, Thirumalai Nayak , and the queen, Rani Mangammal . Foreign trade was conducted mainly with the Dutch and the Portuguese , as the British and the French had not yet made inroads in the region. Sultan dynasty at Madurai Early in the 14th century, a dispute arose over the succession to the Pandya throne. One claimant appealed for help to emperor Ala-ud-din of Delhi , who dispatched his general, Malik Kafur , in 1310. Malik Kafur marched south, ransacking kingdoms on the way and causing enormous changes to the p ...more...

Walled City of Lahore


The Walled City of Lahore ( Urdu : اندرون شہر ‎ ‎; ; "Inner City"), also known as Old City , forms the historic core of Lahore , Pakistan . The city was established around 1000 CE in the western half of the Walled City, which was fortified by a mud wall during the medieval era. The Walled City rose in prominence after being selected as the Mughal capital, which resulted in construction of the Lahore Fort - now a UNESCO World Heritage Site , as well as the city's new reinforced walls. The Walled City was bestowed with numerous monuments during the Mughal era, with some of Lahore's most iconic structures being located in the Walled City, such as the lavishly decorated Wazir Khan Mosque , the massive Badshahi Mosque , and the Shahi Hammam . Under Sikh rule, the city was again selected as capital, and the Walled City again rose in prominence with numerous religious buildings built in the Walled City at the time, including the Samadhi of Ranjit Singh , and the Gurdwara Janam Asthan Guru Ram Das . The Walled City ...more...

Pakistan studies


Pakistan studies curriculum ( Urdu : مطالعہ پاکستان ‬ Muṭāla e-Pākistān ) is the name of a curriculum of academic research and study that encompasses the culture , demographics , geography , history , and politics of Pakistan . The subject is widely researched in and outside the country. Several universities in Pakistan have departments and research centers dedicated to the subject, whereas many independent research institutes carry out multidisciplinary research on Pakistan Studies. There are also a number of international organizations that are engaged in collaborative teaching, research, and exchange activities on the subject. International organizations As the second largest South Asian country, and one of the major actors in the politics of the Muslim world , Pakistan is a focus of multidisciplinary studies. Various universities in the United States and the United Kingdom have research groups busy in academic and research related activities on Pakistan Studies. One such example is the American Institu ...more...

Shaikh Gadai Kamboh


Shaikh Gadai Kamboh was the son, disciple and successor of famous scholar, philosopher and poet-laureate Shaikh Jamali Kamboh of Delhi and brother of the 'Master of Expression' —Shaikh Abd-al-Hai Hayati. His real name was Abdur Rehman but he became famous as Gadai. He was well-renowned for his sanctity and learning and was in high favour with emperor Humayun and Bairam Khan . He is also said to have remained a Musahib of the Afghan emperor Salim Shah Suri. During Akbar’s reign, he occupied the high office of “Sadr-i-sadur” of Hindustan . Early career Shaikh Gadai’s father Shaikh Jamali Kamboh had been an important courtier of Mughal emperors Babur as well as Humayun ’s court. On Jamali’s death, emperor Humayun appointed Shaikh Gadai as his courtier. But after Humayun's defeat by Sher Shah Suri near Kanawdi in 1540 AD, Shaikh Gadai went to Gujarat . After the disastrous battle of Kanauj and the consequent troubles, Bairam Khan, an important Turkoman noble of emperor Humayun, took refuge in Gujarat where he wa ...more...

Lohara dynasty


The Lohara dynasty were Hindu rulers of Kashmir between 1003 and approximately 1320. The early history of the dynasty was described in the Rajatarangini (Chronicle of Kings), a work written by Kalhana in the mid-12th century and upon which many and perhaps all studies of the first 150 years of the dynasty depend. Subsequent accounts, which provide information up to and beyond the end of the dynasty come from Jonarāja and Śrīvara . The later rulers of the dynasty were weak: internecine fighting and corruption was endemic during this period, with only brief years of respite, and this gave rise to the growth of Islamic supremacy in the region. Origins The seat of the Lohara dynasty was a hill-fortress called Loharakotta, the precise location of which has been the subject of academic debate over a prolonged period. Stein, a translator of Kalhana, has discussed some of these theories and concludes that it lay in the Pir Panjal range of mountains, on a trade route between western Punjab and Kashmir. As such, it was ...more...

List of Monuments of National Importance in Delhi


This is a list of Monuments of National Importance (ASI) as officially recognized by and available through the website of the Archaeological Survey of India in the Indian union territory Delhi . The monument identifier is a combination of the abbreviation of the subdivision of the list (state, ASI circle) and the numbering as published on the website of the ASI. 174 Monuments of National Importance have been recognized by the ASI in Delhi. List of monuments of national importance SL. No. Description Location Address District Coordinates Image N-DL-1 Bastion, where a wall of Jahanpanah meets the wall of Rai Pithora fort. Adchini Delhi 28°37′56″N 77°13′09″E  /  28.6322°N 77.2193°E Upload another image N-DL-2 Ramp and gateway of Rai Pithora 's Fort Adchini Delhi 28°37′56″N 77°13′10″E  /  28.6322°N 77.2194°E Upload another image N-DL-3 Marble Tomb reputed to be that of Newab Bahadur Jawid Khan Aliganj Delhi 28°34′51″N 77°12′48″E  /  28.58078°N 77.21338°E Upload an image N-DL-4 Lal Bangla , c. 1780 Babarpur ...more...

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