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Sikandar Lodi

Sikandar Lodi (died 21 November 1517), born Nizam Khan, was the Sultan of Delhi between 1489 to 1517.[1] He became the next ruler of the Lodi dynasty after the death of his father Bahlul Lodi in July 1489. The second and most successful ruler of the Lodi dynasty of the Delhi sultanate, he was also a poet of the Persian language and prepared a diwan of 9000 verses.[2]

Of the three Lodi Sultans namely Bahlol Lodi (1451 to 1489), Sikandar Lodi (1489 to 1517) and Ibrahim Lodi (1517 to 1526), Sikandar Lodi is regarded as the ablest, the greatest and the most successful Sultan. As compared with these two Sultans, Sikandar Lodi gave ample evidence of his qualities as a general, as an administrator, a consolidator of the empire and a man of letters.

Biography
The top two storeys of the Qutub Minar were reconstructed in marble by Sikandar Lodi

Sikandar was the second son of Sultan Bahlul Khan Lodi and Bibi Ambha, the daughter of a Hindu goldsmith of Sirhind. He was of Afghan origin through his father.[3]

He became Sultan upon the death of his father on 17 July 1489 under the full name Abu Al-Muzzafar Ghazi Sultan Sikandar Lodi. His rise to power was troubled, as his older brother, Barbak Shah, the viceroy of Jaunpur, also laid claim to the throne, even though their father had nominated Sikandar. However, he was able to ascend to the throne without massive bloodshed, and even allowed his brother to continue ruling Jaunpur. He also settled differences with an uncle, Alam Khan, who was also suspected of seeking to seize power.

Sikandar was a capable ruler who encouraged trade across his territory, but discriminated against Hindu subjects. He expanded Lodi territory into the regions of Gwalior and Bihar. He made a treaty with Alauddin Hussain Shah and his kingdom of Bengal. In 1503, he commissioned the building of the present-day city of Agra. Agra was founded by him.[4]

He has a reputation for religious intolerance, and is said to have burned Bodhan, a Hindu sadhu alive for saying that Islam and Hinduism were equally acceptable to God.

Coin of Sikandar Lodi

He wrote poetry in Persian using the pen name Gulrukhi. He introduced auditing in accounts. He took good care of justice and agriculture for the welfare of people.he introduced a system of Gaz-i-sikandari,means 32 digit of measuring system of cultivated lands.

Among the administrative changes made by Sikandar Lodi was the installation of Persian language as the official language for the accountancy in India. 1514.

Sikandar Lodi was a great conqueror and a very good administrator. He revived the glory of Delhi Sultanates by expanding the boundaries of his empire. He took effective administrative steps for effective management. He also did a lot for the welfare of the poor people.

Conquests

First of all Sikandar Lodi defeated his elder brother and seized Jaunpur and brought it under his direct control. He afterwards led his attack on Bihar, defeated its ruler and annexed it. He conquered the states of Dholpur, Bidar, Gwalior, Chanderi and other nearby kingdoms. He entered into a friendship treaty with the ruler of Bengal. Sikandar’s empire extended from the Punjab to the borders of Bengal and included the territories between Sutlej and Bundelkhand.

Occasional tours in disguise
Sikandar Lodi's tomb

Very often the Sultan toured in disguise to have the first hand information about the condition of the people and the activities of the Amirs and the Ulemas.

He died in 1517 and has an elaborate burial tomb that resides in Lodi Gardens, Delhi.

References
  1. Sen, Sailendra (2013). A Textbook of Medieval Indian History. Primus Books. pp. 122–125. ISBN 978-9-38060-734-4.
  2. Ram Nath Sharma, History Of Education In India, Atlantic (1996), p. 61
  3. Lodī dynasty - Encyclopædia Britannica
  4. Kishori Saran Lal (1963). Twilight of the Sultanate. Asia Publishing House. p. 176. OCLC 500687579.
Preceded byBahlul Khan Lodi Sultan of Delhi 1489–1517 Succeeded byIbrahim Lodi
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Ballia

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Ballia is a city with a municipal board in the Indian state of Uttar Pradesh bordering Bihar. The eastern boundary of the city lies at the junction of two major rivers, the Ganges and the Ghaghara . The city is situated 140 km (87 mi) from Varanasi . Hindi , is the primary local language. Ballia was independent on 19 August 1942 and it was the first independent city of India. The headquarters of the Ballia district are located here. Due to its significant contribution to the Indian independence movement , Ballia is also known as Bagi Ballia ("Rebel Ballia), because of Ballia got two time freedom , first time in 19 August , 1942 for one day and second time with India.It have a bird century protected area jai Prakash Narayan bird century. other name of this is suraha Taal which is natural lake Primarily foreign and local migratory birds flock to the Jai Prakash Narayan Bird Sanctuary during the winter months. According to estimation approximately 10,000 birds of 15 species can be sighted in ‘Surha Taal’ the yea



British Raj

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The British Raj ( ; from rāj, literally, "rule" in Hindustani ) was the rule by the British Crown in the Indian subcontinent between 1858 and 1947. The rule is also called Crown rule in India , or direct rule in India . The region under British control was commonly called India in contemporaneous usage, and included areas directly administered by the United Kingdom , which were collectively called British India , and those ruled by indigenous rulers, but under British tutelage or paramountcy , and called the princely states . The de facto political amalgamation was also called the Indian Empire and after 1876 issued passports under that name. As India, it was a founding member of the League of Nations , a participating nation in the Summer Olympics in 1900 , 1920 , 1928 , 1932 , and 1936 , and a founding member of the United Nations in San Francisco in 1945 . This system of governance was instituted on 28 June 1858, when, after the Indian Rebellion of 1857 , the rule of the British East India Company



History of Lahore

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The recorded history of Lahore ( Punjabi : لہور دی تریخ , Urdu : تاریخ لاہور ‎), the second largest city-district of Pakistan , covers thousands of years. Originally the capital and largest city of the Punjab region , it has since its creation changed hands from Hindu , Buddhist , Greek , Muslim , Sikh and British rule to becoming the cultural capital and the heart of modern-day Pakistan. Origins An old street-scene in Lahore. A mythological legend, based on oral traditions, states that Lahore was named after Lava , son of the Hindu god Rama , who supposedly founded the city. Lahore Fort has a vacant temple dedicated in honour of Lava. Likewise, the Ravi River that flows through northern Lahore was said to be named in honour of the Hindu goddess Durga . Ptolemy , the celebrated astronomer and geographer, mentions in his Geographia a city called Labokla situated on the route between the Indus river in a region described as extending along the rivers Bidastes or Vitasta (Jhelum), Sandabal or Chandra Bhaga (Che



Satna district

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Satna District (सतना)(Cement City), was formed in 194 and is a district of Madhya Pradesh state in central India . The town of Satna is the district headquarters. The district has an area of 7,502 km², and a population of 768,648 (2011 census), 20.63% of which is urban. The district has a population density of 249 persons per km². Geography Satna district has Uttar Pradesh on the north, Rewa on the east, Shahdol on the southwest, Umaria and Katni districts on the south, and Panna on the west. The district is part of Rewa Division . The district is divided into the tehsils of Amarpatan , Maihar , Nagod , Uchehara, Birsinghpur, Kotar, Majhgawan, Ramnagar, Rampur baghelan & Sohawal. Satna town is situated in Sohawal tehsil. History Satna district is part of the Baghelkhand region, a very large portion of which was ruled by the Rewa . A small portion of the western region was ruled by feudatory chiefs under the British. There were eleven such states, namely Maihar , Nagod State , Sohawal , Kothi , Jaso , Ba



Ghazi Saiyyad Salar Masud

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Ghazi Saiyyad Salar Masud or Ghazi Miyan (1014 – 1034 CE) was a semi-legendary Ghaznavid army general, said to have been the nephew of Sultan Mahmud . He supposedly accompanied his uncle in the conquest of India during early 11th century, although the Ghaznavid chronicles do not mention him. By the 12th century, Salar Masud had become reputed as a warrior-saint, and his tomb ( dargah ) at Bahraich , Uttar Pradesh , India , had become a place of pilgrimage. However, his association with the Ghaznavids appears only in later sources. The main source of his biography is the 17th century historical romance Mirat-i-Masudi. Mirat-i-Masudi legend The Mirat-i-Masudi narrates the legend of Salar Masud as follows: Early life In 1011 CE, the Muslims of Ajmer , whose rights were being infringed upon by the local Hindu rulers, appealed Sultan Mahmud of Ghazni for help. Mahmud agreed to help them on the condition that they would mention his name in the Friday sermons ( Khutbah ), which would signify their acknowledgment of



List of state leaders in 1500

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This is a list of heads of state , government leaders , and other rulers in the year 1500 . Africa Akan state of Twifo-Heman – Ofusu Kwabi (c. 1500-c. 1520) Buganda – Kiggala , King of Buganda (c. 1474-c. 1501) Ethiopian Empire – Na'od (1494–1508) Adal Sultanate – Muhammad ibn Azhar ad-Din (1488–1518) Mali Empire – Mahmud III . Mansa of Mali (1496–1559) Kingdom of Kongo – João I (1470–1509) Kingdom of Rwanda – Cyirima I (c. 1428-c. 1506) Songhai Empire – Askia Mohammad I , Askia of the Songhai Empire (1493–1528) Americas Aztec Empire – Ahuitzotl (1486–1502) Inca Empire – Huayna Capac (1493–1527) Muisca Confederation zipa - Nemequene (1490–1514) zaque - Quemuenchatocha (1490–1538) Texcoco – Nezahualpilli , King of Texcoco (1472–1515) Asia Ahmadnagar Sultanate – Ahmad Shah I (1490–1509) Ava ( Burma ) - Minkhaung II (1480–1501) Ayutthaya Kingdom – Ramathibodi II (1491–1529) Bahmani Sultanate – Muhammad Shah IV (1482–1518) Bengal Sultanate – Alauddin Husain Shah (1494–1518) Berar Sultanate – Fath-Allah 'Imad ul-M



List of state leaders in 1511

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This is a list of heads of state , government leaders , and other rulers in the year 1511 . Africa Adal Sultanate – Muhammad ibn Azhar ad-Din (1488–1518) Cameroon (Bamum people) – Mengap (1498–1519) Ethiopian Empire – Dawit II (1508–1540) Kingdom of Kano – Muhammad Kisoki (1509–1565) Kingdom of Kongo – Alfonso I (1509–1542) Kingdom of Mutapa – Chikuyo Chisamarengu (1494-C. 1530) Sennar Sultanate – Amara Dunqas (1503–1533/1534) Songhai Empire – Askia Mohammad I , Askia of the Songhai Empire (1493–1528) Warsangali Sultanate – Gerad Liban (1503–1525) Wolof Empire – Bukaar Biye-Sungule (1492–1527) Americas Aztec Empire – Moctezuma II (1502–1520) Inca Empire – Huayna Capac (1493–1527) K'iche' Kingdom of Q'umarkaj – Oxib Keh (1500–1524) Muisca Confederation zipa - Nemequene (1490–1514) zaque - Quemuenchatocha (1490–1538) Asia Ava Kingdom – Shwenankyawshin (1501–1527) Sultanate of Brunei – Bolkiah (1485–1524) Cambodia - Srei Sokunbat , King of Cambodia (1504–1512)\ Kingdom of Cochin – Unniraman Koyikal II (1503–1537



Satna

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Satna is a city in the Satna District of Indian state of Madhya Pradesh , which shares a border with neighboring state Uttar Pradesh . It is home for district's administrative headquarters. History From antiquity to the mutiny of 1857 At nearby Bharhut are the remains of a 2nd-century BC Buddhist stupa , first discovered in 1873 by renowned archaeologist Alexander Cunningham ; most of the finds from this site were sent to the Indian Museum . The Mahabharata associates this site with rulers of the Haihaya, Kalchuri or Chedi clans. The chiefs of Rewash, descended from Baghel Rajputs (who were in turn descended from the Solanki ), ruled over Gujrat from the tenth to the thirteenth century. Vyaghra Deo, brother of the ruler of Gujrat, is said to have made his way into northern India about the middle of the thirteenth century and obtained the fort of Marpha, 18 miles north-east of Kalinjar . of Bandhavgarh (now in the tehsil of the same name in Shahdol district), which, until its destruction in 1597 by Akbar the G



List of state leaders in 1501

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This is a list of heads of state , government leaders , and other rulers in the year 1501 . Africa Akan state of Twifo-Heman – Ofusu Kwabi (c. 1500-c. 1520) Kingdom of Buganda – Kiggala , Kabaka of Buganda (c. 1474-c. 1501) Kiyimba , Kabaka of Buganda (c. 1501) Ethiopian Empire – Na'od (1494–1508) Adal Sultanate – Muhammad ibn Azhar ad-Din (1488–1518) Kingdom of Kongo – João I , Manikongo (bef.1482–1505) Kingdom of Rwanda – Cyirima I (c. 1428-c. 1506) Songhai Empire – Askia Mohammad I , Askia of the Songhai Empire (1493–1528) Americas Aztec Empire – Ahuitzotl (1486–1502) Inca Empire – Huayna Capac (1493–1527) Muisca Confederation zipa - Nemequene (1490–1514) zaque - Quemuenchatocha (1490–1538) Texcoco – Nezahualpilli , King of Texcoco (1472–1515) Asia Ahmadnagar Sultanate – Ahmad Shah I (1490–1509) Ava Kingdom ( Burma ) - Minkhaung II (1480–1501) Ayutthaya Kingdom ( Siam ) - Ramathibodi II (1491–1529) Bahmani Sultanate – Muhammad Shah IV (1482–1518) Bengal Sultanate – Alauddin Husain Shah (1494–1518) Berar Su



Persecution of Hindus

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Hindus have experienced religious persecution in the form of alleged forceful conversions , massacres , demolitions and desecrations of temples , as well as destruction of universities and schools. In modern times, Hindus in the Muslim -majority regions of Kashmir , Pakistan , Bangladesh , Afghanistan and other countries have suffered persecution. Medieval persecution by Muslim rulers Muslim conquest of the Indian subcontinent began during the early 8th century AD. According to a 1900 translation of Persian text Chachnamah by Mirza Kalichbeg Fredunbeg, the Umayyad governor of Damascus , Hajjaj responded to a plea by men and women attacked and imprisoned by a tribe off the coast of Debal (Karachi), who had gone there to purchase some Indian female slaves and rich goods. Hajjaj mobilised an expedition of 6,000 cavalry under Muhammad bin-Qasim in 712 CE. Records from the campaign recorded in the Chach Nama record temple demolitions, and mass executions of resisting Sindhi forces and the enslavement of their dep



Sayyid

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In the Ottoman Empire , Muhammad's descendants formed a kind of nobility with the privilege of wearing green turbans. Syed Hussain Ali Khan Barha was a leading administrator during the reign of the Mughal Emperor Farrukhsiyar . Sayyid Muhammad Rizvi , a Shia Islamic scholar, wearing a black turban. A black turban is worn by Ithna Ashari Shi'ite Sayyid clergymen, whilst a white turban is worn by non-Sayyid Ithna Ashari Shi'ite clergymen. Shah Syed Hasnain Baqai , a Sufi Islamic scholar, wearing a chishtiya turban. A chishtiya colour turban is mostly worn by Sufi Syed . Sayyid (also spelled Syed , Saiyed , Seyd , Sayed , Sayyad , Sayyed , Saiyid , Seyed , Said and Seyyed ) ( pronounced  , Arabic : سيد ‎‎; meaning Mister ) (plural Sadah Arabic : سادة ‎‎, Sāda(h) , also spelled Sadat) is an honorific title denoting people (Sayyid for males, Sayyida for females) accepted as descendants of the Islamic prophet Muhammad through his grandsons, Hasan ibn Ali and Husayn ibn Ali combined Hasnain , sons of Muhammad's da



Nawabs of Bengal and Murshidabad

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The Nawabs of Bengal (full title, the Nawab Nizam of Bengal and Orissa) were the rulers of the then provinces of Bengal and Orissa . Between 1717 and 1765, they served as the rulers of the subah (or province) of Bengal . However, they were only nominally subordinate to the Mughal Empire . Siraj ud-Daulah , the last independent Nawab of Bengal was betrayed in the Battle of Plassey by Mir Jafar . He lost to the British, who took over the charge of Bengal in 1757, installed Mir Jafar on the Masnad (throne) and established itself to a political power in Bengal. In 1765 the system of Dual Government was established, in which the Nawabs ruled on behalf of the British and were mere puppets to the British. In 1772 the system was abolished and Bengal was brought under direct control of the British. In 1793, when the Nizamat (governorship) of the Nawab was also taken away from them, they remained as the mere pensioners of the British East India Company . The last Nawab of Bengal, Mansur Ali Khan abdicated on 1 Novemb



List of state leaders in 1499

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This is a list of heads of state , government leaders , and other rulers in the year 1499 . Africa Ethiopian Empire – Na'od (1494–1508) Adal Sultanate – Muhammad ibn Azhar ad-Din (1488–1518) Kingdom of Kongo – João I (1470–1509) Songhai Empire – Askia Mohammad I , Askia of the Songhai Empire (1493–1528) Americas Aztec Empire – Ahuitzotl (1486–1502) Inca Empire – Huayna Capac (1493–1527) Muisca Confederation zipa - Nemequene (1490–1514) zaque - Quemuenchatocha (1490–1538) Texcoco – Nezahualpilli , King of Texcoco (1472–1515) Asia Ahmadnagar Sultanate – Ahmad Shah I (1490–1509) Ava Kingdom ( Burma ) - Minkhaung II (1480–1501) Ayutthaya Kingdom ( Siam ) - Ramathibodi II (1491–1529) Bahmani Sultanate – Muhammad Shah IV (1482–1518) Bengal Sultanate – Alauddin Husain Shah (1494–1518) Berar Sultanate – Fath-Allah 'Imad ul-Mulk (1490–1504) Bidar Sultanate – Qasim Shah I (1492–1504) Bijapur Sultanate – Yusuf Adil Shah (1490–1510) Cambodia - Sri Sukonthor , King of Cambodia (1486–1512) Kingdom of Kotte – Parakramabahu



List of state leaders in 1492

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This is a list of heads of state , government leaders , and other rulers in the year 1492 . Africa Adal Sultanate – Muhammad ibn Azhar ad-Din (1488–1518) Kingdom of Bamum – Monjou, Mfon of Bamum (1461–1498) Benin Empire – Ozolua , Oba of Benin (1480–1504) Bornu Empire ( Sayfawa dynasty ) – Ali Gazi (1465–1497) Kingdom of the Buganda – Kiggala , Kabaka of Buganda (1474–1501) Ethiopian Empire – Eskender (1478–1494) Empire of Great Fulo – Tenguella (1490–1512) Kanem-Bornu Empire – Ali Gazi Sultanate of Kano – Muhammad Rumfa (1463–1499) Kilwa Sultanate – Ibrahim ibn Muhammad (1490–1495) Kingdom of Kongo – Nzinga a Nkuwu , Manikongo (1470–1509) Mali Empire – Mahmud II , Mansa of Mali (1481–1496) Kingdom of Mutapa – Changamire , Mwenemutapa (1490–1494) Kingdom of Nri – Eze Nri Anyamata (1465–1611) Kingdom of Nungu – Gima, Nunbado (1470–1520) Kingdom of Rwanda – Cyirima I (1482–1506) Shilluk Kingdom – Nyikaangø (1490–1517) Songhai Empire – Sonni Ali (1464–1492) Sonni Baru (1492–1493) Kingdom of Swaziland – Mswati I



Deccan sultanates

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The Deccan sultanates were five dynasties that ruled late medieval Indian kingdoms , namely, Bijapur , Golkonda , Ahmadnagar , Bidar , and Berar in south - western India . The Deccan sultanates were located on the Deccan Plateau , between the Krishna River and the Vindhya Range . These kingdoms became independent during the break-up of the Bahmani Sultanate . In 1490, Ahmadnagar declared independence, followed by Bijapur and Berar in the same year. Golkonda became independent in 1518 and Bidar in 1528. In 1510, Bijapur repulsed an invasion by the Portuguese against the city of Goa, but lost it later that year. Although generally rivals, they did ally against the Vijayanagara Empire in 1565, permanently weakening Vijayanagar in the Battle of Talikota . In 1574, after a coup in Berar, Ahmadnagar invaded and conquered it. In 1619, Bidar was annexed by Bijapur. The sultanates were later conquered by the Mughal Empire ; Berar was stripped from Ahmadnagar in 1596, Ahmadnagar was completely taken between 1616 and



Mathura district

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Mathura district situated along the banks of the river Yamuna is a district of Uttar Pradesh state of northern India . The historic town of Mathura is the district headquarters. The District is part of Agra division . Mathura is bounded on the northeast by Aligarh District , on the southeast by Hathras District , on the south by Agra District , and on the west by Rajasthan and northwest by Haryana state. Mathura district is an important pilgrimage centre of Hindus. Historical background Kusuma Sarovar bathing ghat, in the Goverdhan area Vishnu with ayudhapurushas , Mathura, India Mathura has an ancient history. According to the Archaeological Survey of India plaque at the Mathura Museum , the city is mentioned in the oldest Indian epic, the Ramayana . In the epic, the Ikshwaku prince Shatrughna slays a demon called Lavanasura and claims the land. Afterwards, the place came to be known as Madhuvan as it was thickly wooded, then Madhupura and later Mathura. In the 6th century BCE Mathura became the capital of t



List of mausolea

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This is a list of mausolea around the world. Afghanistan Ahmed Shah Masood , Panjshir The Shrine of Baba Wali near Kandahar Abdur Rahman Khan 's Mausoleum in Kabul Bagh-e Babur ,mausolea of the founder of the Mughal Empire Mausoleum of Mohammad Zaher Shah (Hill of Teppe Maranjan) in Kabul . Albania Mausoleum of the Albanian Royal Family National Martyrs Cemetery of Albania Algeria El Alia Cemetery Azerbaijan Pir-Hussein Mausoleum Nizami Mausoleum ( Ganja ) Mausoleum of Seyid Yahya Bakuvi in the Palace of the Shirvanshahs ( Baku ) Tomb of Shirvanshahs in the Palace of the Shirvanshahs ( Baku ) Momine Khatun Mausoleum ( Nakhchivan ) Yusif ibn Kuseyir Mausoleum ( Nakhchivan ) Huseyn Javid Mausoleum ( Nakhchivan ) Prophet Noah Mausoleum ( Nakhchivan ) Shamakhi mausoleum ( Şamaxı ) Seyyid Amin Mausoleum ( Beylagan Rayon ) Kerbalai Seyyid Agha Mausoleum ( Beylagan Rayon ) Sheikh Badraddin Mausoleum, Sheikh Mansur Mausoleum, Sheikh Mahomed Mausoleum ( Həzrə , Qabala Rayon ) Haji Mahmud Effendi Mausoleum or Blue maus



Pakistan studies

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Pakistan studies curriculum ( Urdu : مطالعہ پاکستان Muṭāla e-Pākistān ) is the name of a curriculum of academic research and study that encompasses the culture , demographics , geography , history , and politics of Pakistan . The subject is widely researched in and outside the country. Several universities in Pakistan have departments and research centers dedicated to the subject, whereas many independent research institutes carry out multidisciplinary research on Pakistan Studies. There are also a number of international organizations that are engaged in collaborative teaching, research, and exchange activities on the subject. International organizations As the second largest South Asian country, and one of the major actors in the politics of the Muslim world , Pakistan is a focus of multidisciplinary studies. Various universities in the United States and the United Kingdom have research groups busy in academic and research related activities on Pakistan Studies. One such example is the American Institute



Walled City of Lahore

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The Walled City of Lahore ( Urdu : اندرون شہر ‎; ; "Interior City"), also known as Old City , forms the historic core of Lahore , Pakistan , and was fortified during the Mughal era . It is located in the northwestern part of the city, and contains some of Lahore's most iconic sites. History The Alamgiri Gate and Hazuri Bagh 1870 The origins of the original Lahore are unspecific. According to carbon dating evidence of archaeological findings in the Lahore Fort, the time period may start as early as 2,000 BCE. Lahore had many names throughout its history. Mohallah Maulian represents one of the two most probable sites of the original Lahore. Sootar Mandi (the yarn market) inside Lahori Gate, had been called Mohallah Chaileywala Hammam located in Machli Hatta Gulzar, just off Chowk Chalka. As late as 1864, the Lahori Mandi area had been known among the old folk of the Walled City as kacha kot, the mud fort, a name derived from the gradient of the land, the water flow, and the formation of mohallahs, kuchas, and k



Tarwara

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Tarwara is a village panchayat, and the most developed village located in the Siwan district of Bihar state , India, around 90.6 kilometres (56.3 mi) from Patna, the state capital. The other surrounding state capitals are Ranchi (326.5 km or 202.9 mi), Lucknow (390.3 km or 242.5 mi), and Gangtok (428.6 km or 266.3 mi). Geography Situated on the bank of Gandak River one of the major rivers of Nepal and a left bank tributary of the Ganges in India. It is also called Krishna Gandaki in Nepal., . It originates between Tibet and Mount Everest at an elevation of 6,268 metres (20,564 ft) at the Nhubine Himal Glacier in the Mustang region of Nepal. The Gandak river is mentioned in the ancient Sanskrit epic Mahabharata and Its evolution is described in Shiva Purana, Kumarakhand, in the chapter of the killing of Shankhachuda. Tarwara is located in the UTC 5:30 time zone and follows Indian standard time (IST). Demographics According to the 2011 census Tarwara has a population of 10,244, There are 1,640 households in Ta



Madurai Nayak dynasty

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The Madurai Nayaks were rulers from around 1529 until 1736, of a region comprising most of modern-day Tamil Nadu , India, with Madurai as their capital. The Nayak reign was an era noted for its achievement in arts, cultural and administrative reforms, revitalization of temples previously ransacked by the Delhi Sultans , and inauguration of a unique architectural style. The dynasty consisted of 13 rulers, of whom 9 were kings, 2 were queens, and 2 were joint-kings. The most notable of these were the king, Thirumalai Nayak , and the queen, Rani Mangammal . Foreign trade was conducted mainly with the Dutch and the Portuguese , as the British and the French had not yet made inroads in the region. Sultan dynasty at Madurai Early in the 14th century, a dispute arose over the succession to the Pandya throne. One claimant appealed for help to emperor Ala-ud-din of Delhi , who dispatched his general, Malik Kafur , in 1310. Malik Kafur marched south, ransacking kingdoms on the way and causing enormous changes to the p



Lohara dynasty

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The Lohara dynasty were Hindu rulers of Kashmir between 1003 and approximately 1320. The early history of the dynasty was described in the Rajatarangini (Chronicle of Kings), a work written by Kalhana in the mid-12th century and upon which many and perhaps all studies of the first 150 years of the dynasty depend. Subsequent accounts, which provide information up to and beyond the end of the dynasty come from Jonarāja and Śrīvara . The later rulers of the dynasty were weak: internecine fighting and corruption was endemic during this period, with only brief years of respite, and this gave rise to the growth of Islamic supremacy in the region. Origins The seat of the Lohara dynasty was a hill-fortress called Loharakotta, the precise location of which has been the subject of academic debate over a prolonged period. Stein, a translator of Kalhana, has discussed some of these theories and concludes that it lay in the Pir Panjal range of mountains, on a trade route between western Punjab and Kashmir. As such, it was



List of Monuments of National Importance in Delhi

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This is a list of Monuments of National Importance (ASI) as officially recognized by and available through the website of the Archaeological Survey of India in the Indian union territory Delhi . The monument identifier is a combination of the abbreviation of the subdivision of the list (state, ASI circle) and the numbering as published on the website of the ASI. 174 Monuments of National Importance have been recognized by the ASI in Delhi. List of monuments of national importance SL. No. Description Location Address District Coordinates Image N-DL-1 Bastion, where a wall of Jahanpanah meets the wall of Rai Pithora fort. Adchini Delhi 28°37′56″N 77°13′09″E  /  28.6322°N 77.2193°E Upload another image N-DL-2 Ramp and gateway of Rai Pithora 's Fort Adchini Delhi 28°37′56″N 77°13′10″E  /  28.6322°N 77.2194°E Upload another image N-DL-3 Marble Tomb reputed to be that of Newab Bahadur Jawid Khan Aliganj Delhi 28°34′51″N 77°12′48″E  /  28.58078°N 77.21338°E Upload an image N-DL-4 Lal Bangla , c. 1780 Babarpur



Shaikh Gadai Kamboh

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Shaikh Gadai Kamboh was the son, disciple and successor of famous scholar, philosopher and poet-laureate Shaikh Jamali Kamboh of Delhi and brother of the 'Master of Expression' —Shaikh Abd-al-Hai Hayati. His real name was Abdur Rehman but he became famous as Gadai. He was well-renowned for his sanctity and learning and was in high favour with emperor Humayun and Bairam Khan . He is also said to have remained a Musahib of the Afghan emperor Salim Shah Suri. During Akbar’s reign, he occupied the high office of “Sadr-i-sadur” of Hindustan . Early career Shaikh Gadai’s father Shaikh Jamali Kamboh had been an important courtier of Mughal emperors Babur as well as Humayun ’s court. On Jamali’s death, emperor Humayun appointed Shaikh Gadai as his courtier. But after Humayun's defeat by Sher Shah Suri near Kanawdi in 1540 AD, Shaikh Gadai went to Gujarat . After the disastrous battle of Kanauj and the consequent troubles, Bairam Khan, an important Turkoman noble of emperor Humayun, took refuge in Gujarat where he wa




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