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Rudolf Allers
Rudolf Allers

Rudolf Allers (1883-1963) was an Austrian psychiatrist who was a member of the first group of the founder of psychoanalysis, Sigmund Freud.

Career

Allers was the only Catholic to join the first group of the founder of psychoanalysis Sigmund Freud. Together with Alfred Adler, he later distanced himself from psychoanalysis. He was later detached from the group of Adler along with Oswald Schwarz. He taught at the University of Vienna (1919).

He was master of Viktor Frankl, guidance of Hans Urs von Balthasar and friend of St. Edith Stein. Both von Balthasar and Stein lived for several months in the house of Allers in Vienna.

He studied the preventive method of St. John Bosco and his pedagogical applications, and at the invitation of Father Agostino Gemelli, was in Italy to study the philosophy of St. Thomas Aquinas at the Catholic University of Milan and graduated in Philosophy in 1934.

With the annexation of Austria to the Third Reich, Allers emigrated to the United States, where he taught at the Catholic University of America in Washington DC (1938 - 1948), and later at Georgetown University in Washington DC.

He was a Guggenheim Fellow in 1958.[1]

Family

In 1908 he married Carola Meitner, sister Lise physical and contributor to the Nobel laureate Otto Hahn.

Death

Allers is buried in St. Mary's Cemetery in Washington DC.

References

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Frisch–Peierls memorandum

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Kevin Rudolf discography

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Raven paradox

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Elsa Einstein

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Friedrich Bergius

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List of Knight's Cross of the Iron Cross recipients (R)

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The Knight's Cross of the Iron Cross ( German : Ritterkreuz des Eisernen Kreuzes ) and its variants were the highest awards in the military of the Third Reich during World War II . The Knight's Cross of the Iron Cross was awarded for a wide range of reasons and across all ranks, from a senior commander for skilled leadership of his troops in battle to a low-ranking soldier for a single act of extreme gallantry. A total of 7,321 awards were made between its first presentation on 30 September 1939 and its last bestowal on 17 June 1945. This number is based on the analysis and acceptance of the order commission of the Association of Knight's Cross Recipients (AKCR). Presentations were made to members of the three military branches of the Wehrmacht —the Heer ( Army ), Kriegsmarine ( Navy ) and Luftwaffe ( Air Force )—as well as the Waffen-SS , the Reichsarbeitsdienst (RAD—Reich Labour Service) and the Volkssturm (German national militia ). There were also 43 recipients in the military forces of allies of the Th



Rudolph Schildkraut

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Rudolf Otto (25 September 1869 – 6 March 1937) was an eminent German Lutheran theologian , philosopher , and comparative religionist . He is regarded as one of the most influential scholars of religion in the early twentieth century and is best known for his concept of the numinous , a profound emotional experience he argued was at the heart of the world's religions. While his work started in the domain of liberal Christian theology , its main thrust was always apologetical, seeking to defend religion against naturalist critiques. Otto eventually came to conceive of his work as part of a science of religion, which was divided into the philosophy of religion , the history of religion , and the psychology of religion . Life Born in Peine near Hanover , Otto was raised in a pious Christian family. He attended the Gymnasium Andreanum in Hildesheim and studied at the universities of Erlangen and Göttingen , where he wrote his dissertation on Martin Luther 's understanding of the Holy Spirit (Die Anschauung von



Rudolf Arnheim

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Der Spiegel

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Germar Rudolf

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Rudolf Roessler

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Robert Fludd

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Seven Archangels

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Christoph Waltz

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Rudolf Vrba

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Codex Gigas

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Puss Gets the Boot

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Puss Gets the Boot is a 1940 American one-reel animated cartoon and is the first short in the Tom and Jerry cartoon series. It was directed by William Hanna and Joseph Barbera , and produced by Rudolf Ising and Fred Quimby . As was the practice of MGM shorts at the time, only Rudolf Ising is credited. It was released to theaters on February 10, 1940 by Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer . Synopsis In this short cartoon, Tom (named Jasper here) takes great pleasure in tormenting Jerry (not actually named in the short, but called Jinx by his animators). Jerry is trying to run away from Tom but the cat keeps grabbing the mouse's tail to keep him from running anywhere. Eventually Jerry breaks free but goes into Tom's mouth, narrowly escaping. Tom then draws a mousehole on the wall to trick Jerry into entering it. Jerry bangs against the wall so hard that it knocks him silly. Tom revives him using water and picks him up. Having slowly realized the situation, Jerry punches Tom in the eye, making him yelp in pain. (A similar punch



Andreas Karlstadt

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Andreas Rudolph Bodenstein von Karlstadt (1486 – 24 December 1541), better known as Andreas Karlstadt or Andreas Carlstadt or Karolostadt , was a German Protestant Christian theologian during the Protestant Reformation . He was born in Karlstadt , Franconia . Education Karlstadt received his doctorate of theology in 1510 from the University of Wittenberg . Previously, Karlstadt had been educated at Erfurt and in Cologne . In the same year in which Karlstadt received his doctorate he became archdeacon and the chair of the theology department. In 1511 he became chancellor of Wittenberg university. In 1512 he awarded Martin Luther his doctorate. From 1515–16, he studied in Rome, where he obtained the double degree in canon and civil law (utriusque juris) at the Sapienza university. Reformation Before 1515, Karlstadt was a proponent of a modified scholasticism . He was a "secular" cleric with no official ties to any monastic order . His beliefs were challenged during his stay in Rome, where he alleges he saw lar



List of Knight's Cross of the Iron Cross recipients (Ha–Hm)

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The Knight's Cross of the Iron Cross ( German : Ritterkreuz des Eisernen Kreuzes ) and its variants were the highest awards in the military of the Third Reich during World War II . The Knight's Cross of the Iron Cross was awarded for a wide range of reasons and across all ranks, from a senior commander for skilled leadership of his troops in battle to a low-ranking soldier for a single act of extreme gallantry. A total of 7,321 awards were made between its first presentation on 30 September 1939 and its last bestowal on 17 June 1945. This number is based on the analysis and acceptance of the order commission of the Association of Knight's Cross Recipients (AKCR). Presentations were made to members of the three military branches of the Wehrmacht —the Heer ( Army ), Kriegsmarine ( Navy ) and Luftwaffe ( Air Force )—as well as the Waffen-SS , the Reichsarbeitsdienst (RAD—Reich Labour Service) and the Volkssturm (German national militia ). There were also 43 recipients in the military forces of allies of the Th



Rudolf of Rheinfelden

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Rudolf of Rheinfelden ( c.  1025 – 15 October 1080) was Duke of Swabia from 1057 to 1079. Initially a follower of his brother-in-law, the Salian emperor Henry IV , his election as German anti-king in 1077 marked the outbreak of the Great Saxon Revolt and the first phase of open conflict in the Investiture Controversy between Emperor and Papacy . After a series of armed conflicts, Rudolf succumbed to his injuries after his forces defeated Henry's in the Battle on the Elster . Life Rudolf was the son of the Swabian count ( Graf ) Kuno of Rheinfelden . He was first mentioned in a 1048 deed issued by the Salian emperor Henry III as a count in the Swabian Sisgau on the High Rhine (in present-day Northwestern Switzerland ), an estate then held by the Prince-Bishopric of Basel . Rudolf's family had large possessions up to Sankt Blasien Abbey in the Black Forest and down to the Aargau beyond the border with the Kingdom of Burgundy . He probably was related to King Rudolph II of Burgundy (d. 937), the Dukes of Lorrain



All Saints' Church, Wittenberg

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All Saints' Church , commonly referred to as Schlosskirche (Castle Church) to distinguish it from the Stadtkirche (Town Church) of St. Mary's – and sometimes known as the Reformation Memorial Church – is a Lutheran church in Wittenberg , Germany. It is the site where the Ninety-five Theses were likely posted by Martin Luther in 1517, the act that has been called the start of the Protestant Reformation . From 1883 onwards, the church was restored as a memorial site and re-inaugurated on 31 October 1892, 375 years after Luther's posting. History A first chapel dedicated All Saints was erected at the new residence of the Ascanian duke Rudolf I of Saxe-Wittenberg from about 1340. Consecrated on 6 May 1346, Rudolf subordinated his foundation to the immediate jurisdiction of the Holy See . With further donations made by his successor Duke Rudolf II , it was determined the Wittenberg main church by Pope Boniface IX in 1400. Foundation Wittenberg Castle Church, after a woodcut by Lucas Cranach the Elder (1509)



Rudolph Schoenheimer

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Rudolph Schoenheimer (May 10, 1898 – September 11, 1941) was a German / U.S. biochemist who developed the technique of isotope tagging of biomolecules , enabling detailed study of metabolism . This work revealed that all the constituents of an organism are in a constant state of chemical renewal. Born in Berlin , after graduating in medicine from the Friedrich Wilhelm University there, he learned further organic chemistry at the University of Leipzig and then studied biochemistry at the University of Freiburg where he rose to be Head of Physiological Chemistry. He spent the 1930-31 academic year at the University of Chicago. In 1933, following the rise of the Nazis to power he emigrated from Germany to the Columbia University to join the department of Biological Chemistry. Working with David Rittenberg , from the radiochemistry laboratory of Harold C. Urey and later together with Konrad Bloch , they used stable isotopes to tag foodstuffs and trace their metabolism within living things. He further established



Death Is My Trade

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Death Is My Trade ( French : La mort est mon métier ) is a 1952 French fictionalized biographical novel by Robert Merle . The protagonist, Rudolf Lang, was closely based on the real Rudolf Höß , commandant of the concentration camp Auschwitz . Summary The story begins in 1913, when Lang is 13 years old. His parents give him a harsh catholic education, to which he reacts badly. His unstable father, with whom the young Lang has an awkward relationship, wants him to become a priest. At the age of fifteen, Lang starts a military career which leads in 1943 to the post of commandant of Auschwitz. At first a concentration camp, later an extermination camp, the camp, near town of Auschwitz, was the site of the “slow and clumsy creation of a death factory”. Lang works hard to achieve his mission: to kill as many Jews as possible, disposing of the bodies as efficiently as possible. Differences to the real Rudolf Höß In his book, Robert Merle renamed Rudolf Höß as Rudolf Lang, his nickname after demobilization from the



List of All My Children characters

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This is a list of characters appearing (or who have appeared) on the ABC Daytime and TOLN soap opera All My Children . A Gillian Andrassy (deceased) Esta TerBlanche (1997-2001, 2011) Hungarian princess, married to Jake Martin and Ryan Lavery . Initially, a spoiled and arrogant young lady who clashed with both Kelsey Martin and Hayley Vaughn-Santos, Gillian eventually matured into a much kinder and compassionate woman, due to her marriage to Jake Martin. She was murdered in a botched attempt on the life of Anna Devane in 2001 (resulting in the donation of her heart to Laura Kirk-English). Appeared as a ghost to Ryan in 2011 to assure him that she was not David's last Project Orpheus patient. Carter Anders Jason Pendergraft (2013) Pine Valley Hospital doctor with an unknown past. B Laurel Banning (deceased) Kristen Jensen (December 1992-January 1993) Felicity LaFortune (January 1993-February 1996) Reformed con artist who was married to Denny Benton, Jackson Montgomery and Trevor Dillon. Mother of Lily, who was



Mytchett

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Mytchett is a small suburban village in Surrey , approximately 35 miles south west of London . The village is approximately 2 miles long, but is constrained to the north by the South Western Main Line , to the east by the Basingstoke Canal and west by the River Blackwater , meaning the village is only around 3/4 of a mile wide. The census area Mytchett and Deepcut has a population of 6,197, increasing to 7101 at the 2011 Census. History Traditionally the village centre is at Mytchett Crossroads where a community centre was erected in the late 1980s. The village shops are 1/2 mile north of this point along the main road towards Frimley Green and Frimley . There used to also be a Post Office . However this was closed down before June 2012, and is now part of the Best One chain, the nearest Post Office is Frimley Green . Transport Mytchett has fast road links to London and the South. Buses are half-hourly services to Farnborough , Aldershot and Camberley . Mytchett is served by London rail services (towards the



James B. Donovan

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James Britt Donovan (February 29, 1916 – January 19, 1970) was an American lawyer, United States Navy officer in the Office of Scientific Research and Development and the Office of Strategic Services, ultimately becoming General Counsel of the OSS (the predecessor of the CIA), and international diplomatic negotiator. Donovan is widely known for negotiating the 1960–1962 exchange of captured American U-2 pilot Francis Gary Powers for Soviet spy Rudolf Abel , and for negotiating the 1962 release and return of 9,703 prisoners held by Cuba after the failed Bay of Pigs Invasion . Donovan was portrayed by Tom Hanks in the 2015 Oscar-winning film Bridge of Spies directed by Steven Spielberg from a screenplay written by Matt Charman , Ethan Coen, and Joel Coen . Early life and early career James Britt Donovan was born on February 29, 1916, in the Bronx . He was the son of Harriet (née O'Connor), a piano teacher, and John J. Donovan, a surgeon. His brother was New York state senator John J. Donovan Jr. Both sides



Rudolf Kjellén

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Rudolf Kjellén 1864-1922 Johan Rudolf Kjellén ( Swedish:  , 13 June 1864, Torsö – 14 November 1922, Uppsala ) was a Swedish political scientist and politician who first coined the term " geopolitics ". His work was influenced by Friedrich Ratzel . Along with Alexander von Humboldt , Karl Ritter , and Ratzel, Kjellén would lay the foundations for the German Geopolitik that would later be espoused prominently by General Karl Haushofer . Kjellén completed gymnasium in Skara in 1880 and matriculated at Uppsala University the same year. He completed his Ph.D. in Uppsala in 1891 and was a docent there from 1890 to 1893. He also taught at Gothenburg University from 1891 and was professor of political sciences and statistics there from 1901 until he received the prestigious Skyttean professorship of Eloquence and Government in Uppsala in 1916. A conservative politician, he was a member of the Second Chamber of the Parliament of Sweden from 1905 to 1908 and of its First Chamber from 1911 to 1917. Ideas Kjellén was Rat



Rudolf Kirchschläger

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Rudolf Kirchschläger ( German pronunciation: ; 20 March 1915 – 30 March 2000) was an Austrian diplomat, politician, judge and, from 1974–86, the eighth President of Austria. Education and early life Born in Niederkappel , Upper Austria , Kirschläger was orphaned at the age of 11. He graduated from High School in Horn in 1935 with distinction and started to study law at the University of Vienna . However, after the Anschluss of Austria in 1938, he had to give up his studies. Without joining the NSDAP , which he refused to do, his scholarship was revoked and Kirchschläger could not finance his studies any longer. Kirchschläger worked as a bank clerk in 1938 until he was drafted to service in the infantry of the Wehrmacht in the summer of 1939. Kirchschläger fought as a soldier from the very beginning of the war, first during the invasion of Poland , later on the Western Front , and after 1941 against Russia on the Eastern Front . In late 1940, in order to get out of the military, he used a two-month front-leave



Johan Rudolph Thorbecke

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Johan Rudolph Thorbecke (14 January 1798 – 4 June 1872) was a Dutch politician and statesman of liberal signature, one of the most important Dutch politicians of the 19th century. In 1848 he virtually single-handedly drafted the revision of the Constitution of the Netherlands , giving less power to the king, and more to the States General of the Netherlands . Early life and education Thorbecke's birthplace, the Thorbeckehuis in Zwolle Thorbecke was born in Zwolle . His father Frederik Willem was a Lutheran tobacco manufacturer of German descent, while his mother Christine Regina was born in the Lower Saxon Osnabrück . Frederik Willem's business suffered badly from the anti-British policies of the French occupiers, and his tobacco factory went bankrupt in 1803, after which he was unable to find another source of employment and would spend most of his time on the education of Johan Rudolph and his younger brother. Johan Rudolph proved to be diligent and exemplary at a young age, showing intelligence and curios



Kastner train

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The Kastner train consisted of 35 cattle trucks that left Budapest on 30 June 1944, during the German occupation of Hungary, carrying over 1,600 Jews to safety in Switzerland. The train was named after Rudolf Kastner , a Jewish-Hungarian lawyer and journalist, who was a founding member of the Budapest Aid and Rescue Committee , a group that smuggled Jews out of occupied Europe during the Holocaust . Kastner negotiated with Adolf Eichmann , the German SS officer in charge of deporting Hungary's Jews to Auschwitz in German-occupied Poland, to allow over 1,600 Jews to escape in exchange for gold, diamonds and cash. The train was organized during the deportations to Auschwitz in May–July 1944 of 437,000 Hungarian Jews, three-quarters of whom were sent to the gas chambers. Its passengers were chosen from a wide range of social classes and included around 273 children, many of them orphaned. The wealthiest 150 passengers paid $1,000 each to cover their own and the others' escape. After a journey of several week



Rudolf Carnap

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Rudolf Carnap ( ; German: ; May 18, 1891 – September 14, 1970) was a German-born philosopher who was active in Europe before 1935 and in the United States thereafter. He was a major member of the Vienna Circle and an advocate of logical positivism . He is considered "one of the giants among twentieth-century philosophers." Life and work Carnap's birthplace in Wuppertal Carnap's father had risen from the status of a poor ribbon-weaver to become the owner of a ribbon-making factory. His mother came from academic stock; her father was an educational reformer and her oldest brother was the archaeologist Wilhelm Dörpfeld . As a ten-year-old, Carnap accompanied his uncle on an expedition to Greece. Carnap was raised in a religious family, but later became an atheist. He began his formal education at the Barmen Gymnasium . From 1910 to 1914, he attended the University of Jena , intending to write a thesis in physics . But he also studied carefully Kant 's Critique of Pure Reason during a course taught by Bruno Bauc



Blackout (Scorpions album)

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Blackout is the eighth studio album by German rock band Scorpions , released in 1982 on EMI Records Germany and Mercury Records . After losing his voice during the writing of the album, lead singer Klaus Meine had to undergo surgery on his vocal cords and it was uncertain whether he would be able to record it. Demos of the material were recorded with singer Don Dokken as lead singer; however none of those recordings are featured on the album. In Kerrang! issue 12, dated March 25-April 07 1982, Rudolf Schenker said that he could not choose between his guitar solos on "China White", so the US and European releases differed in this small detail. A self-portrait of artist Gottfried Helnwein is featured on the cover of the album. Rudolf Schenker portrays this character in the "No One Like You" music video . The RIAA certified Blackout Gold on 24 June 1982 and Platinum on 8 March 1984. Track listing All music composed by Rudolf Schenker . Side one No. Title Lyrics Length 1. "Blackout" Klaus Meine , Herman Rarebell



Salina Turda

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Salina Turda is a salt mine located in the Durgău-Valea Sărată area of Turda , the second largest city in Cluj County , Romania . Since its opening to tourists in 1992, Salina Turda has been visited by about 2 million Romanian and foreign tourists. Salina Turda was placed by Business Insider at the top of their list of the ten "coolest underground places in the world". Likewise, Salina Turda was once ranked among the "25 hidden gems around the world that are worth the trek". History Salt was first extracted here during the antiquity and the mine continuously produced table salt from the Middle Ages (the mine being first mentioned in 1075) to the early 20th century (1932). The first document that speaks explicitly about the existence of a salt mine in Turda dates from 1 May 1271, being issued by the Hungarian chancellery. Documents preserved from the thirteenth and fourteenth centuries that refer to the Turda salt mines mention that salines were arranged in Băile Sărate microdepression and on the south-easter



Rudolph (name)

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Rudolph or Rudolf ( French : Rodolphe , Italian , Portuguese and Spanish : Rodolfo ) or Rodolphe is a male first name, and, less commonly, a surname. It is a Germanic name deriving from two stems: Rod or Hrōð, meaning "fame", and olf meaning "wolf" (see also Hroðulf ; cf. Adolf ). In other languages Albanian : Rudolf Armenian : Ռուդոլֆ (Rudolf) Catalan : Rodolf Croatian : Rudolf Czech : Rudolf Danish : Rudolf Dutch : Roelof, Rudolf, Ruud English : Rudolf, Rudolph French : Rodolphe, Raoul Georgian : რუდოლფ (Rudolp) German : Rudolf, diminutive: Rudi Greek : Ροδόλφος (Rhodólphos), Ράλλης (Rhálles) Hebrew רודולף (Rudolf) Hungarian : Rudolf Italian : Rodolfo Latin : Rudolphus Latvian : Rūdolfs Norwegian : Rudolf Polish : Rudolf Portuguese : Rodolfo Russian : Рудольф (Rudolf) Serbian : Rudolf (Рудолф) Slovak : Rudolf Slovene : Rudolf Spanish : Rodolfo Swedish : Rudolf Surname Athletes Ernie Rudolph (1909–2003), Major League Baseball pitcher Gergely Rudolf (born 1985), Hungarian soccer player Jacques Rudolph (born 1



Rudolf Martin

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Rudolf Martin (born 31 July 1967) is a German actor working mainly in the United States . He first appeared in off-Broadway productions and then moved on to extensive TV and film work. He has made guest appearances on numerous hit television series and recently started working in Germany as well. He currently resides in Los Angeles . Early life and education Martin was born in West Berlin and spent his early years traveling throughout Europe while completing his education. Because of his interest in the arts, Martin studied American and English literature in Berlin and drama in Paris . He then enrolled in the Lee Strasberg Theatre Institute in New York City to pursue acting. While performing in small theatre productions, Martin secured a starring role in Susan Seidelman's Academy Award-nominated short film The Dutch Master . This was followed by leading roles on ABC's All My Children and Off-Broadway in Nicky Silver's critically acclaimed hit comedy The Food Chain . While in New York, Martin received recognit



Rudolf Scharping

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Rudolf Albert Scharping (born 2 December 1947) is a German politician ( SPD ) and sports official. He was from 1991 to 1994 the 6th Minister President of the State of Rhineland-Palatinate and 1998–2002 Federal Minister of Defence. From 1993 to 1995 he was also the national chairman of the SPD. In the Bundestag election in 1994 he was candidate for chancellor. From March 1995 to May 2001 he served as chairman of the Party of European Socialists (PES). Early life Scharping was born in Niederelbert . He studied politics, sociology and law at the University of Bonn . He joined the Social Democratic Party of Germany (SPD) in 1966. Political career He was a Member of the Rhineland-Palatine Parliament from 1975 to 1994. From 21 May 1991 to 15 October 1994, he was prime minister of the state. In 1994 he ran as the SPD's candidate for Chancellor against Helmut Kohl ( CDU ), lost, and became leader of the opposition. His successor for the prime minister post is Kurt Beck . From 1993 to 1995, Scharping was chairman of t



Dr. Oetker

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Dr. Oetker is a German company that produces baking powder , cake mixes, yogurts , frozen pizza , pudding , cake decoration , cornflakes and various other products. Portfolio Also included in the portfolio are a bank, a publishing company, an insurance outfit, breweries and a number of high-class hotels all over Europe. History Dr. Oetker factory premises in Bielefeld , Germany Formation 10g Backin package (1902) The company was founded by Doctor August Oetker in 1891; the first product developed was "Backin", a pre-measured amount of baking powder that, when mixed with 500 grams (18 oz) of flour and other ingredients, produced a cake. First World War Dr. Oetker's son, Rudolf, died in the First World War . However Rudolf, and his wife, Ida, had two children, Rudolf-August and Ursula. Ida Oetker remarried Dr. Richard Kaselowsky, and they subsequently had four more children. Dr. Kaselowsky raised Rudolf-August and Ursula as his own. Second World War During the 1930's and 1940 Rudolf-August Oetker was an active



Martin Bormann

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Martin Bormann (17 June 1900 – 2 May 1945) was a prominent official in Nazi Germany as head of the Nazi Party Chancellery . He gained immense power within the Third Reich by using his position as Adolf Hitler 's private secretary to control the flow of information and access to Hitler. Bormann joined a paramilitary Freikorps organisation in 1922 while working as manager of a large estate. He served nearly a year in prison as an accomplice to his friend Rudolf Höss (later commandant of Auschwitz concentration camp ) in the murder of Walther Kadow . Bormann joined the Nazi Party in 1927 and the Schutzstaffel (SS) in 1937. He initially worked in the party's insurance service, and transferred in July 1933 to the office of Deputy Führer Rudolf Hess , where he served as chief of staff. Bormann used his position to create an extensive bureaucracy and involve himself as much as possible in the decision making. He gained acceptance into Hitler's inner circle, and accompanied him everywhere, providing briefings and sum



Cell theory

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In biology , cell theory is the historic scientific theory , now universally accepted, that living organisms are made up of cells . Cells are the basic unit of structure in all organisms and also the basic unit of reproduction. With continual improvements made to microscopes over time, magnification technology advanced enough to discover cells in the 17th century. This discovery is largely attributed to Robert Hooke , and began the scientific study of cells, also known as cell biology . Over a century later, many debates about cells began amongst scientists. Most of these debates involved the nature of cellular regeneration, and the idea of cells as a fundamental unit of life. Cell theory was eventually formulated in 1839. This is usually credited to Matthias Schleiden and Theodor Schwann . However, many other scientists like Rudolf Virchow contributed to the theory. The three tenets to the cell theory are as described below: All living organisms are composed of one or more cells. (However, this is considered

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hamid asadi (biohasa)

In biology, cell theory is a scientific theory which describes the properties of cells. These cells are the basic unit of structure in all organisms and also the basic unit of reproduction. With continual improvements made to microscopes over time, magnification technology advanced enough to discover cells in the 17th century. This discovery is largely attributed to Robert Hooke, and began the scientific study of cells, also known as cell biology. Over a century later, many debates about cells began amongst scientists. Most of these debates involved the nature of cellular regeneration, and the idea of cells as a fundamental unit of life. Cell theory was eventually formulated in 1839. This is usually credited to Matthias Schleiden and Theodor Schwann. However, many other scientists like Rudolf Virchow contributed to the theory. Cell theory has become the foundation of biology and is the most widely accepted explanation of the function of cells. The three tenets to the cell theory are as described below: All living organisms are composed of one or more cells. (However, this is considered a controversy because non-cellular life such as viruses are disputed as a life form.[1] See Non-cellular life.) The cell is the basic unit of structure and organization in organisms. Cells arise from pre-existing cells. Microscopes Anton van Leeuwenhoek's microscope from the 17th century with a magnification of 270x. Robert Hooke's microscope The discovery of the cell was made possible through the invention of the microscope. In the first century BC, Romans were able to make glass, discovering that objects appeared to be larger under the glass. In Italy during the 12th century, Salvino D’Armate made a piece of glass fit over one eye, allowing for a magnification effect to that eye. It was not until the 1590s when a Dutch spectacle maker Zacharias Jansen began to test lenses that progress had been made to microscopes. Jansen was able to obtain about 9x magnification, but the objects appeared to be blurry. In 1595, Jansen and his father built the first compound microscope. While simple glasses were able to magnify objects, they were not considered to be a microscope. A compound microscope was defined by having two or more lenses in a hollow tube.[2] In 1665, Robert Hooke used a microscope about six inches long with two convex lenses inside and examined specimens under reflected light for


The Prisoner of Zenda (1937 film)

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The Prisoner of Zenda is a 1937 American black-and-white adventure film based on the Anthony Hope 1894 novel of the same name and the 1896 play. The film starred Ronald Colman , Madeleine Carroll and Douglas Fairbanks, Jr. , with a supporting cast including C. Aubrey Smith , Raymond Massey , Mary Astor and David Niven . It was directed by John Cromwell , produced by David O. Selznick for Selznick International Pictures , and distributed by United Artists . The screenplay was written by John L. Balderston , adapted by Wells Root from the novel, with dramatisation by Edward Rose ; Donald Ogden Stewart was responsible for additional dialogue, and Ben Hecht and Sidney Howard made uncredited contributions. Alfred Newman received the first of his 45 Academy Award nominations, for Original Music Score , while Lyle R. Wheeler was nominated for Best Art Direction . In 1991, the film was deemed "culturally, historically, or aesthetically significant" by the United States Library of Congress and selected for preservatio



Christiaan de Wet

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Christiaan Rudolf de Wet (7 October 1854 – 3 February 1922) was a South African Boer general, rebel leader and politician. He was born on the Leeuwkop farm, in the district of Smithfield in the Boer Republic of the Orange Free State . He later resided at Dewetsdorp , named after his father, Jacobus Ignatius de Wet . De Wet is mentioned in Kipling 's poem Ubique . He was a close personal friend of Helene Kröller-Müller who commissioned a statue of him in the Hoge Veluwe National Park in the Netherlands . Military career De Wet served in the first Anglo-Boer War of 1880–81 as a Field Cornet , taking part in the Battle of Majuba Mountain , in which the Boers achieved a victory over the British forces under Major General Sir George Pomeroy Colley . This eventually led to the end of the war and the reinstatement of the independence of the Zuid-Afrikaansche Republiek , more commonly known as the Transvaal Republic . In the years between the First and Second Boer Wars , from 1881 to 1896, he lived on his farm, be



Rudolf Brandt

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Rudolf Hermann Brandt (2 June 1909 – 2 June 1948) was a German SS officer from 1933–45 and a civil servant . A lawyer by profession, Brandt was the Personal Administrative Officer to Reichsführer-SS (Persönlicher Referent vom Reichsführer SS) Heinrich Himmler and a defendant at the Doctors' Trial at Nuremberg for his part in securing the 86 victims of the Jewish skeleton collection , an attempt to create an anthropological display of plaster body casts and skeletal remains of Jews. He was convicted of war crimes and crimes against humanity, and executed in 1948. Life and work Rudolf Brandt, the son of a railway worker, was born on 2 June 1909, and raised in modest circumstances in the town of Frankfurt an der Oder . Brandt was a member of the student's stenography (shorthand) club at the Realgymnasium, and in 1927, at the age of 18, won a competition with a transcription speed of 360 syllables per minute. He attended the University of Berlin and the University of Jena (1928–1932), simultaneously working from




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