Roberto Calvi

Roberto Calvi (13 April 1920 – 17 June 1982) was an Italian banker dubbed "God's Banker" (Italian: Banchiere di Dio) by the press because of his close association with the Holy See. A native of Milan, Calvi was Chairman of Banco Ambrosiano, which collapsed in one of modern Italy's biggest political scandals.

Calvi's death in London in June 1982 is a source of enduring controversy and was ruled a murder after two coroner's inquests and an independent investigation. In Rome, in June 2007, five people were acquitted of the murder.

Claims have been made that the Vatican Bank, Banco Ambrosiano's main shareholder; the Mafia, which may have used Banco Ambrosiano for money laundering; and the clandestine pseudo-Masonic lodge Propaganda Due were somehow involved in Calvi's death.

The Banco Ambrosiano scandal

Roberto Calvi was the chairman of Italy's second largest private bank, Banco Ambrosiano, when it collapsed in 1982. In 1978, the Bank of Italy produced a report on Banco Ambrosiano which found that several billion lire had been exported illegally, leading to criminal investigations. In 1981, Calvi was tried, given a four-year suspended sentence and fined US$19.8 million for transferring US$27 million out of the country in violation of Italian currency laws. He was released on bail pending appeal and kept his position at the bank. During his short spell in jail, he attempted suicide. Calvi's family maintains that he was manipulated by others and was innocent of the crimes attributed to him.[1]

The controversy surrounding Calvi's dealings at Banco Ambrosiano echoed a previous scandal in 1974, when the Holy See lost an estimated US$30 million upon the collapse of the Franklin National Bank, owned by the Sicilian-born financier Michele Sindona. Bad loans and foreign currency transactions led to the collapse of the bank. Sindona later died in prison after drinking coffee laced with cyanide.[2]

On 5 June 1982, two weeks before the collapse of Banco Ambrosiano, Calvi wrote a letter of warning to Pope John Paul II, stating that such a forthcoming event would “provoke a catastrophe of unimaginable proportions in which the Church will suffer the gravest damage."[3] The correspondence essentially confirmed an understanding that illegal transactions were common knowledge among the top affiliates of the bank and the Vatican.[4] Banco Ambrosiano collapsed in June 1982 following the discovery of debts of between US$700 million and US$1.5 billion. Much of the money had been siphoned off via the Vatican Bank, which owned 10% of Banco Ambrosiano and was their main shareholder.

In 1984, the Vatican Bank agreed to pay US$224 million to the 120 of Banco Ambrosiano's creditors as a “recognition of moral involvement” in the bank's collapse.[2] Whether the Vatican Bank was directly involved in the scandal cannot be legally confirmed, due to a lack of evidence in the subpoenaed correspondence revealing only that Calvi consistently supported the religious agenda of the Vatican. As it was Calvi who committed the crime of fiscal misconduct and there was no evidence of church involvement otherwise, the Vatican was granted immunity.[5]

Death

On 10 June 1982, Calvi went missing from his Rome apartment, having fled the country on a false passport in the name of Gian Roberto Calvini, fleeing initially to Venice. From there, he apparently hired a private plane to London via Zurich. At 7:30 am on Friday, 18 June 1982, a postal clerk was crossing Blackfriars Bridge and noticed Calvi's body hanging from the scaffolding beneath. Calvi's clothing was stuffed with bricks, and he was carrying around US$15,000 worth of cash in three different currencies.[6]

Calvi was a member of Licio Gelli's illegal masonic lodge, Propaganda Due (P2), who referred to themselves as frati neri or "black friars". This led to a suggestion in some quarters that Calvi was murdered as a masonic warning because of the symbolism associated with the word "Blackfriars".[7]

The day before his body was found, Calvi was stripped of his post at Banco Ambrosiano by the Bank of Italy, and his 55-year-old private secretary, Graziella Corrocher, jumped to her death from a fifth floor window at the bank's headquarters. Corrocher left behind an angry note condemning the damage that Calvi had done to the bank and its employees. Her death was ruled a suicide.

Calvi's death was the subject of two coroner's inquests in the United Kingdom. The first recorded a verdict of suicide in July 1982. The Calvi family then secured the services of George Carman QC. At the second inquest, in July 1983, the jury recorded an open verdict, indicating that the court had been unable to determine the exact cause of death. Calvi's family maintained that his death had been a murder.

In 1991, the Calvi family commissioned the New York-based investigation company Kroll Associates to investigate the circumstances of Calvi's death. The case was assigned to Jeff Katz, who was then a senior case manager for the company in London. As part of his two-year investigation, Katz instructed former Home Office forensic scientists, including Angela Gallop, to undertake forensic tests. As a result, it was found that Calvi could not have hanged himself from the scaffolding because the lack of paint and rust on his shoes proved that he had not walked on the scaffolding. In October 1992, the forensic report was submitted to the Home Secretary and the City of London Police, who dismissed it at the time.

Following the exhumation of Calvi's body in December 1998, an Italian court commissioned a German forensic scientist to repeat the work produced by Katz and his forensic team. That report was published in October 2002, ten years after the original, and confirmed the first report. In addition, it said that the injuries to Calvi's neck were inconsistent with hanging and that he had not touched the bricks found in his pockets. When Calvi's body was found, the level of the River Thames had receded with the tide, giving the scene the appearance of a suicide by hanging, but at the exact time of his death, the place on the scaffolding where the rope had been tied could have been reached by a person standing in a boat. That had also been the conclusion of a separate report by Katz in 1992, which also detailed a reconstruction based on Calvi's last known movements in London and theorized that Calvi had been taken by boat from a point of access to the Thames in West London.[8][9][10][11]

This aspect of Calvi's death was the focus of the theory that he was murdered. It is this version of events depicted on screen in Giuseppe Ferrara's fictional film reconstruction of the event. In September 2003, the City of London Police reopened their investigation as a murder] inquiry.[12][13][14] More evidence arose, revealing Calvi stayed in a flat in Chelsea Cloisters just prior to his death. Three months later, Sergio Vaccari, a small-time drug dealer who had stayed in the very same flat as Calvi, was found dead in possession of masonic papers displaying member names of P2. The murders of both Calvi and Vaccari involved bricks stuffed in clothing, correlating the two deaths and confirming Calvi's ties to the lodge.[15]

Calvi's life was insured for US$10 million with Unione Italiana. Attempts by his family to obtain a payout resulted in litigation (Fisher v Unione Italiana [1998] CLC 682). Following the forensic report of 2002, which established that Calvi had been murdered, the policy was finally settled, although around half of the sum was paid to creditors of the Calvi family who incurred considerable costs during their attempts to establish Calvi's cause of death.[7][16][17]

Prosecution of Giuseppe Calò and Licio Gelli

In July 1991, the Mafia pentito Francesco Marino Mannoia claimed that Calvi had been killed because he had lost Mafia funds when Banco Ambrosiano collapsed.[18][19] According to Mannoia, the killer was Francesco Di Carlo, a mafioso living in London at the time, on the orders of boss Giuseppe Calò and Licio Gelli. When Di Carlo became an informer in June 1996, he denied he was the killer, but admitted he had been approached by Calò to do the job. However, Di Carlo could not be reached in time. When he later called Calò, the latter said that everything had been taken care of.[20]

According to Di Carlo, the killers were Vaccari and Vincenzo Casillo, who belonged to the Camorra from Naples and were later murdered.[17] In 1997, Italian prosecutors in Rome implicated Calò in Calvi's murder, along with Flavio Carboni, a Sardinian businessman with wide-ranging interests. Two other men, Di Carlo and Ernesto Diotallevi, a member of the Banda della Magliana, were also alleged to be involved in the killing.

In July 2003, the Italian prosecutors concluded that the Mafia acted not only in its own interests, but also to ensure that Calvi could not blackmail "politico-institutional figures and [representatives] of freemasonry, the P2 lodge, and the Institute of Religious Works with whom he had invested substantial sums of money, some of it from Cosa Nostra and Italian public corporations".[21]

On 19 July 2005, Gelli, the grand master of the P2 lodge, received a notification informing him that he was formally under investigation on charges of ordering the murder of Calvi along with Calò, Diotallevi, Flavio Carboni and Carboni's Austrian ex-girlfriend, Manuela Kleinszig. The four other suspects were already indicted on murder charges in April. According to the indictment, the five ordered the murder to prevent the banker "from using blackmail power against his political and institutional sponsors from the world of Masonry, belonging to the P2 lodge, or to the Institute for Religious Works (the Vatican Bank) with whom he had managed investments and financing with conspicuous sums of money, some of it coming from Cosa Nostra and public agencies".[22]

Gelli was accused of provoking Calvi's death to punish him for embezzling money from Banco Ambrosiano that was owed to him and the Mafia. The Mafia allegedly wanted to prevent Calvi from revealing that Banco Ambrosiano was used for money laundering. Gelli denied involvement, but acknowledged that the financier was murdered. In his statement before the court, he said the killing was commissioned in Poland. This is thought to be a reference to Calvi's alleged involvement in financing the Solidarity trade union movement at the request of Pope John Paul II, allegedly on behalf of the Vatican.[22] However, Gelli's name was not in the final indictment at the trial that started in October 2005.

Trials in Italy

In 2005, the Italian magistrates investigating Calvi’s death took their inquiries to London in order to question witnesses. They had been cooperating with Chief Superintendent Trevor Smith, who built his case partly on evidence provided by Katz. Smith had been able to make the first ever arrest of a UK witness who had allegedly committed perjury during the Calvi inquest.[16]

On 5 October 2005, the trial of the five individuals charged with Calvi's murder began in Rome. The defendants were Calò, Carboni, Kleinszig, Ernesto Diotallevi, and Calvi's former driver and bodyguard Silvano Vittor. The trial took place in a specially fortified courtroom in Rome's Rebibbia prison.[3][23][24][25]

On 6 June 2007, all five individuals were cleared by the court of murdering Calvi.[26] Mario Lucio d'Andria, the presiding judge at the trial, threw out the charges citing "insufficient evidence" after hearing 20 months of evidence. The verdict was a surprise to some observers. The court ruled that Calvi's death was murder and not suicide.[27] The defence suggested there were plenty of people with a motive for Calvi's murder, including Vatican officials and Mafia figures who wanted to ensure his silence.[28][29] Legal experts following the trial said that the prosecutors found it hard to present a convincing case due to the 25 years that elapsed since Calvi's death. Additionally, key witnesses were unwilling to testify, untraceable, or dead.[30] The prosecution called for Manuela Kleinszig to be cleared, stating that there was insufficient evidence against her, but sought life sentences for the four men.[31]

Katz claimed it was likely that senior figures in the Italian establishment escaped prosecution. "The problem is that the people who probably actually ordered the death of Calvi are not in the dock - but to get to those people might be very difficult indeed," he said in an interview.[31] Katz said it was "probably true" that the Mafia carried out the killing, but that the gangsters suspected of the crime were either dead or missing.[32] The verdict in the trial was not the end of the matter, since by June 2007 the prosecutor's office in Rome had opened a second investigation implicating, among others, Gelli.[33]

In May 2009, the case against Gelli was dropped. According to the magistrate there was insufficient evidence to argue that Gelli, the former head of P2, had played a role in the planning and execution of the crime.[34] On 7 May 2010, the Court of Appeals confirmed the acquittal of Calò, Carboni and Diotallevi. The public prosecutor, Luca Tescaroli, commented, after the verdict, that for the family "Calvi has been murdered for the second time."[35] On November 18, 2011, the court of last resort, the Court of Cassation, confirmed the acquittal.[36] Calò is still serving a life sentence on unrelated Mafia charges.[33]

Films about Calvi's death

A 1983 PBS Frontline Documentary, titled "God's Banker" investigated Calvi's links with the Vatican, P2, and if his death was really a suicide.

The circumstances surrounding Calvi's death were made into a feature film, I Banchieri di Dio - Il Caso Calvi (God's Bankers - The Calvi Case), in 2001.[37] Following the release of the film, Flavio Carboni sued the director Giuseppe Ferrara for slander, but lost the action. The lawsuit caused the film to be withdrawn from Italian cinemas, but it was released on video when the legal action ended.

A heavily fictionalized version of Calvi appears in the film The Godfather Part III in the character of Frederick Keinszig.[38]

In 1990 The Comic Strip Presents, a Channel Four television series that had transferred to BBC2 that year, produced a spoof version of Calvi's story under the title Spaghetti Hoops, with Nigel Planer in the lead role, and directed by Peter Richardson and co-written by him and Pete Richens.[39][40] With the same director and co-writers, the comedy film The Pope Must Die (1991), in which a naive priest, played by Robbie Coltrane, is unexpectedly made Pope and takes on a Mafia-dominated Vatican, has been described by Variety as "Loosely based on the Roberto Calvi banking scandal".[41][42]

In the 2009 film The Imaginarium of Doctor Parnassus, the character of Tony, played by Heath Ledger, is found hanging (alive) under Blackfriars Bridge, described by director Terry Gilliam as "an homage to Roberto Calvi".[43][44]

Anthony Souter played the role of Roberto Calvi in the film La Verità sta in Cielo by Roberto Faenza, to be released on 6 October 2016 in Italy via 01 distribution (Jean VIgo/Rai).

See also References
  1. See: Robert Hutchison's Their Kingdom Come: Inside the Secret World of Opus Dei, 1997
  2. Obituary Archbishop Paul Marcinkus, The Times, February 22, 2006
  3. Plea to Pope from 'God's banker' revealed as murder trial begins, The Times, October 6, 2005
  4. Mathiason, Nick (2003-12-06). "Who killed Calvi?". The Guardian. ISSN 0261-3077. Retrieved 2016-09-04.
  5. "The Banco Ambrosiano affair: what happened to Roberto Calvi?". 2014-03-20. Retrieved 2016-09-04.
  6. 'God's banker' found hanged, BBC, 19 June 1982
  7. A son's quest for truth, Evening Standard October 7, 2003
  8. Evidence on hanged Calvi ‘proves’ it was murder, The Observer, 18 October 1992.
  9. Calvi - The tests that may point to murder, The Observer, 31 January 1993.
  10. Dead Man Talking, by Jeffrey Katz, The Sunday Telegraph Magazine, 26 October 2003
  11. Mafia, masons and murder, BBC News, 6 January 2005.
  12. "An end to the mystery of God's Banker?", BBC News, March 31, 2004
  13. "Italian in Scandal Found Dead", UPI, published by the New York Times, June 20, 1982
  14. "1982: 'God's banker' found hanged", BBC News
  15. Editorial, Reuters. "Italy's murky masonic leader Gelli, linked to decades of plots, dies". Retrieved 2016-09-04.
  16. Who killed Calvi?, The Observer, December 7, 2003
  17. Mafia wanted me to kill Calvi, says jailed gangster, Daily Telegraph, December 10, 2005
  18. Mafia 'murdered banker over bungled deal' Archived 2007-03-12 at the Wayback Machine., The Scotsman, February 15, 2006
  19. (in Italian) Anche Antonino Giuffré nell'inchiesta Calvi, La Repubblica, October 13, 2002
  20. Mafia boss breaks silence over Roberto Calvi killing, The Observer, May 12, 2012
  21. Calvi was murdered by the mafia, Italian experts rule, The Guardian, July 25, 2003
  22. Mason indicted over murder of 'God's banker', The Independent, July 20, 2005
  23. Four charged over Calvi killing, BBC News, April 18, 2005
  24. Calvi murder trial opens in Rome, Associated Press, October 6, 2005
  25. Calvi murder trial opens in Rome, BBC News, October 6, 2005
  26. God's Banker' Murder - Five Cleared, Sky News, June 6, 2007
  27. Five cleared over murder of 'God's Banker', The Times, June 6, 2007
  28. Five acquitted over Calvi death, BBC News, June 6, 2007
  29. 'God's Banker' death still a mystery, BBC News, June 6, 2007
  30. ‘God’s banker’ murder suspects acquitted, Financial Times, June 6, 2007
  31. Five cleared of Calvi murder, Guardian Unlimited, June 6, 2007
  32. Family’s distress as five are cleared of conspiracy to kill ‘God’s banker’, The Times, June 7, 2007
  33. (in Italian) Processo Calvi, la sentenza dopo 25 anni assolti Pippo Calò e gli altri imputati, La Repubblica, June 6, 2007
  34. (in Italian) Omicidio Calvi: archiviato procedimento contro Licio Gelli, Corriere della Sera, May 30, 2009
  35. (in Italian) Assolti Carboni, Calò e Diotallevi, La Repubblica, May 7, 2010
  36. (in Italian) Calvi, è definitiva l' assoluzione di Carboni, Calò e Diotallevi, Corriere della Sera, November 18, 2011
  37. Film spotlights 'murky Vatican finances', BBC News, March 8, 2002
  38. The Godfather: Part III
  39. Sight and Sound: Film review volume. British Film Institute (digitised by Indiana University, 18 December 2009). 1992. p. 91. ISBN 0851703356. Retrieved 1 September 2014. the Calvi affair (a subject already sent up in the Comic Strip's Spaghetti Hoops for BBC2).
  40. "The Comic Strip Presents...: Season 5, Episode 5 Spaghetti Hoops (1 Mar. 1990)". IMDB. Retrieved 1 September 2014.
  41. "Review: 'The Pope Must Die'". Variety.com. December 31, 1990. Retrieved 1 September 2014. Loosely based (like The Godfather Part III) on the Roberto Calvi banking scandal, ...
  42. "The Pope Must Diet (1991) - "The Pope Must Die" (original title)". IMDB. Retrieved 1 September 2014.
  43. The Dr Parnassus Press Conference at Cannes - Part 2, edited by Phil Stubbs
  44. The Last of Heath, Peter Biskind, Vanity Fair, August 2009
Further reading
  • Cornwell, Rupert (1983). God's Banker: The Life and Death of Roberto Calvi, London: Victor Gollancz Ltd. ISBN 0-04-332099-6
  • Gurwin, Larry (1983). The Calvi Affair: Death of a Banker. London: Pan Books, 1984, cop. 1983. xiii, 251 p. + [8] p. of b&w photos. ISBN 0-330-28540-8; alternative ISBN on back cover, 0-330-28338-3
  • Yallop, David (1985). In God's Name: An Investigation into the Murder of Pope John Paul I, London: Corgi ISBN 0-552-12640-3
  • Raw, Charles (1992). The Money Changers: How the Vatican Bank enabled Roberto Calvi to Steal $250m... London: Harvill. ISBN 0-00-217338-7
  • Willan, Philip (2007). The Last Supper: the Mafia, the Masons and the Killing of Roberto Calvi, London: Constable & Robinson, 2007 ISBN 1-84529-296-0 (Review in The Observer)*
  • Aldrich, Richard J (2010). GCHQ {(ISBN 10 0-00-731265-2)} Ref p.407 line 7 Argentinian effort to procure more exocets
External links
Continue Reading...
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Roberto Calvi

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Roberto Calvi

Roberto Calvi (13 April 1920 – 17 June 1982) was an Italian banker dubbed "God's Banker" (Italian: Banchiere di Dio) by the press because of his close association with the Holy See. A native of Milan, Calvi was Chairman of Banco Ambrosiano, which collapsed in one of modern Italy's biggest political scandals. Calvi's death in London in June 1982 is a source of enduring controversy and was ruled a murder after two coroner's inquests and an independent investigation. In Rome, in June 2007, five people were acquitted of the murder. Claims have been made that the Vatican Bank, Banco Ambrosiano's main shareholder; the Mafia, which may have used Banco Ambrosiano for money laundering; and the clandestine pseudo-Masonic lodge Propaganda Due were somehow involved in Calvi's death. The Banco Ambrosiano scandal Roberto Calvi was the chairman of Italy's second largest private bank, Banco Ambrosiano, when it collapsed in 1982. In 1978, the Bank of Italy produced a report on Banco Ambrosiano which found that several bill ...more...

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Banco Ambrosiano

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Banco Ambrosiano

Banco Ambrosiano was an Italian bank that collapsed in 1982. At the centre of the bank's failure was its chairman, Roberto Calvi and his membership in the illegal Masonic Lodge Propaganda Due (aka P2). The Institute for the Works of Religion, commonly known as the Vatican Bank, was Banco Ambrosiano's main shareholder. The Vatican Bank was also accused of funneling covert United States funds to Solidarity and the Contras through Banco Ambrosiano. Members Roberto Calvi. Franco Ratti, chairman. Carlo Canesi, senior manager then chairman of Banco Ambrosiano Holding starting from 1965. Roberto Calvi, general manager of Banco Ambrosiano since 1971, appointed chairman from 1975 to his death in June 1982. He was often referred to as "God's Banker" because of his close financial ties with the Vatican. Paul Marcinkus, president of Vatican Bank (aka "Istituto per le Opere di Religione"), had been a director of Ambrosiano Overseas, based in Nassau, Bahamas. Carlo De Benedetti became deputy-chairman for les ...more...

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Giuseppe Calò

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Giuseppe Calò

Giuseppe 'Pippo' Calò (born September 30, 1931) is a member of the Sicilian Mafia. He was referred to as the "cassiere di Cosa Nostra" (Mafia's Cashier) because he was heavily involved in the financial side of organized crime, primarily money laundering. He has been charged with ordering the murder of Roberto Calvi – nicknamed "Il banchiere di Dio" (The God's banker) – of the Banco Ambrosiano in 1982, but has been cleared in 2007 because of "insufficient evidence" in a surprise verdict. Boss of the Porta Nuova Mafia family Born and raised in Palermo, the capital of Sicily, he was inducted into the Porta Nuova Mafia Family at the age of twenty-three after carrying out a murder to avenge his father. By 1969 he was the boss of Porta Nuova, and amongst his men was the future informant (pentito) Tommaso Buscetta. Calò was on the Sicilian Mafia Commission, a group of the most powerful Mafia bosses in Sicily who regularly met, supposedly to iron out differences and solve disputes. In the beginning of the 1970s Cal ...more...

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Banda della Magliana

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Banda della Magliana

The Banda della Magliana (Italian pronunciation: , Magliana Gang) is an Italian criminal organization based in Rome founded in 1975. Given by the media, the name refers to the original neighborhood, the Magliana, of some of its members. The Banda della Magliana was involved in criminal activities during the Italian years of lead (anni di piombo). The Italian justice tied it to other criminal organizations such as the Cosa Nostra, Camorra or 'Ndrangheta, but most importantly also to neofascist activists such as the Nuclei Armati Rivoluzionari (NAR), responsible for the 1980 Bologna massacre, the secret services (SISMI) and political figures such as Licio Gelli, grand-master of the freemasonic lodge Propaganda Due (P2). Along with Gladio, the NATO clandestine anti-communist organization, P2 was involved in a strategy of tension during the years of lead which included false flag terrorist attacks. These ties, underground compared to their standard (i.e. "run-of-the-mill") activities (drug dealing, horserace bet ...more...

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David Napley

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David Napley

Sir David Napley (25 July 1915 – 24 September 1994) was an English solicitor. Background David Napley was born in London of Jewish ancestry. He began his articles (the equivalent of a modern-day training contract) in 1935 at the age of only 16.[2] He passed his final examinations with honours two years later and in 1937 immediately set up in partnership with Sidney Kingsley, establishing internationally recognised law firm Kingsley Napley. The firm quickly established a good reputation. Over the years his clients included Jeremy Thorpe, Princess Michael of Kent, actress Maria Aitken, the Foreign Office clerk Sarah Tisdall, former member of parliament Harvey Proctor, the Queen's bodyguard Commander Michael Trestrail and the family of the Italian banker Roberto Calvi. During the Second World War he served in India with the Queen's Royal Regiment (West Surrey) and was demobilised as a captain. On his return from the War he resumed practice as a solicitor and married his fiancée, Leah Rose Saturley, two years h ...more...

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Francesco Di Carlo

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Francesco Di Carlo

Francesco Di Carlo (born February 18, 1941 in Altofonte) is a member of the Mafia who turned state witness (pentito - a mafioso turned informer) in 1996. He has been accused of being the killer of the Roberto Calvi – nicknamed "God's banker" because he was in charge of Banco Ambrosiano and his close association with the Vatican Bank. Early career Di Carlo was initiated in the Altofonte Mafia family in 1966 by the boss at the time, Salvatore La Barbera (not to be confused with the Palermo Centro boss who was killed in 1963).[1] He became capo famiglia in the mid 1970s. Altofonte was part of the mandamento of San Giuseppe Jato, headed by Antonio Salamone and Bernardo Brusca. According to the pentito Giuseppe Marchese, Di Carlo was an influential mafioso and a very competent drug trafficker connected with the Corleonesi. Di Carlo is described as an elegant and intelligent mafioso who received an education at the prestigious Jesuit college of Gonzaga in Palermo where he met the prince Alessandro Vanni Calvello, ...more...

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The Bankers of God: The Calvi Affair

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The Bankers of God: The Calvi Affair

The Bankers of God: The Calvi Affair (Italian: I banchieri di Dio also known as The God's Bankers) is an Italian drama film directed in 2002 by Giuseppe Ferrara. Plot The film tells the story of the scandal of Banco Ambrosiano, mainly related to the figure of Roberto Calvi. The Clearstream scandal exploded as a case full of intricate affairs involving the financial world, the Vatican, the Masonic Lodge P2, the Italian Secret Service, the Secret Intelligence Service, the Italian politics, the Mafia and the Banda della Magliana. The movie narrates in detail all these connections, trying to reconstruct events and plots. The film ends with the death of Calvi under the Blackfriars Bridge, in London, openly supporting the murder-hypothesis. Cast Omero Antonutti: Roberto Calvi Giancarlo Giannini: Flavio Carboni Alessandro Gassman: Francesco Pazienza Rutger Hauer: Bishop Paul Marcinkus Pamela Villoresi: Clara Calvi Vincenzo Peluso: Silvano Vittor Pier Paolo Capponi: Roberto Rosone Franco Diogen ...more...

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Vincenzo Casillo

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Vincenzo Casillo

Vincenzo Casillo (? - January 29, 1983) was an Italian Camorrista and the second in command of the Nuova Camorra Organizzata, a Camorra organization in Naples. His nickname was "'o Nirone" (The Big Black).[1] Second in Command He was one of the earliest members of the Nuova Camorra Organizzata, since its formation in 1970. Casillo was highly trusted and soon rose to become the deputy and main military chief of crime boss, Raffaele Cutolo, during the period when he was imprisoned in the prisons of Poggioreale and Ascoli Piceno.[1] As the Nuova Camorra Organizzata's second in command, he participated in a high-level meeting with representatives of the Sicilian Mafia and Camorra clans to try to put an end to the bloody war between the Nuova Camorra Organizzata and their rivals from the Nuova Famiglia, together with Cutolo’s sister, Rosetta.[2] Purported involvement in the Roberto Calvi murder In June 1996, the Sicilian Mafia pentito, Francesco Di Carlo claimed that Vincenzo Casillo together with another Camorr ...more...

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George Carman

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George Carman

George Alfred Carman, QC (6 October 1929 – 2 January 2001) was a leading English barrister during the 1980s and 1990s. He first came to the attention of the general public in 1979, when he successfully defended the former Liberal leader Jeremy Thorpe after he was charged with conspiracy to murder. Carman had been appointed as a Queen's Counsel (QC) eight years previously. He later became known for appearing in a series of prominent criminal cases and libel cases. Early life Carman was born in Blackpool, the son of Alfred George Carman and Evelyn (née Moylan) Carman. His father, a former soldier and auctioneer, briefly owned a furniture business, and his mother, the family's main breadwinner, owned a successful dress shop.[1][2] His parents met in Ireland; his mother was the daughter of a Waterford cattle dealer, Michael Moylan.[3] Irish hurling player Christy Moylan was an uncle. George attended St Joseph's College in Blackpool, run by Christian Brothers from Ireland, and a Roman Catholic seminary, St Josep ...more...

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Propaganda Due

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Propaganda Due

Propaganda Due (Italian pronunciation: ; P2) was a Masonic lodge under the Grand Orient of Italy, founded in 1945 that, by the time its Masonic charter was withdrawn in 1976, had transformed into a clandestine, pseudo-Masonic, ultraright[1][2][3] organization operating in contravention of Article 18 of the Constitution of Italy that banned secret associations. In its latter period, during which the lodge was headed by Licio Gelli, P2 was implicated in numerous Italian crimes and mysteries, including the collapse of the Vatican-affiliated Banco Ambrosiano, the murders of journalist Mino Pecorelli and banker Roberto Calvi, and corruption cases within the nationwide bribe scandal Tangentopoli. P2 came to light through the investigations into the collapse of Michele Sindona's financial empire.[4] P2 was sometimes referred to as a "state within a state"[5] or a "shadow government".[6] The lodge had among its members prominent journalists, members of parliament, industrialists, and military leaders—including Silvi ...more...

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Contemporary Italian history

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Blackfriars Bridge

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Blackfriars Bridge

Blackfriars Bridge is a road and foot traffic bridge over the River Thames in London, between Waterloo Bridge and Blackfriars Railway Bridge, carrying the A201 road. The north end is near the Inns of Court and Temple Church, along with Blackfriars station. The south end is near the Tate Modern art gallery and the Oxo Tower. History Blackfriars Bridge with St Paul's Cathedral behind The first fixed crossing at Blackfriars was a 995 feet (303 m) long toll bridge designed in an Italianate style by Robert Mylne and constructed with nine semi-elliptical arches of Portland stone. Beating designs by John Gwynn and George Dance, it took nine years to build, opening to the public in 1769. It was the third bridge across the Thames in the then built-up area of London, supplementing the ancient London Bridge, which dated from several centuries earlier, and Westminster Bridge. It was originally named "William Pitt Bridge" (after the Prime Minister William Pitt the Elder) as a dedication, but its informal name relat ...more...

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The Godfather Part III

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The Godfather Part III

The Godfather Part III is a 1990 American crime film written by Mario Puzo and Francis Ford Coppola, and directed by Coppola. A sequel to The Godfather (1972) and The Godfather Part II (1974), it completes the story of Michael Corleone, a Mafia kingpin who attempts to legitimize his criminal empire. The film also includes fictionalized accounts of two real-life events: the 1978 death of Pope John Paul I and the Papal banking scandal of 1981–82, both linked to Michael Corleone's business affairs. The film stars Al Pacino, Diane Keaton, Talia Shire, and Andy García, and features Eli Wallach, Joe Mantegna, George Hamilton, Bridget Fonda, and Sofia Coppola. Coppola and Puzo preferred the title The Death of Michael Corleone, but Paramount Pictures found that unacceptable. Coppola stated that The Godfather series is two films and that The Godfather Part III is an epilogue. It received mixed reviews compared with the critical acclaim that the first two films received. It grossed $136,766,062 and was nominated for s ...more...

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Calvi (surname)

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Calvi (surname)

Calvi is an Italian surname. Notable people with the surname include: Alessandro Calvi, Italian swimmer Anna Calvi, English musician Gérard Calvi, French composer Jacopo Alessandro Calvi (1740-1815), Italian painter Lazzaro Calvi, Italian painter Mark Calvi (born 1969), American college baseball coach Mary Calvi, American journalist Pino Calvi, Italian pianist and composer Roberto Calvi, Italian banker Yves Calvi, French journalist ...more...

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Italian-language surnames

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Rupert Cornwell

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Rupert Cornwell

Rupert Cornwell (22 February 1946 – 31 March 2017) was a British journalist connected with The Independent newspaper for thirty years. Born to Ronnie Cornwell and Jeanie Gronow in 1946,[1] Rupert Cornwell read Greek at Magdalen College, Oxford, and worked in advertising after graduation. He began his journalism career with Reuters in 1968. Cornwell was sent to the Brussels branch office, where he met his first wife, interpreter Angela Doria. They moved to Paris, where Cornwell joined the Financial Times as a foreign correspondent. From France, Cornwell and Doria moved to Rome, and Bonn.[2] The couple separated and Cornwell was then the first Moscow correspondent of The Independent, from its launch in 1986. During this time he won two British Press Awards. Later in his career, Cornwell served as the Chief US Commentator at The Independent newspaper. In 1988, he married Susan Smith, whom he had met while in Bonn.[2] His book God's Banker, about Roberto Calvi, an Italian banker found hanging from Blackfriars B ...more...

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In God's Name

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In God's Name

Book Cover In God's Name: An Investigation into the Murder of Pope John Paul I is a book by David A. Yallop about the death of Pope John Paul I. It was published in 1984 by Bantam Books. Potential danger Yallop proposes the theory that the pope was in "potential danger" because of corruption in the Istituto per le Opere Religiose (IOR, Institute of Religious Works, the Vatican's most powerful financial institution, commonly known as the Vatican Bank), which owned many shares in Banco Ambrosiano. The Vatican Bank lost about a quarter of a billion dollars. P2 Lodge The corruption is known to have involved the bank's head, Paul Marcinkus, along with Roberto Calvi of the Banco Ambrosiano. Calvi was a member of P2, an illegal Italian Masonic lodge. Calvi was found dead in London, after disappearing just before the corruption became public. His death was initially ruled suicide, and a second trial — ordered by his family — then returned an "open verdict". The day before Calvi's corpse was discovered, his secre ...more...

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Numero Zero

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Numero Zero

Numero Zero (Italian: Numero zero) is the seventh novel by Italian author and philosopher Umberto Eco and his final novel released during his lifetime.[1] It was first published in January 2015; the English translation by Richard Dixon appeared in November 2015. It is a sprightly satire of the tabloid press,[2] set in Italy in 1992. Plot summary The story is told by Colonna, a hack journalist, now in his fifties, and a loser. He is hired by Simei to work on a newspaper called Domani (Tomorrow) that will never be published. The venture is financed by Commendator Vimercate, who owns a television channel, a dozen magazines and runs a chain of hotels and rest homes. The declared aim of the newspaper is to reveal the truth about everything, to publish all the news that’s fit to print “plus a little more,” but Commendator Vimercate’s true interest lies elsewhere. His “zero issues” will be seen by powerful figures high up in the world of finance and politics who don’t want the truth to be revealed. They’ll put pres ...more...

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2005 in organized crime

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2005 in organized crime

Events January 25 - Police raid various homes in Sicily and arrest forty-six Mafia suspects believed to be helping Bernardo Provenzano elude the authorities.[1] Although they did not catch the elusive Mafia boss himself, investigators nonetheless unearthed evidence that 72-year-old Provenzano was still very much alive and in control of the Mafia, in the form of his cryptic handwritten notes, his preferred method of giving orders to his men. February 4 - Information about Bonanno crime family boss Joe Massino's cooperation with police for a reduced jail sentence is released to the press. February 9 - Susumu Kajiyama, a Japanese crime syndicate member dubbed the "loan shark king", was sentenced to seven years in prison for laundering money.[2] April - Massachusetts mafia captain Vincent M. Ferrara has his jail sentence ended by a US District Court six years before the original set date due to prosecutor Jeffrey Auerhahn using an illegal court tactic. In 1992 Ferrara pleaded guilty to racketeering, extortio ...more...

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David Bowen (pathologist)

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David Bowen (pathologist)

David Aubrey Llewellyn Bowen FRCP FRCPE FRCPath (31 January 1924 – 31 March 2011) was a Welsh pathologist. He studied medicine at Corpus Christi College, Cambridge.[1] He was involved in the Dennis Nilsen case,[1][2][3][4] and also that of John Duffy and David Mulcahy, the murder of PC Keith Blakelock and the death of the financier Roberto Calvi. References "David Bowen obituary". the Guardian. "Professor David Bowen". Telegraph.co.uk. 12 April 2011. Professor David Bowen Source:The Times (London, England). (18 Apr. 2011): News: p44 ‘BOWEN, Prof. David Aubrey Llewellyn’, Who Was Who, A & C Black, an imprint of Bloomsbury Publishing plc, 1920–2007; online edn, Oxford University Press, Dec 2011 ; online edn, Nov 2011 accessed 13 Jan 2014 ...more...

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Pope John Paul I conspiracy theories

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Pope John Paul I conspiracy theories

Tomb of John Paul I in the Vatican Grottoes Pope John Paul I died suddenly in September 1978, 33 days after his election. Following contradictory reports about the circumstances of his death and apparent anomalies about the issuing of the death certificate and other procedures, several conspiracy theories have gained currency. Many of these concern the serious corruption in the Vatican Bank (Istituto per le Opere Religiose), possibly linked to freemasonry, which is forbidden by church law. None of the claims have been proven. Rationale Discrepancies in the Vatican's account of the events surrounding John Paul I's death – its inaccurate statements about who found the body;[1] what he had been reading; when, where, and whether an autopsy could be carried out[1][2] – produced a number of conspiracy theories, many associated with the Vatican Bank, which owned many shares in Banco Ambrosiano. Some conspiracy theorists connect the death of John Paul in September 1978 with the image of the "bishop dressed in wh ...more...

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Licio Gelli

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Licio Gelli

Licio Gelli (Italian pronunciation: ; April 21, 1919 – December 15, 2015) was an Italian financier, liaison officer between the Italian government and Nazi Germany,[1] chiefly known for his role in the Banco Ambrosiano scandal. He was revealed in 1981 as being the Venerable Master of the clandestine lodge Propaganda Due (P2). Fascist volunteer Gelli as a fascist volunteer in 1941 Gelli was born in Pistoia, Tuscany. During the 1930s, Gelli volunteered for the Blackshirts expeditionary forces sent by Mussolini in support of Francisco Franco's rebellion in the Spanish Civil War.[2] He participated in the Italian Social Republic with Giorgio Almirante, founder of the neofascist Italian Social Movement (MSI).[3][4] After a sales job with the Italian mattress factory Permaflex, Gelli founded his own textile and importing company.[2][4] Involvement in failed coup and fugitive years in Argentina In 1970, during the failed Golpe Borghese, he was delegated the role of arresting the Italian President, Giuseppe S ...more...

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Antonino Giuffrè

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Antonino Giuffrè

Antonino Giuffrè. Antonino "Nino" Giuffrè (born July 21, 1945) is an Italian mafioso from Caccamo in the Province of Palermo, Sicily. He became one of the most important Mafia turncoats after his arrest in April 2002. Giuffrè was known in mafia circles as Manuzza (the Hand), because his right hand was crippled by polio. Other sources claim he lost his hand in a hunting accident.[1] Giuffrè was trained as an agricultural sciences specialist. His rise in the Mafia ran parallel to the ascension of the Corleonesi clan headed by Salvatore Riina. He became the head of the mandamento of Caccamo and is a nephew of American Mob Boss John Stanfa from Philadelphia. Pentito Antonino Giuffrè was arrested on April 16, 2002.[1] He started feeding investigators information even before he agreed to turn state' witness (or pentito) in June, 2002. He is one of the most important mafia turncoats since Tommaso Buscetta in 1984. His collaboration has updated investigators' knowledge and provided a new interpretation for the se ...more...

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People from the Province of Palermo

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Enrico De Pedis

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Enrico De Pedis

Enrico De Pedis (May 15, 1954 − February 2, 1990) was an Italian criminal and one of the bosses of the Banda della Magliana, an Italian criminal organization based in the city of Rome, particularly active throughout the late 1970s until the early 1990s. His nickname was "'Renatino". Unlike other members of his gang, De Pedis possessed a strong entrepreneurial spirit. While other members squandered their earnings, he invested his illicit proceeds (in construction companies, restaurants, boutiques, etc.).[1] Along with many of the crimes committed by his gang, De Pedis has also been linked to the disappearance of Emanuela Orlandi, whose case has been linked with the Pope John Paul II assassination attempt. On February 2, 1990, De Pedis was ambushed and murdered by his former colleagues on Via del Pellegrino near Campo de' Fiori.[2] He was buried in the Sant'Apollinare Basilica in Rome. The unusual interment has been linked to the case of Emanuela Orlandi's kidnapping.[3] In 2009, the Rome prosecutor's offices ...more...

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Masonic conspiracy theories

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Masonic conspiracy theories

Masonic conspiracy theories are conspiracy theories involving Freemasonry; hundreds of such conspiracy theories have been described since the late 18th century.[1] Generally, these theories fall into three distinct categories: political (usually involving allegations of control of government, particularly in the United States and the United Kingdom), religious (usually involving allegations of anti-Christian or Satanic beliefs or practices), and cultural (usually involving popular entertainment). Many conspiracy theory writers have connected Freemasons (and the Knights Templar) with worship of the devil;[2][3][4][5][6] these ideas are based on different interpretations of the doctrines of those organizations.[7] Of the claims that Freemasonry exerts control over politics, perhaps the best-known example is the New World Order theory, but there are others. These mainly involve aspects and agencies of the United States government, but actual events outside the US (such as the Propaganda Due scandal in Italy) ar ...more...

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Crime in Italy

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Crime in Italy

Municipal police in Perugia in central Italy. Crime in Italy is combated by the spectrum of Italian law enforcement agencies. Crime by typeMurder In 2012, national murder rate was about 0.9 per 100,000 population, one of the lower rates in Western Europe.[1] There were a total of 530 murders in Italy in 2012.[1] Organized crime The incidence of Pizzo (extortion) by organised crime across Italy's provinces. Many worldwide crime organizations originated in Italy, and its influence is widespread in Italian society, directly affecting a reported 22% of citizens and 14.6% of Italy's Gross Domestic Product.[2] Public figures such as former Prime Minister Silvio Berlusconi have been charged with association in organized criminal acts.[3] War against organized crime caused hundreds of murders, including judges (Giovanni Falcone and Paolo Borsellino) and lawyers (like Roberto Calvi). There are several separate criminal organizations controlling territory and business activities: Sicilian Cosa Nostra, Campan ...more...

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1920 in organized crime

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1920 in organized crime

See also: 1919 in organized crime, 1921 in organized crime and the list of 'years in organized crime'. Events Paddy "the Bear" Ryan, successor of Red Bolton as leader of the Valley Gang, is killed by Walter "The Runt" Quinlan. February 2 - Chicago labor racketeer Maurice Enright is killed. Timothy D. "Big Tim" Murphy is suspected in his slaying, but is released for lack of evidence. Although suspected by authorities to have involved the Torrio-Capone organization, Chicago labor union racketeer James Vinci is eventually convicted of his murder. April 15 - The Slater and Morrill Shoe Company is robbed of $15,776 as a paymaster and guard are killed, supposedly by the Morelli Gang, however Nicola Sacco and Bartolomeo Vanzetti are convicted of the robbery and are later executed. May 11 - Chicago gambling racketeer James "Big Jim" Colosimo is killed outside his restaurant, allegedly by Alphone "Al," "Scarface" Capone. August - In a daring daylight robbery, Timothy D. "Big Tim" Murphy and his gang rob a mail ...more...

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Years in organized crime

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Institute for the Works of Religion

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Institute for the Works of Religion

The Institute for the Works of Religion (Italian: Istituto per le Opere di Religione – IOR), commonly known as the Vatican Bank, is a private bank situated inside Vatican City and run by a Board of Superintendence which reports to a Supervisory Commission of Cardinals and the Pope. The Bank Identifier Code of the Institute for the Works of Religion is IOPRVAVX. Since 9 July 2014, its president is Jean-Baptiste de Franssu. The IOR is regulated by the Vatican's financial supervisory body AIF (Autorità di Informazione Finanziaria).[1] The institute was founded by papal decree of Pope Pius XII in June 1942. Its assets are not the property of the Holy See, and therefore it is outside the jurisdiction of the Prefecture for the Economic Affairs of the Holy See.[2][note 1] In June 2012, the IOR gave a first presentation of its operations. In July 2013, the Institute launched its own website.[3] On 1 October 2013 it also published its first-ever annual report which has been available for download since then.[4][5][6 ...more...

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Paul Marcinkus

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Paul Marcinkus

Paul Marcinkus (),[1] GCOIH (January 15, 1922 – February 20, 2006) was an American archbishop of the Roman Catholic Church. He was best known for his tenure as president of the Vatican Bank from 1971 to 1989.[2] BiographyEarly life Marcinkus was born in Cicero, Illinois, the son of an immigrant window cleaner who arrived in Cicero in 1914. His father Mykolas had left Lithuania to escape possible induction into the Russian army. Moving to the United States, he briefly lived in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania before moving to Fond du Lac, Wisconsin to work for a cousin as a farm hand, then moving to Cicero after finding work in a Chicago steel mill. By the time his fourth son, Paulius, arrived, he had started cleaning windows for the Leo Sheridan Co., a job he would hold for 30 years. After attending Archbishop Quigley Preparatory Seminary and St. Mary of the Lake Seminary, Paul was ordained to the priesthood for the Archdiocese of Chicago on May 3, 1947, and served parish assignments with both St. Christina's and H ...more...

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1982

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1982

Wikimedia Commons has media related to 1982. 1982 (MCMLXXXII) was a common year starting on Friday of the Gregorian calendar, the 1982nd year of the Common Era (CE) and Anno Domini (AD) designations, the 982nd year of the 2nd millennium, the 82nd year of the 20th century, and the 3rd year of the 1980s decade. EventsJanuary January 1 – New ITV franchises, Central, TVS and TSW, are launched. January 7 – The Commodore 64 8-bit home computer is launched by Commodore International in Las Vegas[1] (released in August); it becomes the all-time best-selling single personal computer model.[2] January 8 – AT&T Corporation agrees to break up and divest itself of 22 subdivisions.[3] January 11 – Mark Thatcher, son of British Prime Minister Margaret Thatcher, disappears in the Sahara during the Dakar Rally; he is rescued January 14. January 11 – January 17 – A brutal cold snap sends temperatures to all-time record lows in dozens of cities throughout the Midwestern United States. January 13 – Shortly ...more...

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1982

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June 17

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June 17

June 17 is the 168th day of the year (169th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. There are 197 days remaining until the end of the year. Events 1244 – Following the Disputation of Paris, twenty-four carriage loads of Jewish religious manuscripts were burnt in Paris. 1397 – The Kalmar Union is formed under the rule of Margaret I of Denmark. 1462 – Vlad III the Impaler attempts to assassinate Mehmed II (The Night Attack at Târgovişte), forcing him to retreat from Wallachia. 1497 – Battle of Deptford Bridge: Forces under King Henry VII defeat troops led by Michael An Gof. 1565 – Matsunaga Hisahide assassinates the 13th Ashikaga shogun, Ashikaga Yoshiteru. 1579 – Sir Francis Drake claims a land he calls Nova Albion (modern California) for England. 1596 – The Dutch explorer Willem Barentsz discovers the Arctic archipelago of Spitsbergen. 1631 – Mumtaz Mahal dies during childbirth. Her husband, Mughal emperor Shah Jahan I, will spend the next 17 years building her mausoleum, the Taj Mahal. 1 ...more...

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Cosmic Trigger II: Down to Earth

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Cosmic Trigger II: Down to Earth

Cosmic Trigger II: Down to Earth is the second book in the Cosmic Trigger series, a three-volume autobiographical and philosophical work by Robert Anton Wilson. First published in 1991, Cosmic Trigger II continues where Cosmic Trigger I: The Final Secret of the Illuminati left off, as well as being a set piece in itself. Wilson continues the Illuminati-based synchronicities that have taken place since Cosmic Trigger I was first published. The book is an exploration into the future of cyberspace; the peculiarities of Irish jurisprudence; links to the Mafia, the CIA and the Catholic Church; anal-eroticism in the White House; the Dog Castrator of Palm Springs and more. The book combines humour, twists in logic and zen-like koans to get its messages across. The book is made up of ninety-four short chapters, with the main themes interwoven throughout in a non-linear fashion. In part, this volume of the series outlines Wilson’s intellectual development, from his religious education under the (‘sadistic’) nuns at ...more...

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The International (2009 film)

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The International (2009 film)

The International is a 2009 German–American political thriller drama film directed by Tom Tykwer. The film follows an Interpol agent and an American district attorney who investigate corruption within the IBBC, a fictional merchant bank based in Luxembourg. It serves organized crime and corrupt governments as a banker and as an arms broker. The bank's ruthless managers assassinate potential threats including their own employees. Inspired by the Bank of Credit and Commerce International (BCCI) scandal of the 1980s, the film's script, written by Eric Warren Singer, raises concerns about how global finance affects international politics across the world. Production began in Berlin in September 2008, including the construction of a life-size replica of New York's Guggenheim Museum for the film's climactic shoot-out scene. The film opened the 59th Berlin International Film Festival on 5 February 2009. Reviews were mixed: some praised the sleek appearance and prescient themes—The Guardian called it a thriller with ...more...

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Giorgio Ambrosoli

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Giorgio Ambrosoli

Giorgio Ambrosoli (October 17, 1933 – July 11, 1979) was an Italian lawyer who was gunned down while investigating the malpractice of banker Michele Sindona. Liquidating Sindona’s financial empire Appointed by the court as liquidator of the Banca Privata Italiana, one of the Italian banks controlled by Sicilian banker Michele Sindona, which was forced into liquidation, he found evidences of criminal manipulations. He provided the US Justice Department with evidence to convict Sindona for his role in the collapse of the Franklin National Bank. According to Ambrosoli, Sindona paid a US$5.6 million commission to "an American bishop and a Milanese banker." Official Italian sources confirmed that it concerned Paul Marcinkus, of the Vatican Bank, and Roberto Calvi, President of Banco Ambrosiano. Murder On July 11, 1979, only hours after talking to US authorities, he was shot dead by three Mafia hitmen commissioned by Michele Sindona. Sindona feared that Ambrosoli would expose his manipulations in the Banca Priv ...more...

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1982 in organized crime

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1982 in organized crime

Events Salvatore Ruggiero, a heroin trafficker and brother of Gambino crime family capo Angelo Ruggiero, is killed in a plane crash. Salvatore Lamberti, a Sicilian mafiosi, emigrates to the United States from Sicily. January 28 - The Federal Bureau of Investigation is granted concurrent jurisdiction by the office of the Attorney General in matters involving the Controlled Substances Act. February 26 - Chicago mobster Frank Renella is sentenced to seven years' imprisonment for violation of the Hobbs Act regarding extortion and jumping bail. Renella had previously been accused of involvement in the murder of local businessman Nick Velentzas, who had been threatened by Renella and his associates on numerous occasions regarding loansharking and protection payoffs. March 5 - Gambino crime family associates killed con artists Nicolina and Michael Lizak in retaliation for killing soldier Robert Russo. March 23 - Future pentito, Salvatore Contorno, is arrested in Rome where he had gone to prepare the killing o ...more...

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Pino Calvi

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Pino Calvi

Pino Calvi in 1970 Pino Calvi in 1959 Pino Calvi (Voghera, Pavia, 12 January 1930 – Palazzina di Castana, Pavia, 4 January 1989) was an Italian pianist, arranger, conductor and soundtrack composer for films and TV series. His song "Accarezzame" was performed by famous Italian artists such as, among others, Roberto Murolo, Ornella Vanoni, Peppino Di Capri, Achille Togliani, Teddy Reno, Fred Bongusto, Gigliola Cinquetti, Paolo Fresu.[1][2][3] He became popular in the 1970s for his participation in some RAI TV programs, such as Senza Rete in Naples, when he was a polite Maestro.[4] References Accarezzame – Paolo Fresu, Ornella vanoni. Lastfm.it (26 November 2013). Retrieved on 2015-07-05. I singoli più venduti del 1955. Hit Parade Italia. Retrieved on 5 July 2015. Fred Bongusto – Accarezzame. Lastfm.it (26 November 2013). Retrieved on 2015-07-05. Massimo Emanuelli (2004). 50 anni di storia della televisione attraverso la stampa settimanale. GRECO & GRECO Editori. pp. 230–. ISBN 978-8 ...more...

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Tideway

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Tideway

Teddington Weir marks the start of the Tideway The Tideway is the part of the River Thames in England that is subject to tides. This stretch of water is downstream from Teddington Lock and in its widest definition is just under 160 kilometres (99 mi) long.[1] The Tideway includes the Thames Estuary, the Thames Gateway and the Pool of London. Tidal activity Depending on the time of year, the river tide rises and falls twice a day by up to 7 m (24 ft) and, due to the need to overcome the outflow of fresh water from the Thames Basin, it takes longer to subside (6–9 hours) than it does to flow in (4–5 hours). London Bridge is used as the basis for published tide tables giving the times of high tide. High tide reaches Putney about 30 minutes later. Low-lying banks of London have been defended against natural vulnerability to flooding by storm surges. The threat has increased due to a slow but continuous rise in high water level, caused by the extremely slow 'tilting' of Britain (up in the north and down in th ...more...

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Hugh Moore (police officer)

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Hugh Moore (police officer)

Hugh Moore's grave at Bells Hill Burial Ground, Chipping Barnet. Commander Hugh John Moore, QPM (1929 – 4 December 1993) was a police officer in the City of London Police who died from heart failure on 4 December 1993, two weeks after a violent struggle with a man who he had attempted to arrest.[1] Career Moore joined the police force in 1955, following a period of National Service in the Royal Air Force and the Royal Naval Volunteer Reserve.[1] He was a member of the Criminal Investigation Department of the City of London Police, but also served in the City Fraud Squad and Regional Crime Squads, and was promoted through the ranks. As Commander, he oversaw the investigation into the death of Roberto Calvi, dubbed "God's Banker", in June 1982.[1][2] In July that year, Moore gave evidence in the trial of two City of London Police officers, held as part of Operation Countryman, in which he denied corruption allegations made by one of the defendants.[3] The allegations had been made on a secret tape recording, ...more...

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Floor 13 (video game)

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Floor 13 (video game)

Floor 13 is a strategy video game published by Virgin Games in 1991. The game set in the United Kingdom, where the player is the director of a secret governmental agency involved in clandestine domestic operations; the headquarters is hidden on the thirteenth floor of a bank building in London Docklands, hence the title. Plot The player takes on the role of the Director General of the "Department of Agriculture and Fisheries", a non-existent Executive Agency that conceals a secret police which keeps the government popular by any means necessary. Answering only to the Prime Minister, the Director General has the power to use wiretapping, surveillance, smear tactics, disinformation, burglary, kidnapping, torture, and assassination to keep the government popular with the people. In addition to the Director General's regular duties suppressing and removing those who threaten the status quo, there is also a subplot involving his membership in a secret society called "The Secret Masters of Thoth". These mission ...more...

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Il Divo (film)

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Il Divo (film)

Il Divo (Italian pronunciation: , The Celebrity[3] or more literally The Divine[4], from latin divus, god) is a 2008 Italian biographical drama film directed by Paolo Sorrentino. It is based on the figure of former Italian Prime Minister Giulio Andreotti. It competed at the Cannes Film Festival in 2008, where it was awarded the Jury Prize. The film also screened at the Toronto International Film Festival and was nominated for the Academy Award for Best Makeup and Hairstyling at the 82nd Academy Awards in 2010. Synopsis As the film opens, Giulio Andreotti gives an inner monologue observing how he has managed to survive his tumultuous political career while his various detractors have died. A montage shows the murders of various people connected to Andreotti, including journalist Mino Pecorelli, Carabinieri general Carlo Alberto Dalla Chiesa, bankers Michele Sindona and Roberto Calvi, and former prime minister Aldo Moro. The story of Giulio Andreotti, a seven-time prime minister of Italy notorious for his all ...more...

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Bernd Brinkmann

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Bernd Brinkmann

Bernd Brinkmann (born 7 April 1939) is a German forensic pathologist. Biography Bernd Brinkmann was the director of the Institute of Legal Medicine of the University of Münster in Münster, North Rhine-Westphalia in Germany from 1981 until 2007. From 1990 until 2009 he served as the Coordinating Editor of the International Journal of Legal Medicine. Brinkmann became a member of the German Academy of Sciences Leopoldina in 1991[1] and was president of the Deutsche Gesellschaft für Rechtsmedizin (DGRM) (1995–2001), the International Academy of Legal Medicine (1994–2000) and the International Society for Forensic Genetics (1990–1994). He is director of the GEDNAP proficiency testing program for quality assurance in forensic DNA profiling and founded the Institute of Forensic Genetics in 2007 which performs forensic DNA analyses for various law enforcement agencies as well as paternity tests for German courts. Notable cases In 1997, with Luigi Capasso and Annunziata Lopez, at the request of Otello Lupacchini G ...more...

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World Finance Corporation

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World Finance Corporation

A picture of Cartaya from the New York Times. World Finance Corporation (abbreviated WFC; it was later renamed simply WFC Corp.) was a financial corporation founded in 1971 and headquartered in Coral Gables Florida. When WFC Corp was headed and controlled by Guillermo Hernandez-Cartaya (a former Cuban banker who was an agent of the CIA, and believed to be an agent of the Mafia, and also of various Colombian drug lords) through the WFC Group shell company, it became known for a major financial scandal in which over $50 million was lost. This scandal was the subject of a 60 Minutes segment on 26 February 1978. Cartaya controlled it through a number of shell companies, the most well known of which was the WFC Group. Founding The corporation was founded in 1971 by the Cuban expatriate banker Guillermo Hernandez-Cartaya, after he finished serving a Cuban sentence for his participation in The Bay of Pigs Invasion. The New York Times said: With the formation of WFC, former associates said, Mr. Hernandez-Cartaya ...more...

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Companies established in 1971

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List of unsolved deaths

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List of unsolved deaths

This list of unsolved deaths includes notable cases where victims have been murdered or have died under unsolved circumstances, including murders committed by unknown serial killers. The mysteriously-deceased are listed chronologically by year. (For "serial killer cases" which span multiple years, entries are listed under the year the first murder took place.) Unsolved murders Before 1800 Dagobert II, 679; he was one of the last kings of the Merovingian line, murdered by persons unknown in the Ardennes Forest on December 23. Momia Juanita also known as the Inca Ice Maiden and Lady of Ampato, is the well-preserved frozen body of an Inca girl[1] who was murdered as an offering to the Inca gods sometime between 1450 and 1480 when she was approximately 12–15 years old, by persons unknown. She was discovered on Mount Ampato (part of the Andes cordillera) in southern Peru in September 1995 by anthropologist Johan Reinhard and his Peruvian climbing partner, Miguel Zárate. Giovanni Borgia, 2nd Duke of Gandia, ...more...

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Lists of people by cause of death

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Francesco Marino Mannoia

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Francesco Marino Mannoia

Francesco Mannoia (centre, foreground) in custody, circa 1986. Francesco Marino Mannoia (born March 5, 1951) is a former member of the Sicilian Mafia who became a pentito (government witness) in 1989. His nickname was Mozzarella. He is considered to be one of the most reliable government witnesses against the Mafia. Antimafia magistrate Giovanni Falcone, who was first to interrogate him, recalled Marino Mannoia as an intelligent and reliable witness. Criminal career He was raised in Palermo, the capital of Sicily, and joined the Santa Maria di Gesù Mafia Family, headed by Stefano Bontade. He was highly sought after by all Mafia families for his skills in chemistry to be used to refine heroin for the Spatola-Inzerillo-Gambino ring.[1] Marino Mannoia recalled having refined at least 1000 kilograms of heroin for Bontade. He had learned how to refine heroin through Antonino Vernengo, alias ‘u dutturi’ (the doctor) who was the first to set up a refinery in 1977.[2] He was also suspected of being involved in at ...more...

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People from Palermo

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Luigi Giuliano

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Luigi Giuliano

Luigi Giuliano (born 1949[1]) is a former Italian Camorrista who was the boss of the powerful Giuliano clan, based in the district of Forcella, Naples. He had multiple nicknames including "'o rre" (the king) and "Lovigino", which is an amalgamation of Luigi and love. In 2002, he decided to collaborate with Italian law enforcement and became a pentito, a co-operating witness against organised crime. Early life Giuliano was born into the family of Pio Vittorio Giuliano, a well-known smuggler. Pio Vittorio Giuliano had 11 children. Six boys, Luigi "o re or the king", Guglielmo "o stuorto or the crooked one", Nunzio Giuliano, Carmine "o lione or the lion" (1952-2004[2]), Salvatore "o montone or the ram", Raffaele "o zui", Neapolitan slang for being the youngest son. The other four girls, Erminia Giuliano, who was called Celeste, Patrizia, Silvana and Anna.[3] Nunzio dissociated himself from the Camorra and, by extension, his own family in the eighties, following the drug-related death of his son. In later years, ...more...

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People from the Province of Naples

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The Pope Must Die

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The Pope Must Die

The Pope Must Die (U.S. alternate title The Pope Must Diet!) is a 1991 comedy film directed by Peter Richardson and released by Palace Pictures with the backing of Channel 4 Films. The script was written by Richardson with Pete Richens, derived from elements of an earlier screenplay for a three-part mini-series satirising the Catholic Church, which was rejected by Channel 4. The Pope Must Die stars Robbie Coltrane as a low ranking priest who is mistakenly elected Pope, then has to avoid being assassinated by the Mafia. The film co-stars Adrian Edmondson, Annette Crosbie, Herbert Lom, Alex Rocco and Richardson. The film was originally planned as a part of a three-part mini series for Channel 4, which was cancelled by the station after press outcry. This led Richardson to sever his long relationship with Channel 4 and move his future productions to the BBC. The budget for the film was later approved by Palace Pictures with the backing of Channel 4 Films. The production was filmed in 1990 in the former Yugoslav ...more...

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Mafia comedies

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Keith Simpson (pathologist)

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Keith Simpson (pathologist)

Photograph of Keith Simpson CBE a gift inscribed to "friend and colleague Milton Helpern" Cedric Keith Simpson, CBE, FRCP, FRCPath, (20 July 1907 – 21 July 1985) was an English forensic pathologist. He was Professor of Forensic Medicine in the University of London at Guy's Hospital, Lecturer in Forensic Medicine at the University of Oxford and a founder member and President of the Association of Forensic Medicine.[1] Professor Simpson became renowned for his post-mortems on high-profile murder cases, including the 1949 Acid Bath Murders committed by John George Haigh and the murder of gangster George Cornell, who was shot dead by Ronnie Kray in 1966.[2] He pioneered forensic dentistry, and was prominent in alerting physicians and others to the reality of the battered baby syndrome. Professor Simpson wrote a standard textbook on his subject and edited Taylor's Medical Jurisprudence, a basic work of reference of the British medical profession.[3] Forty Years of Murder was Simpson's autobiography and became a ...more...

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Fellows of the Royal College of Physicians

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Jad Adams

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Jad Adams

Jad Adams (born 27 November 1954) is a British writer and television producer. Education Adams attended Forest Hill School and the University of Sussex where he was influenced by the lectures of radical philosopher Paul Feyerabend on questions of scientific and historical method. He took an MA in Victorian History at Birkbeck, University of London. Early career Adams trained as a journalist on the South East London Mercury newspaper where he won the Young Journalist of the Year award in 1978. From 1979 he worked as a freelance news reporter on Fleet Street for various national titles. His break into television came when he was recruited by Tom Bower to work as a researcher on the BBC's flagship current affairs programme Panorama. Adams worked on various investigations, including Called to Account on the mysterious death of Roberto Calvi, which won the Royal Television Society award for international current affairs[1] in 1982. At the end of 1982, Adams was recruited by Joan Shenton to work with her company ...more...

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English writers

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Grand Orient of Italy

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Grand Orient of Italy

The Grand Orient of Italy (GOI) (Italian: Grande Oriente d'Italia) is an Italian masonic grand lodge founded in 1805; the viceroy Eugene of Beauharnais was instrumental in its establishment.[1] It was based at the Palazzo Giustiniani, Rome, Italy from 1901 until 1985 and is now located at the Villa del Vascello.[2] Its current Grand Master is Italian journalist Stefano Bisi.[3] As of September 2015 the Grand Orient had 22,675 members in 842 lodges,[4] a significant growth over the preceding three year period.[5] The international influence of the Grand Orient has decreased since it lost the official recognition of the "Home Grand Lodges" (of England, Ireland, and Scotland) owing to alleged corruption, although it remains regular in government and practice. History The Grand Orient of Italy was founded in 1805, during the Napoleonic Kingdom of Italy; the viceroy Eugene of Beauharnais was instrumental in its establishment. Past Grand Masters included: Poet Giuseppe Garibaldi,[6] Adriano Lemmi, Sculptor ...more...

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Started in 1805

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Mark Lombardi

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Mark Lombardi

Mark Lombardi (March 23, 1951 – March 22, 2000) was an American neo-conceptual artist who specialized in drawings that document alleged financial and political frauds by power brokers, and in general "the uses and abuses of power".[1][2][3] Education and early career Lombardi was born in the town of Manlius, New York, just outside Syracuse, New York. He majored in art history at Syracuse University, and graduated with a B.A in 1974. While still an undergraduate, Lombardi had a job as chief researcher for a 1973 art exhibit Teapot Dome to Watergate – a multimedia collage, all of whose elements focused on various US governmental scandals; it was motivated by the then-ongoing Watergate scandal. In 1975, James Harithas (the former director of the Syracusan Everson Museum) hired Lombardi to be an assistant curator at the Contemporary Arts Museum in Houston, Texas, where Harithas had become director. Lombardi worked there for approximately two years, until 1976. While in Houston, he also opened a small art gallery ...more...

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Syracuse University alumni

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Disappearance of Emanuela Orlandi

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Disappearance of Emanuela Orlandi

Emanuela Orlandi (born 14 January 1968) was a citizen of Vatican City who mysteriously disappeared on 22 June 1983. Sightings of Emanuela in various places have been reported over the years, even inside Vatican City, but all have been unreliable. The Orlandi case is still unsolved. Disappearance Orlandi was the fourth of the five children of Ercole and Maria Orlandi. Her father was an employee of the Institute for the Works of Religion (the "Vatican Bank"). He and his family lived inside Vatican City.[1] Orlandi was in her second year at a liceo scientifico (a scientific high school) in Rome. Although the school year had concluded, she continued to take flute lessons three times per week at the Tommaso Ludovico Da Victoria School, connected with the Pontifical Institute of Sacred Music. She was also part of the choir of the church of Sant'Anna dei Palafrenieri in the Vatican. Orlandi usually travelled by bus to the music school. She would get off the bus after a few stops and then walk six or seven hundred ...more...

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1980s missing person cases

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April 13

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April 13

April 13 is the 103rd day of the year (104th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. There are 262 days remaining until the end of the year. Events 945 – Hugh of Provence abdicates the throne in favor of his son Lothair II who is acclaimed sole king of Italy. 1111 – Henry V is crowned Holy Roman Emperor. 1204 – Constantinople falls to the Crusaders of the Fourth Crusade, temporarily ending the Byzantine Empire. 1612 – Miyamoto Musashi defeats Sasaki Kojirō at Funajima island. 1613 – Samuel Argall captures Native American princess Pocahontas in Passapatanzy, Virginia to ransom her for some English prisoners held by her father; she is brought to Henricus as hostage. 1742 – George Frideric Handel's oratorio Messiah makes its world-premiere in Dublin, Ireland. 1777 – American Revolutionary War: American forces are ambushed and defeated in the Battle of Bound Brook, New Jersey. 1829 – The Roman Catholic Relief Act 1829 gives Roman Catholics in the United Kingdom the right to vote and to sit in P ...more...

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Days of the year

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