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Roberto Calvi

Roberto Calvi (13 April 1920 – 17 June 1982) was an Italian banker dubbed "God's Banker" (Italian: Banchiere di Dio) by the press because of his close association with the Holy See. A native of Milan, Calvi was Chairman of Banco Ambrosiano, which collapsed in one of modern Italy's biggest political scandals. His death in London in June 1982 is a source of enduring controversy and was ruled a murder after two coroner's inquests and an independent investigation. In Rome, in June 2007, five people were acquitted of the murder.

Claims have been made that factors in Calvi's death were the Vatican Bank, Banco Ambrosiano's main shareholder; the Mafia, which may have used Banco Ambrosiano for money laundering; and the clandestine Masonic lodge Propaganda Due.

The Banco Ambrosiano scandal

Roberto Calvi was the chairman of Italy's second largest private bank, Banco Ambrosiano, when it collapsed in 1982. In 1978, the Bank of Italy produced a report on Banco Ambrosiano which found that several billion lire had been exported illegally, leading to criminal investigations. In 1981, Calvi was tried, given a four-year suspended sentence and fined $19.8 million for transferring $27 million out of the country in violation of Italian currency laws. He was released on bail pending appeal and kept his position at the bank. During his short spell in jail, he attempted suicide. Calvi's family maintains that he was manipulated by others and was innocent of the crimes attributed to him.[1]

The controversy surrounding Calvi's dealings at Banco Ambrosiano echoed a previous scandal in 1974, when the Holy See lost an estimated $30 million upon the collapse of the Franklin National Bank, owned by the Sicilian-born financier Michele Sindona. Bad loans and foreign currency transactions led to the collapse of the bank. Sindona later died in prison after drinking coffee laced with cyanide.[2]

On 5 June 1982, two weeks before the collapse of Banco Ambrosiano, Calvi wrote a letter of warning to Pope John Paul II, stating that such a forthcoming event would “provoke a catastrophe of unimaginable proportions in which the Church will suffer the gravest damage."[3] The correspondence essentially confirmed an understanding that illegal transactions were common knowledge among the top affiliates of the Vatican and Banco Ambrosiano.[4] Banco Ambrosiano collapsed in June 1982 following the discovery of debts of between US$700 million and US$1.5 billion. Much of the money had been siphoned off via the Vatican Bank, which owned 10% of Banco Ambrosiano and was their main shareholder.

In 1984, the Vatican Bank agreed to pay US$224 million to the 120 of Banco Ambrosiano creditors as a “recognition of moral involvement” in the bank's collapse.[2] Whether the Vatican Bank was directly involved in the scandal cannot be legally confirmed, due to a lack of evidence in the subpoenaed correspondence revealing only that Calvi consistently supported the religious agenda of the Vatican. As it was Calvi who committed the crime of fiscal misconduct and there was no evidence of church involvement otherwise, the Vatican was granted immunity.[5]

Death

On 10 June 1982, Calvi went missing from his Rome apartment, having fled the country on a false passport in the name of Gian Roberto Calvini, fleeing initially to Venice. From there, he apparently hired a private plane to London via Zurich. At 7:30 am on Friday, 18 June 1982, a postal clerk was crossing Blackfriars Bridge and noticed Calvi's body hanging from the scaffolding beneath. Calvi's clothing was stuffed with bricks, and he was carrying around $15,000 worth of cash in three different currencies.[6]

Calvi was a member of Licio Gelli's illegal masonic lodge, Propaganda Due (P2), who referred to themselves as frati neri or "black friars". This led to a suggestion in some quarters that Calvi was murdered as a masonic warning because of the symbolism associated with the word "Blackfriars".[7]

The day before his body was found, Calvi was stripped of his post at Banco Ambrosiano by the Bank of Italy, and his 55-year-old private secretary, Graziella Corrocher, jumped to her death from a fifth floor window at the bank's headquarters. Corrocher left behind an angry note condemning the damage that Calvi had done to the bank and its employees. Corrocher's death was ruled a suicide.

Calvi's death was the subject of two coroner's inquests in the United Kingdom. The first recorded a verdict of suicide in July 1982. The Calvi family then secured the services of George Carman QC. At the second inquest, in July 1983, the jury recorded an open verdict, indicating that the court had been unable to determine the exact cause of death. Calvi's family maintained that his death had been a murder.

In 1991, the Calvi family commissioned the New York-based investigation company Kroll Associates to investigate the circumstances of Calvi's death. The case was assigned to Jeff Katz, who was then a senior case manager for the company in London. As part of his two-year investigation, Katz instructed former Home Office forensic scientists, including Angela Gallop, to undertake forensic tests. As a result, it was found that Calvi could not have hanged himself from the scaffolding because the lack of paint and rust on his shoes proved that he had not walked on the scaffolding. In October 1992, the forensic report was submitted to the Home Secretary and the City of London Police, who dismissed it at the time.

Following the exhumation of Calvi's body in December 1998, an Italian court commissioned a German forensic scientist to repeat the work produced by Katz and his forensic team. That report was published in October 2002, ten years after the original, and confirmed the first report. In addition, it said that the injuries to Calvi's neck were inconsistent with hanging and that he had not touched the bricks found in his pockets. When Calvi's body was found, the level of the River Thames had receded with the tide, giving the scene the appearance of a suicide by hanging, but at the exact time of his death, the place on the scaffolding where the rope had been tied could have been reached by a person standing in a boat. That had also been the conclusion of a separate report by Katz in 1992, which also detailed a reconstruction based on Calvi's last known movements in London and theorized that Calvi had been taken by boat from a point of access to the Thames in West London.[8] [9] [10] [11]

This aspect of Calvi's death was the focus of the theory that he was murdered. It is this version of events depicted on screen in Giuseppe Ferrara's fictional film reconstruction of the event. In September 2003, the City of London Police reopened their investigation as a murder inquiry.[12] [13] [14] More evidence arose, revealing Calvi stayed in a flat in Chelsea Cloisters just prior to his death. Three months later, Sergio Vaccari, a small-time drug dealer who had stayed in the very same flat as Calvi, was found dead in possession of masonic papers displaying member names of P2. The murders of both Vaccari and Calvi involved bricks stuffed in clothing, correlating the two deaths and confirming the connection of Calvi to the lodge.[15]

Calvi's life was insured for $10 million with Unione Italiana. Attempts by his family to obtain a payout resulted in litigation (Fisher v Unione Italiana [1998] CLC 682). Following the forensic report of 2002, which established that Calvi had been murdered, the policy was finally settled, although around half of the sum was paid to creditors of the Calvi family who incurred considerable costs during their attempts to establish Calvi's cause of death.[7] [16] [17]

Prosecution of Giuseppe Calò and Licio Gelli

In July 1991, the Mafia pentito Francesco Marino Mannoia claimed that Calvi had been killed because he had lost Mafia funds when Banco Ambrosiano collapsed.[18] [19] According to Mannoia, the killer was Francesco Di Carlo, a mafioso living in London at the time, on the orders of boss Giuseppe Calò and Licio Gelli. When Di Carlo became an informer in June 1996, he denied he was the killer, but admitted he had been approached by Calò to do the job. However, Di Carlo could not be reached in time. When he later called Calò, the latter said that everything had been taken care of.[20] According to Di Carlo, the killers were Vaccari and Vincenzo Casillo, who belonged to the Camorra from Naples and were later killed.[17] In 1997, Italian prosecutors in Rome implicated Calò in Calvi's murder, along with Flavio Carboni, a Sardinian businessman with wide-ranging interests. Two other men, Di Carlo and Ernesto Diotallevi, were also alleged to be involved in the killing.

In July 2003, the Italian prosecutors concluded that the Mafia acted not only in its own interests, but also to ensure that Calvi could not blackmail "politico-institutional figures and [representatives] of freemasonry, the P2 lodge, and the Institute of Religious Works with whom he had invested substantial sums of money, some of it from Cosa Nostra and Italian public corporations".[21]

On 19 July 2005, Licio Gelli, the grand master of the P2 masonic lodge, received a notification informing him that he was formally under investigation on charges of ordering the murder of Calvi along with Calò, Diotallevi, Flavio Carboni and Carboni's Austrian ex-girlfriend, Manuela Kleinszig. The four other suspects were already indicted on murder charges in April. According to the indictment, the five ordered Calvi's murder to prevent the banker "from using blackmail power against his political and institutional sponsors from the world of Masonry, belonging to the P2 lodge, or to the Institute for Religious Works (the Vatican Bank) with whom he had managed investments and financing with conspicuous sums of money, some of it coming from Cosa Nostra and public agencies".[22]

Gelli was accused of provoking Calvi's death to punish him for embezzling money from Banco Ambrosiano that was owed to him and the Mafia. The Mafia allegedly wanted to prevent Calvi from revealing that Banco Ambrosiano was used for money laundering. Gelli denied involvement, but acknowledged that the financier was murdered. In his statement before the court, he said the killing was commissioned in Poland. This is thought to be a reference to Calvi's alleged involvement in financing the Solidarity trade union movement at the request of Pope John Paul II, allegedly on behalf of the Vatican.[22] However, Gelli's name was not in the final indictment at the trial that started in October 2005.

Trials in Italy

In 2005 the Italian magistrates investigating Calvi’s death took their inquiries to London in order to question witnesses. They had been cooperating with Chief Superintendent Trevor Smith who built his case partly on evidence provided by Jeff Katz. Smith had been able to make the first ever arrest of a UK witness who had allegedly committed perjury during the Calvi inquest.[16]

On 5 October 2005, the trial of the five individuals charged with Calvi's murder began in Rome. The defendants were Giuseppe Calò, Flavio Carboni, Manuela Kleinszig, Ernesto Diotallevi, and Calvi's former driver and bodyguard Silvano Vittor. The trial took place in a specially fortified courtroom in Rome's Rebibbia prison.[3] [23] [24] [25]

On 6 June 2007, all five individuals were cleared by the court of murdering Calvi.[26] Mario Lucio d'Andria, the presiding judge at the trial, threw out the charges citing "insufficient evidence" after hearing 20 months of evidence. The verdict was a surprise to some observers. The court ruled that Calvi's death was murder and not suicide.[27] The defence suggested there were plenty of people with a motive for Calvi's murder, including Vatican officials and Mafia figures who wanted to ensure his silence.[28] [29] Legal experts following the trial said that the prosecutors found it hard to present a convincing case due to the 25 years that elapsed since Calvi's death. Additionally, key witnesses were unwilling to testify, untraceable, or dead.[30] The prosecution called for Manuela Kleinszig to be cleared, stating that there was insufficient evidence against her, but sought life sentences for the four men.[31]

The private investigator Jeff Katz, hired by Calvi's family in 1991 to look into his death, claimed it was likely that senior figures in the Italian establishment escaped prosecution. "The problem is that the people who probably actually ordered the death of Calvi are not in the dock - but to get to those people might be very difficult indeed," he said in an interview.[31] Katz said it was "probably true" that the Mafia carried out the killing, but that the gangsters suspected of the crime were either dead or missing.[32] The verdict in the trial was not the end of the matter, since by June 2007 the prosecutor's office in Rome had opened a second investigation implicating, among others, Licio Gelli.[33]

In May 2009, the case against Licio Gelli was dropped. According to the magistrate there was insufficient evidence to argue that Gelli, the former head of the secret Masonic lodge P2, had played a role in the planning and execution of the crime.[34] On 7 May 2010, the Court of Appeals confirmed the acquittal of Calò, Carboni and Diotallevi. The public prosecutor, Luca Tescaroli, commented, after the verdict, that for the family "Calvi has been murdered for the second time."[35] On November 18, 2011, the court of last resort, the Court of Cassation, confirmed the acquittal.[36] Giuseppe Calò is still serving a life sentence on unrelated Mafia charges.[33]

Films about Calvi's death

A 1983 PBS Frontline Documentary, titled "God's Banker" investigated Calvi's links with the Vatican, P-2, and if his death was really a suicide.

The circumstances surrounding Calvi's death were made into a feature film, I Banchieri di Dio - Il Caso Calvi (God's Bankers - The Calvi Case), in 2001.[37] Following the release of the film, Flavio Carboni sued the director Giuseppe Ferrara for slander, but lost the action. The lawsuit caused the film to be withdrawn from Italian cinemas, but it was released on video when the legal action ended.

A heavily fictionalized version of Calvi appears in the film The Godfather Part III in the character of Frederick Keinszig.[38]

In 1990 The Comic Strip Presents, a Channel Four television series that had transferred to BBC2 that year, produced a spoof version of Calvi's story under the title Spaghetti Hoops, with Nigel Planer in the lead role, and directed by Peter Richardson and co-written by him and Pete Richens.[39] [40] With the same director and co-writers, the comedy film The Pope Must Die (1991), in which a naive priest, played by Robbie Coltrane, is unexpectedly made Pope and takes on a Mafia-dominated Vatican, has been described by Variety as "Loosely based on the Roberto Calvi banking scandal".[41] [42]

In the 2009 film The Imaginarium of Doctor Parnassus, the character of Tony, played by Heath Ledger, is found hanging (alive) under Blackfriars Bridge, described by director Terry Gilliam as "an homage to Roberto Calvi".[43] [44]

Recently Anthony Souter played the Role of Roberto Calvi in the film "La Verità sta in Cielo" by Roberto Faenza, to be released on the 6th of October 2016 in Italy via 01 distribution (Jean VIgo/Rai).

See also
References
  1. See: Robert Hutchison's Their Kingdom Come: Inside the Secret World of Opus Dei, 1997
  2. Obituary Archbishop Paul Marcinkus, The Times, February 22, 2006
  3. Plea to Pope from 'God's banker' revealed as murder trial begins, The Times, October 6, 2005
  4. Mathiason, Nick (2003-12-06). "Who killed Calvi?". The Guardian. ISSN 0261-3077. Retrieved 2016-09-04.
  5. "The Banco Ambrosiano affair: what happened to Roberto Calvi?". 2014-03-20. Retrieved 2016-09-04.
  6. 'God's banker' found hanged, BBC, 19 June 1982
  7. A son's quest for truth, Evening Standard October 7, 2003
  8. Evidence on hanged Calvi ‘proves’ it was murder, The Observer, 18 October 1992.
  9. Calvi - The tests that may point to murder, The Observer, 31 January 1993.
  10. Dead Man Talking, by Jeffrey Katz, The Sunday Telegraph Magazine, 26 October 2003
  11. Mafia, masons and murder, BBC News, 6 January 2005.
  12. "An end to the mystery of God's Banker?", BBC News, March 31, 2004
  13. "Italian in Scandal Found Dead", UPI, published by the New York Times, June 20, 1982
  14. "1982: 'God's banker' found hanged", BBC News
  15. Editorial, Reuters. "Italy's murky masonic leader Gelli, linked to decades of plots, dies". Retrieved 2016-09-04.
  16. Who killed Calvi?, The Observer, December 7, 2003
  17. Mafia wanted me to kill Calvi, says jailed gangster, Daily Telegraph, December 10, 2005
  18. Mafia 'murdered banker over bungled deal', The Scotsman, February 15, 2006
  19. (in Italian) Anche Antonino Giuffré nell'inchiesta Calvi, La Repubblica, October 13, 2002
  20. Mafia boss breaks silence over Roberto Calvi killing, The Observer, May 12, 2012
  21. Calvi was murdered by the mafia, Italian experts rule, The Guardian, July 25, 2003
  22. Mason indicted over murder of 'God's banker', The Independent, July 20, 2005
  23. Four charged over Calvi killing, BBC News, April 18, 2005
  24. Calvi murder trial opens in Rome, Associated Press, October 6, 2005
  25. Calvi murder trial opens in Rome, BBC News, October 6, 2005
  26. God's Banker' Murder - Five Cleared, Sky News, June 6, 2007
  27. Five cleared over murder of 'God's Banker', The Times, June 6, 2007
  28. Five acquitted over Calvi death, BBC News, June 6, 2007
  29. 'God's Banker' death still a mystery, BBC News, June 6, 2007
  30. ‘God’s banker’ murder suspects acquitted, Financial Times, June 6, 2007
  31. Five cleared of Calvi murder, Guardian Unlimited, June 6, 2007
  32. Family’s distress as five are cleared of conspiracy to kill ‘God’s banker’, The Times, June 7, 2007
  33. (in Italian) Processo Calvi, la sentenza dopo 25 anni assolti Pippo Calò e gli altri imputati, La Repubblica, June 6, 2007
  34. (in Italian) Omicidio Calvi: archiviato procedimento contro Licio Gelli, Corriere della Sera, May 30, 2009
  35. (in Italian) Assolti Carboni, Calò e Diotallevi, La Repubblica, May 7, 2010
  36. (in Italian) Calvi, è definitiva l' assoluzione di Carboni, Calò e Diotallevi, Corriere della Sera, November 18, 2011
  37. Film spotlights 'murky Vatican finances', BBC News, March 8, 2002
  38. The Godfather: Part III
  39. Sight and Sound: Film review volume. British Film Institute (digitised by Indiana University, 18 December 2009). 1992. p. 91. ISBN 0851703356. Retrieved 1 September 2014. the Calvi affair (a subject already sent up in the Comic Strip's Spaghetti Hoops for BBC2).
  40. "The Comic Strip Presents...: Season 5, Episode 5 Spaghetti Hoops (1 Mar. 1990)". IMDB. Retrieved 1 September 2014.
  41. "Review: 'The Pope Must Die'". Variety.com. December 31, 1990. Retrieved 1 September 2014. Loosely based (like The Godfather Part III) on the Roberto Calvi banking scandal, ...
  42. "The Pope Must Diet (1991) - "The Pope Must Die" (original title)". IMDB. Retrieved 1 September 2014.
  43. The Dr Parnassus Press Conference at Cannes - Part 2, edited by Phil Stubbs
  44. The Last of Heath, Peter Biskind, Vanity Fair, August 2009
Further reading
  • Cornwell, Rupert (1983). God's Banker: The Life and Death of Roberto Calvi, London: Victor Gollancz Ltd. ISBN 0-04-332099-6
  • Gurwin, Larry (1983). The Calvi Affair: Death of a Banker. London: Pan Books, 1984, cop. 1983. xiii, 251 p. + [8] p. of b&w photos. ISBN 0-330-28540-8; alternative ISBN on back cover, 0-330-28338-3
  • Yallop, David (1985). In God's Name: An Investigation into the Murder of Pope John Paul I, London: Corgi ISBN 0-552-12640-3
  • Raw, Charles (1992). The Money Changers: How the Vatican Bank enabled Roberto Calvi to Steal $250m... London: Harvill. ISBN 0-00-217338-7
  • Willan, Philip (2007). The Last Supper: the Mafia, the Masons and the Killing of Roberto Calvi, London: Constable & Robinson, 2007 ISBN 1-84529-296-0 (Review in The Observer)*
External links
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Roberto Calvi

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Roberto Calvi (13 April 1920 – 17 June 1982) was an Italian banker dubbed "God's Banker" ( Italian : Banchiere di Dio ) by the press because of his close association with the Holy See . A native of Milan , Calvi was Chairman of Banco Ambrosiano , which collapsed in one of modern Italy's biggest political scandals . His death in London in June 1982 is a source of enduring controversy and was ruled a murder after two coroner 's inquests and an independent investigation. In Rome , in June 2007, five people were acquitted of the murder. Claims have been made that factors in Calvi's death were the Vatican Bank , Banco Ambrosiano's main shareholder; the Mafia , which may have used Banco Ambrosiano for money laundering ; and the clandestine Masonic lodge Propaganda Due . The Banco Ambrosiano scandal Roberto Calvi was the chairman of Italy's second largest private bank, Banco Ambrosiano , when it collapsed in 1982. In 1978, the Bank of Italy produced a report on Banco Ambrosiano which found that several billion lire ...more...



Banco Ambrosiano

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Banco Ambrosiano was an Italian bank that collapsed in 1982. At the centre of the bank's failure was its chairman, Roberto Calvi and his membership in the illegal Masonic Lodge Propaganda Due (aka P2). The Institute for the Works of Religion , commonly known as the Vatican Bank , was Banco Ambrosiano's main shareholder. The Vatican Bank was also accused of funneling covert United States funds to Solidarity and the Contras through Banco Ambrosiano. The death of Pope John Paul I in 1978 is rumoured to be linked to the Ambrosiano scandal. Members Roberto Calvi . Franco Ratti, chairman. Carlo Canesi, senior manager then chairman of Banco Ambrosiano Holding starting from 1965. Roberto Calvi , general manager of Banco Ambrosiano since 1971, appointed chairman from 1975 to his death in June 1982. He was often referred to as "God's Banker" because of his close financial ties with the Vatican. Paul Marcinkus , president of Vatican Bank (aka " Istituto per le Opere di Religione "), had been a director of Ambrosiano Ove ...more...



Giuseppe Calò

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Giuseppe 'Pippo' Calò (born September 30, 1931) is a member of the Sicilian Mafia . He was referred to as the "cassiere di Cosa Nostra" (Mafia's Cashier) because he was heavily involved in the financial side of organized crime, primarily money laundering . He has been charged with ordering the murder of Roberto Calvi – nicknamed "Il banchiere di Dio" (The God's banker) – of the Banco Ambrosiano in 1982, but has been cleared in 2007 because of "insufficient evidence" in a surprise verdict. Boss of the Porta Nuova Mafia family Born and raised in Palermo , the capital of Sicily , he was inducted into the Porta Nuova Mafia Family at the age of twenty-three after carrying out a murder to avenge his father. By 1969 he was the boss of Porta Nuova, and amongst his men was the future informant ( pentito ) Tommaso Buscetta . Calò was on the Sicilian Mafia Commission , a group of the most powerful Mafia bosses in Sicily who regularly met, supposedly to iron out differences and solve disputes. In the beginning of the 197 ...more...



The Bankers of God: The Calvi Affair

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The Bankers of God: The Calvi Affair ( Italian : I banchieri di Dio also known as The God's Bankers) is an Italian drama film directed in 2002 by Giuseppe Ferrara . Plot The film tells the story of the scandal of Banco Ambrosiano , mainly related to the figure of Roberto Calvi . The Clearstream scandal exploded as a case full of intricate affairs involving the financial world, the Vatican , the Masonic Lodge P2 , the Italian Secret Service , the Secret Intelligence Service , the Italian politics , the Mafia and the Banda della Magliana . The movie narrates in detail all these connections, trying to reconstruct events and plots. The film ends with the death of Calvi under the Blackfriars Bridge , in London , openly supporting the murder-hypothesis. Cast Omero Antonutti : Roberto Calvi Giancarlo Giannini : Flavio Carboni Alessandro Gassman : Francesco Pazienza Rutger Hauer : Bishop Paul Marcinkus Pamela Villoresi : Clara Calvi Vincenzo Peluso : Silvano Vittor Pier Paolo Capponi : Roberto Rosone Franco Diogene : ...more...



Banda della Magliana

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The Banda della Magliana ( Italian pronunciation:  , Magliana Gang) is an Italian criminal organization based in Rome founded in 1975. Given by the media , the name refers to the original neighborhood, the Magliana , of some of its members. The Banda della Magliana was involved in criminal activities during the Italian years of lead (anni di piombo). The Italian justice tied it to other criminal organizations such as the Cosa Nostra , Camorra or 'Ndrangheta , but most importantly also to neofascist activists such as the Nuclei Armati Rivoluzionari (NAR), responsible for the 1980 Bologna massacre , the secret services ( SISMI ) and political figures such as Licio Gelli , grand-master of the freemasonic lodge Propaganda Due (P2). Along with Gladio , the NATO clandestine anti-communist organization, P2 was involved in a strategy of tension during the years of lead which included false flag terrorist attacks. These ties, underground compared to their standard (i.e. "run-of-the-mill") activities (drug dealing, hor ...more...



Francesco Di Carlo

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Francesco Di Carlo (born February 18, 1941) is a member of the Mafia who turned state witness ( pentito - a mafioso turned informer) in 1996. He has been accused of being the killer of the Roberto Calvi – nicknamed "God's banker" because he was in charge of Banco Ambrosiano and his close association with the Vatican Bank . Early career Di Carlo was initiated in the Altofonte Mafia family in 1966 by the boss at the time, Salvatore La Barbera (not to be confused with the Palermo Centro boss who was killed in 1963). He became capo famiglia in the mid 1970s. Altofonte was part of the mandamento of San Giuseppe Jato , headed by Antonio Salamone and Bernardo Brusca . According to the pentito Giuseppe Marchese , Di Carlo was an influential mafioso and a very competent drug trafficker connected with the Corleonesi . Di Carlo is described as an elegant and intelligent mafioso who received an education at the prestigious Jesuit college of Gonzaga in Palermo where he met the prince Alessandro Vanni Calvello , who would ...more...



Vincenzo Casillo

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Vincenzo Casillo (? - January 29, 1983) was an Italian Camorrista and the second in command of the Nuova Camorra Organizzata , a Camorra organization in Naples . His nickname was "'o Nirone" (The Big Black). Second in Command He was one of the earliest members of the Nuova Camorra Organizzata, since its formation in 1970. Casillo was highly trusted and soon rose to become the deputy and main military chief of crime boss, Raffaele Cutolo , during the period when he was imprisoned in the prisons of Poggioreale and Ascoli Piceno . As the Nuova Camorra Organizzata's second in command, he participated in a high-level meeting with representatives of the Sicilian Mafia and Camorra clans to try to put an end to the bloody war between the Nuova Camorra Organizzata and their rivals from the Nuova Famiglia , together with Cutolo’s sister, Rosetta . Purported involvement in the Roberto Calvi murder In June 1996, the Sicilian Mafia pentito , Francesco Di Carlo claimed that Vincenzo Casillo together with another Camorrist ...more...



Calvi (surname)

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Calvi is an Italian surname. Notable people with the surname include: Alessandro Calvi , Italian swimmer Anna Calvi , English musician Gérard Calvi , French composer Jacopo Alessandro Calvi (1740-1815), Italian painter Lazzaro Calvi , Italian painter Mark Calvi (born 1969), American college baseball coach Mary Calvi , American journalist Pino Calvi , Italian pianist and composer Roberto Calvi , Italian banker Yves Calvi , French journalist Calvi is an Italian surname. Notable people with the surname include: Alessandro Calvi , Italian swimmer Anna Calvi , English musician Gérard Calvi , French composer Jacopo Alessandro Calvi (1740-1815), Italian painter Lazzaro Calvi , Italian painter Mark Calvi (born 1969), American college baseball coach Mary Calvi , American journalist Pino Calvi , Italian pianist and composer Roberto Calvi , Italian banker Yves Calvi , French journalist ...more...



In God's Name

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Book Cover In God's Name: An Investigation into the Murder of Pope John Paul I is a book by David A. Yallop about Pope John Paul I death. It was published in 1984 by Bantam Books . Potential danger Yallop proposes the theory that the pope was in "potential danger" because of corruption in the Istituto per le Opere Religiose (IOR, Institute of Religious Works, the Vatican's most powerful financial institution, commonly known as the Vatican Bank), which owned many shares in Banco Ambrosiano . The Vatican Bank lost about a quarter of a billion dollars. P2 Lodge This corruption was real and is known to have involved the bank's head, Paul Marcinkus , along with Roberto Calvi of the Banco Ambrosiano . Calvi was a member of P2 , an illegal Italian Masonic lodge. Calvi was found dead in London, after disappearing just before the corruption became public. His death was initially ruled suicide, and a second trial — ordered by his family — then returned an "open verdict". The day before Calvi's corpse was discovered, hi ...more...



Blackfriars Bridge

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Blackfriars Bridge is a road and foot traffic bridge over the River Thames in London, between Waterloo Bridge and Blackfriars Railway Bridge , carrying the A201 road . The north end is near the Inns of Court and Temple Church , along with Blackfriars station . The south end is near the Tate Modern art gallery and the Oxo Tower . History Blackfriars Bridge with St Paul's Cathedral behind The first fixed crossing at Blackfriars was a 995 feet (303 m) long toll bridge designed in an Italianate style by Robert Mylne and constructed with nine semi-elliptical arches of Portland stone. Beating designs by John Gwynn and George Dance , it took nine years to build, opening to the public in 1769. It was the third bridge across the Thames in the then built-up area of London, supplementing the ancient London Bridge , which dated from several centuries earlier, and Westminster Bridge . It was originally named "William Pitt Bridge" (after the Prime Minister William Pitt the Elder ) as a dedication, but its informal name rel ...more...



Calvi Risorta

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Calvi Risorta (literally meaning Calvi risen again) is a comune (municipality) and former bishopric in the Province of Caserta in the Italian region Campania , located across the Via Casilina about 40 kilometres (25 mi) northwest of Naples and about 25 kilometres (16 mi) northwest of Caserta . It is composed of three distinct villages, Petrulo, Visciano and Zuni, the latter housing the municipal seat. History In the municipal territory are the remains of the ancient Roman city of Cales or Calenum, not far from Capua . Destroyed in the 9th century by the Saracens , it was rebuilt by Atenulf I of Capua . During the early stages of the Italian Campaign of World War II , war pigeon G.I. Joe saved the lives of the inhabitants of the village and of the British troops occupying it. The village was scheduled to be bombarded by the Allied forces on 18 October 1943, but the message that the British had captured the village, delivered by G.I. Joe, arrived just in time to avoid the bombing. Over a thousand people, soldie ...more...



Pino Calvi

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Pino Calvi in 1959 Pino Calvi ( Voghera , Pavia , 12 January 1930 – Palazzina di Castana , Pavia , 4 January 1989) was an Italian pianist , arranger , conductor and soundtrack composer for films and TV series . His song " Accarezzame " was performed by famous Italian artists such as, among others, Roberto Murolo , Ornella Vanoni , Peppino Di Capri , Achille Togliani , Teddy Reno , Fred Bongusto , Gigliola Cinquetti , Paolo Fresu . He became popular in the 1970s for his participation in some RAI TV programs, such as Senza Rete in Naples, when he was a polite Maestro . References Accarezzame – Paolo Fresu, Ornella vanoni . Lastfm.it (26 November 2013). Retrieved on 2015-07-05. I singoli più venduti del 1955 . Hit Parade Italia. Retrieved on 5 July 2015. Fred Bongusto – Accarezzame . Lastfm.it (26 November 2013). Retrieved on 2015-07-05. Massimo Emanuelli (2004). 50 anni di storia della televisione attraverso la stampa settimanale . GRECO & GRECO Editori. pp. 230–. ISBN   978-88-7980-346-5 . External links ...more...



Antonino Giuffrè

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Antonino "Nino" Giuffrè (born July 21, 1945) is an Italian mafioso from Caccamo in the Province of Palermo , Sicily . He became one of the most important Mafia turncoats after his arrest in April 2002. Giuffrè was known in mafia circles as Manuzza (the Hand), because his right hand was crippled by polio. Other sources claim he lost his hand in a hunting accident. Giuffrè was trained as an agricultural sciences specialist. His rise in the Mafia ran parallel to the ascension of the Corleonesi clan headed by Salvatore Riina . He became the head of the mandamento of Caccamo and is a nephew of American Mob Boss John Stanfa from Philadelphia . Pentito Antonino Giuffrè was arrested on April 16, 2002. He started feeding investigators information even before he agreed to turn state' witness (or pentito ) in June, 2002. He is one of the most important mafia turncoats since Tommaso Buscetta in 1984. His collaboration has updated investigators' knowledge and provided a new interpretation for the sensitive issue of Cosa ...more...



Rupert Cornwell

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Rupert Cornwell (22 February 1946 – 31 March 2017) was a British journalist connected with The Independent newspaper for thirty years. Born to Ronnie Cornwell and Jeanie Gronow in 1946, Rupert Cornwell read Greek at Magdalen College, Oxford, and worked in advertising after graduation. He began his journalism career with Reuters in 1968. Cornwell was sent to the Brussels branch office, where he met his first wife, interpreter Angela Doria. They moved to Paris, where Cornwell joined the Financial Times as a foreign correspondent. From France, Cornwell and Doria moved to Rome, and Bonn. The couple separated and Cornwell was then the first Moscow correspondent of The Independent, from its launch in 1986. During this time he won two British Press Awards . Later in his career, Cornwell served as the Chief US Commentator at The Independent newspaper. In 1988, he married Susan Smith, whom he had met while in Bonn. His book God's Banker, about Roberto Calvi , an Italian banker found hanging from Blackfriars Bridge , ...more...



Franco Diogene

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Franco Diogene (20 October 1947 – 27 May 2005) was an Italian actor and comedian. Life and career Born Concetto Francesco Diogene in Catania , he was the son of a Sicilian father and a Ligurian mother. At 5 years old, Diogene moved to Genoa with his family. In Genoa he completed his studies, and also started acting in a little theater of a parish. Since the early 1970s, he was one of the most active character actors in Italian cinema, often cast in humorous roles. He was also cast in several international productions, such as Midnight Express and The Name of the Rose , mainly thanks to his foreign language skills. Diogene was also active as a stand-up comedian, and he was the organizer of the beauty contest "Miss Top Model Universe". Diogene died of a heart attack, aged 57 years old. Selected filmography Teresa the Thief (1973) Ante Up (1974) Teasers (1975) Nude per l'assassino (1975) Il giustiziere di mezzogiorno (1975) La madama (1976) Tentacles (1977) Taxi Girl (1977) Midnight Express (1978) Garden ...more...



Propaganda Due

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Propaganda Due ( Italian pronunciation:  ; P2 ) was a Masonic lodge founded in 1945 that, by the time its Masonic charter was withdrawn in 1976, had transformed into a clandestine, pseudo- Masonic, ultraright organization operating in contravention of Article 18 of the Constitution of Italy that banned secret associations . In its latter period, during which the lodge was headed by Licio Gelli , P2 was implicated in numerous Italian crimes and mysteries, including the collapse of the Vatican -affiliated Banco Ambrosiano , the murders of journalist Mino Pecorelli and banker Roberto Calvi , and corruption cases within the nationwide bribe scandal Tangentopoli . P2 came to light through the investigations into the collapse of Michele Sindona 's financial empire. P2 was sometimes referred to as a " state within a state " or a " shadow government ". The lodge had among its members prominent journalists, members of parliament, industrialists, and military leaders—including Silvio Berlusconi , who later became Pri ...more...



Accarezzame

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" Accarezzame " ( Neapolitan for "caress me") is a song composed by Nisa and Pino Calvi . The song premiered at the 1954 edition of the Festa di Piedigrotta , performed by Teddy Reno . The song, a portrait of a romantic approach in a wheat field, went to be a classic of the Canzone Napoletana , and it was later covered by numerous artists, including Nilla Pizzi , Ornella Vanoni , Gigliola Cinquetti , Roberto Murolo , Peppino di Capri , Fausto Cigliano , Fred Bongusto , Perez Prado , Natalino Otto , Peter Van Wood , Iva Zanicchi , Massimo Ranieri , Fausto Papetti , Achille Togliani . Track listing 7" single – RE 17 "Accarezzame" (Nisa, Pino Calvi) " 'Na voce 'na chitarra e o poco 'e luna" (Carlo Alberto Rossi, Ugo Calise) References Dario Salvatori. "Accarezzame". Dizionario delle canzoni italiane. Elle U, 2001. ISBN   8888169016 . " Accarezzame " ( Neapolitan for "caress me") is a song composed by Nisa and Pino Calvi . The song premiered at the 1954 edition of the Festa di Piedigrotta , performed by Teddy Ren ...more...



Seagulls Fly Low

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Seagulls Fly Low ( Italian : I gabbiani volano basso ) is a 1977 Italian crime film written and directed by Giorgio Cristallini and starring Maurizio Merli , Nathalie Delon and Mel Ferrer . It was shot between Rome , Civitavecchia and Ponza . Plot Cast Maurizio Merli as Jeff Jacobson / Albert Morgan Nathalie Delon as Isabelle Michereau Mel Ferrer as Roberto Micheli Dagmar Lassander as Amparo Andrea Esterhazy as Calvi Franco Garofalo as Killer References Roberto Chiti; Roberto Poppi; Enrico Lancia. Dizionario del cinema italiano: I film. Gremese, 1991. ISBN   8876059695 . Roberto Curti. Italian Crime Filmography, 1968-1980. McFarland, 2013. ISBN   0786469765 . External links Seagulls Fly Low on IMDb Seagulls Fly Low ( Italian : I gabbiani volano basso ) is a 1977 Italian crime film written and directed by Giorgio Cristallini and starring Maurizio Merli , Nathalie Delon and Mel Ferrer . It was shot between Rome , Civitavecchia and Ponza . Plot Cast Maurizio Merli as Jeff Jacobson / Albert Morgan Nathalie De ...more...



Luigi Petrucci

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Luigi Petrucci (born 13 September 1956 in Naples ) is an Italian film and television actor. Petrucci made his debut in the entertainment world as a stage actor , on stage in numerous Italian cities. By an active career, he finally entered the world of television and films . During his career he has taken part in several television series and TV movies, mainly for RAI productions. Filmography Blues metropolitano , directed by Salvatore Piscicelli (1984) L'amara scienza (1985) Italian Fast Food , directed by Lodovico Gasparini (1986) Compagni di scuola , directed by Carlo Verdone (1988) Supysaua , directed by Enrico Coletti (1988) Il bambino e il poliziotto , directed by Carlo Verdone (1989) Matilda , directed by Antonietta De Lillo (1990) Fantozzi alla riscossa , directed by Neri Parenti , Paolo Villaggio (1990) Piedipiatti , directed by Carlo Vanzina (1991) Mutande pazze , directed by Roberto D'Agostino (1992) Pacco, doppio pacco e contropaccotto , directed by Nanni Loy (1993) Mario il mago , directed by Klau ...more...



Bernd Brinkmann

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Bernd Brinkmann (born 7 April 1939) is a German forensic pathologist . Biography Bernd Brinkmann was the director of the Institute of Legal Medicine of the University of Münster in Münster , North Rhine-Westphalia in Germany from 1981 until 2007. From 1990 until 2009 he served as the Coordinating Editor of the International Journal of Legal Medicine . Brinkmann became a member of the German Academy of Sciences Leopoldina in 1991 and was president of the Deutsche Gesellschaft für Rechtsmedizin (DGRM) (1995–2001), the International Academy of Legal Medicine (1994–2000) and the International Society for Forensic Genetics (1990–1994). He is director of the GEDNAP proficiency testing program for quality assurance in forensic DNA profiling and founded the Institute of Forensic Genetics in 2007 which performs forensic DNA analyses for various law enforcement agencies as well as paternity tests for German courts. Notable cases In 1997, with Luigi Capasso and Annunziata Lopez, at the request of Otello Lupacchini GIP ...more...



Camillo Milli

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Camillo Migliori , best known as Camillo Milli (born 1 August 1929) is an Italian stage, film and television actor. Life and career Born in Milan , Milli formed under Giorgio Strehler at the Piccolo Teatro di Milano , where he debuted in 1951 and where he was active until 1953. In the 1960s and in the 1970s he worked intensively with director Luigi Squarzina and at the Teatro Stabile in Genoa , specializing in the Carlo Goldoni repertoire. Milli was also active as a character actor in films, mainly cast in humorous roles, often as a sidekick of Paolo Villaggio . On television, he is best known for the role of Ugo Monti in the Canale 5 TV series CentoVetrine . Selected filmography Girls of Today (1955) The Mattei Affair (1972) We Want the Colonels (1973) Il domestico (1974) In the Name of the Pope King (1977) La locandiera (1980) Il Marchese del Grillo (1981) Sogni mostruosamente proibiti (1982) Fantozzi subisce ancora (1983) Trainer on the Beach (1984) Rimini Rimini (1987) The Bankers of God: The Calvi ...more...



David Bowen (pathologist)

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David Aubrey Llewellyn Bowen FRCP FRCPE FRCPath (31 January 1924 – 31 March 2011) was a Welsh pathologist . He studied medicine at Corpus Christi College, Cambridge . He was involved in the Dennis Nilsen case, and also that of John Duffy and David Mulcahy , the murder of PC Keith Blakelock and the death of the financier Roberto Calvi . References "David Bowen obituary" . the Guardian. "Professor David Bowen" . Telegraph.co.uk. 12 April 2011. Professor David Bowen Source:The Times (London, England). (Apr. 18, 2011): News: p44 ‘BOWEN, Prof. David Aubrey Llewellyn’, Who Was Who, A & C Black, an imprint of Bloomsbury Publishing plc, 1920–2007; online edn, Oxford University Press, Dec 2011 ; online edn, Nov 2011 accessed 13 Jan 2014 David Aubrey Llewellyn Bowen FRCP FRCPE FRCPath (31 January 1924 – 31 March 2011) was a Welsh pathologist . He studied medicine at Corpus Christi College, Cambridge . He was involved in the Dennis Nilsen case, and also that of John Duffy and David Mulcahy , the murder of ...more...



Paul Marcinkus

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Paul Marcinkus ( ), GCOIH (January 15, 1922 – February 20, 2006) was an American archbishop of the Roman Catholic Church . He was best known for his tenure as President of the Vatican Bank from 1971 to 1989. Biography Early life Marcinkus was born in Cicero, Illinois , the son of an immigrant window cleaner who arrived in Cicero in 1914. His father, Mykolas, had left Lithuania to escape possible induction into the Russian army. Moving to the United States , he briefly lived in Pittsburgh before moving to Fond du Lac, Wisconsin , to work for a cousin as a farm hand, then moving to Cicero after finding work in a Chicago steel mill . By the time his fourth son, Paulius, arrived, he had started cleaning windows for the Leo Sheridan Co., a job he would hold for thirty years. After attending Archbishop Quigley Preparatory Seminary and St. Mary of the Lake Seminary , Paul was ordained to the priesthood for the Archdiocese of Chicago on May 3, 1947, and served parish assignments with both St. Christina's and Holy Cro ...more...



I Solisti Veneti

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I Solisti Veneti is one of the first rank of small Italian chamber orchestras with modern instruments. Background Founded in Padua in 1959 by Claudio Scimone , I Solisti Veneti has made a reputation especially with Italian Baroque music , recording many works by Antonio Vivaldi , Tomaso Albinoni , Francesco Geminiani , Benedetto Marcello and Giuseppe Tartini . Giuliano Carmignola , Piero Toso, Lucio Degani were three of the soloists in the ensemble. The group has made over 350 recordings, many on the Erato , others on RCA, Sony, Arts, etc. record labels. A number of these were first-ever recordings of works of Vivaldi, Albinoni and Rossini. However the repertoire of the orchestra is very wide and goes since 1585 (Giovanni Bassano) up to many works written in 2017. More than 70 composers of our times have dedicated works for Claudio Scimone and his Orchestra such as Bussotti, Donatoni, R.Malipiero, L.Chailly, Guaccero, Morricone, Constant, De Pablo, De Marzi, Cadario, Campogrande, Lucio Dalla, Donaggio and ma ...more...



The Godfather Part III

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The Godfather Part III is a 1990 American crime film written by Mario Puzo and Francis Ford Coppola , and directed by Coppola. A sequel to The Godfather (1972) and The Godfather Part II (1974), it completes the story of Michael Corleone , a Mafia kingpin who attempts to legitimize his criminal empire. The film also includes fictionalized accounts of two real-life events: the 1978 death of Pope John Paul I and the Papal banking scandal of 1981–82, both linked to Michael Corleone's business affairs. The film stars Al Pacino , Diane Keaton , Talia Shire , and Andy García , and features Eli Wallach , Joe Mantegna , George Hamilton , Bridget Fonda , and Sofia Coppola . Coppola and Puzo preferred the title, The Death of Michael Corleone, but Paramount Pictures found that unacceptable. Coppola stated that The Godfather series is two films and that The Godfather Part III is an epilogue . It received mixed reviews compared with the critical acclaim that the first two films received. It grossed $136,766,062 and was nom ...more...



Who Killed Pasolini?

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Pasolini, un delitto italiano (Pasolini, an Italian Crime), internationally released as Who Killed Pasolini? , is a 1995 Italian crime - drama film co-written and directed by Marco Tullio Giordana . It depicts the trial against Pino Pelosi, who was charged with the murder of artist and filmmaker Pier Paolo Pasolini . The film entered the competition at the 52nd Venice International Film Festival , in which Giordana won the President of the Italian Senate's Gold Medal. The film also won the David di Donatello for best editing. Plot The film traces the last hours of the life of poet and film director Pier Paolo Pasolini . The poet is killed at night in 1975 on the beach at Ostia, near Rome . A boy is arrested: Pino Pelosi, and charged with murder. The police and judges believe that Pelosi is the only murderer of Pasolini, but his injuries on the body of the poet are too severe and profound. Then are called to bear witness to the death of the poet his sister and his mother, destroyed by grief. As the process un ...more...



Giorgio Ambrosoli

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Giorgio Ambrosoli (October 17, 1933 – July 11, 1979) was an Italian lawyer who was gunned down while investigating the malpractice of banker Michele Sindona . Liquidating Sindona’s financial empire Appointed by the court as liquidator of the Banca Privata Italiana , one of the Italian banks controlled by Sicilian banker Michele Sindona , which was forced into liquidation, he found evidences of criminal manipulations. He provided the US Justice Department with evidence to convict Sindona for his role in the collapse of the Franklin National Bank . According to Ambrosoli, Sindona paid a US$5.6 million commission to "an American bishop and a Milanese banker." Official Italian sources confirmed that it concerned Paul Marcinkus , of the Vatican Bank , and Roberto Calvi , President of Banco Ambrosiano . Murder On July 11, 1979, only hours after talking to US authorities, he was shot dead by three Mafia hitmen commissioned by Michele Sindona. Sindona feared that Ambrosoli would expose his manipulations in the Banca ...more...



Pamela Villoresi

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Pamela Villoresi (born 1 January 1957) is an Italian theatre, cinema and television actress. She has performed in more that 100 theatrical productions and in more than 30 films. Life and career The daughter of a cloth merchant of Prato and of a German mother, Pamela Villoresi began her artistic career following the acting lessons at the Teatro Metastasio in Prato. In 1975 Giorgio Strehler called her to be part of the theater company he started, Piccolo Teatro di Milano . Simultaneously she achieved a great success with the television drama Marco Visconti and started a continuous career in cinema, in which she frequently had leading roles. In 1975 she posed nude as cover-girl for Playmen . In 1978 she won a Grolla d'oro for her role in Marco Bellocchio 's Il gabbiano . From 1990 she occasionally was a stage director and a TV-presenter. In 2010 she ran in the Lazio regional election, supporting the center-right candidate Renata Polverini . She was not elected. Selected filmography Il trafficone (1974) P ...more...



David Napley

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Sir David Napley (25 July 1915 – 24 September 1994) was an English solicitor . Background David Napley was born in London of Jewish ancestry. He began his articles (the equivalent of a modern-day training contract ) in 1935 at the age of only 16. He passed his final examinations with honours two years later and in 1937 immediately set up in partnership with Sidney Kingsley, establishing internationally recognised law firm Kingsley Napley. The firm quickly established a good reputation. Over the years his clients included Jeremy Thorpe , Princess Michael of Kent , actress Maria Aitken , the Foreign Office clerk Sarah Tisdall , former member of parliament Harvey Proctor , the Queen's bodyguard Commander Michael Trestrail and the family of the Italian banker Roberto Calvi . During the Second World War he served in India with the Queen's Royal Regiment (West Surrey) and was demobilised as a captain. On his return from the War he resumed practice as a solicitor and married his fiancée, Leah Rose Saturley, two yea ...more...



Licio Gelli

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Licio Gelli ( Italian pronunciation:  ; April 21, 1919 – December 15, 2015) was an Italian financier , liaison officer between the Italian government and Nazi Germany, chiefly known for his role in the Banco Ambrosiano scandal . He was revealed in 1981 as being the Venerable Master of the clandestine lodge Propaganda Due (P2). Fascist volunteer Gelli as a fascist volunteer in 1941 Gelli was born in Pistoia , Tuscany . During the 1930s, Gelli volunteered for the Blackshirts expeditionary forces sent by Mussolini in support of Francisco Franco 's rebellion in the Spanish Civil War . He participated in the Italian Social Republic with Giorgio Almirante , founder of the neofascist Italian Social Movement (MSI). After a sales job with the Italian mattress factory Permaflex, Gelli founded his own textile and importing company. Involvement in failed coup and fugitive years in Argentina In 1970, during the failed Golpe Borghese , he was delegated the role of arresting the Italian President, Giuseppe Saragat . As ...more...



Pier Paolo Capponi

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Pier Paolo Capponi (born 9 June 1938) is an Italian actor and screenwriter. Life and career Born in Subiaco , after his studies Capponi attended a theater school and later was chosen by director Vittorio De Seta for an important role in Un uomo a metà . His film career is divided equally between auteur films (with, among others, Paolo e Vittorio Taviani , Valerio Zurlini , Gérard Corbiau , Francesco Rosi and Nelo Risi ) and genre films, in which he was sometimes credited as Norman Clark . On the big screen with some regularity for a decade, after 1977 Capponi focused his appearances on TV-series and on stage. Selected filmography Our Man in Casablanca (1966) Almost a Man (1966) King of Hearts (1966) My Name Is Pecos (1967) Mister X (1967) Commandos (1968) The Subversives (1968) Frame Up (1968) Black Jesus (1968) Naked Violence (1969) The Lady of Monza (1969) Many Wars Ago (1970) Forbidden Photos of a Lady Above Suspicion (1970) Kill the Fatted Calf and Roast It (1970) Defeat of the Mafia (1970) Mafia Conne ...more...



Omero Antonutti

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Omero Antonutti (born 3 August 1935) is an Italian actor and dubber, appearing regularly in films and theatre performances. He was born at Basiliano , Friuli . Life and career Antonutti's most notable performance to date was in the Taviani brothers ’ acclaimed film Padre Padrone . He is also regularly employed in the dubbing of foreign films into Italian, and has provided Italian-language dubs for many of Christopher Lee ’s parts. In Spain, he has worked with Víctor Erice in El Sur , and Carlos Saura in El Dorado . He also played Noah in Genesis: The Creation and the Flood . He has served as voice actor for Christopher Lee in films such as Tale of the Mummy , Sleepy Hollow , The Lord of the Rings: The Fellowship of the Ring , The Lord of the Rings: The Two Towers , The Lord of the Rings: The Return of the King , Star Wars: Episode III – Revenge of the Sith , Season of the Witch , Dark Shadows , The Hobbit: An Unexpected Journey and The Hobbit: The Battle of the Five Armies . Filmography Films Pleasant Night ...more...



Numero Zero

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Numero Zero ( Italian : Numero zero ) is the seventh novel by Italian author and philosopher Umberto Eco and his final novel released during his lifetime. It was first published in January 2015; the English translation by Richard Dixon appeared in November 2015. It is a sprightly satire of the tabloid press, set in Italy in 1992. Plot summary The story is told by Colonna, a hack journalist, now in his fifties, and a loser. He is hired by Simei to work on a newspaper called Domani (Tomorrow) that will never be published. The venture is financed by Commendator Vimercate, who owns a television channel, a dozen magazines and runs a chain of hotels and rest homes. The declared aim of the newspaper is to reveal the truth about everything, to publish all the news that’s fit to print “plus a little more,” but Commendator Vimercate’s true interest lies elsewhere. His “zero issues” will be seen by powerful figures high up in the world of finance and politics who don’t want the truth to be revealed. They’ll put pressu ...more...



Senza Rete

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Senza Rete was a music show created by Giorgio Calabrese and broadcast by Rai 1 (at the time Programma Nazionale) from 1968 to 1975. History The first episode was aired June 27, 1968. Initially broadcast on Thrursday night, thanks to the high ratings (up to 18 million viewers) starting from the third edition it was moved to the more prestigious Saturday night slot. The show consisted on two or three popular musical guests performing live several hits of their repertoire at the Auditorium Rai in Naples . Over the years several presenters altenated: Enrico Simonetti , Luciano Salce , Raffaele Pisu , Ric e Gian , Enrico Montesano , Paolo Villaggio , Renato Rascel , Pippo Baudo , Aldo Giuffré , Alberto Lupo , Lino Banfi , Jenny Tamburi . Pino Calvi (1968-1973), Bruno Canfora (1974) and Tony De Vita (1975) served as conductors. Among the guests of the show, there were Mina , Milva , Rita Pavone , Ornella Vanoni , Gianni Morandi , Bruno Lauzi , Enzo Jannacci , Antonello Venditti , Roberto Vecchioni , Le Orme , Pooh ...more...



Francesco Marino Mannoia

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Francesco Marino Mannoia (born March 5, 1951) is a former member of the Sicilian Mafia who became a pentito (government witness) in 1989. His nickname was Mozzarella. He is considered to be one of the most reliable government witnesses against the Mafia. Antimafia magistrate Giovanni Falcone , who was first to interrogate him, recalled Marino Mannoia as an intelligent and reliable witness. Criminal career He was raised in Palermo , the capital of Sicily, and joined the Santa Maria di Gesù Mafia Family, headed by Stefano Bontade . He was highly sought after by all Mafia families for his skills in chemistry to be used to refine heroin for the Spatola-Inzerillo-Gambino ring. Marino Mannoia recalled having refined at least 1000 kilograms of heroin for Bontade. He had learned how to refine heroin through Antonino Vernengo , alias ‘u dutturi’ (the doctor) who was the first to set up a refinery in 1977. He was also suspected of being involved in at least seventeen homicides . During the Second Mafia War of the ear ...more...



Enrico De Pedis

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Enrico De Pedis (May 15, 1954 − February 2, 1990) was an Italian criminal and one of the bosses of the Banda della Magliana , an Italian criminal organization based in the city of Rome , particularly active throughout the late 1970s until the early 1990s. His nickname was "'Renatino". Unlike other members of his gang, De Pedis possessed a strong entrepreneurial spirit. While other members squandered their earnings, he invested his illicit proceeds (in construction companies, restaurants, boutiques, etc.). Along with many of the crimes committed by his gang, De Pedis has also been linked to the disappearance of Emanuela Orlandi , whose case has been linked with the Pope John Paul II assassination attempt . On February 2, 1990, De Pedis was ambushed and murdered by his former colleagues on Via del Pellegrino near Campo de' Fiori . He was buried in the Sant'Apollinare Basilica in Rome. The unusual interment has been linked to the case of Emanuela Orlandi 's kidnapping. In 2009, the Rome prosecutor's offices inv ...more...



List of Democratic Party of Italy politicians

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A list of notable politicians of the Democratic Party of Italy : Marisa Abbondanzieri Nicola Adamo Salvatore Adduce Benedetto Adragna Mauro Agostini Gabriele Albonetti Khaled Fouad Allam Sabino Altobello Giuliano Amato Francesco Amendola Sesa Amici Alessandro Andreatta Alfonso Andria Salvo Andò Osvaldo Angeli Andrea Annunziata Achille Ardigò Giuseppe Ayala Stefano Baccelli Giovanni Battista Bachelet Emanuela Baio Dossi Francesco Baldarelli Francesca Balzani Roberto Balzani Egidio Banti Augusto Barbera Mario Barbi Roberto Barzanti Franco Bassanini Silvano Bassetti Antonio Bassolino Mariangela Bastico Augusto Battaglia Giorgio Benvenuto Luigi Berlinguer Rita Bernardini Giuseppe Berretta Pier Luigi Bersani Renzo Berti Mauro Betta Goffredo Bettini Simone Bezzini Alessandro Bianchi (urbanista) Dorina Bianchi Giovanni Bianchi Enzo Bianco Gerardo Bianco Franca Bimbi Rosy Bindi Paola Binetti Luigi Bobba Francesco Boccia Antonio Boccuzzi Guido Bodrato Giorgio Bogi Gian Luigi Boiardi Sfefano Bonaccini Emilio Bonifazi M ...more...



Grand Orient of Italy

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The Grand Orient of Italy ( GOI ) ( Italian : Grande Oriente d'Italia ) is an Italian masonic grand lodge founded in 1805; the viceroy Eugene of Beauharnais was instrumental in its establishment. It was based at the Palazzo Giustiniani , Rome , Italy from 1901 until 1985 and is now located at the Villa del Vascello . Its current Grand Master is Italian journalist Stefano Bisi . As of March 2012 the grand lodge had 21,400 adherents divided in 757 lodges . Although once a significant player within international freemasonry, since 1993 it has not been recognised by the United Grand Lodge of England (due to accusations of corruption and Mafia involvement) and it is not recognised by the Grand Orient of France (most American Grand Lodges continue to recognise it, however). History The Grand Orient of Italy was founded in 1805, during the Napoleonic Kingdom of Italy ; the viceroy Eugene of Beauharnais was instrumental in its establishment. Past grand masters included: Poet Giuseppe Garibaldi , Adriano Lemmi, Scul ...more...



Cosmic Trigger II: Down to Earth

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Cosmic Trigger II: Down to Earth is the second book in the Cosmic Trigger series, a three-volume autobiographical and philosophical work by Robert Anton Wilson . First published in 1991, Cosmic Trigger II continues where Cosmic Trigger I: The Final Secret of the Illuminati left off, as well as being a set piece in itself. Wilson continues the Illuminati -based synchronicities that have taken place since Cosmic Trigger I was first published. The book is an exploration into the future of cyberspace ; the peculiarities of Irish jurisprudence ; links to the Mafia , the CIA and the Catholic Church ; anal-eroticism in the White House ; the Dog Castrator of Palm Springs and more. The book combines humour, twists in logic and zen-like koans to get its messages across. The book is made up of ninety-four short chapters, with the main themes interwoven throughout in a non-linear fashion. In part, this volume of the series outlines Wilson’s intellectual development, from his religious education under the (‘sadistic’) nun ...more...



Pope John Paul I conspiracy theories

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Pope John Paul I died suddenly in September 1978, 33 days after his election. Following contradictory reports about the circumstances of his death and apparent anomalies about the issuing of the death certificate and other procedures, several conspiracy theories have gained currency. Many of these concern the serious corruption in the Vatican Bank (Istituto per le Opere Religiose), possibly linked to freemasonry, which is forbidden by church law. None of the claims have been proven. Rationale Discrepancies in the Vatican's account of the events surrounding John Paul I 's death – its inaccurate statements about who found the body; what he had been reading; when, where, and whether an autopsy could be carried out – produced a number of conspiracy theories , many associated with the Vatican Bank , which owned many shares in Banco Ambrosiano . Some conspiracy theorists connect the death of John Paul in September 1978 with the image of the " bishop dressed in white " said to have been seen by Lucia Santos and h ...more...



Floor 13 (video game)

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Floor 13 is a single-player computer game set in the United Kingdom , where the player is the director of a secret governmental agency involved in clandestine domestic operations. The headquarters is hidden on the thirteenth floor of a building in London Docklands , hence the title. The game was developed in 1991 by Virgin Games , a now-defunct division of the Virgin Group . Plot The player takes on the role of the Director General of the "Department of Agriculture and Fisheries", a non-existent Executive Agency that conceals a secret police which keeps the government popular by any means necessary. Answering only to the Prime Minister , the Director General has the power to use wiretapping , surveillance , smear tactics , disinformation , burglary , kidnapping , torture , and assassination to keep the government popular with the people. In addition to the Director General's regular duties suppressing and removing those who threaten the status quo , there is also a subplot involving his membership in a secret ...more...



Baptiste Giabiconi

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Baptiste Giabiconi (born 9 November 1989) is a French male model and singer from Marignane , France . He is currently the male face of Chanel , Fendi and Karl Lagerfeld . Beginnings Born in Marignane , Bouches-du-Rhône , Baptiste Giabiconi comes from a Corsican family. His father is from Bastia and his mother Marie-France from Calvi , both in Corsica. He spent his infancy in Moriani-Plage in the Haute-Corse region very near to Bastia, before moving to Marseille . He obtained a Brevet d'études professionnelles (BEP) in the food service industry, and a professional Baccalauréat in "Accueil et Service". Then he trained for six months as a mechanical adjustor in Aeronautics , landing a job at Eurocopter , an international helicopter manufacturing and support company. Modelling career In 2008, Giabiconi signed with DNA Model Management New York. In the same year Karl Lagerfeld took Giabiconi as the male face of Chanel , closing their haute couture shows in 2009 with Freja Beha Erichsen and Lara Stone and in 2010 w ...more...



Hombres de honor

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Hombres de honor ( Spanish : Men of honor ) was a 2005 Argentine telenovela, produced by Pol-Ka and aired by El Trece . It was starred by Laura Novoa and Gabriel Corrado . Premise Hombres de Honor was produced by Pol-Ka in an attempt to emulate the success of Padre Coraje , a telenovela they had produced the previous year. It had a low rating, but the TV channel El Trece aired it anyway, refusing to cancel it. The last episode, with 14,7 rating points, had the highest rating of the programm's history. Plot The action is set in Argentina in the 1940s. There are two mafia families, the Patter Nostra and the Onoratto, who control the traffic of alcoholic beverages and gambling, and wage territorial disputes in other areas, such as prostitution. Luca Onoratto ( Gabriel Corrado ), jailed for the murder of Carlo Andrea Patter Nostra's twin brother ( Gerardo Romano ), served his time in prison. The Patter Nostra killed Lorenzo Onoratto ( Arturo Puig ), Luca's parent, during his wedding. Luca tried to be accepted as ...more...



Torna a Surriento

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"Torna a Surriento" ( pronounced  ) is a Neapolitan song composed in 1902 by Italian musician Ernesto De Curtis to words by his brother, the poet and painter Giambattista De Curtis . The song was copyrighted officially in 1905, and has since become one of the most popular songs of this traditional genre, which include others such as O sole mio , Funiculì, funiculà , and Santa Lucia . "Torna a Surriento" has been sung by performers as diverse as Frank Sinatra , Beniamino Gigli , Elvis Presley , Dean Martin , Enrico Caruso , José Carreras , Plácido Domingo , Luciano Pavarotti , Ruggero Raimondi , Meat Loaf , Mario Lanza , Franco Corelli , Robertino Loreti , Giuseppe Di Stefano , Muslim Magomayev , Francesco Albanese , Jerry Adriani , Roberto Carlos , Alfie Boe , Anna Calvi , Karel Gott , and Norton Buffalo with George Kahumoku, Jr. ; Sergio Franchi covered the song in his 1962 RCA Victor Red Seal debut album, (Romantic Italian Songs), which peaked at #17 on the Billboard Top 200 . Not forgetting the comedic ve ...more...



List of members of the Italian Senate, 2006–08

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This is a list of the 322 members of the 15th legislature of the Italian Senate that were elected in the 2006 general election . The legislature met from 28 April 2006 to 28 April 2008. Senators for life are marked with a " (L) ". Democrats of the Left Silvana Amati Gavino Angius Roberto Barbieri Giuliano Barbolini Fiorenza Bassoli Giovanni Battaglia Giovanni Bellini Giorgio Benvenuto Goffredo Maria Bettini Paolo Bodini Massimo Brutti Paolo Brutti Filippo Bubbico Antonello Cabras Guido Calvi Anna Maria Carloni Felice Casson Furio Colombo Gerardo D'Ambrosio Andrea Carmine De Simone Piero Di Siena Federico Enriques Marco Filippi Anna Finocchiaro Carlo Fontana Vittoria Franco Guido Galardi Costantino Garraffa Mario Gasbarri Nuccio Iovene Nicola La Torre Giovanni Legnini Massimo Livi Bacci Luigi Lusi Andrea Manzella Ignazio Roberto Maria Marino Alberto Maritati Augusto Massa Graziano Giorgio Mazzarello Giorgio Mele Vidmer Mercatali Claudio Micheloni Colomba Mongiello Accursio Montalbano Esterino Montino Enrico Mo ...more...



Gianmario Roveraro

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Gianmario Roveraro (born May 24, 1936 – died ? July 5, 2006) was an Italian banker and athlete who founded Akros Finanziaria . Biography As a young man he was a brilliant sportsman. He was national champion in high jump on three occasions (1954, 1955, 1956), improving to three times the record of Italian specialties, the first Italian over 2.00 m, he participated in the 1956 Summer Olympics in Melbourne, where he placed 23rd. Banking After graduating in economics, he began his banking career in 1961 and 5 years later he moved to Sige , to work for the IMI group, introducing the world first Italian financial instruments, such as investment funds. He was for many years president of the Fondazione Rui istituzione che sovraintende ai collegi universitari dell'Opera. In 1987 he founded Akros, after disagreements occurred the previous year in Sige, Akros became a major Italian merchant bank, in those years he collaborated with the Cirio Sergio Cragnotti and was architect of Parmalat's placement on the Stock Exchang ...more...



List of members of the Italian Senate, 1987–92

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This is a list of the 325 members of the 10th legislature of the Italian Senate that were elected in the 1987 general election . The legislature met from 2 July 1987 to 22 April 1992. Senators for life are marked with a " (L) " Christian Democracy Nicola Mancino Francesco Mazzola Gianfranco Aliverti Claudio Beorchia Ivo Butini Gian Carlo Ruffino Francesco Patriarca Elio Fontana Luciano Bausi Luciano Bausi Vittorino Colombo Marino Cortese Giuseppe Giacovazzo Giuseppe Guzzetti Manlio Ianni Francesco Patriarca Andrea Zangara Lorenzo Cappelli Domenico Raffaello Lombardi Germano De Cinque Cesare Golfari Lucio Abis Lorenzo Acquarone Giovanni Amabile Antonio Andò Beniamino Andreatta Giulio Andreotti (L) Alcide Angeloni Carmelo Azzarà Giovanni Azzaretti Enzo Berlanda Mario Viganò Guido Bernardi Carlo Bo (L) Carlo Boggio Adriano Bompiani Gilberto Bonalumi Cirillo Bonora Manfredi Bosco Attilio Busseti Severino Fallucchi Paolo Cabras Umberto Cappuzzo Guido Carli Natale Carlotto Gianuario Carta Francesco Cattanei Anna Ga ...more...




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