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Rudolf Allers

Rudolf Allers

Rudolf Allers (1883-1963) was an Austrian psychiatrist who was a member of the first group of the founder of psychoanalysis, Sigmund Freud.

Career

Allers was the only Catholic to join the first group of the founder of psychoanalysis Sigmund Freud. Together with Alfred Adler, he later distanced himself from psychoanalysis. He was later detached from the group of Adler along with Oswald Schwarz. He taught at the University of Vienna (1919).

He was master of Viktor Frankl, guidance of Hans Urs von Balthasar and friend of St. Edith Stein. Both von Balthasar and Stein lived for several months in the house of Allers in Vienna.

He studied the preventive method of St. John Bosco and his pedagogical applications, and at the invitation of Father Agostino Gemelli, was in Italy to study the philosophy of St. Thomas Aquinas at the Catholic University of Milan and graduated in Philosophy in 1934.

With the annexation of Austria to the Third Reich, Allers emigrated to the United States, where he taught at the Catholic University of America in Washington DC (1938 - 1948), and later at Georgetown University in Washington DC.

He was a Guggenheim Fellow in 1958.[1]

Family

In 1908 he married Carola Meitner, sister Lise physical and contributor to the Nobel laureate Otto Hahn.

Death

Allers is buried in St. Mary's Cemetery in Washington DC.

References

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Rudolf Allers

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Rudolf Allers Rudolf Allers (1883-1963) was an Austrian psychiatrist who was a member of the first group of the founder of psychoanalysis , Sigmund Freud. Career Allers was the only Catholic to join the first group of the founder of psychoanalysis Sigmund Freud . Together with Alfred Adler , he later distanced himself from psychoanalysis . He was later detached from the group of Adler along with Oswald Schwarz . He taught at the University of Vienna (1919). He was master of Viktor Frankl , guidance of Hans Urs von Balthasar and friend of St. Edith Stein . Both von Balthasar and Stein lived for several months in the house of Allers in Vienna. He studied the preventive method of St. John Bosco and his pedagogical applications, and at the invitation of Father Agostino Gemelli , was in Italy to study the philosophy of St. Thomas Aquinas at the Catholic University of Milan and graduated in Philosophy in 1934. With the annexation of Austria to the Third Reich, Allers emigrated to the United States, where he taught ...more...



Rudolf Hess

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Rudolf Walter Richard Hess ( Heß in German; 26 April 1894 – 17 August 1987), was a prominent politician in Nazi Germany . Appointed Deputy Führer to Adolf Hitler in 1933, he served in this position until 1941, when he flew solo to Scotland in an attempt to negotiate peace with the United Kingdom during World War II . He was taken prisoner and eventually was convicted of crimes against peace, serving a life sentence until his suicide. Hess enlisted in the 7th Bavarian Field Artillery Regiment as an infantryman at the outbreak of World War I . He was wounded several times over the course of the war, and won the Iron Cross , 2nd class, in 1915. Shortly before the war ended, Hess enrolled to train as an aviator, but he saw no action in this role. He left the armed forces in December 1918 with the rank of Leutnant der Reserve. In 1919, Hess enrolled in the University of Munich , where he studied geopolitics under Karl Haushofer , a proponent of the concept of Lebensraum ("living space"), which later became one of ...more...



Rudolf Höss

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Rudolf Höss (also Höß , Hoeß or Hoess ; 25 November 1901 – 16 April 1947) was a Nazi German SS - Obersturmbannführer (lieutenant colonel) and the longest-serving commandant of Auschwitz concentration and extermination camp in World War II. He tested and carried into effect various methods to accelerate Hitler's plan to systematically exterminate the Jewish population of Nazi-occupied Europe , known as the Final Solution . On the initiative of one of his subordinates, SS- Hauptsturmführer (captain) Karl Fritzsch , Höss introduced pesticide Zyklon B containing hydrogen cyanide to the killing process, thereby allowing SS soldiers at Auschwitz to kill 2,000 people every hour. Höss joined the Nazi Party in 1922 and the SS in 1934. From 4 May 1940 to November 1943, and again from 8 May 1944 to 18 January 1945, he was in charge of Auschwitz where more than a million people were killed before the defeat of Germany. He was hanged in 1947 following a trial in Warsaw . During his imprisonment in Poland, at the reque ...more...



Akashic records

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In theosophy and anthroposophy , the Akashic records are a compendium of all human events, thoughts, words, emotions, and intent ever to have occurred in the past, present, or future. They are believed by theosophists to be encoded in a non-physical plane of existence known as the etheric plane . There are anecdotal accounts but no scientific evidence for existence of the Akashic records. Akasha ( ākāśa आकाश ) is the Sanskrit word for ' aether ' or 'atmosphere'. Also, in Hindi, akash ( आकाश ) means 'sky' or 'heaven'. Theosophical Society The Sanskrit term akasha was introduced to the language of theosophy through H. P. Blavatsky (1831–1891), who characterized it as a sort of life force; she also referred to "indestructible tablets of the astral light" recording both the past and future of human thought and action, but she did not use the term "akashic". The notion of an akashic record is attributed to Alfred Percy Sinnett , who, in his book Esoteric Buddhism (1883), wrote of a Buddhist belief in "a permanenc ...more...



Rudolf Nureyev

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Rudolf Khametovich Nureyev ( Bashkir : Рудольф Хәмит улы Нуриев , Tatar : Рудольф Хәмит улы Нуриев , Russian : Рудо́льф Хаме́тович Нуре́ев ; 17 March 1938 – 6 January 1993) was a Soviet ballet dancer and choreographer. He was director of the Paris Opera Ballet from 1983 to 1989 and its chief choreographer until October 1992. Named Lord of the Dance, Nureyev is regarded as one of ballet's most gifted male dancers. In addition to his technical prowess, Rudolf Nureyev was an accomplished choreographer. He produced his own interpretations of numerous classical works, including Swan Lake , Giselle , and La Bayadère . Nureyev had his early career with the Mariinsky Ballet in St. Petersburg. He defected from the Soviet Union to the West in 1961, despite KGB efforts to stop him. This was the first defection of a Soviet artist during the Cold War and it created an international sensation. He went on to dance with The Royal Ballet in London and from 1983 to 1989 served as director of the Paris Opera Ballet . Early ...more...



Rudolf Steiner

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Rudolf Joseph Lorenz Steiner (27 (or 25) February 1861 – 30 March 1925) was an Austrian philosopher , social reformer , architect and esotericist . Steiner gained initial recognition at the end of the nineteenth century as a literary critic and published philosophical works including The Philosophy of Freedom . At the beginning of the twentieth century he founded an esoteric spiritual movement, anthroposophy , with roots in German idealist philosophy and theosophy ; other influences include Goethean science and Rosicrucianism . In the first, more philosophically oriented phase of this movement, Steiner attempted to find a synthesis between science and spirituality . His philosophical work of these years, which he termed " spiritual science ", sought to apply the clarity of thinking characteristic of Western philosophy to spiritual questions, differentiating this approach from what he considered to be vaguer approaches to mysticism. In a second phase, beginning around 1907, he began working collaborative ...more...



Rudolf I of Germany

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Rudolf I , also known as Rudolf of Habsburg ( German : Rudolf von Habsburg , Czech : Rudolf Habsburský ; 1 May 1218 – 15 July 1291), was Count of Habsburg from about 1240 and the elected King of the Romans from 1273 until his death. Rudolf's election marked the end of the Great Interregnum in the Holy Roman Empire after the death of the Hohenstaufen emperor Frederick II in 1250. Originally a Swabian count, he was the first Habsburg to acquire the duchies of Austria and Styria in opposition to his mighty rival, the Přemyslid king Ottokar II of Bohemia , whom he defeated in the 1278 Battle on the Marchfeld . The territories remained under Habsburg rule for more than 600 years, forming the core of the Habsburg Monarchy and the present-day country of Austria . Rudolf was the first king of the Romans of the Habsburg dynasty, and he played a vital role in raising the comital house to the rank of Imperial princes . He was also the first of a number of late medieval count-kings , so called by the historian Bernd Schn ...more...



Rudolf II, Holy Roman Emperor

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Rudolf II (18 July 1552 – 20 January 1612) was Holy Roman Emperor (1576–1612), King of Hungary and Croatia (as Rudolf I , 1572–1608), King of Bohemia (1575–1608/1611) and Archduke of Austria (1576–1608). He was a member of the House of Habsburg . Rudolf's legacy has traditionally been viewed in three ways: an ineffectual ruler whose mistakes led directly to the Thirty Years' War ; a great and influential patron of Northern Mannerist art; and an intellectual devotee of occult arts and learning which helped seed what would be called the scientific revolution . Early life Archduke Rudolf, aged 15, painted by Alonso Sánchez Coello Rudolf was born in Vienna on 18 July 1552. He was the eldest son and successor of Maximilian II , Holy Roman Emperor, King of Bohemia , and King of Hungary and Croatia ; his mother was Maria of Spain , a daughter of Charles V and Isabella of Portugal . Rudolf spent eight formative years, from age 11 to 19 (1563–1571), in Spain, at the court of his maternal uncle Phillip II . After his ...more...



Rudolf of Rheinfelden

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Rudolf of Rheinfelden ( c.  1025 – 15 October 1080) was Duke of Swabia from 1057 to 1079. Initially a follower of his brother-in-law, the Salian emperor Henry IV , his election as German anti-king in 1077 marked the outbreak of the Great Saxon Revolt and the first phase of open conflict in the Investiture Controversy between Emperor and Papacy . After a series of armed conflicts, Rudolf succumbed to his injuries after his forces defeated Henry's in the Battle on the Elster . Life Rudolf was the son of the Swabian count ( Graf ) Kuno of Rheinfelden . He was first mentioned in a 1048 deed issued by the Salian emperor Henry III as a count in the Swabian Sisgau on the High Rhine (in present-day Northwestern Switzerland ), an estate then held by the Prince-Bishopric of Basel . Rudolf's family had large possessions up to Sankt Blasien Abbey in the Black Forest and down to the Aargau beyond the border with the Kingdom of Burgundy . He probably was related to King Rudolph II of Burgundy (d. 937), the Dukes of Lorrain ...more...



Rudolf, Crown Prince of Austria

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Rudolf, Crown Prince of Austria (Rudolf Franz Karl Joseph; 21 August 1858 – 30 January 1889) was the only son of Emperor Franz Joseph I and heir apparent to the throne of Austria-Hungary from birth. In 1889, he died in a suicide pact with his mistress , Baroness Mary Vetsera , at the Mayerling hunting lodge . The ensuing scandal made international headlines. He was named after the first Habsburg King of Germany , Rudolf I , who assumed the throne in 1273. Background Rudolf was born at Schloss Laxenburg , a castle near Vienna , as the son of Emperor Franz Joseph I and Empress Elisabeth . Influenced by his tutor Ferdinand von Hochstetter (who later became the first superintendent of the Imperial Natural History Museum ), Rudolf became very interested in natural sciences, starting a mineral collection at an early age. After his death, large portions of his mineral collection came into the possession of the University for Agriculture in Vienna. In 1877 the Count of Bombelles was master of the young prince. Bom ...more...



Rudolf Roessler

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Early life Rudolf Roessler was born on 22 November 1897 in Kaufbeuren , Bavaria. He was the son of a Bavarian Forestry Official. When World War I broke out, Rudolf Roessler enlisted in the army at the ripe age of 17. For four years, he served in the German army as a combat soldier. While in the army, he met ten men who would later become his contacts in World War II. After being released from service in the German army, he studied theology in Augsburg. When Adolf Hitler became prominent in German politics, Roessler and his ten contacts realized the dire danger and evil posed by this political leader. Rudolf Roessler started working as a newspaper man at the Augsburg Post Zeitung to wake fellow Germans to the rise of Nazism. In 1933, Rudolf Roessler and his wife, Olga, had to flee to Lucern, Switzerland, with only 10 marks in his pocket(about $50). In Lucern, he opened a publishing house, the Vita Nova. There he wrote about the evils of Nazism under the name R.A. Hermes, after the Greek messenger god. His Cont ...more...



Rudolf Virchow

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Rudolf Ludwig Carl Virchow ( English: ; German: ; 13 October 1821 – 5 September 1902) was a German physician , anthropologist , pathologist , prehistorian , biologist , writer, editor, and politician, known for his advancement of public health . He is known as "the father of modern pathology " because his work helped to discredit humourism , bringing more science to medicine . He is also known as the founder of social medicine and veterinary pathology, and to his colleagues, the "Pope of medicine". Born and raised in Schievelbein ( Świdwin ) as an only child of a working-class family , he proved to be a brilliant student. Dissuaded by his weak voice, he abandoned his initial interest in theology and turned to medicine. With the help of a special military scholarship, he earned his medical degree from Friedrich-Wilhelms Institute ( Humboldt University of Berlin ) under the tutelage of Johannes Peter Müller . He worked at the Charité hospital under Robert Froriep , whom he eventually succeeded as the prosecto ...more...



Rudolf Dassler

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Rudolf Dassler (26 March 1898 in Herzogenaurach , Germany – 27 October 1974 in Herzogenaurach) was the German founder of the sportswear company Puma and the older brother of Adidas founder, Adolf "Adi" Dassler . The brothers were partners in a shoe company Adi started, Gebrüder Dassler Schuhfabrik (Dassler Brothers Shoe Factory). Rudi joined in 1924, however the brothers became rivals following World War II and started their own companies in 1948. Initially calling the new company "Ruda" ( Ru dolf Da ssler), it was soon changed to its present name of Puma . Puma is the native Quechua word for cougar , from there it went into German as well as other languages, such as Spanish , French , Russian , Romanian , Portuguese , Italian , Polish , Czech , Bulgarian , Swedish , Danish , Norwegian , Finnish , Bosnian Croatian , Serbian , Slovene and Hungarian . Life Adolf Dassler, Rudolf's younger brother, started to produce sports shoes in his mother's kitchen after his return from World War I. His father, Christoph, w ...more...



Rudolf Schenker

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Rudolf Schenker (born 31 August 1948 in Hildesheim , Lower Saxony) is a German guitarist and founding member of the hard rock band Scorpions , being the rhythm/lead guitarist and one of the main songwriters of the band. Career Schenker founded Scorpions in 1965. He has become one of the major driving forces in the band's song-writing and musical direction for 50 years. Schenker has been Scorpions' most consistent member, appearing on every album and at every tour. His younger brother Michael Schenker was a member of Scorpions in the band's earliest inception, before joining the band UFO . In the year 2000 Schenker was awarded the city of Hanover plaque. and the Cross of Merit First Class (Verdienstkreuz 1. Klasse) of the Lower Saxony Order of Merit . Equipment After starting out with a Fender Stratocaster , Schenker is primarily known for playing Gibson Flying Vs . In the Acoustica DVD, he is seen playing an acoustic Flying V made especially for him by Dommenget. He now uses Dean acoustic V models. Some of R ...more...



Arne Næss Jr.

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Arne Næss Jr. (born Arne Rudolf Ludvig Raab ; 8 December 1937 – 13 January 2004) was a Norwegian businessman, shipping magnate, mountaineer , and an ex-husband of Diana Ross . Personal life Næss was born in Germany in 1937 to German physician August Oskar German Raab (1901–1993) and Kirsten "Kiki" Dekke Næss (1907–2001), a Norwegian national whose brother was philosopher and mountaineer Arne Næss . Næss' family lived in Germany during World War II . His parents divorced after the war, and Næss moved to Norway with his mother where they both took her maiden name Næss. In 1964, Næss moved to New York to work for his uncle Erling Dekke Næss, a shipping magnate and businessman. He started his own business in London in 1968 where he was successful in shipping and oil, and in real estate. He would go on to make a few bad investments in the 1990s in Pyramid scheme Global Money Games . His biggest success turned out to be an investment in an old IT business, Tandberg Data , and various real estate investments around ...more...



Rudolf Abel

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Rudolf Ivanovich Abel ( Russian : Рудольф Иванович Абель ), real name Vilyam "Willie" Genrikhovich Fisher (Вильям "Вилли" Генрихович Фишер), (11 July 1903 – 15 November 1971) was a Soviet intelligence officer. He adopted his alias when arrested on charges of conspiracy by FBI agents in 1957. Born in the United Kingdom to Russian émigré parents, Fisher moved to Russia in the 1920s and served in the Soviet military before undertaking foreign service as a radio operator in Soviet intelligence in the late 1920s and early 1930s. He later served in an instructional role before taking part in intelligence operations against the Germans during World War II. After the war, he began working for the KGB , which sent him to the United States where he worked as part of a spy ring based in New York City . In 1957 the U.S. Federal Court in New York convicted Fisher on three counts of conspiracy as a Soviet spy for his involvement in what became known as the Hollow Nickel Case and sentenced him to 30 years' imprisonment at A ...more...



Rudolph Schoenheimer

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Rudolph Schoenheimer (May 10, 1898 – September 11, 1941) was a German / U.S. biochemist who developed the technique of isotope tagging of biomolecules , enabling detailed study of metabolism . This work revealed that all the constituents of an organism are in a constant state of chemical renewal. Born in Berlin , after graduating in medicine from the Friedrich Wilhelm University there, he learned further organic chemistry at the University of Leipzig and then studied biochemistry at the University of Freiburg where he rose to be Head of Physiological Chemistry. He spent the 1930-31 academic year at the University of Chicago. In 1933, following the rise of the Nazis to power he emigrated from Germany to the Columbia University to join the department of Biological Chemistry. Working with David Rittenberg , from the radiochemistry laboratory of Harold C. Urey and later together with Konrad Bloch , they used stable isotopes to tag foodstuffs and trace their metabolism within living things. He further established ...more...



Rudolf Diesel

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Rudolf Christian Karl Diesel ( German: ; 18 March 1858 – 29 September 1913) was a German inventor and mechanical engineer , famous for the invention of the diesel engine , and for his mysterious death. Diesel was the subject of the 1942 film Diesel . Early life and education Diesel was born in Paris , France in 1858 the second of three children of Elise (née Strobel) and Theodor Diesel. His parents were Bavarian immigrants living in Paris. Theodor Diesel, a bookbinder by trade, left his home town of Augsburg , Bavaria , in 1848. He met his wife, a daughter of a Nuremberg merchant, in Paris in 1855 and became a leather goods manufacturer there. Rudolf Diesel spent his early childhood in France, but at the outbreak of the Franco-Prussian War in 1870, his family was forced to leave, as were many other Germans. They settled in London , England. Before the war's end, however, Diesel's mother sent 12-year-old Rudolf to Augsburg to live with his aunt and uncle, Barbara and Christoph Barnickel, to become fluent in ...more...



Kevin Rudolf

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Kevin Winston Rudolf (born February 17, 1983) is an American musician and record producer from New York City , New York . Early life Kevin Winston Rudolf was born on February 17, 1983, in New York City, New York , to Ellyn, an American singer, and Stephen, a disc jockey originally from the United Kingdom and of English heritage. He grew up an only child on the Upper East Side , his parents divorcing while he was still very young. His middle name, Winston, is an homage to Beatle John Lennon : "My dad... was a DJ at the time in Baltimore . He's British, and emceed some shows for The Beatles and The Rolling Stones . In fact, that's why my middle name is Winston, he named me after John Lennon's middle name. And, of course, mom being a singer, she'd let me come to her gigs and soundchecks. They both really influenced me a lot to be a musician." Rudolf has said that his first musical memory is of listening to the Van Halen song ' Jump ,' while jumping around the apartment in which he grew up. His first guitar was ...more...



Puma (brand)

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PUMA SE , branded as PUMA , is a German multinational company that designs and manufactures athletic and casual footwear, apparel and accessories, headquartered in Herzogenaurach , Bavaria . PUMA is the third largest sportswear manufacturer in the world. . The company was founded in 1948 by Rudolf Dassler . In 1924, Rudolf and his brother Adolf Dassler had jointly formed the company Gebrüder Dassler Schuhfabrik (Dassler Brothers Shoe Factory). The relationship between the two brothers deteriorated until the two agreed to split in 1948, forming two separate entities, Adidas and PUMA. Both companies are currently based in Herzogenaurach, Germany. PUMA has been a public company since 1986, listed at the Frankfurt Stock Exchange . Since 2007 PUMA has been part of French group Kering (formerly known as Pinault-Printemps-Redoute or PPR). Since 1 July 2013, the company has been led by former football professional Bjørn Gulden (CEO). As of 2016, PUMA SE employs more than 10,000 people worldwide and distributes its pr ...more...



Albert von Kölliker

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Albert von Kölliker (born Rudolf Albert Kölliker; 6 July 1817 – 2 November 1905) was a Swiss anatomist , physiologist , and histologist . Biography Albert Kölliker was born in Zurich , Switzerland . His early education was carried on in Zurich, and he entered the university there in 1836. After two years, however, he moved to the University of Bonn , and later to that of Berlin , becoming a pupil of noted physiologists Johannes Peter Müller and of Friedrich Gustav Jakob Henle . He graduated in philosophy at Zurich in 1841, and in medicine at Heidelberg in 1842. The first academic post which he held was that of prosector of anatomy under Henle, but his tenure of this office was brief – in 1844 he returned to Zurich University to occupy a chair as professor extraordinary of physiology and comparative anatomy . His stay here was also brief; in 1847 the University of Würzburg , attracted by his rising fame, offered him the post of professor of physiology and of microscopical and comparative anatomy. He accepted t ...more...



Rudolph the Red-Nosed Reindeer

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Rudolph the Red-Nosed Reindeer is a legendary reindeer, created by Robert Lewis May , usually depicted as a young fawn who barely has antlers, with a glowing red nose, popularly known as " Santa's ninth reindeer ." When depicted, he is the lead reindeer pulling Santa's sleigh on Christmas Eve . The luminosity of his nose is so great that it illuminates the team's path through inclement winter weather . Rudolph first appeared in a 1939 booklet written by Robert L. May and published by Montgomery Ward , the department store. The story is owned by The Rudolph Company, LP and has been adapted in numerous forms including a popular song , the iconic television special and sequels, and a feature film and sequel. Character Arts, LLC manages the licensing for the Rudolph Company, LP. In many countries, Rudolph has become a figure of Christmas folklore . 2014 marked the 75th anniversary of the character and the 50th anniversary of the television special. A series of postage stamps featuring Rudolph was issued by the ...more...



Rudolf Bultmann

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Rudolf Karl Bultmann ( German: ; 20 August 1884 – 30 July 1976) was a German Lutheran theologian and professor of New Testament at the University of Marburg . He was one of the major figures of early 20th century biblical studies and a prominent voice in liberal Christianity . Bultmann is known for his belief that the historical analysis of the New Testament is both futile and unnecessary, given that the earliest Christian literature showed little interest in specific locations. Bultmann argued that all that matters is the "thatness", not the "whatness" of Jesus, i.e. only that Jesus existed, preached and died by crucifixion matters, not what happened throughout his life. Bultmann relied on demythologization , an approach interpreting the mythological elements in the New Testament existentially. Bultmann contended that only faith in the kerygma , or proclamation, of the New Testament was necessary for Christian faith, not any particular facts regarding the historical Jesus . Background Bultmann was born in ...more...



Rudolf Wanderone

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Rudolf Walter Wanderone Jr. (January 19, 1913 – January 15, 1996; originally spelled Wanderon ) was an American professional pocket billiards player, also known as "Minnesota Fats". Although he never won a major pool tournament as "Fats", he was perhaps the most publicly recognized pool player in the United States — not only as a player, but also as an entertainer. Wanderone was inducted in 1984 into the Billiard Congress of America Hall of Fame for his decades-long public promotion of pool. Wanderone began playing at a young age in New York City. As a teenager, he became a traveling pool hustler . Later, in his 30s, he moved to southern Illinois where he met and married his first wife, Evelyn. During World War II, he hustled servicemen in Norfolk, Virginia . With the end of the war, Wanderone returned to Illinois and entered semi-retirement. Wanderone adopted the nickname " Minnesota Fats " from a character in the 1961 film The Hustler , claiming that the character was based upon him. He parlayed the asso ...more...



Rudolf Kastner

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Rudolf Israel Kastner (1906 – 15 March 1957), also known as Rezső Kasztner , was a Jewish-Hungarian journalist and lawyer who became known for having helped Jews escape from occupied Europe during the Holocaust . He was assassinated in 1957 after an Israeli court accused him of having collaborated with the Nazis. Kastner was one of the leaders of the Budapest Aid and Rescue Committee (Va'adat Ezrah Vehatzalah, or Vaada), which smuggled Jewish refugees into Hungary during World War II , then helped them escape from Hungary when in March 1944 the Nazis invaded that country too. Between May and July 1944, Hungary's Jews were deported to the gas chambers at Auschwitz at the rate of 12,000 people a day. Kastner negotiated with Adolf Eichmann , a senior SS officer, to allow 1,684 Jews to leave instead for Switzerland on what became known as the Kastner train , in exchange for money, gold and diamonds. Kastner moved to Israel after the war, becoming a spokesman for the Ministry of Trade and Industry in 1952. In 19 ...more...



Rudolf Kjellén

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Rudolf Kjellén 1864-1922 Johan Rudolf Kjellén ( Swedish:  , 13 June 1864, Torsö – 14 November 1922, Uppsala ) was a Swedish political scientist and politician who first coined the term " geopolitics ". His work was influenced by Friedrich Ratzel . Along with Alexander von Humboldt , Karl Ritter , and Ratzel, Kjellén would lay the foundations for the German Geopolitik that would later be espoused prominently by General Karl Haushofer . Kjellén completed gymnasium in Skara in 1880 and matriculated at Uppsala University the same year. He completed his Ph.D. in Uppsala in 1891 and was a docent there from 1890 to 1893. He also taught at Gothenburg University from 1891 and was professor of political sciences and statistics there from 1901 until he received the prestigious Skyttean professorship of Eloquence and Government in Uppsala in 1916. A conservative politician, he was a member of the Second Chamber of the Parliament of Sweden from 1905 to 1908 and of its First Chamber from 1911 to 1917. Ideas Kjellén was Rat ...more...



Rudolf Diels

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December 1933 Rudolf Diels addressing inmates at KZ Esterwegen which was under control of the Prussian Interior Ministry Rudolf Diels (16 December 1900 – 18 November 1957) was a German civil servant and head of the Gestapo in 1933–34. He obtained the rank of SS- Oberführer and was a protégé of Hermann Göring . Early life Diels was born in Berghausen in the Taunus , the son of a farmer. He served in the army during World War I and afterwards studied law at the University of Marburg from 1919. At university he had a reputation as a drinker and philanderer. While there he also received a number of dueling scars resulting from the academic fencing once practised by young upper-class Austrians and Germans in trying to prove their manhood. The scars did not greatly detract from his good looks and in fact imparted a quite striking appearance. Gestapo chief He joined the Prussian interior ministry in 1930 and was promoted to an advisory position in the Prussian police in 1932, targeting political radicals, both Co ...more...



Rudolf Mössbauer

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Rudolf Ludwig Mössbauer (German spelling: Mößbauer; 31 January 1929 – 14 September 2011 ) was a German physicist best known for his 1957 discovery of recoilless nuclear resonance fluorescence for which he was awarded the 1961 Nobel Prize in Physics . This effect, called the Mössbauer effect , is the basis for Mössbauer spectroscopy . Career Mössbauer was born in Munich , where he also studied physics at the Technical University of Munich . He prepared his Diplom thesis in the Laboratory of Applied Physics of Heinz Maier-Leibnitz and graduated in 1955. He then went to the Max Planck Institute for Medical Research in Heidelberg . Since this institute, not being part of a university, had no right to award a doctorate, Mössbauer remained under the auspices of Maier-Leibnitz, who was his official thesis advisor when he passed his PhD exam in Munich in 1958. In his PhD work, he discovered recoilless nuclear fluorescence of gamma rays in 191 iridium, the Mössbauer effect . His fame grew immensely in 1960 when Robert ...more...



Rudolf IV, Duke of Austria

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Rudolf IV der Stifter ("the Founder") (1 November 1339 – 27 July 1365) was a scion of the House of Habsburg and Duke (self-proclaimed Archduke ) of Austria and Duke of Styria and Carinthia from 1358, as well as Count of Tyrol from 1363 and first Duke of Carniola from 1364 until his death. After the Habsburgs got nothing from the decree of the Golden Bull in 1356, he gave order to draw up the " Privilegium Maius ", a fake document to empower the Austrian rulers. Biography The crowned portrait of Rudolf IV von Habsburg on the reverse of a 50 Schilling Silver coin. It was issued 1965 by the Republic of Austria , commemorating the 600th Anniversary of the Vienna University Born in Vienna , Rudolf was the eldest son of Duke Albert II of Austria and his wife Joanna of Pfirt . One of the third generation of Habsburg dukes in Austria, he was the first to be born within the duchy. Therefore, he considered Austria his home, a sentiment that no doubt communicated itself to his subjects and contributed to his popularity. ...more...



Rudolf I of Bohemia

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Rudolf of Habsburg ( Czech : Rudolf Habsburský ; c.  1282 – 3/4 July 1307), a member of the House of Habsburg , was Duke of Austria and Styria (as Rudolf III ) from 1298 as well as King of Bohemia and titular King of Poland (as Rudolf I ) from 1306 until his death. Life Rudolf was the eldest son of Duke Albert I of Austria and his wife Elizabeth of Gorizia-Tyrol , thereby the grandson of King Rudolf I of Germany . After lengthy struggles with Adolf of Nassau , his father was elected King of the Romans in 1298 and vested sixteen-year-old Rudolf as a co-ruler with the Austrian hereditary lands of the Habsburg dynasty. According to the Rheinfelden order of succession, Rudolf acted as ducal regent on behalf of his younger brothers Frederick the Fair and Leopold I . On May 25, 1300, King Albert I arranged his marriage with the Capetian princess Blanche , a daughter of King Philip III of France by his second wife Marie of Brabant . The intended union with the French House of Capet however failed as the couple's son ...more...



Rudolph Fentz

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Rudolph Fentz (also spelled as Rudolf Fenz ) is the focal character of "I'm Scared", a 1952 science fiction short story by Jack Finney , which was later reported as an urban legend as if the events had truly happened. The story tells of a 19th-century-looking young man possessing items of that period who is found confused in the middle of 1951 Times Square before being hit by a car and killed, suggesting that he had, perhaps involuntarily, time travelled about a century forwards. This story is also believed to be fact by many people, ever since the breakthrough in 2007 that shows a new article from 1951 being found. This article states the event of Rudolph appearing into thin air in a New York Street, beginning to panic, and running into a car that soon kills him. This news article was posted 5 months before "I'm Scared" was published, proving it to be something that was at least believed by many people before the story was made into an urban legend. The story of Rudolph Fentz became one of the more significa ...more...



Rudolf Slánský

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Rudolf Slánský (31 July 1901 – 3 December 1952) was a Czech Communist politician . Holding the post of the party's General Secretary after World War II , he was one of the leading creators and organizers of Communist rule in Czechoslovakia. After the split between Josip Broz Tito of Yugoslavia and Soviet premier Joseph Stalin , the latter instigated a wave of "purges" of the respective Communist Party leaderships, to prevent more splits between the Soviet Union and its Central European " satellite " countries. In Czechoslovakia, Slánský was one of 14 leaders arrested in 1951 and put on show trial en masse in November 1952, charged with high treason. After eight days, 11 of the 14 were sentenced to death. Slánský's sentence was carried out five days later. Early life Born at Nezvěstice , now in Plzeň-City District , Slánský attended secondary school in Plzeň at the Commercial Academy. After the end of World War I , he went to Prague , the capital, where he discovered a leftist intellectual scene in institutio ...more...



Rudolf Jung

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Rudolf Jung (16 April 1882 – 11 December 1945) was an instrumental figure and agitator in the German Bohemian National Socialist movement, and later became a member of the Nazi Party . Jung was born in Plasy in Bohemia and went to school in Jihlava , a town fractured by national antagonisms. He was a civil engineer employed by the national railways of Austria-Hungary . In 1909, he joined the German Workers' Party (DAP) and became an ardent party agitator. Because of his political activism, Jung was fired, but the party put him on its payroll and he devoted himself to theoretical work. Along with Dr. Walter Riehl , Jung drafted the Jihlava party program of 1913 "which contained a more detailed comparison of international Marxism and national socialism and a more pointed attack on Capitalism, Democracy, alien peoples, and Jews. Here, anti-semitism ranked behind anti-Slavism , anti-clericalism and anti-capitalism ." In 1919, Jung completed his theoretical work Der Nationale Sozialismus. In his introduction, he ...more...



Rudolf Otto

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Rudolf Otto (25 September 1869 – 6 March 1937) was an eminent German Lutheran theologian , philosopher , and comparative religionist . He is regarded as one of the most influential scholars of religion in the early twentieth century and is best known for his concept of the numinous , a profound emotional experience he argued was at the heart of the world's religions. While his work started in the domain of liberal Christian theology , its main thrust was always apologetical, seeking to defend religion against naturalist critiques. Otto eventually came to conceive of his work as part of a science of religion, which was divided into the philosophy of religion , the history of religion , and the psychology of religion . Life Born in Peine near Hanover , Otto was raised in a pious Christian family. He attended the Gymnasium Andreanum in Hildesheim and studied at the universities of Erlangen and Göttingen , where he wrote his dissertation on Martin Luther 's understanding of the Holy Spirit (Die Anschauung von ...more...



Rudolf Stingel

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Rudolf Stingel (born 1956) is an artist based in New York City . Stingel was born in Merano , Italy . His work engages the audience in dialogue about their perception of art and uses Conceptual painting and installations to explore the process of creation. Using readily available materials such as styrofoam, carpet, and cast polyurethane, Stingel creates art based upon an underlying conceptual framework and challenges contemporary notions about painting. The surfaces of his two-dimensional works are characteristically carved out, imprinted or indented, visibly evidencing the artist’s alteration of industrial matter. He lives in New York and Merano , Italy. Work Stingel became first recognised in the late 1980s for his monochromatic works, silvery paintings with undertones of red, yellow or blue from 1987 to 1994. Stingel’s later abstract paintings from the 1990s consist of oils in pure, brilliant colors exuberantly splayed, dripped, pressed, and pulled across a black field. The works begin with the applic ...more...



Rudolf (musical)

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Rudolf is a musical conceived for the stage by Frank Wildhorn and Steve Cuden , with a book by Jack Murphy and Phoebe Hwang, lyrics by Murphy, additional lyrics by Nan Knighton , and music by Frank Wildhorn . Arrangements by Koen Schoots and orchestrations by Kim Scharnberg. It is about Rudolf, Crown Prince of Austria and his extramarital relationship with Baroness Mary Vetsera . Their 1889 deaths at his Mayerling hunting lodge apparently were the result of a murder - suicide pact, although historians have debated this explanation. Loosely based on the book A Nervous Splendor: Vienna 1888-1889 by Frederic Morton , the musical was developed under the working titles Vienna, Affäre Mayerling (The Mayerling Affair), and Rudolf - The Last Kiss. The pressures of the monarchy have fallen upon Rudolf's shoulders, he is in political and personal conflict with his father, Emperor Franz Joseph , and his marriage to Princess Stéphanie of Belgium is crumbling when he meets and falls in love with the 17-year-old baroness. ...more...



Germar Rudolf

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Germar Rudolf , also known as Germar Scheerer, born 29 October 1964, is a German chemist and a convicted Holocaust denier . Background Rudolf was born in Limburg an der Lahn , Hesse . In 1983 he took his Abitur in Remscheid , then studied chemistry in Bonn , graduating in 1989 with a Master's degree. As a student, he joined the A.V. Tuisconia Königsberg zu Bonn and the K.D.St.V. Nordgau Prag zu Stuttgart, Catholic fraternities belonging to the Cartellverband . After supporting the CSU / CDU , he became a member of the Republicans . After his military service with the German Air Force , in October 1990 he joined the Max Planck Institute for Solid State Research at Stuttgart , where he prepared a PhD thesis. In 1991, Rudolf began work on a paper entitled Report on the formation and verifiability of cyanide compounds in the Auschwitz "gas chambers" on behalf of the Düsseldorf attorney Hajo Herrmann , a former Luftwaffe pilot. In 1993, this work was reported in the media, and Rudolf was told not to enter the Ma ...more...



Rudolf Belling

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Rudolf Belling's sculpture "Dreiklang" (triad) on display in Berlin, 1929 Rudolf Belling (1886 – 1972) was a German sculptor . Artistic theories At the very beginning of the 20th century Rudolf Belling’s name was something like a battlecry. The composer of the "Dreiklang" (triad) evoked frequent and hefty discussions. He was the first, who took up again thoughts of the famous Italian sculptor Benvenuto Cellini (1500-1570), who, at his time, stated, that a sculpture should show several good views. These were the current assumptions at the turn of the century. However they foreshadow an indication of sculpture being three-dimensional. Rudolf Belling amplified: a sculpture should show only good views. And so he became an opponent to one of the German head scientists of art in Berlin, Adolf von Hildebrandt, who, in his book, The problem of Form in Sculpture (1903) said: "Sculpture should be comprehensible – and should never force the observer to go round it". Rudolf Belling disproved the current theories with his ...more...



Rudolf Kirchschläger

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Rudolf Kirchschläger ( German pronunciation:  (   listen ) ; 20 March 1915 – 30 March 2000) was an Austrian diplomat, politician, judge and, from 1974–86, the eighth State President of Austria. Education and early life Born in Niederkappel , Upper Austria , Kirschläger was orphaned at the age of 11. He graduated from High School in Horn in 1935 with distinction and started to study law at the University of Vienna . However, after the Anschluss of Austria in 1938, he had to give up his studies. Without joining the NSDAP , which he refused to do, his scholarship was revoked and Kirchschläger could not finance his studies any longer. Kirchschläger worked as a bank clerk in 1938 until he was drafted to service in the infantry of the Wehrmacht in the summer of 1939. Kirchschläger fought as a soldier from the very beginning of the war, first during the invasion of Poland , later on the Western Front , and after 1941 against Russia on the Eastern Front . In late 1940, in order to get out of the military, he used a t ...more...



Mayerling incident

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Photograph of the Imperial hunting lodge at Mayerling with the caption: Mayerling, Altes Jagdschloß des Kronprinzen Rudolf vor 1889 (in English: Mayerling, the old hunting lodge of Crown Prince Rudolf before 1889). Photographs of Crown Prince Rudolf and Baroness Mary Vetsera The Mayerling Incident is the series of events leading to the apparent murder–suicide of Rudolf, Crown Prince of Austria (21 August 1858 – 30 January 1889) and his lover, Baroness Mary Vetsera (19 March 1871 – 30 January 1889). Rudolf was the only son of Emperor Franz Joseph I of Austria and Empress Elisabeth , and heir to the throne of the Austro-Hungarian Empire . Rudolf's mistress was the daughter of Baron Albin Vetsera, a diplomat at the Austrian court. The bodies of the 30-year-old Archduke and the 17-year-old baroness were discovered in the Imperial hunting lodge at Mayerling in the Vienna Woods , fifteen miles southwest of the capital, on the morning of 30 January 1889. The death of the crown prince had momentous consequences for t ...more...



Rudolf von Laban

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Rudolf von Laban , also known as Rudolf Laban ( Hungarian : Rezső Lábán de Váraljas, Lábán Rezső, Lábán Rudolf ) (15 December 1879 – 1 July 1958), was a dance artist and theorist . He is notable as one of the pioneers of modern dance in Europe. His work laid the foundations for Laban Movement Analysis , Labanotation (Kinetography Laban), other more specific developments in dance notation and the evolution of many varieties of Laban Movement Study . He is considered to be one of the most important figures in the history of dance. Life and work Rudolf von Laban was born in Pozsony (now Bratislava) in 1879 in the Kingdom of Hungary , Austro-Hungarian Empire , into an aristocratic family. His father's family had come from the French nobility (De La Banne, from a French crusader stranded in Kingdom of Hungary in the 13th century) and Hungarian nobility , and his mother's family was from France . His father was a field marshal of the Austro-Hungarian Empire and the governor of the provinces of Bosnia and Herzegovin ...more...



Adolf Dassler

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Sculpture of Dassler in the Adi Dassler Stadium, Herzogenaurach. Adolf " Adi " Dassler (3 November 1900 – 6 September 1978) was the founder of the German sportswear company Adidas , and the younger brother of Rudolf Dassler , founder of Puma . Life Born in the Franconian town of Herzogenaurach and trained as a cobbler, Adi Dassler started to produce his first sports shoes in his mother's laundry room after his return from the First World War . His father, Christoph, who worked in a shoe factory, and the Zehlein brothers, who produced the spikes for track shoes in their smithy, supported Dassler in starting his own business. On 1 July 1924, his older brother Rudolf joined the business, which became the Gebrüder Dassler Schuhfabrik (Dassler Brothers Shoe Factory). At the 1928 Olympics , Dassler equipped many athletes, laying the foundation for the international expansion of the company. During the 1936 Olympics in Berlin , he equipped the African-American athlete Jesse Owens who went on to win four gold medals. ...more...



Rudolf Caracciola

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Otto Wilhelm Rudolf Caracciola (30 January 1901 – 28 September 1959), more commonly Rudolf Caracciola ( pronounced ), was a racing driver from Remagen , Germany. He won the European Drivers' Championship , the pre-1950 equivalent of the modern Formula One World Championship , an unsurpassed three times. He also won the European Hillclimbing Championship three times – twice in sports cars , and once in Grand Prix cars. Caracciola raced for Mercedes-Benz during their original dominating Silver Arrows period, named after the silver colour of the cars, and set speed records for the firm. He was affectionately dubbed Caratsch by the German public, and was known by the title of Regenmeister, or "Rainmaster", for his prowess in wet conditions. Caracciola began racing while he was working as apprentice at the Fafnir automobile factory in Aachen during the early 1920s, first on motorcycles and then in cars. Racing for Mercedes-Benz, he won his first two Hillclimbing Championships in 1930 and 1931, and moved to Alfa R ...more...



Rudolph (name)

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Rudolph or Rudolf ( French : Rodolphe , Italian , Portuguese and Spanish : Rodolfo ) or Rodolphe is a male first name, and, less commonly, a surname. It is a Germanic name deriving from two stems: Rod or Hrōð, meaning "fame", and olf meaning "wolf" (see also Hroðulf ; cf. Adolf ). In other languages Albanian : Rudolf Armenian : Ռուդոլֆ (Rudolf) Catalan : Rodolf Croatian : Rudolf Czech : Rudolf Danish : Rudolf Dutch : Roelof, Rudolf, Ruud English : Rudolf, Rudolph French : Rodolphe, Raoul Georgian : რუდოლფ (Rudolp) German : Rudolf, diminutive: Rudi Greek : Ροδόλφος (Rhodólphos), Ράλλης (Rhálles) Hebrew רודולף (Rudolf) Hungarian : Rudolf Italian : Rodolfo Latin : Rudolphus Latvian : Rūdolfs Norwegian : Rudolf Polish : Rudolf Portuguese : Rodolfo Russian : Рудольф (Rudolf) Serbian : Rudolf (Рудолф) Slovak : Rudolf Slovene : Rudolf Spanish : Rodolfo Swedish : Rudolf Surname Athletes Ernie Rudolph (1909–2003), Major League Baseball pitcher Gergely Rudolf (born 1985), Hungarian soccer player Jacques Rudolph (born 1 ...more...



Heinrich Hertz

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Heinrich Rudolf Hertz ( German: ; 22 February 1857 – 1 January 1894) was a German physicist who first conclusively proved the existence of the electromagnetic waves theorized by James Clerk Maxwell 's electromagnetic theory of light . The unit of frequency — cycle per second — was named the " hertz " in his honor. Biography Heinrich Rudolf Hertz was born in 1857 in Hamburg , then a sovereign state of the German Confederation , into a prosperous and cultured Hanseatic family. His father Gustav Ferdinand Hertz (originally named David Gustav Hertz) (1827–1914) was a barrister and later a senator . His mother was Anna Elisabeth Pfefferkorn. Hertz's father converted from Judaism to Christianity in 1834. His mother's family was a Lutheran pastor's family. While studying at the Gelehrtenschule des Johanneums in Hamburg, Hertz showed an aptitude for sciences as well as languages, learning Arabic and Sanskrit . He studied sciences and engineering in the German cities of Dresden , Munich and Berlin , where he studie ...more...



Rudolf Peierls

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Sir Rudolf Ernst Peierls , CBE ( ; German: ; 5 June 1907 – 19 September 1995) was a German-born British physicist who played a major role in Tube Alloys , Britain's nuclear programme, and the Manhattan Project . His obituary in Physics Today described him as "a major player in the drama of the eruption of nuclear physics into world affairs...". Peierls studied physics at the University of Berlin , at the University of Munich under Arnold Sommerfeld , the University of Leipzig under Werner Heisenberg ,and ETH Zurich under Wolfgang Pauli . After receiving his DPhil from Leipzig in 1929, he became an assistant to Pauli in Zurich. In 1932, he was awarded a Rockefeller Fellowship , which he used to study in Rome under Enrico Fermi , and then at the Cavendish Laboratory at the University of Cambridge under Ralph H. Fowler . Due to Adolf Hitler's rise to power in Germany, he elected to not return home in 1933, but to remain in Britain, where he worked with Hans Bethe at the University of Manchester , then at the Mon ...more...



Waldorf education

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Waldorf education , also known as Steiner education , is based on the educational philosophy of Rudolf Steiner , the founder of anthroposophy . Its pedagogy emphasizes the role of imagination in learning, striving to integrate holistically the intellectual, practical, and artistic development of pupils. Steiner's division of child development into three major stages is reflected in the schools' approach to early childhood education , which focuses on practical, hands-on activities and creative play ; to elementary education , which focuses on developing artistic expression and social capacities; and to secondary education , which focuses on developing critical reasoning and empathic understanding. The overarching goal is to develop free , morally responsible , and integrated individuals equipped with a high degree of social competence . Qualitative assessments of student work are integrated into the daily life of the classroom, with quantitative testing playing a minimal role in primary education and standard ...more...



Rudi Völler

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Rudolf "Rudi" Völler ( pronounced ; born 13 April 1960), nicknamed "Tante Käthe" (English: "Aunt Käthe"), is a German former international footballer and a former manager of the Germany national team . A former forward , he won the FIFA World Cup in 1990 as a player. Along with Mário Zagallo and Franz Beckenbauer , Völler has the distinction of reaching a World Cup final as both a player ( 1986 and 1990) and as a manager ( 2002 ). Club career Völler started his career with 1860 Hanau before joining Bundesliga club Werder Bremen in 1982, winning his first cap for West Germany that same year. Following a successful season in which he was the Bundesliga's top scorer, foreign clubs became interested in the striker, and in 1987 he was transferred to Roma , where he became a mainstay of the team and earned the nickname "er tedesco" ("the German") and also "il tedesco volante" ("the flying German"). He won the Coppa Italia in 1991 and was the club's top scorer on several occasions. In 1992, Roma decided to sell Völ ...more...



Rudolf Arnheim

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Rudolf Arnheim (July 15, 1904 – June 9, 2007) was a German-born author, art and film theorist, and perceptual psychologist. He learned Gestalt psychology from studying under Max Wertheimer and Wolfgang Köhler at the University of Berlin and applied it to art. His magnum opus was his book Art and Visual Perception: A Psychology of the Creative Eye (1954). Other major books by Arnheim have included Visual Thinking (1969), and The Power of the Center: A Study of Composition in the Visual Arts (1982). Art and Visual Perception was revised, enlarged and published as a new version in 1974, and it has been translated into fourteen languages. He lived in Germany, Italy, England, and America where he taught at Sarah Lawrence College, Harvard University, and the University of Michigan . He has greatly influenced art history and psychology in America. Although Art and Visual Perception: A Psychology of the Creative Eye took fifteen months to complete, Arnheim stated that he felt that he essentially wrote it in one lo ...more...



Rudolf Brandt

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Rudolf Hermann Brandt (2 June 1909 – 2 June 1948) was a German SS officer from 1933–45 and a civil servant . A lawyer by profession, Brandt was the Personal Administrative Officer to Reichsführer-SS (Persönlicher Referent vom Reichsführer SS) Heinrich Himmler and a defendant at the Doctors' Trial at Nuremberg for his part in securing the 86 victims of the Jewish skeleton collection , an attempt to create an anthropological display of plaster body casts and skeletal remains of Jews. He was convicted of war crimes and crimes against humanity, and executed in 1948. Life and work Rudolf Brandt, the son of a railway worker, was born on 2 June 1909, and raised in modest circumstances in the town of Frankfurt an der Oder . Brandt was a member of the student's stenography (shorthand) club at the Realgymnasium, and in 1927, at the age of 18, won a competition with a transcription speed of 360 syllables per minute. He attended the University of Berlin and the University of Jena (1928–1932), simultaneously working from ...more...




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