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Sikandar Lodi

Sikander Lodi (died 21 November 1517), born Nizam Khan, was the Sultan of Delhi between 1489 to 1517.[1] He became the next ruler of the Lodi dynasty after the death of his father Bahlul Lodi in July 1489.[2] [3] The second and most successful ruler of the Lodi dynasty of the Delhi sultanate, he was also a poet of the Persian language and prepared a diwan of 9000 verses.[4] Of the three Lodi Sultans namely Bahlol Lodi (1451 to 1489), Sikandar Lodi (1489 to 1517) and Ibrahim Lodi (1517 to 1526), Sikandar Lodi is regarded as the ablest, the greatest and the most successful Sultan.[5]

Most of the time of Bahlol Lodi was spent in checking revolts and consolidating his position. There was very little left at his disposal for bringing about administrative reforms. Ibram Lodi led to the downfall of the Lodi dynasty.

As compared with these two Sultans, Sikandar Lodi gave ample evidence of his qualities as a general, as an administrator, a consolidator of the empire and a man of letters.[6]

The top two storeys of the Qutub Minar were reconstructed in marble by Sikander Lodi

Sikandar was the son of Sultan Bahlul Khan Lodi and Bibi Ambha, the daughter of a Hindu goldsmith of Sirhind. Sikandar was of Pashtun origin through his father.[7]

He became Sultan upon the death of his father on July 17, 1489 under the full name Abu Al-Muzzafar Ghazi Sultan Sikandar Lodi. His rise to power was troubled, as his older brother, Barbak Shah, the viceroy of Jaunpur, also laid claim to the throne, even though their father had nominated Sikandar. However, he was able to ascend to the throne without massive bloodshed, and even allowed his brother to continue ruling Jaunpur. He also settled differences with an uncle, Alam Khan, who was also suspected of seeking to seize power.

Sikandar was a capable ruler who encouraged trade across his territory, but discriminated against Hindu subjects. He expanded Lodi territory into the regions of Gwalior and Bihar. He made a treaty with Alauddin Hussain Shah and his kingdom of Bengal. In 1503, he commissioned the building of the present-day city of Agra. Agra was founded by him.

He has a reputation for religious intolerance, and is said to have burned Bodhan, a Hindu sadhu alive for saying that Islam and Hinduism were equally acceptable to God.

Coin of Sikandar Lodi

He wrote poetry in Persian using the pen name Gulrukhi. He introduced auditing in accounts..he took good care of justice and agriculture for the welfare of people.he introduced a system of Gaz-i-sikandari,means 32 digit of measuring system of cultivated lands. Among the administrative changes made by Sikandar Lodi was the installation of Persian language as the official language for the accountancy in India. 1514. Mat̲nawī-yi mihr u māh (905H.). Publication of the Iran Pakistan Institute of Persian Studies, serial no.

Sikandar Lodi was a great conqueror and a very good administrator. He revived the glory of Delhi Sultanates by expanding the boundaries of his empire. He took effective administrative steps for effective management. He also did a lot for the welfare of the poor people[8]


First of all Sikandar Lodi defeated his elder brother and seized Jaunpur and brought it under his direct control. He afterwards led his attack on Bihar, defeated its ruler and annexed it. He conquered the states of Dholpur, Bidar, Gwalior, Chanderi and other nearby kingdoms. He entered into a friendship treaty with the ruler of Bengal. Sikandar’s empire extended from the Punjab to the borders of Bengal and included the territories between Sutlej and Bundelkhand.[9]

Occasional tours in disguise
Sikander Lodi's tomb

Very often the Sultan toured in disguise to have the first hand information about the condition of the people and the activities of the Amirs and the Ulemas.

He died in 1517 and has an elaborate burial tomb that resides in Lodi Gardens, Delhi.

See also
  1. Sen, Sailendra (2013). A Textbook of Medieval Indian History. Primus Books. pp. 122–125. ISBN 978-9-38060-734-4.
  2. SULṬĀN SIKANDAR IBN I SULTĀN BUHLŪL, The Muntakhabu-'rūkh by Al-Badāoni (16th century historian), Packard Humanities Institute.
  3. Lodi Kings: Chart The Imperial Gazetteer of India, 1909, v. 2, p. 369..
  4. Ram Nath Sharma, History Of Education In India, Atlantic (1996), p. 61
  5. http://www.importantindia.com/9060/sikandar-lodi/
  6. http://www.importantindia.com/9060/sikandar-lodi/
  7. Lodī dynasty - Encyclopædia Britannica
  8. http://www.importantindia.com/9060/sikandar-lodi/
  9. http://www.importantindia.com/9060/sikandar-lodi/
External links
Preceded byBahlul Khan Lodi Sultan of Delhi 1489–1517 Succeeded byIbrahim Lodi


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List of state leaders in 1510


This is a list of heads of state , government leaders , and other rulers in the year 1510 . Africa Adal Sultanate – Muhammad ibn Azhar ad-Din (1488–1518) Ethiopian Empire – Dawit II (1508–1540) Kingdom of Kongo – Alfonso I (1509–1542) Sennar Sultanate – Amara Dunqas (1503–1533/4) Songhai Empire – Askia Mohammad I , Askia of the Songhai Empire (1493–1528) Americas Mesoamerica South America Asia Ava – Shwenankyawshin , King of Ava (1501–1527) Sultanate of Brunei – Bolkiah (1485–1524) China ( Ming dynasty ) - Zhengde Emperor (1505–1521) Kingdom of Cochin – Unniraman Koyikal II (1503–1537) Sultanate of Delhi - Sikandar Lodi (1489–1517) Japan (Sengoku period) Monarch – Emperor Go-Kashiwabara (1500–1526) Ashikaga shogunate - Ashikaga Yoshitane (1508–1521) Joseon (Korea) – Jungjong (1506–1544) Ryukyu Kingdom – Shō Shin (1477–1526) Mongolia – Dayan Khan (1478–1516) Sunda Kingdom – Sri Baduga Maharaja (1482–1521) Vijayanagara Empire – Krishnadeva Raya (1509–1529) Europe Andorra – Pere de Cardona , Bishop of Urgell and

List of rulers of the Delhi Sultanate


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Siege of Bijapur


The Siege of Bijapur began in March 1685 and ended in September 1686 with a Mughal victory. The siege began when the Mughal Emperor Aurangzeb dispatched his son Muhammad Azam Shah with a force of nearly 50,000 men to capture Bijapur Fort and defeat Sikandar Adil Shah , the then ruler of Bijapur who refused to be a vassal of the Mughal Empire . The Siege of Bijapur was among the longest military engagements by the Mughals, lasting more than 15 months until the Mughal Emperor Aurangzeb personally arrived to organize a victory. Historical background A map of Bijapur Fort. In 1637, the young Prince Aurangzeb was the Subedar of Deccan under the reign of his father the Mughal Emperor Shah Jahan . He led a 25,000 strong Mughal Army and besieged Bijapur Fort and its ruler Mohammed Adil Shah . The siege, however, was unsuccessful because the Adil Shahi dynasty sought peace with Shah Jahan mainly through the cooperation of Dara Shikoh . Ali Adil Shah II inherited a troubled kingdom. He had to face the onslaught of the

Siwan district


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Satna district


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List of state leaders in 1501


This is a list of heads of state , government leaders , and other rulers in the year 1501 . Africa Akan state of Twifo-Heman – Ofusu Kwabi (c. 1500-c. 1520) Kingdom of Buganda – Kiggala , Kabaka of Buganda (c. 1474-c. 1501) Kiyimba , Kabaka of Buganda (c. 1501) Ethiopian Empire – Na'od (1494–1508) Adal Sultanate – Muhammad ibn Azhar ad-Din (1488–1518) Kingdom of Kongo – João I , Manikongo (bef.1482–1505) Kingdom of Rwanda – Cyirima I (c. 1428-c. 1506) Songhai Empire – Askia Mohammad I , Askia of the Songhai Empire (1493–1528) Americas Aztec Empire – Ahuitzotl (1486–1502) Inca Empire – Huayna Capac (1493–1527) Muisca Confederation zipa - Nemequene (1490–1514) zaque - Quemuenchatocha (1490–1538) Texcoco – Nezahualpilli , King of Texcoco (1472–1515) Asia Ahmadnagar Sultanate – Ahmad Shah I (1490–1509) Ava Kingdom ( Burma ) - Minkhaung II (1480–1501) Ayutthaya Kingdom ( Siam ) - Ramathibodi II (1491–1529) Bahmani Sultanate – Muhammad Shah IV (1482–1518) Bengal Sultanate – Alauddin Husain Shah (1494–1518) Berar Su



Events 1480 January–December March 6 – Treaty of Toledo: Ferdinand and Isabella of Spain recognize the African conquests of Afonso of Africa, and he cedes the Canary Islands to Spain. (?? see Treaty of Alcáçovas ) July 28 Mehmed II fails in his attempt to capture Rhodes from the Knights of Rhodes . An Ottoman army lands near Otranto , Italy. Pope Sixtus IV calls for a crusade to drive it away. August 12 - Ottoman invasion of Otranto - Ottoman troops behead 800 Christians for refusing to convert to Islam . The Martyrs of Otranto are canonized in 2013 . September 27 – Consorts and co-rulers Ferdinand II of Aragon and Isabella I of Castile initiate the Spanish Inquisition (looking for heretics and unconverted Jews). October – Great stand on the Ugra river : Muscovy becomes independent from the Golden Horde . The Theotokos of Vladimir icon is credited with saving Moscow . Date unknown The Lighthouse of Alexandria 's final remains disappear when Qaitbay , Sultan of Egypt , builds the Citadel of Qaitbay on its site

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Azad Bilgrami


Azad Bilgrami (29 June 1704 – 15 September 1786) was a scholar of Arabic , Persian and Urdu languages in 18th century India . The King of Yemen had acknowledged his poetic qualities and accorded him the title of Hassan Al-Hind. Early life His original name was Mir Ghulam Ali Husaini Wasiti, although he is best known as Ghulam 'Ali Azad Bilgrami. He was born in Bilgram , India, a small town in the Indian state of Uttar Pradesh . He gained a reputation for possessing command over all topics of literature and learning. He was instructed in language by Mir Abdul Jalil of Selsibil; in prosody and literature by Mir Saiad Muhammad; in the Koran by Muhammad Hayat; and in all excellences by 'Abdul Wabhat Tantawi. According to the Masalati Shuara, he studied eloquence with Muhammad Aslam Salim and Shaikh Saad Ullah Gulshan of Ahmedabad. As a youth he left Bilgram and stayed for two years in Delhi . He visited Lahore and Multan and made acquaintance with scholars of these cities, and lived for five years in the provinc

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The Govindgarh palace of the Maharaja of Rewa in 1882 Flag of Rewa State in the 19th century Elephant Carriage of the Maharaja of Rewa, Delhi Durbar of 1903 . Rewa State , also known as Rewah , was a princely state of India, surrounding its eponymous capital, the town of Rewa . With an area of about 13,000 mi², Rewa was the largest princely state in the Bagelkhand Agency and the second largest in Central India Agency . The British political agent for Bagelkhand resided at Satna , on the East Indian railway. The Bagelkhand Agency was dissolved in 1933 and Rewa was placed under the authority of the Indore Residency . Description Rewa State was bordered to the north by the United Provinces , to the east by Bengal and to the south by the Central Provinces . On the west, it met other princely states of Bagelkhand, namely Maihar , Nagod , Sohawal, Kothi Baghelan and Panna . The south of the state was crossed by the Bengal – Nagpur railway, the branch between Bilaspur and Katni which taps the Umaria coal -field. In

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The Battle of Tughlaqabad (also known as the Battle of Delhi ) was a notable battle fought on 7 October 1556 between Hemu , the general and chief minister of Adil Shah Suri , and the forces of the Mughal led by Tardi Beg Khan at Tughlaqabad near Delhi . The battle ended in a decisive victory for Hemu who took possession of Delhi and claimed royal status, assuming the title of Raja Vikramaditya. Following his failure, Tardi Beg was murdered by Akbar's regent, Bairam Khan . The two armies would meet again at Panipat a month later. Background Agra Fort won by Hemu before his attack on Delhi. Since the days of the Delhi Sultanate , the city of Delhi had acquired the reputation of being the political centre of India. No ruler could be considered to truly hold sway over Hindustan until he had control of Delhi. Babur , the founder of the Mughal Empire , called it the "capital of all Hindustan", and his son and successor, Humayun , constructed his Din Panah at its outskirts. Humayun, however, lost his inheritance wh

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Ballia is a city with a municipal board in the Indian state of Uttar Pradesh bordering Bihar. The eastern boundary of the city lies at the junction of two major rivers, the Ganges and the Ghaghara . The city is situated 140 km (87 mi) from Varanasi . Bhojpuri , a dialect of Hindi , is the primary local language. The headquarters of the Ballia district are located here. Due to its significant contribution to the Indian independence movement , Ballia is also known as Bagi Ballia ("Rebel Ballia"). History Ancient Period In ancient times the region covered by the present District of Ballia, lay in the kingdom of Kosala. It is probable that the river Ganga, in its sweep towards the north-east of present town of Ballia, formed the boundary of Kosala which included the whole of the present Ballia district as far as the junction of the Sadanira and the Great Gandakil. The back-strewn mounds and fragmentary remains of structural character, which evoke memories not only of mythology but also of history, are found at a

Muzaffarpur district


Muzaffarpur District ( Hindi : मुज़फ़्फ़रपुर ज़िला ) is one of the thirty-eight districts of Bihar state , India , and Muzaffarpur city is the administrative headquarters of this district. Muzaffarpur district is a part of Tirhut Division ( Tirhut ). Muzaffarpur is one of the largest commercial and educational center in North Bihar. It is famous for litchis which is a fruit famous for its juicy taste. Muzaffarpur is an administrative district in the state of Bihar in India . The district headquarters are located at Muzaffarpur. The district occupies an area of 3173 km² and has a population of 3,743,836 (as of 2001). Mark Twain , while on way to Kathmandu , stayed in the local Muzaffarpur Club and relished this beautiful East Indian City. As of 2011 it is the third most populous district of Bihar (out of 38 ), after Patna and East Champaran . History Muzaffarpur district was created in 1875 for the sake of administrative convenience by splitting up the earlier district of Tirhut. The present district of Muzaff

Mathura district


Mathura district situated along the banks of the river Yamuna is a district of Uttar Pradesh state of northern India . The historic town of Mathura is the district headquarters. The District is part of Agra division . Mathura is bounded on the northeast by Aligarh District , on the southeast by Hathras District , on the south by Agra District , and on the west by Rajasthan and northwest by Haryana state. Mathura district is an important pilgrimage centre of Hindus. Historical Background Kusuma Sarovar bathing ghat, in the Goverdhan area Vishnu with ayudhapurushas , Mathura, India Mathura has an ancient history. According to the Archaeological Survey of India plaque at the Mathura Museum , the city is mentioned in the oldest Indian epic, the Ramayana . In the epic, the Ikshwaku prince Shatrughna slays a demon called Lavanasura and claims the land. Afterwards, the place came to be known as Madhuvan as it was thickly wooded, then Madhupura and later Mathura. In the 6th century BCE Mathura became the capital of t



Hemu ( ; also known as Hemu Vikramaditya and Hemchandra Vikramaditya ) (died 5 November 1556) was a Hindu King of Delhi and Agra. Earlier he was General and Chief Minister of Adil Shah Suri of the Suri Dynasty during a period in Indian history when the Mughals and Afghans were vying for power across North India. He fought Afghan rebels across North India from the Punjab to Bengal and the Mughal forces of Akbar and Humayun in Agra and Delhi , winning 22 battles for Adil Shah. Hemu claimed royal status after defeating Akbar's Mughal forces on 7 October 1556 in the Battle of Delhi and assumed the ancient title of Vikramaditya that had been adopted by many Hindu kings in the past. A month later, Hemu was wounded by a chance arrow and captured during the Second Battle of Panipat . Akbar's regent, Bairam Khan beheaded him shortly thereafter. Early life Contemporary accounts of Hemu's early life are fragmentary, due to his humble background, and often biased, because they were written by Mughal historians such as B

History of Lahore


The recorded history of Lahore ( Punjabi : لہور دی تریخ , Urdu : تاریخ لاہور ‎), the second largest city-district of Pakistan , covers thousands of years. Originally the capital and largest city of the Punjab region , it has since its creation changed hands from Hindu , Buddhist , Greek , Muslim , Sikh and British rule to becoming the cultural capital and the heart of modern-day Pakistan. Origins An old street-scene in Lahore. A mythological legend, based on oral traditions, states that Lahore was named after Lava , son of the Hindu god Rama , who supposedly founded the city. Lahore Fort has a vacant temple dedicated in honour of Lava. Likewise, the Ravi River that flows through northern Lahore was said to be named in honour of the Hindu goddess Durga . Ptolemy , the celebrated astronomer and geographer, mentions in his Geographia a city called Labokla situated on the route between the Indus river in a region described as extending along the rivers Bidastes or Vitasta (Jhelum), Sandabal or Chandra Bhaga (Che

List of Indian monarchs


The following list of Indian monarchs is one of several lists of incumbents . Early mythical and later documented rulers and dynasties who are deemed to have ruled a portion of the Indian subcontinent are included in this list. Magadha dynasties This list includes the legendary kings of Magadha . Dharma Susuma Dridhasena Sumati Subhala Sunita Satyajit Biswajit Ripunjaya }} Pradyota dynasty (c. 779 BCE–544 BCE) Pradyota Palaka Visakhayupa Ajaka Varttivarddhana Haryanka dynasty (c. 544 BCE–413 BCE) Bimbisara (558–491 BCE), founder of the first Magadhan empire Ajatashatru (491–461 BCE) Udayin Anirudha Munda Darshaka (from 461 BCE) Nāgadāsaka (last ruler of the Haryanka dynasty) Shishunaga dynasty (c. 413 BCE–345 BCE) Shishunaga (412–395 BCE), established the Magadha Kingdom Kakavarna Kshemadharman Kshatraujas Nandivardhana Mahanandin (until 345 BCE), his empire was inherited by his illegitimate son Mahapadma Nanda Nanda dynasty (c. 345 BCE–321 BCE) Mahapadma Nanda (from 345 BCE), son of Mahanandin , founded the

Second Battle of Panipat


The Second Battle of Panipat was fought on November 5, 1556, between the forces of Hemu , the Hindu general and Chief Minister of Adil Shah Suri , and the army of the Mughal emperor, Akbar . Hemu had conquered Delhi a month earlier by defeating the Mughals led by Tardi Beg Khan at the Battle of Delhi and proclaimed himself Raja Vikramaditya. Akbar and his guardian, Bairam Khan , had immediately marched to Delhi to reclaim the city. The two armies clashed at Panipat not far from the site of the First Battle of Panipat of 1526. Although Hemu had lost his artillery to the Mughals before the battle, his forces held the numerical superiority. However, Hemu was wounded by a chance arrow in the middle of the battle and fell unconscious. Seeing their leader going down, his army panicked and dispersed. Hemu was captured and subsequently beheaded. The battle ended in a decisive victory for Akbar. Background c.  1910s portrayal of Hemu Vikramaditya Humayun , the successor of Babur , the founder of the Mughal Empire, had



Muzaffarpur (   pronunciation   ) is a sub metropolitan city located in Muzaffarpur district in the Tirhut region of Bihar . It also serves as the headquarters of Muzaffarpur district and Tirhut division. It is the fourth largest city in Bihar . It is also amongst the few cities in Bihar other than state capital Patna which fulfills nearly all the criteria to be called a Sub Metropolitan City. It is located at a distance of 67 kilometres from Patna. Muzaffarpur is famous for Shahi lychees and is known as the Lychee Kingdom . It is situated on the banks of the perennial Burhi Gandak River , which flows from the Someshwar Hills of Himalayas . The present city of Muzaffarpur came into existence in the 18th century and is named after Muzaffar Khan, a Revenue Officer during the British Raj . History Muzaffarpur was created in 1875 for the sake of administrative convenience by splitting up the earlier district of Tirhut. The present district into existence in the 18th century, being named after Muzaffar Khan, an

Sur Empire


The Sur Empire ( Pashto : د سوریانو ټولواکمني ‎) was an empire established by a Muslim dynasty of Pashtun origin who ruled a large territory in Northern part of South Asia for nearly 16 years, between 1540 and 1556, with Delhi serving as its capital. It interrupted the rule of the Mughal Empire under Humayun , who later restored the Mughal Empire by ending the Sur Empire. History The empire was founded by Sher Shah Suri , an ethnic Pashtun of the tribal house of Sur , who supplanted the Mughal dynasty as rulers of North India during the reign of the relatively ineffectual second Mughal Humayun . Sher Shah defeated badhsah-i-Hind ('Hindustani emperor') Humayun in the Battle of Chausa (26 June 1539) and again in the Battle of Bilgram (17 May 1540). The Sur dynasty held control of nearly all the Mughal territories, from modern-day eastern Afghanistan in the west to Bengal in modern-day Bangladesh in the east. During the almost 17-year rule of the Sur dynasty, until the return of the Mughals to the throne, the

Persecution of Hindus


Persecution of Hindus refers to the religious persecution inflicted upon Hindus . The persecution of Hindus was carried out through forceful conversions, massacres, demolitions and desecration of temples , destruction of universities and schools, and targeting monks and Brahmins in massacres. Although Hindus managed to maintain their majority in rest of the regions in India, this led to killings of millions of Hindus and a deep social impact on concurrent Hindu customs and rituals. The most important Hindu power to emerge during the time of Muslim rulers was the Maratha Empire founded by King Shivaji and expanded by his prime ministers Peshwas (1674 CE - 1818 CE). The Marathas are responsible, to a large extent, for ending persecution of Hindus under Muslim rule and are also considered to have implemented secular policies. In modern times, Hindus in the Muslim-majority regions of Kashmir , Pakistan , Bangladesh , Afghanistan and other countries have suffered persecution. Medieval Persecution by Muslim Ruler

Religious violence in India


Communal violence in India includes acts of violence by followers of one religious group against followers and institutions of another religious group, often in the form of rioting. Religious violence in India, especially in recent times, has generally involved Hindus and Muslims , although incidents of violence have also involved atheists , Christians , Jews , and Sikhs . There is also history of Muslim – Parsee riots ( List of riots in Mumbai ). Despite the secular and religiously tolerant constitution of India , broad religious representation in various aspects of society including the government, the active role played by autonomous bodies such as National Human Rights Commission of India and National Commission for Minorities , and the ground-level work being out by Non-governmental organisations, sporadic and sometimes serious acts of religious violence tend to occur as the root causes of religious violence often run deep in history, religious activities, and politics of India. Along with domestic org



Satna is a city in the Satna District ( सतना ) of the Indian state of Madhya Pradesh , which shares a border with neighboring Uttar Pradesh . The city is a municipal corporation within the district, and the home of its administrative headquarters. History From Antiquity to the mutiny of 1857 At nearby Bharhut are the remains of a 2nd-century BC Buddhist stupa , first discovered in 1873 by renowned archaeologist Alexander Cunningham ; most of the finds from this site were sent to the Indian Museum . The Mahabharata associates this site with rulers of the Haihaya, Kalchuri or Chedi clans. The chiefs of Rewash, descended from Baghel Rajputs (who were in turn descended from the Solanki ), ruled over Gujrat from the tenth to the thirteenth century. Vyaghra Deo, brother of the ruler of Gujrat, is said to have made his way into northern India about the middle of the thirteenth century and obtained the fort of Marpha, 18 miles north-east of Kalinjar . His son Karandeo married a Kalchuri (Haihaya) princess of Mandla a



Tarwara is a village panchayat, and the most developed village located in the Siwan district of Bihar state , India, around 90.6 kilometres (56.3 mi) from Patna, the state capital. The other surrounding state capitals are Ranchi (326.5 km or 202.9 mi), Lucknow (390.3 km or 242.5 mi), and Gangtok (428.6 km or 266.3 mi). Geography Situated on the bank of Gandak River one of the major rivers of Nepal and a left bank tributary of the Ganges in India. It is also called Krishna Gandaki in Nepal., . It originates between Tibet and Mount Everest at an elevation of 6,268 metres (20,564 ft) at the Nhubine Himal Glacier in the Mustang region of Nepal. The Gandak river is mentioned in the ancient Sanskrit epic Mahabharata and Its evolution is described in Shiva Purana, Kumarakhand, in the chapter of the killing of Shankhachuda. Tarwara is located in the UTC 5:30 time zone and follows Indian standard time (IST). Demographics According to the 2011 census Tarwara has a population of 10,244, There are 1,640 households in Ta

List of historic Indian texts


Collection Each collection represents a set of books that are collectively known by the collection's name. In the list of books (shown below the table of collections), each book also refers to the collection it belongs to (if it does). Name Description Alternate Names Date Vedas Sacred hymns, which are a large body of texts originating in ancient India. Composed in Vedic Sanskrit, the texts constitute the oldest layer of Sanskrit literature and the oldest scriptures of Hinduism. There are four Vedas, and these constitute the Hindu canon. Samhita 1500-500 BCE Shakhas Vedic school. Each school taught a Veda in a specific way, over time evolving specific styles and emphasis, based on how / by whom / where it was taught. Brahmanas Commentary and elaboration on vedas and description of religious procedures. 1000-800 BCE Upanishads Philosophy in response to Vedas and Brahmanas. 800-600 BCE Vedanta Later commentary on the Vedas, Brahmanas and Upanishads. Itihasas Ramayana and Mahabharata are known as the itihasas (‘

Nawabs of Bengal and Murshidabad


The Nawabs of Bengal (full title, the Nawab Nizam of Bengal and Orissa) were the rulers of the then provinces of Bengal and Orissa . Between 1717 and 1765, they served as the rulers of the subah (or province) of Bengal . However, they were only nominally subordinate to the Mughal Empire . Siraj ud-Daulah , the last independent Nawab of Bengal was betrayed in the Battle of Plassey by Mir Jafar . He lost to the British, who took over the charge of Bengal in 1757, installed Mir Jafar on the Masnad (throne) and established itself to a political power in Bengal. In 1765 the system of Dual Government was established, in which the Nawabs ruled on behalf of the British and were mere puppets to the British. In 1772 the system was abolished and Bengal was brought under direct control of the British. In 1793, when the Nizamat (governorship) of the Nawab was also taken away from them, they remained as the mere pensioners of the British East India Company . The last Nawab of Bengal, Mansur Ali Khan abdicated on 1 Novemb

Khajuraho Group of Monuments


The Khajuraho Group of Monuments is a group of Hindu and Jain temples in Madhya Pradesh , India, about 175 kilometres (109 mi) southeast of Jhansi . They are one of the UNESCO World Heritage Sites in India. The temples are famous for their nagara -style architectural symbolism and their erotic sculptures . Most Khajuraho temples were built between 950 and 1050 by the Chandela dynasty. Historical records note that the Khajuraho temple site had 85 temples by the 12th century, spread over 20 square kilometers. Of these, only about 25 temples have survived, spread over 6 square kilometers. Of the various surviving temples, the Kandariya Mahadeva Temple is decorated with a profusion of sculptures with intricate details, symbolism and expressiveness of ancient Indian art. The Khajuraho group of temples were built together but were dedicated to two religions, Hinduism and Jainism , suggesting a tradition of acceptance and respect for diverse religious views among Hindus and Jains in the region. Location The Khaj

Shaikh Gadai Kamboh


Shaikh Gadai Kamboh was the son, disciple and successor of famous scholar, philosopher and poet-laureate Shaikh Jamali Kamboh of Delhi and brother of the 'Master of Expression' —Shaikh Abd-al-Hai Hayati. His real name was Abdur Rehman but he became famous as Gadai. He was well-renowned for his sanctity and learning and was in high favour with emperor Humayun and Bairam Khan . He is also said to have remained a Musahib of the Afghan emperor Salim Shah Suri. During Akbar’s reign, he occupied the high office of “Sadr-i-sadur” of Hindustan . Early career Shaikh Gadai’s father Shaikh Jamali Kamboh had been an important courtier of Mughal emperors Babur as well as Humayun ’s court. On Jamali’s death, emperor Humayun appointed Shaikh Gadai as his courtier. But after Humayun's defeat by Sher Shah Suri near Kanawdi in 1540 AD, Shaikh Gadai went to Gujarat . After the disastrous battle of Kanauj and the consequent troubles, Bairam Khan, an important Turkoman noble of emperor Humayun, took refuge in Gujarat where he wa



In the Ottoman Empire , Muhammad's descendants formed a kind of nobility with the privilege of wearing green turbans. Syed Hussain Ali Khan Barha was a leading administrator during the reign of the Mughal Emperor Farrukhsiyar . Sayyid Muhammad Rizvi , a Shia Islamic scholar, wearing a black turban. A black turban is worn by Ithna Ashari Shi'ite Sayyid clergymen, whilst a white turban is worn by non-Sayyid Ithna Ashari Shi'ite clergymen. Shah Syed Hasnain Baqai , a Sufi Islamic scholar, wearing a chishtiya turban. A chishtiya colour turban is mostly worn by Sufi Syed . Sayyid (also spelled Syed , Saiyed , Seyd , Sayed , Sayyad , Sayyed , Saiyid , Seyed , Said and Seyyed ) ( pronounced  , Arabic : سيد ‎‎; meaning Mister ) (plural Sadah Arabic : سادة ‎‎, Sāda(h) , also spelled Sadat) is an honorific title denoting people (Sayyid for males, Sayyida for females) accepted as descendants of the Islamic prophet Muhammad through his grandsons, Hasan ibn Ali and Husayn ibn Ali , sons of Muhammad's daughter Fatimah and

List of mausolea


This is a list of mausolea around the world. Afghanistan Ahmed Shah Masood , Panjshir The Shrine of Baba Wali near Kandahar Abdur Rahman Khan 's Mausoleum in Kabul Bagh-e Babur ,mausolea of the founder of the Mughal Empire Mausoleum of Mohammad Zaher Shah (Hill of Teppe Maranjan) in Kabul . Albania Mausoleum of the Albanian Royal Family National Martyrs Cemetery of Albania Algeria El Alia Cemetery Azerbaijan Pir-Hussein Mausoleum Nizami Mausoleum ( Ganja ) Mausoleum of Seyid Yahya Bakuvi in the Palace of the Shirvanshahs ( Baku ) Tomb of Shirvanshahs in the Palace of the Shirvanshahs ( Baku ) Momine Khatun Mausoleum ( Nakhchivan ) Yusif ibn Kuseyir Mausoleum ( Nakhchivan ) Huseyn Javid Mausoleum ( Nakhchivan ) Prophet Noah Mausoleum ( Nakhchivan ) Shamakhi mausoleum ( Şamaxı ) Seyyid Amin Mausoleum ( Beylagan Rayon ) Kerbalai Seyyid Agha Mausoleum ( Beylagan Rayon ) Sheikh Badraddin Mausoleum, Sheikh Mansur Mausoleum, Sheikh Mahomed Mausoleum ( Həzrə , Qabala Rayon ) Haji Mahmud Effendi Mausoleum or Blue maus



Gujarat ( Gujǎrāt   ) is a state in Western India , sometimes referred to as the "Jewel of Western India". It has an area of 196,024 km (75,685 sq mi) with a coastline of 1,600 km (990 mi), most of which lies on the Kathiawar peninsula, and a population in excess of 60 million. The state is bordered by Rajasthan to the north, Maharashtra to the south, Madhya Pradesh to the east, and the Arabian Sea and the Pakistani province of Sindh to the west. Its capital city is Gandhinagar , while its largest city is Ahmedabad . Gujarat is home to the Gujarati -speaking people of India. The state encompasses some sites of the ancient Indus Valley Civilization , such as Lothal and Dholavira . Lothal is believed to be one of the world's first seaports. Gujarat's coastal cities, chiefly Bharuch and Khambhat , served as ports and trading centres in the Maurya and Gupta empires, and during the succession of royal Saka dynasties from the Western Satraps era. Gujarat was known to the ancient Greeks , and was familiar in other

Mughal Empire


The Mughal Empire ( Urdu : مغلیہ سلطنت ‎, translit.   Mughliyah Salṭanat ) or Mogul Empire , self-designated as Gurkani ( Persian : گورکانیان ‎‎, Gūrkāniyān, meaning "son-in-law"), was an empire in the Indian subcontinent , established and ruled by a Muslim Turkic dynasty of Chagatai Turco-Mongol origin from Central Asia. The dynasty, though ethnically Turco-Mongol, was Persianate in terms of culture. The Mughal empire extended over large parts of the Indian subcontinent and Afghanistan . The empire at its peak, was the second largest to have existed in the Indian subcontinent , spanning 4 million square kilometres at its zenith, after the Maurya Empire , which spanned 5 million square kilometres. The beginning of the empire is conventionally dated to the victory by its founder Babur over Ibrahim Lodi , the last ruler of the Delhi Sultanate , in the First Battle of Panipat (1526). The Mughal emperors were Central Asian Turco-Mongols belonging to the Timurid dynasty , who claimed direct descent from both

Gumnaam Vikramaditya


Gumnaam Vikramaditya ( Hindi : गुमनाम विक्रमादित्य ) (2011), literally Unknown Vikramaditya, is a historical Hindi minor poem (Khandakavya) composed by Prem Nirmal (born 1938), former Hindi lecturer of SSV Inter College Hapur . The work is divided in seven cantos (Sargas), and verses are composed in the Doha and free metre . The protagonist of the poem is Hemu Vikramaditya (also known as Samrat Hem Chandra Vikramaditya , Hemu Bakkal) (1501–6 November 1556), last Hindu emperor of India, who re-established Hindu Kingdom in North India after over 350 years of foreign rule. But due to the prejudicial writing of Indian history by pro- Mughal historians, his achievements were belittled during the glorification of Mughal rulers and hence he remained unknown. The poem brings Hemu's patriotism, prowess and mettle to fore portraying the major events of his life including the battles with Afghan rebels and Mughal army , his coronation ( rajyabhishek ) on the throne of Delhi , his defeat in Second Battle of Panipat and h

R. Sarathkumar


Ramanathan Sarathkumar (born 14 July 1954) is an Indian film actor , journalist , politician , the former president of the South Indian Film Artistes' Association and former body builder . Sarathkumar has acted in more than 130 Tamil , Malayalam , Telugu and Kannada films. He can speak Tamil, Telugu, Malayalam, Kannada and English fluently. In 1986, Sarathkumar started his acting career in the Telugu film Samajamlo Sthree. He first acted in negative roles, and later played minor roles before establishing himself as a lead actor in the subsequent years earning him the title Supreme Star in Tamil cinema . He has won two Tamil Nadu State Film Awards and three Filmfare Awards South . In 2007, he launched a new political party All India Samathuva Makkal Katchi (AISMK) in Tamil Nadu claiming to carry out the ideals of K. Kamaraj . He is the former Member of Legislative Assembly of Tenkasi constituency . He served as the president of the Nadigar Sangam from 2006 to 2015 for three consecutive terms. Early life R. Sar

List of Monuments of National Importance in Delhi


This is a list of Monuments of National Importance (ASI) as officially recognized by and available through the website of the Archaeological Survey of India in the Indian union territory Delhi . The monument identifier is a combination of the abbreviation of the subdivision of the list (state, ASI circle) and the numbering as published on the website of the ASI. 174 Monuments of National Importance have been recognized by the ASI in Delhi. List of monuments of national importance SL. No. Description Location Address District Coordinates Image N-DL-1 Bastion, where a wall of Jahanpanah meets the wall of Rai Pithora fort. Adchini Delhi 28°37′56″N 77°13′09″E  /  28.6322°N 77.2193°E Upload another image N-DL-2 Ramp and gateway of Rai Pithora 's Fort Adchini Delhi 28°37′56″N 77°13′10″E  /  28.6322°N 77.2194°E Upload another image N-DL-3 Marble Tomb reputed to be that of Newab Bahadur Jawid Khan Aliganj Delhi 28°34′51″N 77°12′48″E  /  28.58078°N 77.21338°E Upload an image N-DL-4 Lal Bangla , c. 1780 Babarpur

Madurai Nayak dynasty


The Madurai Nayaks were rulers from around 1529 until 1736, of a region comprising most of modern-day Tamil Nadu , India, with Madurai as their capital. The Nayak reign was an era noted for its achievement in arts, cultural and administrative reforms, revitalization of temples previously ransacked by the Delhi Sultans , and inauguration of a unique architectural style. The dynasty consisted of 13 rulers, of whom 9 were kings, 2 were queens, and 2 were joint-kings. The most notable of these were the king, Thirumalai Naicker , and the queen, Rani Mangammal . Foreign trade was conducted mainly with the Dutch and the Portuguese , as the British and the French had not yet made inroads in the region. Origin Theories Several theories were proposed for the origin of Madurai Nayaks. Among them, the most widely accepted theories are they were Telugu warriors sent to colonise Tamil country by Vijayanagar Kings. Acharya Tirumalai Ramachandra, famous historian of early 20th century after examining various marriage allian

Lohara dynasty


The Lohara dynasty were Hindu rulers of Kashmir between 1003 and approximately 1320. The early history of the dynasty was described in the Rajatarangini (Chronicle of Kings), a work written by Kalhana in the mid-12th century and upon which many and perhaps all studies of the first 150 years of the dynasty depend. Subsequent accounts, which provide information up to and beyond the end of the dynasty come from Jonarāja and Śrīvara . The later rulers of the dynasty were weak: internecine fighting and corruption was endemic during this period, with only brief years of respite, and this gave rise to the growth of Islamic supremacy in the region. Origins The seat of the Lohara dynasty was a hill-fortress called Loharakotta, the precise location of which has been the subject of academic debate over a prolonged period. Stein, a translator of Kalhana, has discussed some of these theories and concludes that it lay in the Pir Panjal range of mountains, on a trade route between western Punjab and Kashmir. As such, it was

List of songs recorded by Udit Narayan


List of Songs by Udit Narayan This is an alphabetical list of some Hindi songs performed by Udit Narayan from 1980 to date. He has sung more than 19000 Hindi songs. Over 1200 songs are listed here. He has also sung in several other different languages which is not included here. A "A.B.C.D."* "A B C D E F G" "A.B.C.D. Hum Nahi Jani" "A Bhi Jao Mere Paas" "A Ding Dang Do" "Aa Ab Laut Chalen" "Aa Gaya Aa Gaya" "Aa Jee Le Ek Pal Mein" "Aa Kahin Dur Chale" "Aa Sajan Akhon Main" "Aage Aage Chahat Chali" "Aage Se Peechhe Se" "Aahista Aahista" "Aaj Hoke Rahe Apna Milan" "Aaj Kehna Zaroori Hai" "Aaj Nachna" "Aaja Mahiya" "Aakhir Tumhe Aana hai Zara Der Lagegi" "Aan Milo Ya Milne Se" "Aankhein Hain Teri Badi Badi" "Aankhein Khuli" "Aankhen Bandh Karke"..... "Aankhon Mein Hai Kya" "Aankhon Mein Leke Pyar" "Aap Ko Samjha" "Aashiq Hoon Main" "Aawaz Do Hamko" "Aaye Ho Meri Zindagi Mein" "ABCDEF" "Abhi Nahi Jaana" "Abhi Nahi Jana" "Ab Naam Mohobbat Ke" "Abhi To Mohabbath" "Auchi Lagti Ho" " Achi Lagti Ho " "Ae Ajnabi" "Ae

Deccan sultanates


The Deccan sultanates were five dynasties of various ethnic backgrounds ( Afghan , Turk , Mongol etc.) that ruled late medieval kingdoms , namely, Bijapur , Golkonda , Ahmadnagar , Bidar , and Berar in south - western India . The Deccan sultanates were located on the Deccan Plateau , between the Krishna River and the Vindhya Range . These kingdoms became independent during the break-up of the Bahmani Sultanate . In 1490, Ahmadnagar declared independence, followed by Bijapur and Berar in the same year. Golkonda became independent in 1518 and Bidar in 1528. In 1510, Bijapur repulsed an invasion by the Portuguese against the city of Goa, but lost it later that year. Although generally rivals, they did ally against the Vijayanagara Empire in 1565, permanently weakening Vijayanagar in the Battle of Talikota . In 1574, after a coup in Berar, Ahmadnagar invaded and conquered it. In 1619, Bidar was annexed by Bijapur. The sultanates were later conquered by the Mughal Empire ; Berar was stripped from Ahmadnagar in

British Raj


The British Raj ( ; from rāj, literally, "rule" in Hindustani ) was the rule of the British Crown in the Indian subcontinent between 1858 and 1947. The rule is also called Crown rule in India , or direct rule in India . The region under British control was commonly called India in contemporaneous usage, and included areas directly administered by the United Kingdom , which were collectively called British India , and those ruled by indigenous rulers, but under British tutelage or paramountcy , and called the princely states . The resulting political union was also called the Indian Empire and after 1876 issued passports under that name. As India, it was a founding member of the League of Nations , a participating nation in the Summer Olympics in 1900, 1920, 1928, 1932, and 1936, and a founding member of the United Nations in San Francisco in 1945 . This system of governance was instituted on 28 June 1858, when, after the Indian Rebellion of 1857 , the rule of the British East India Company was transf

History of Pakistan


The history of Pakistan ( Urdu : تاريخ پاكِستان ‎) encompasses the history of the regions constituting modern day Pakistan . Prior to independence in 1947, the areas now known as Pakistan were ruled in various periods by local kings and numerous imperial powers. The ancient history of the region comprising present-day Pakistan also includes some of the oldest empires of the Indian Subcontinent ; and some of the world's major civilizations such as the Indus Valley civilization . Pakistan's political history is closely connected with the struggle of Indian Muslims to regain power after they lost it to British colonialism. In 1906 the Muslim League was established in opposition to the Congress party which it accused of failing to protect "Muslim interests, amid neglect and under-representation." On 29 December 1930, philosopher Sir Muhammad Iqbal called for an autonomous new state in "northwestern India for Indian Muslims". The League rose in popularity through the late 1930s. Muhammad Ali Jinnah espoused

Pakistan studies


Pakistan studies curriculum ( Urdu : مطالعہ پاکستان Muṭāla e-Pākistān ) is the name of a curriculum of academic research and study that encompasses the culture , demographics , geography , history , and politics of Pakistan . The subject is widely researched in and outside the country. Several universities in Pakistan have departments and research centers dedicated to the subject, whereas many independent research institutes carry out multidisciplinary research on Pakistan Studies. There are also a number of international organizations that are engaged in collaborative teaching, research, and exchange activities on the subject. International organizations As the second largest South Asian country, and one of the major actors in the politics of the Muslim world , Pakistan is a focus of multidisciplinary studies. Various universities in the United States and the United Kingdom have research groups busy in academic and research related activities on Pakistan Studies. One such example is the American Institute

History of the Islamic Republic of Pakistan


The history of the modern day Islamic Republic of Pakistan mainly began since the Pakistan Movement , according to some sources from Two-Nation Theory , while Pakistan studies regards it to be starting from the arrival of Muhammad bin Qasim to Sindh. From 1947 until 1956, it was referred to as the Dominion of Pakistan . The country became an independent nation within the British Commonwealth on 14 August 1947. Muslim League leader Liaquat Ali Khan became the first Prime Minister of Pakistan . Pakistan Movement Early period of Pakistan Movement In 1877, Syed Ameer Ali had formed the Central National Muhammadan Association to work towards the political advancement of the Indian Muslims, who had suffered grievously in 1857, in the aftermath of the failed Sepoy Mutiny against the East India Company; the British were seen as foreign invaders. But the organization declined towards the end of the 19th century. Lord Minto met with the Muslim delegation in June 1906. The Minto-Morley Reforms of 1909 called for separat

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