The Saugus Branch Railroad (often called the Saugus Branch) was an American rail line that operated passenger service from 1853 to 1958. It serviced the Massachusetts communities of Saugus, Malden, Everett, Revere, and Lynn.
The first proposal for a railroad through Saugus came from a group led by George Peabody, who pushed for a railroad from East Boston to Salem over the Saugus marshes. The plan was opposed by Saugonians, as the owners of mills located on the Saugus River feared that a proposed drawbridge over the river would interfere with ships that loaded and unloaded cargo at their wharves. In 1836, the Massachusetts General Court granted the Eastern Railroad a charter to build the Boston to Salem railroad.
In an effort to tap into its competitor's market, the Boston & Maine Railroad petitioned the Massachusetts General Court in 1845 for a charter to build a railroad from Malden to Salem through Saugus, Lynnfield, and South Danvers. The plan was not approved.
In 1846, Joshua Webster proposed a railroad line from Saugus to Malden that would connect with the Boston & Maine Railroad in Malden. Eastern countered by proposing a line from Lynn to Saugus Center. In 1848 the legislature approved Webster's plan and granted his group1 a charter for the Saugus Branch Railroad Co.
Before construction began, the route was extended to Lynn Common and altered to include the Saugus neighborhood of Sweetser's Corner (now known as Cliftondale) and the Malden neighborhood of East Malden (now known as Linden). Construction began in 1850, but dragged along due to a lack of funds.
Eastern believed that this new route would cost it half of its revenues because it would provide direct access to Boston, which Eastern did not offer (Eastern patrons were to transfer to ferries at East Boston). To overcome this challenge, Eastern's directors chose to purchase stock in the Saugus Branch Railroad Co. at the inflated price of $80 a share. On April 30, 1852, the Eastern Railroad Co. purchased all the rights of the Saugus Branch and assumed its operations. In October 1852, Gardiner Greene Hubbard succeeded Webster as the president of the Saugus Branch Railroad Co.
On February 1, 1853, the Saugus Branch opened for passengers.  Andrews Breed served as the Saugus Branch's first superintendent. During the early days of the Saugus Branch, four trains a day were run from Lynn Common to Edgeworth in Malden with stops in East Saugus, Saugus Center, Cliftondale, East Malden (later Linden), and Maplewood.  On April 10, 1854, the original 8.4 mile route was extended to the Grand Junction line in South Malden (now Everett) and to West Lynn, where it connected with Eastern's main line. This new line gave Eastern its first direct route into Boston as well as an alternate route. The junction with the B&M at Malden was also abandoned.  In 1855, the Saugus Branch Railroad Co. was consolidated into the Eastern Railroad Co. For the remainder of its life, Lynn was the terminus for most Saugus Branch trains, though a limited number continued to Salem until World War I.
Historian Francis B. C. Bradlee would describe the Saugus Branch as "one of the few fortunate investments of the Eastern" as it gave it access to the growing suburbs of Boston. He also wrote that "until the coming of the electric trolley cars connecting with the Elevated Railroad, it was probably one of the best paying stretches of railroad in New England". By 1869, there were fourteen passenger trips a day.
During the 1870s, Eastern was plagued by a series of accidents. the most notable being the Great Revere Train Wreck of 1871. In 1884 the Boston & Maine leased Eastern and in 1890 it consolidated Eastern into its system. Once B&M took control, the Saugus Branch underwent improvements, including telegraphs for dispatching train orders and turning the line into a double track.
During the 1890s, passenger service on the Saugus branched peaked. In 1893, there were 36 trips per day on the Saugus Branch. Use of the Saugus Branch in Malden slowly declined after the opening of the Boston Elevated Railway (also known as the El) in 1901. Business in the Lynn and Saugus segments was not as affected. In 1919 the El was extended to Everett and the Saugus Branch was considered for the expansion from Everett to Malden. At a legislative hearing on the issue, the B&M opposed using the Saugus Branch because it had a freight load of 5,000 cars per year and the El wanted to purchase only the Malden segment, not the entire branch.
In 1919, the number of passenger trips had fallen to sixteen a day. By the mid-1920s passenger service on the Saugus Branch decreased to twelve trips per day. The service declined even more during the Great Depression, with only three inbound trains and six outbound trains run. During World War II, use of the passenger service increased due to gasoline rationing. However, once the war was over, use once again declined. On July 29, 1948, B&M petitioned the Massachusetts Department of Public Utilities (D.P.U.) to discontinue all passenger service on the Saugus Branch. B&M reported that expenses for the Saugus Branch were $115,145 while annual passenger revenue was only $48,029. The D.P.U. rejected the petition on November 18, 1949, finding that the railroad did not show that there was a lack of public interest in maintaining the Saugus Branch. Although the branch was saved, by 1954 there were only two morning trips to Boston and two returns trips during the evening.
In 1956, the B&M ended all steam operations and began using Budd Rail Diesel Cars (also known as Buddliners or RDCs). However, the new railcars were not heavy enough to trip the signals on the Saugus Branch.
In September 1957, B&M once again petitioned the D.P.U. for permission to end passenger service on the Saugus Branch, citing extensive losses. An Essex County-wide opposition movement formed as three hundred or so commuters still used the line. In December a formal hearing was held in which both sides presented their case. Saugus Town Moderator and Essex County Commissioner C. F. Nelson Pratt was the most forceful opponent of the change and hyperbolically stated during the hearing that area residents would be forced to use "dog sleds" for winter commuting. On April 18, 1958, the DPU approved the B&M's petition.
On May 19, 1958, the Saugus Branch saw its final scheduled passenger train.
The Saugus Branch had eighteen stations over the course of its history. These were
The stations of the Saugus Branch were not considered to be architecturally significant or even physically attractive. In 1933, the Malden News described them as "the most mousey, dilapidated, antique stations to be found this side of the land of the Hottentots".
After passenger service was ended, the semaphore signals were removed and the stations were sold. The line was converted to a single-track operation and still used for freight until 1993. Hopper cars delivered road salt to the state's storage area in Revere. Occasional deliveries were made to Eastern Industrial Oil Products in Saugus. In 1968 and 1969, the line was used to transport gravel from Bow, New Hampshire to Revere during construction of roadbeds for the expansion of the Northeast Expressway. Between April and November 1968, there were four trips a day from Bow to the construction site with each train carrying 48 or 60 cars. In the spring of 1969, construction resumed with two trips per day. A total of 3.5 million cubic yards of gravel were transported to the site. Construction was completed on May 27, 1969, although the new expressway (intended to become part of Interstate 95 in Massachusetts) was never finished, being cancelled due to regional opposition.
On April 27, 1969, the New England division of Railroad Enthusiasts ran the North Shore Rail Ramble, a day-trip over freight lines formerly used by passenger trains, including the Saugus Branch.
The Chelsea fire of October 14, 1973 caused the B&M's mainline to be blocked by firefighting equipment. To restore service to the North Shore, the B&M detoured its commuter service over the Saugus Branch.
On December 27, 1976, the Massachusetts Bay Transportation Authority purchased the remaining B&M commuter assets, including rolling stock and the four active northside lines (save for the lower Haverhill Line, purchased three years earlier for the Haymarket North Extension). Included in the sale were also a number of branch lines no longer used for passenger service, including the Saugus Branch, to be landbanked for possible future service.
The reactivation of the Saugus Branch was considered during the MBTA's North Shore Transit Improvements project in the 2000s, as reactivation would allow for the continued operation of MBTA Commuter Rail service as well as new rapid transit service between Revere and Salem. The North Shore Transit Improvements Project-Major Investment Study concluded that the Saugus Branch plan provided the MBTA with an option to accommodate a rapid transit system while preserving commuter rail service north of Salem, by rerouting commuter trains over the Saugus Branch and converting the Eastern Route mainline into a Blue Line branch at least as far as Lynn. However, the plan was deemed infeasible for several reasons. Unlike the Eastern Route, the Saugus Branch is curvy; it would require 15 to 20 extra minutes for commuter trains to travel, leaving them no longer time-competitive with driving. The section of the Newburyport/Rockport Line south of Salem is one of the busiest segments of mainline railroad in Massachusetts; diverting as many as 60 trains per day would pose significant environmental, social, and physical impacts to the communities along the Saugus Branch. Additionally, encroachment since 1958 would make the restoration of double track difficult, and prevent the addition of a multi-use trail.
The Saugus Branch line will soon be the route of Northern Strand Community Trail, a 9-mile bicycle path and walking trail that will run through Everett, Malden, Revere, Saugus, and Lynn. On July 13, 2013, the trail entered the final stage of construction. 
The Saugus Branch is mentioned in Samuel McChord Crothers' By the Christmas Fire.
Media related to Saugus Branch Railroad at Wikimedia Commons
The Saugus Branch Railroad (often called the Saugus Branch ) was an American rail line that operated passenger service from 1853 to 1958. It serviced the Massachusetts communities of Saugus , Malden , Everett , Revere , and Lynn . Beginnings The first proposal for a railroad through Saugus came from a group led by George Peabody , who pushed for a railroad from East Boston to Salem over the Saugus marshes. The plan was opposed by Saugonians, as the owners of mills located on the Saugus River feared that a proposed drawbridge over the river would interfere with ships that loaded and unloaded cargo at their wharves. In 1836, the Massachusetts General Court granted the Eastern Railroad a charter to build the Boston to Salem railroad. In an effort to tap into its competitor's market, the Boston & Maine Railroad petitioned the Massachusetts General Court in 1845 for a charter to build a railroad from Malden to Salem through Saugus, Lynnfield , and South Danvers . The plan was not approved. In 1846, Joshua Web
Saugus is a town in Essex County , Massachusetts , United States , in the Greater Boston area. The population was 26,628 at the 2010 census. History Saugus was first settled in 1629. Saugus is a Native American (Algonquin) name believed to mean "great" or "extended". In 1637, the territory known as Saugus (which also contained the present day cities and towns of Swampscott , Nahant , Lynn , Lynnfield , Reading , and Wakefield ) was renamed Lin or Lynn, after King's Lynn in Norfolk , England . In 1646, the Saugus Iron Works , then called Hammersmith, began operations. It was the first integrated iron works in North America as well as one of the most technologically advanced in the world. The Iron Works produced over one ton of iron a day, but was not financially successful. It closed around 1670. In September 1687, Major Samuel Appleton was said to have given a speech from a rocky cliff near the Iron Works denouncing the tyranny of Colonial Governor Sir Edmund Andros . The place where he is said to have delive
Linden on the Saugus Branch is a 1946 memoir of small-town life written by American novelist Elliot Paul . It takes place in the Linden neighborhood of Malden, Massachusetts . See also Saugus Branch Railroad References Linden on the Saugus Branch is a 1946 memoir of small-town life written by American novelist Elliot Paul . It takes place in the Linden neighborhood of Malden, Massachusetts . See also Saugus Branch Railroad References
Joshua Webster (August 17, 1795 – January 7, 1871) was an American businessman and railroad executive who served as the first president of the Saugus Branch Railroad . Family Webster was born on August 17, 1795 at his family farm in the West Parish of Haverhill, Massachusetts . On November 24, 1820, he married Elizabeth Bartlett Chase in Haverhill. They couple had their first son, Henry, on August 10, 1821. Their second son, William Wallace, was born on January 7, 1824. In 1825, the family moved to Boston . On August 22, 1829, the Websters' daughter, Salome Ann, was born. Another son, Joshua Berman Webster, was born on September 21, 1838. Business career Webster sold clothing and shoe trimmings in Boston with the firm of Webster, Kimball & Co. In 1837, Webster became a director of Kilby Bank of Boston. He was also a director of the India Insurance Company. While in Boston, Webster became a prominent social figure and was active in politics as a member of the Whig and Republican parties. While a m
The Eastern Railroad was a railroad connecting Boston, Massachusetts to Portland, Maine . Throughout its history, it competed with the Boston and Maine Railroad for service between the two cities, until the Boston & Maine put an end to the competition by leasing the Eastern in December 1884. Much of the railroad's main line in Massachusetts is used by the MBTA 's Newburyport/Rockport commuter rail line, and some unused parts of its right-of-way have been converted to rail trails . Origins and construction 1880 plan for the Eastern Junction, Broad Sound Pier, and Point Shirley Railroad. This map shows Eastern's tracks from Lynn into East Boston, as well as the Grand Junction tracks from East Boston to downtown Boston and the Chelsea cut-off between the two routes. The Eastern Railroad Company of Massachusetts was first chartered on April 14, 1836. The line followed the coastline, in contrast to the Boston & Maine's inland route through Massachusetts, and it served North Shore cities such as Lynn ,
The Northern Strand Community Trail , also known as the Bike to the Sea Trail , is a 10-mile bicycle path and walking trail project which connects the cities of Everett , Malden , Revere , Saugus , and Lynn, Massachusetts along the former Boston & Maine Railroad 's Saugus Branch Railroad . The trail is part of the East Coast Greenway , a project planning to connect almost 3,000 miles of trail from Calais, Maine to Key West, Florida . The path has been planned by Bike to the Sea, a non-profit cycling advocacy group, with helps from the surrounding cities. History The trail at the Malden/Revere border in June 2015 The Everett and Malden sections of the trail were opened with a granular recycled asphalt surface in summer 2012 and paved with an asphalt surface in August 2013 Iron Horse Preservation completed the surfacing of the Saugus section of the trail with gravel. The Revere portion of the trail opened to the public with a recycled asphalt surface in Summer 2015. The final segment of the trail throu
The Newburyport/Rockport Line is a branch of the MBTA Commuter Rail system, running northeast from downtown Boston, Massachusetts towards Cape Ann and the Merrimack Valley , serving the North Shore . The first leg serves Chelsea , Lynn , Swampscott , Salem , and Beverly . From there, a northern branch of the line serves Hamilton , Ipswich , Rowley , and Newburyport . The line also branches east from Beverly, serving Manchester , Gloucester , and Rockport . A bicycle coach is offered on the Rockport branch during the summer. History After 22 years terminating at Ipswich, the line was restored to Newburyport in 1998 The Eastern Route main line between Boston and Portsmouth, New Hampshire opened in 1836 as the Eastern Railroad. Ferries were used to transport passengers between the East Boston terminal and Boston proper. The line was extended to Portland, Maine, in 1842 under a track-sharing agreement with the Boston and Maine Railroad . The Gloucester Branch was constructed in 1847, but despite local support, i
Lynn (signed as Central Square - Lynn ) is a passenger rail station on the MBTA Commuter Rail Newburyport/Rockport Line in downtown Lynn, Massachusetts , located 11.5 route miles from North Station. The station consists of a single center island platform serving the two station tracks on an elevated grade that runs through the downtown area of Lynn. A large parking garage is integrated into the station structure. The present station, built in 1992, is the latest in a series of depots built on approximately the same Central Square site since 1838. A number of other stations have also been located on several different rail lines in Lynn. Lynn is also a major bus transfer point serving eleven MBTA Bus routes in the North Shore region, including routes leading to Salem , Marblehead , Wonderland , and the Liberty Tree Mall as well as downtown Boston. History Early history Early image of the 1838 station Woodcutting of the 1848 station After the railroads from Boston to Lowell, Worcester, and Providence were chart
The Saugus River is a river in Massachusetts . The river is 13 miles (21 km) long, drains a watershed of approximately 47 square miles (120 km ), and passes through Wakefield , Lynnfield , Saugus , and Lynn as it meanders east and south from its source in Lake Quannapowitt in Wakefield (elevation 90 feet) to its mouth in Broad Sound . It has at least eight tributaries : the Mill River; Bennets Pond Brook; the Pines River; Hawkes Brook; Crystal Pond Brook; Beaver Dam Brook; Strawberry Brook; and Shute Brook. Although Native Americans called the river Aboutsett ("winding stream"), European settlers first called it the River at Saugus, where Saugus (possibly a native word for "long") arguably named the beach running from Swampscott to Revere (there are competing theories as to the origin of the word "Saugus"). In early European times, alewives and bass were harvested from 1632 onwards. The Saugus Iron Works used water power from the river in by 1642, and the river subsequently attracted grist mills, chocolate mi
Edward Pranker (1792–1865) was an English-American textile manufacturer who owned the Pranker Mills in Saugus, Massachusetts . Early life and business Pranker was born in 1792 in Wilton, Wiltshire . In 1820 he emigrated to the United States. He engaged in the manufacturing of woolen goods in North Andover, Massachusetts until 1832 or 1833, when he moved to Salem, New Hampshire . He would eventually sell his Salem operation to his business partner. Pranker mills In 1838, Pranker purchased an abandoned mill in Saugus, Massachusetts. He renovated the mill and installed new machinery. At his mill, Pranker engaged in the manufacturing of flannel and bed sheets . Although the conditions of the wool business in general were extremely poor during the mill's first years of operation, the business was a success. In 1840, he was able to pay off the bond on the property. By 1846, Pranker's business had grown so much that he had to build a second mill. Also in 1846, Pranker enlarged a dam on the Saugus River by two feet,
Chelsea is a passenger rail station on the MBTA Commuter Rail Newburyport/Rockport Line , located near Bellingham Square slightly north of downtown Chelsea, Massachusetts . It is one of the more lightly-used stops on the line, with 179 daily boardings by a 2013 count; most residents commuting to downtown Boston use bus routes including the high-frequency route 111 bus instead. Unlike all other stations on the line save limited-service River Works and Prides Crossing , Chelsea is not handicapped accessible. However, the stop is planned to be moved to a new accessible station in late 2017 in conjunction with a new branch of the Silver Line bus rapid transit service. History Chelsea station on an early postcard After the opening of the Charlestown Bridge in 1901 and the East Boston Tunnel in 1904, Boston and Maine railroad stations in Everett and Chelsea lost ridership to slower but more frequent streetcar service. On April 18, 1958, the Boston and Maine Railroad received permission from the Public Utilities Co
The Boston and Maine Corporation ( reporting mark BM ), known as the Boston and Maine Railroad (B&M), was a U.S. Class I railroad in northern New England . It became part of what is now the Pan Am Railways network in 1983. At the end of 1970, B&M operated 1,515 route-miles (2,438 km) on 2,481 miles (3,993 km) of track, not including Springfield Terminal. That year it reported 2744 million ton-miles of revenue freight and 92 million passenger-miles. History The Andover and Wilmington Railroad was incorporated March 15, 1833, to build a branch from the Boston and Lowell Railroad at Wilmington, Massachusetts , north to Andover, Massachusetts . The line opened to Andover on August 8, 1836. The name was changed to the Andover and Haverhill Railroad on April 18, 1837, reflecting plans to build further to Haverhill, Massachusetts (opened later that year), and yet further to Portland , Maine , with the renaming to the Boston and Portland Railroad on April 3, 1839, opening to the New Hampshire state line in
The Grand Junction Railroad is an 8.55-mile (13.76 km) long railroad in the Boston, Massachusetts area, connecting the railroads heading west and north from Boston. Most of it is still in use, carrying scrap either inbound or outbound to the Schnitzer scrap yard on the Everett waterfront or freight to the Chelsea Produce Market , and non-revenue transfers of Amtrak and MBTA passenger equipment between the lines terminating at North Station and South Station . The line is also notable for its railroad bridge over the Charles River that passes under the Boston University Bridge between Boston and Cambridge, Massachusetts . History An Amtrak Genesis locomotive crosses Main Street in Cambridge . The railroad (full name Grand Junction Railroad and Depot Company ) was chartered April 24, 1847 to connect the railroads entering Boston from the north and west with its wharves in East Boston . This was a rechartering of the Chelsea Branch Railroad , incorporated April 10, 1846. The first section to open was from East
Benjamin Franklin Newhall was an American businessman, abolitionist, politician, and writer. Early life Newhall was born on April 29, 1802 in Saugus, Massachusetts (then part of Lynn ) to Jacob and Abigail (Makepeace) Newhall. His grandfather, Jacob Newhall, better known as Landlord Newhall, was a leading supporter of American independence and an organizer of the Saugus Minute Men. His Rising Sun Tavern was visited by Gilbert du Motier, Marquis de Lafayette and George Washington . Newhall was also a descendent of Thomas Newhall, the first white person born in Lynn. Newhall spent his early years growing up in a tavern. He had a very close relationship with his mother, who would often kneel at his bedside and pray that God protect her son from the temptations that surrounded him. Hearing this, Newhall vowed that his mother's prayers would not be in vain. Conversely, he had a strong disliked his father, as Newhall blamed his father's drinking for his family's suffering. At the age of thirteen or fourteen, N
Sullivan Square is an MBTA subway station serving the Orange Line , located just west of the Sullivan Square traffic circle in the Charlestown neighborhood of Boston . Located adjacent to the East Somerville area of Somerville , it is also a major bus transfer point. It is named after nearby Sullivan Square, itself named for James Sullivan , an early 19th-century Governor of Massachusetts and first president of the Middlesex Canal Co. A plaque commemorating the canal is on the column right of the entrance to the station. Opened April 7, 1975 as part of the Haymarket North Extension , the station has three tracks and two platforms, and is located under a double-decked elevated section of Interstate 93 . The current station replaced an older structure built in 1901, which had been a major transfer point on the Charlestown Elevated , a predecessor of the Orange Line. Like all Orange Line stations, both the subway platforms and all bus connections are fully wheelchair accessible . Station layout L2 Platforms Sou
The following is a timeline of the history of Lynn , Massachusetts , USA. 17th-18th century 1629 - Saugus founded. 1637 - Saugus renamed " Lynn ." 1642 - Saugus Iron Works in business. 1644 - Reading separates from Lynn. 1720 - Lynnfield burying-ground established. 1732 - Saugus burying-ground established. 1782 - Lynnfield separates from Lynn. 1793 - Post office in operation. 1797 - Population: 2,291. 19th century 1803 - Floating Bridge constructed on Salem-Boston turnpike . 1810 - Population: 4,087. 1812 - Eastern Burial-Place established. 1814 - Town House built. 1815 Saugus separates from Lynn. Social Library formed. Lyceum building 1830 - Lynn Record newspaper begins publication. 1838 Eastern Railroad in operation. Lynn Natural History Society formed. 1840 - Population: 9,367. 1841 Lyceum building constructed. Frederick Douglass moves to Lynn. 1848 - First High Rock Tower built. 1850 City of Lynn incorporated. George Hood becomes mayor. Pine Grove Cemetery consecrated. 1851 - High School built. 1852 May -
This is a list of all freight railroad (not streetcar or rapid transit ) lines that have been built in Massachusetts , and does not deal with ownership changes from one company to another. The lines are named by the first company to build or consolidate them. B&A lines and related railroads These railroads were owned by or closely related to the Boston and Albany Railroad , later part of the New York Central Railroad . Name From To Branches Notes Boston and Worcester Railroad Boston Worcester Brookline Branch, Beacon Street to Brookline Milford Branch, Framingham to Milford Millbury Branch, Millbury Junction to Millbury Newton Highlands Branch, Riverside to Cook Street Junction Newton Lower Falls Branch, Riverside to Newton Lower Falls Saxonville Branch, Natick to Saxonville Framingham Branch became part of the NYNH&H Chester and Becket Railroad Chester Becket Grand Junction Railroad Allston East Boston North Brookfield Railroad East Brookfield North Brookfield Pittsfield and North Adams Railroad No
Lake Street is a former regional rail station on the Lexington Branch , located in the East Arlington section of Arlington, Massachusetts . It was closed in January 1977 when service on the Lexington Branch was suspended. History Lake Street station around 1915 The Lexington and West Cambridge Railroad opened from West Cambridge to Lexington on September 1, 1846. Lake Street station was located at the crossing of the eponymous street. On April 18, 1958, the Boston and Maine Railroad received permission from the Public Utilities Commission to drastically curtail its suburban commuter service, including abandoning branches, closing stations, and cutting trains. Among the approved cuts was the closure of four stations on the Lexington Branch in Arlington - Lake Street, Arlington Centre , Brattles, and Arlington Heights - because Arlington was part of the funding district of the Metropolitan Transit Authority, which provided parallel bus service on Massachusetts Avenue . The four stations were closed on May 16,
Arlington Centre (signed as Arlington ) was a regional rail station on the Lexington Branch , located in downtown Arlington, Massachusetts . It was closed in January 1977 when service on the Lexington Branch was suspended. History Arlington Centre station on an early postcard The Lexington and West Cambridge Railroad opened from West Cambridge to Lexington on September 1, 1846. Arlington Centre station was located near the intersection of Massachusetts Avenue and Mystic Street in Arlington. On April 18, 1958, the Boston and Maine Railroad received permission from the Public Utilities Commission to drastically curtail its suburban commuter service, including abandoning branches, closing stations, and cutting trains. Among the approved cuts was the closure of the Lexington Branch's four stations in Arlington ( Lake Street , Arlington Centre, Brattles , and Arlington Heights ), as Arlington was part of the funding district of the Metropolitan Transit Authority, which provided parallel bus service on Massachusett
Bridge at Gaviota State Park , seen from the beach The Coast Line is a railroad line between Burbank, California and the San Francisco Bay Area , roughly along the Pacific Coast . It is the shortest rail route from Los Angeles to the Bay Area. History The first version of the Coast line, via Saugus and Santa Paula through the Santa Clara River Valley , was completed by the Southern Pacific Railroad on December 31, 1900. The Montalvo Cutoff crossed the Santa Clara River to serve the farmers in the Oxnard Plain and was extended to Santa Susana in Simi Valley . The Santa Susana Tunnel opened in 1904 connecting with the Chatsworth cutoff from Burbank ( 34°14′57″N 119°12′46″W / 34.24917°N 119.2129°W ) and thereafter was the main line. In 1907, the Bayshore Cutoff opened from San Bruno 37°37′52″N 122°24′43″W / 37.631°N 122.412°W to San Francisco ; in 1935 the new line around San Jose opened from 37°20′29″N 121°54′46″W / 37.3414°N 121.9127°W to 37°17′05″N 121°50′34″W / 37.2848°N 121.8427°W and th
The Santa Clara River Trail is a rail trail that is used as a paved bicycle and walking path located in the city of Santa Clarita, California . The path is currently approximately 8 miles (13 km) in length and generally runs in an east-west direction and closely follows the path of the Santa Clara River and Soledad Canyon Road between the communities of Canyon Country and Valencia through Saugus . A north-south fork connects to the community of Newhall . The trail is generally flat with very gentle elevation. There are many jumping off points along the path providing access to neighborhoods, parks and commerce. On the western end, the path connects to an extensive network of paths, trails and elevated bridges called paseos that are independent of automobile roadway in Valencia. The main trail and its feeders are in close proximity and provide easy access to all three Metrolink stations located within the city limits. These stations are Newhall , Santa Clarita and Via Princessa . Bicycle locker facilities are
Fillmore and Western Railway EMD F7 No. 101 and GP35 No. 3502. The Fillmore and Western Railway ( reporting mark FWRY ) is a railroad owned by the Fillmore & Western Railway Company. The company operates on track owned by the Ventura County Transportation Commission . The F&W is known as the "Home of the Hollywood Movie Trains" because the majority of its rolling stock was acquired from three major studios: 20th Century Fox , Paramount , and MGM . The railroad is frequently used for the filming of television series, motion pictures and commercials and as a locale for private and commercial still photography , Visitors to Fillmore often see filming activity as well as sets and support equipment at the company's rail yard and along the tracks between Santa Paula and Piru . The F&W has been used in more than 400 movie, TV and commercial shots. Movies shot on the railroad include Seabiscuit , Get Smart and Race to Witch Mountain . Television series CSI and Criminal Minds have used the railroad for
View of the route, 1920 The Ridge Route , officially the Castaic-Tejon Route , was a two-lane highway between Los Angeles and Kern counties , California. Opened in 1915 and paved with 15-ft concrete between 1917 and 1921, the road was the first paved highway directly linking the Los Angeles Basin with the San Joaquin Valley over the Tejon Pass and the rugged Sierra Pelona Mountains ridge south of Gorman . Much of the old road runs through the Angeles National Forest , and passes by many historical landmarks, including the National Forest Inn, Reservoir Summit, Kelly's Half Way Inn, Tumble Inn, and Sandberg's Summit Hotel. North of the forest, the Ridge Route passed through Deadman's Curve before ending at Grapevine . Most of the road was bypassed in 1933–34 by the three-lane Ridge Route Alternate , then U.S. Route 99 (US 99), to handle increased traffic and remove many curves. The four-lane US 99 was completed in 1953 and replaced by a freeway , Interstate 5 (I-5) around 1968. The portion of the road within t
The following railroads operate in the U.S. state of Massachusetts . Common freight carriers Bay Colony Railroad (BCLR) Connecticut Southern Railroad (CSO) CSX Transportation (CSXT) East Brookfield and Spencer Railroad (EBSR) Fore River Transportation Corporation (FRVT) Grafton and Upton Railroad (GU) Housatonic Railroad (HRRC) Massachusetts Central Railroad (MCER) Massachusetts Coastal Railroad (MC) New England Central Railroad (NECR) Pan Am Railways (ST) Pan Am Southern (PAS) Pioneer Valley Railroad (PVRR) Providence and Worcester Railroad (PW) Passenger carriers Amtrak (AMTK) Berkshire Scenic Railway Cape Cod Central Railroad Massachusetts Bay Transportation Authority Defunct railroads Name Mark System From To Successor Notes Agricultural Branch Railroad NH 1847 1867 Boston, Clinton and Fitchburg Railroad Albany Street Freight Railway 1868 N/A Amherst and Belchertown Railroad CN 1851 1858 Amherst, Belchertown and Palmer Railroad Amherst, Belchertown and Palmer Railroad CN 1858 1861 New London Northern Rail
This list of United States disasters by death toll is a list of notable disasters which occurred either in the United States , at diplomatic missions of the United States , or incidents outside of the United States in which a number of U.S. citizens were killed. It does not include death tolls from the American Civil War . Due to inflation , the monetary damage estimates are not comparable. Unless otherwise noted, the year given is the year in which the currency's valuation was calculated. This list is not comprehensive in general, and epidemics are not included. Over 400 deaths Year Type Fatalities Damage ( US$ ) Article Location Comments 1900 Tropical cyclone 6,000 to 12,000 $28,000,000 (approximate) 1900 Galveston hurricane Texas Fatalities estimated. Remains the deadliest natural disaster in North American history. 1906 Earthquake and fire (urban conflagration) 3,000+ 1906 San Francisco earthquake San Francisco, California Conflagration followed quake; fatalities estimated; also major casualties in Santa
Boston, Revere Beach and Lynn Railroad Blue Line BRB&L Newburyport/Rockport Line Lynn Proposed Newburyport/Rockport Line to North Station Lynn West Lynn Point of Pines Oak Island Revere Street Wonderland Bath House Revere Beach Crescent Beach Beachmont Beachmont Suffolk Downs Belle Isle Winthrop Loop Point Shirley Point Shirley Street Railway Winthrop Beach Playstead Thornton Ocean Spray Winthrop Center Winthrop Highlands Ingalls Battery Pleasant Street Orient Heights Yard Orient Heights Orient Heights Harbor View Blue Line to Bowdoin Wood Island East Boston Boston Harbor Rowes Wharf Atlantic Avenue Elevated Blue Line BRB&L The Boston, Revere Beach and Lynn Railroad was a 3 ft ( 914 mm ) narrow gauge passenger-carrying short line railroad between East Boston and Lynn , Massachusetts from 1875 to 1940. History Crescent Beach station around 1910 The railroad was chartered May 5, 1874 and opened July 29, 1875. A ferry connection from its southern terminus at East Boston connected to Rowes
Revere Beach Parkway is a historic parkway in the suburbs immediately north of Boston, Massachusetts . It begins at Wellington Circle in Medford , where the road leading to the west is the Mystic Valley Parkway , and the north-south road is the Fellsway , designated Route 28 . The parkway proceeds east, ending at Eliot Circle, the junction of Revere Beach Boulevard and Winthrop Parkway in Revere . In between, the parkway passes through the towns of Everett and Chelsea . The parkway was built between 1896 and 1904 to provide access from interior communities to Revere Beach . It underwent two major periods of capacity expansion, in the 1930s and again in the 1950s. The parkway is designated as part of Route 16 west of Route 1A , and as part of Route 145 east of that point. The route of the roadway, along with a number of specific features relating to its original period of construction and those of the later expansions up to 1957, was listed as a historic district on the National Register of Historic Places in
Malden is a city in Middlesex County , Massachusetts, United States. At the time of the 2010 United States Census , the population was at 59,450 people. In 2009, Malden was named the "Best Place to Raise Your Kids" in Massachusetts by Bloomberg Businessweek . History Pleasant Street c. 1906 Malden, a hilly woodland area north of the Mystic River , was settled by Puritans in 1640 on land purchased in 1629 from the Pennacook tribe. The area was originally called the "Mistick Side" and was a part of Charlestown . It was incorporated as a separate town in 1649. The name Malden was selected by Joseph Hills, an early settler and landholder, and was named after Maldon, England. The city originally included what are now the adjacent cities of Melrose (until 1850) and Everett (until 1870). At the time of the American Revolution , the population was at about 1,000 people, and the citizens were involved early in resisting the oppression of Britain: they boycotted the consumption of tea in 1770 to protest the Revenue A
Andrews Breed (September 20, 1794 – April 21, 1881) was a Massachusetts politician who served as the fifth Mayor of Lynn, Massachusetts . Notes Hurd, Duane Hamilton (1888), History of Essex County, Massachusetts: with Biographical Sketches of Many of its Pioneers and Prominent Men, Volume I, Issue 1, Philadelphia, PA: J.W. Lewis & CO., p. 260. Kurtz, Peter (2013). Bluejackets in the Blubber Room: A Biography of the "William Badger" 1828-1865 . University of Alabama Press. Political offices Preceded by Thomas P. Richardson Mayor of Lynn, Massachusetts April 3, 1854 to January 7, 1856 Succeeded by Ezra W. Mudge Andrews Breed (September 20, 1794 – April 21, 1881) was a Massachusetts politician who served as the fifth Mayor of Lynn, Massachusetts . Notes Hurd, Duane Hamilton (1888), History of Essex County, Massachusetts: with Biographical Sketches of Many of its Pioneers and Prominent Men, Volume I, Issue 1, Philadelphia, PA: J.W. Lewis & CO., p. 260. Kurtz, Peter (2013). Bluejackets in the Blubber Roo
Harlan & Hollingsworth was a Wilmington, Delaware , firm that constructed ships and railroad cars during the 19th century and into the 20th century. Founding Mahlon Betts , a carpenter, arrived in Wilmington in 1812. After helping construct many prominent buildings in the city, Betts branched out into foundry work in 1821. In 1836, Betts partnered with Samuel Pusey (a machinist) and began manufacturing railcars at a plant on West and Water Streets in Wilmington. The next year, cabinetmaker Samuel Harlan joined the firm, then known as Betts, Pusey & Harlan . By 1839, the company claimed to have manufactured 39 passenger and 28 freight cars over the previous two years. The next year, they hired Jacob F. Sharp, a former house carpenter, to build railroad cars. He would rise to become foreman at the plant, and eventually co-founded the rival firm of Jackson and Sharp. In 1841, Elijah Hollingsworth, brother-in-law of Harlan, bought out Pusey, and the firm became known as Betts, Harlan & Hollingswort
The Nashua River Rail Trail is a 12.5-mile (20.1 km) paved mixed-use rail trail in northern Massachusetts and southern New Hampshire under control of the Massachusetts Department of Conservation and Recreation (DCR). It roughly follows the course of the Nashua River , passing through the towns of Ayer , Groton , Pepperell , and Dunstable , Massachusetts and ends about a mile across the New Hampshire state border in Nashua, New Hampshire . The trail is frequently used by walkers, bicyclists, inline skaters, and, in the winter, cross-country skiers. History Ayer was a major junction for both north-south and east-west rail lines during the rapid development of railroad transportation. The Nashua River Rail Trail sits on the former Hollis branch of the Boston and Maine Railroad . The line was originally part of the Worcester & Nashua Railroad that connected Worcester, Massachusetts and Nashua, New Hampshire , which was opened on July 3, 1848. The line was extended to Portland, Maine in 1874 and it became par
A list of museums located within Los Angeles County of southern California . Museums located within the City of Los Angeles , while also within LA County, are found separately listed on the List of museums in Los Angeles, California . The list includes museums and art galleries — of historical, cultural, ethnic, science, and arts organizations , nonprofit organizations , government departments, university and college facilities, and private or corporate collections — that have galleries, buildings, and or open air spaces with exhibits and works open for public viewing. It currently does not include virtual museums , although some of the listed physical museums have notable online collections also. Museums Current Name Town/City Region Type Summary Adamson House Malibu Greater Los Angeles Area Historic house 1929 home decorated with Malibu Potteries tile, tour includes adjoining Malibu Lagoon Museum in the former garage, with exhibits of local history Adobe de Palomares Pomona San Gabriel Valley Historic house
The Ashuwillticook Rail Trail is a former railroad corridor converted into a 10-foot-wide (3.0 m) paved, universally accessible, scenic rail trail path. The Ashuwillticook (ash-oo-will-ti-cook) Rail Trail runs parallel to Route 8 through the towns of Cheshire , Lanesborough and Adams , Massachusetts and has become a popular resource for biking, walking, roller-blading, and jogging. The trail is managed by the Massachusetts Department of Conservation and Recreation (DCR). The southern end of the trail begins at the entrance to the Berkshire Mall , off of Route 8 in Lanesborough, and travels 12 miles (19 km) north to the center of Adams. Parking lots and restrooms are available along the way. The Ashuwillticook Rail Trail passes through the Hoosac River Valley, between Mount Greylock and the Hoosac Mountains . Cheshire Reservoir, the Hoosic River , and associated wetland communities flank much of the trail offering outstanding views and abundant wildlife. The word Ashuwillticook (ash-oo-will-ti-cook) is from t
A utility pole is a column or post used to support overhead power lines and various other public utilities, such as electrical cable , fibre optic cable , and related equipment such as transformers and street lights . It can be referred to as a transmission pole , telephone pole , telecommunication pole, power pole , hydro pole , telegraph pole , or telegraph post , depending on its application. A stobie pole is a multi-purpose pole made of two steel joists held apart by a slab of concrete in the middle, generally found in South Australia . Electrical wires and cables are routed overhead on utility poles as an inexpensive way to keep them insulated from the ground and out of the way of people and vehicles. Utility poles can be made of wood, metal, concrete, or composites like fiberglass . They are used for two different types of power lines; subtransmission lines which carry higher voltage power between substations, and distribution lines which distribute lower voltage power to customers. The first poles were
Castaic, California (also spelled Castec , or Kashtiq ), is an unincorporated community located in the northern part of Los Angeles County, California . Many thousands of motorists pass through Castaic daily as they drive to or from Los Angeles on Interstate 5 . Castaic Lake is part of the California Water Project and is the site of a hydro-electric power plant. Castaic is located approximately 40 miles (64 km) northwest of the downtown Los Angeles Civic Center and directly north of the city of Santa Clarita, California . History Name On Spanish documents, the original spelling was Castec, which represented the Chumash Native American word Kashtiq, meaning "eyes". Castec is first mentioned on old boundary maps of Rancho San Francisco , as a canyon at the trailhead leading to the old Chumash camp at Castac Lake (Tejon Ranch). Modern Castaic began in 1887 when Southern Pacific set up a railroad siding on the line between Piru and Saugus Station , naming it " Castaic Junction ". Between January and April 1890
Massachusetts was first colonized by principally English Europeans in the early 17th century, and became the Commonwealth of Massachusetts in the 18th century. Prior to English colonization of the area, it was inhabited by a variety of mainly Algonquian language indigenous tribes. The first permanent English settlement in New England came in 1620 with the founding of Plymouth Colony by the Pilgrims who sailed on the Mayflower . It set precedents but never grew large. A large-scale Puritan migration began in 1630 with the establishment of the Massachusetts Bay Colony , and spawned the settlement of other New England colonies. Friction with the natives erupted in the high-casualty King Philip's War in the 1670s. Puritanism was the established religion and was strictly enforced; dissenters were exiled. The Colony clashed with Anglican opponents in England over its religious intolerance and the status of its charter. Most people were farmers. Businessmen established wide-ranging trade links, sending ships to the
In the United States there are large concentrations of Italians in many metropolitan areas of the United States. The most comprehensive look at all of these neighborhoods can be seen at the Italian Enclaves Facebook page. In particular, states such as New York , Rhode Island , Connecticut , Michigan , Florida , California , Illinois , New Jersey , Ohio , Pennsylvania , and Massachusetts have larger populations of Italian-Americans than other states by national average. According to a recent United Census Bureau estimate, 17.8 million Americans are of Italian descent. Communities of Italian Americans were established in most major industrial cities of the early 20th century, such as Baltimore , Boston (particularly in the " North End "), Philadelphia (particularly in certain neighborhoods of South Philadelphia ), Pittsburgh , Detroit , Providence , St. Louis , Chicago , Kansas City , Milwaukee , Youngstown , Erie , Cleveland , Buffalo , and New York City , which boasts the largest Italian-American population,
Cambridge ( KAYM -brij ) is a city in Middlesex County , Massachusetts , and is a part of the Boston metropolitan area . Situated directly north of the city of Boston , across the Charles River , it was named in honor of the University of Cambridge in the United Kingdom , an important center of the Puritan theology embraced by the town's founders. Harvard University and the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT), two of the world's most prestigious universities, are located in Cambridge, as was Radcliffe College , one of the leading colleges for women in the United States until it merged with Harvard. According to the 2010 Census , the city's population was 105,162. As of July 2014, it was the fifth most populous city in the state, behind Boston , Worcester , Springfield and Lowell . Cambridge was one of the two seats of Middlesex County prior to the abolition of county government in 1997; Lowell was the other. Kendall Square in Cambridge has been called "the most innovative square mile on the planet"
This is a list of rail accidents from 1930 to 1949 . 1930s 1930 January 6, 1930 – United Kingdom – The rear carriages of a Southern Railway passenger train from Hastings to London are partially buried by a landslip near Wadhurst tunnel. The train is divided and the front part continues on to Tunbridge Wells , where it arrives 100 minutes late. March 6, 1930 – United Kingdom – a London, Midland and Scottish Railway passenger train departs from Culgaith station, Cumberland against signals. It is in collision with a ballast train at Langwathby station, Cumberland. Two people are killed and four are seriously injured. March 22, 1930 – United Kingdom – A London, Midland and Scottish Railway Royal Scot express passenger train is derailed at Leighton Buzzard , Bedfordshire when a crossover is taken at excessive speed. 1931 January 3, 1931 – United Kingdom – A London and North Eastern Railway passenger train is derailed at Carlisle, Cumberland due to excessive speed through a curve. Three people are killed. January 1
The Norwottuck Branch Rail Trail , formerly the Norwottuck Rail Trail , is an 11-mile (18 km) combination bicycle/pedestrian paved right-of-way running from Northampton, Massachusetts , through Hadley and Amherst , to Belchertown, Massachusetts . It opened in 1992, and is now part of the longer Mass Central Rail Trail . History The rail bed under which the trail operated opened in 1887 under the control of the Central Massachusetts Railroad . Shortly after its completion, it was leased by the Boston and Maine Railroad and referred to as the Central Massachusetts Branch. Three round trip passenger trains were run in the 1920s, as well as numerous freight trains. Competition from cars and trucks caused a decline on the line, as passenger service was discontinued in 1932 and freight service managed to hang on for another forty-two years, primarily to deliver goods to a farmer's supply warehouse in Amherst. The rail bed was acquired by the state in 1985 and developed into the trail in 1993, as its current name. T
Interstate 5 ( I-5 ) is a major north–south route of the Interstate Highway System in the U.S. state of California . It begins at the Mexico–United States border at the San Ysidro crossing, goes north across the length of California and crosses into Oregon south of the Medford - Ashland metropolitan area . It is the more important and most used of the two major north-south routes on the Pacific Coast, the other being U.S. Route 101 , which is primarily coastal. This highway links the major California cities of San Diego , Santa Ana , Los Angeles , Stockton , Sacramento , and Redding . Among the major cities not directly linked by Interstate 5 but which are connected by local highways to it are San Francisco , Oakland and San Jose , all of which are about 80 miles (130 km) west of the highway. Interstate 5 has several named portions: the Montgomery Freeway, San Diego Freeway, Santa Ana Freeway, Golden State Freeway, and West Side Freeway. Route description I-5 is part of the California Freeway and Expressway S
Tiburcio Vásquez (April 11, 1835 – March 19, 1875) was a Californio bandido who was active in California from 1854 to 1874. The Vasquez Rocks , 40 miles (64 km) north of Los Angeles , were one of his many hideouts and are named for him. Early life Tiburcio Vásquez was born in Monterey , Alta California Mexico (present day California , United States) on April 11, 1835 to Jose Hermenegildo Vásquez and Maria Guadalupe Cantua. In accord with Spanish tradition, Vásquez's birth was celebrated on the feast day of his namesake, St. Tiburtius. Thus, he would always refer to his birthday as August 11, 1835. His great-grandfather came to Alta California with the De Anza Expedition of 1776. Vásquez was slightly built, about 5 feet 7 inches in height. His family sent him to school, and he was fluent in both English and Spanish. In 1852, Vásquez was influenced by Anastacio Garcia , one of California's most dangerous bandits. In 1854, Vásquez was present at the slaying of Monterey Constable William Hardmount in a fight
Italian Americans ( Italian : italoamericani or italo-americani ) are an ethnic group comprising Americans who have full or partial ancestry from Italy , especially those who identify with that ancestry, along with their cultural characteristics. Italian Americans are the fourth largest European ethnic group in the United States (not including American ethnicity , an ethnonym used by many in the United States; overall, Italian Americans rank seventh, behind German American, Irish American, African American, English American, American, and Mexican American). About 5.5 million Italians immigrated to the United States from 1820 to 2004. Immigration began in earnest during the 1870s, when more than twice as many Italians immigrated (1870–79: 46,296) than during the five previous decades altogether (1820–69: 22,627). The 1870s were followed by the greatest surge of immigration, which occurred in the period between 1880 and 1914 and brought more than 4 million Italians to the United States, the great majority be
Massachusetts ( or ), officially the Commonwealth of Massachusetts , is the most populous state in the New England region of the northeastern United States . It is bordered by the Atlantic Ocean to the east, the states of Connecticut and Rhode Island to the south, New Hampshire and Vermont to the north, and New York to the west. The state is named for the Massachusett tribe, which once inhabited the area. The capital of Massachusetts and the most populous city in New England is Boston . Over 80% of Massachusetts' population lives in the Greater Boston metropolitan area, a region influential upon American history , academia , and industry . Originally dependent on agriculture, fishing and trade, Massachusetts was transformed into a manufacturing center during the Industrial Revolution . During the 20th century, Massachusetts' economy shifted from manufacturing to services. Modern Massachusetts is a global leader in biotechnology , engineering , higher education , finance , and maritime trade . Plymouth was
Walden Pond is a lake in Concord, Massachusetts in the United States. A famous example of a kettle hole , it was formed by retreating glaciers 10,000–12,000 years ago. The pond is protected as part of Walden Pond State Reservation , a 335-acre (136 ha) state park and recreation site managed by the Massachusetts Department of Conservation and Recreation . The reservation was designated a National Historic Landmark in 1962 for its association with the writer Henry David Thoreau (1817–62), whose two years living in a cabin on its shore provided the foundation for his most famous work, Walden; or, Life in the Woods . Description The Walden Pond Reservation is located south of Massachusetts Route 2 and (mostly) west of Massachusetts Route 126 in Concord and Lincoln, Massachusetts . The reservation is 335 acres (136 ha) in size, and its principal feature is Walden Pond, a 64.5-acre (26.1 ha) body of water. A short way north of the pond the site of Thoreau's cabin is marked by a series of granite posts. Portions
The Malden River is a 2.3-mile-long (3.7 km) river in Malden , Medford , and Everett , Massachusetts . It is roughly 675 feet (206 m) wide at its widest point and is very narrow at its smallest point. Its banks are largely occupied by industrial business, and the river is scarcely used or even mentioned. Its water quality is worse than most local waters, including the Mystic River , into which it flows. Most agree that the river is under-utilized. Projects like Rivers Edge (formerly TeleCom City) hope to promote recreational use of the river's banks. Currently, crew teams, including the Malden High School and the Mystic Valley Regional Charter School , practice on the river because it is never crowded like the Charles River . Also, a state-of-the-art boat house is located on the Malden-Everett line on the west bank of the river, used by the Tufts University rowing team. Course The above-ground portion of the Malden River starts behind Canal Street in the southwest corner of Malden, where it is fed by three u
Saticoy is an unincorporated community in Ventura County, California , United States. The name comes from the Chumash village named Sa'aqtik'oy ( Chumash language : "it is sheltered from the wind"). The settlement was laid out in 1887 along the railroad line that was being built from Los Angeles through the Santa Clara River Valley to the town of San Buenaventura . Although the town was 10 miles (16 km) distant at that time, the City of Ventura grew so the community is now just outside the city limits. The commercial district known as Old Town Saticoy is surrounded by a residential neighborhood with a population of just over one thousand. Two historic buildings attest to the important role Saticoy once held in the local agricultural economy: Walnut Growers Association Warehouse, and Saticoy (Lima) Bean Warehouse. The historic setting, stable residential population, railroad, and access to major highways make this community unique in Ventura County. State Route 118 curves through the southerly portion of the
Chelsea is a city in Suffolk County , Massachusetts , United States , directly across the Mystic River from the city of Boston . As of 2013, Chelsea had an estimated population of 36,828. It is also the second most densely populated city in Massachusetts behind Somerville . With a total area of just 2.21 square miles, Chelsea is the smallest city in Massachusetts in terms of total area. Chelsea is a diverse, working-class community that contains a high level of industrial activity. It is one of only three Massachusetts cities in which the majority of the population identifies as Hispanic or Latino, alongside Lawrence and Holyoke . After flirting with bankruptcy in the 1990s, the once-struggling industrial city has reversed a prolonged decline and in recent years has enjoyed sustained economic growth. Thanks to its relative affordability and close proximity to Boston, Chelsea has added more than 1,200 homes since 2005, mostly loft-style apartments and condominiums suitable for small families or young profess
Raynham is a town in Bristol County , Massachusetts , United States , located approximately 32 miles (51 km) south of Boston and 22 miles (35 km) northeast of Providence, Rhode Island . The population was 13,383 at the 2010 census. It has one village, Raynham Center . History The area that is now Raynham was settled in 1639 as a part of Taunton, and was founded by Elizabeth Pole , the first woman to found a town in America. In 1652, bog iron was found along the Two Mile (Forge) River . Soon after, the Taunton Iron Works was established by residents James and Henry Leonard. It was the first successful iron works established in what was then Plymouth Colony , and operated from 1656 to 1876. It was not the "First Iron Works in America", as proclaimed on the Town's official seal, having been predated by the Saugus and Braintree iron works. The success of the Taunton Iron Works , however, led to the establishment of other iron works throughout the colonies. Raynham played a key part in King Philip's War . The Le
The Mystic River is a 7.0-mile-long (11.3 km) river in Massachusetts , in the United States. Its name derives from the Wampanoag word "muhs-uhtuq", which translates to "big river." In an Algonquian language, "Missi-Tuk" means "a great river whose waters are driven by waves", alluding to the original tidal nature of the Mystic. It lies to the north of and flows approximately parallel to the lower portions of the Charles River . The Mystic River has a long history of industrial use and a continuing water quality problem. Encompassing 76 square miles (200 km ) of watershed , the river flows from the Lower Mystic Lake and travels through the Boston -area communities of Arlington , Medford , Somerville , Everett , Charlestown , Chelsea , and East Boston . The river joins the Charles River to form inner Boston Harbor . Its watershed contains 44 lakes and ponds, the largest of which is Spot Pond in the Middlesex Fells , with an area of 307 acres (124 ha). Significant portions of the river's shores are within the My