Yasuji Kitazawa (北澤 保次, 20 July 1876 – 25 August 1955), better known by the pen name Rakuten Kitazawa (北澤 楽天 Kitazawa Rakuten), was a Japanese manga artist and nihonga artist. He drew many editorial cartoons and comic strips during the years from the late Meiji era through the early Showa era. He is considered by many historians to be the founding father of modern manga because his work was an inspiration to many younger manga artists and animators.
He was the first professional cartoonist in Japan, and the first to use the term "manga" in its modern sense.
Rakuten was born in 1876 in the Kita Adachi district of Ōmiya in Saitama Prefecture. He studied western-style painting under Ōno Yukihiko and Nihonga under Inoue Shunzui. He joined the English-language magazine Box of Curios in 1895, and started drawing cartoons under Frank Arthur Nankivell, an Australian artist who later emigrated to America and became a popular cartoonist for Puck magazine.
In 1899, Rakuten moved to Jiji Shimpo, a daily newspaper founded by Yukichi Fukuzawa. From January 1902, he contributed to Jiji Manga, a comics page that appeared in the Sunday edition. His comics for this page were inspired by American comic strips such as Katzenjammer Kids, Yellow Kid, and the work of Frederick Burr Opper.
In 1905, Rakuten started a full-color satirical magazine called Tokyo Puck, named after the American magazine. It was translated into English and Chinese and sold in not only Japan but also in the Korean peninsula, Mainland China, and Taiwan. He worked for this magazine until 1915 (with the exception of a short period around 1912, during which he published a magazine of his own called Rakuten Puck), and then returned to Jiji Shimpo, where he remained until his retirement in 1932.
In 1929, Rakuten held a private exhibition in Paris on the recommendation of the French ambassador, and was awarded the Legion d'honneur. During World War II, he was the chairman of the Nihon Manga Hōkō Kai, a cartoonists society organized by the government to support the war effort.
Both before and after his retirement, Rakuten trained many young manga artists and animators, including Hekoten Shimokawa, creator of Japan's first cartoon animation. Along with Ippei Okamoto, he was one of the favorite cartoonists of the young Osamu Tezuka.
Shotacon ( ショタコン shotakon) , short for Shōtarō complex ( 正太郎コンプレックス shōtarō konpurekkusu) , is Japanese slang describing an attraction to young boys and is shota in manga. It refers to a genre of manga and anime wherein pre-pubescent or pubescent male characters are depicted in a suggestive or erotic manner, whether in the obvious role of object of attraction, or the less apparent role of "subject" (the character the reader is designed to associate with), as in a story where the young male character is paired with a male, usually in a homoerotic manner, or with a female, in which the general community would call straight shota. It can also apply to postpubescent (adolescent or adult) characters with youthful neotenic features that would make them appear to be younger than they are. The phrase is a reference to the young male character Shōtarō ( 正太郎 ) from Tetsujin 28-go (reworked in English as Gigantor ). The equivalent term for attraction to (or art pertaining to erotic portrayal of) young girls is lolicon
Ukiyo-e is a genre of Japanese art which flourished from the 17th through 19th centuries. Its artists produced woodblock prints and paintings of such subjects as female beauties; kabuki actors and sumo wrestlers; scenes from history and folk tales; travel scenes and landscapes; flora and fauna ; and erotica . The term ukiyo-e ( 浮世絵 IPA: ) translates as "picture[s] of the floating world". Edo (modern Tokyo) became the seat of government for the military dictatorship in the early 17th century. The merchant class at the bottom of the social order benefited most from the city's rapid economic growth. Many indulged in the entertainments of kabuki theatre, courtesans , and geisha of the pleasure districts . The term ukiyo ("floating world") came to describe this hedonistic lifestyle. Printed or painted ukiyo-e images of this environment emerged in the late 17th century and were popular with the merchant class, who had become wealthy enough to afford to decorate their homes with them. The earliest success was in th
An anime club is an organization that meets to discuss, show, and promote anime in a local community setting and can also focus on broadening Japanese cultural understanding. Anime clubs are increasingly found at universities and high schools. Organizers may also use public meeting spaces such as a library or a government center. Many anime club attendees identify themselves as otaku . Although the core of anime club attendees are in their twenties, there are generally no age requirements. Adults in their fifties and sixties and teenagers also attend. Activities Anime club meetings can occur on a weekly or monthly basis. In addition to viewing anime, clubs engage in other activities such as viewing anime music videos , reading manga , karaoke and cosplaying . Many clubs host online forums to further foster community interaction, and feature a library to lend books and manga to members. Participants of an anime club often are also involved in volunteering and organization of local anime conventions . Depen
Hajime Katoki ( カトキ ハジメ Katoki Hajime, born 1963) is a Japanese mecha designer. A member of the studio Sunrise , he worked on the Gundam series as well as his work on video games , such as the Virtual On series and Policenauts . Biography Born in 1963, Katoki created designs for the graphic novel Gundam Sentinel . He then worked in the OVA series Gundam 0083 , where he designed the majority of the mobile suits in the series, including the RX-78GP03 Gundam Dendrobium Stamen and Orchis mobile weapons. His next prominent work was V Gundam , where he was the main mechanical designer, creating the main mobile suits Victory Gundam, V2 Gundam and the V2 Assault Buster Gundam. After that, he worked on G Gundam , now in design of the antagonist mobile suits. His next work was on Gundam Wing , where most of the enemy mobile suits, including the popular Tallgeese, were designed by him. He also created the mobile suits designs for Gundam Wing: Endless Waltz , and re-designed the Gundams with a more fantastic style, creat
Hentai illustration The word "hentai" written in kanji Hentai ( 変態 or へんたい ) listen English: (lit. "pervert") is a word of Japanese origin which is short for ( 変態性欲 , hentai seiyoku) ; a perverse sexual desire . The original meaning of Hentai in the Japanese language is a transformation or a metamorphosis . The implication of perversion or paraphilia was derived from there. Both meanings can be distinguished in context easily. In Japanese, the term describes any type of perverse or bizarre sexual desire or act; it does not represent a genre of work. Internationally, hentai is a catch-all term to describe a genre of anime and manga pornography . English adopts and uses hentai as a genre of pornography by the commercial sale and marketing of explicit works under this label. The word's narrow Japanese-language usage and broad international usage are often incompatible. Weather Report Girl is considered yuri hentai in English usage for its depiction of lesbian sex, but in Japan it is just yuri. The definition
Hisashi Eguchi ( 江口 寿史 Eguchi Hisashi, born March 29, 1956) is a Japanese manga artist and one of Japan's most prominent illustrators of female characters. He made his professional manga debut with Susume!! Pirates in the manga anthology Weekly Shōnen Jump in 1977. Other notable works include Stop!! Hibari-kun! (adapted into an anime television series in 1983), and the gag series Charamono . Eguchi married idol Mari Mizutani ( ja:水谷麻里 ) in 1990. Biography Hisashi Eguchi is known for his female character illustrations and fashion awareness. Hisashi began drawing at an early age, fascinated by the then-starting Japanese TV broadcasting. He got to know manga through Osamu Tezuka 's Astro Boy . During his childhood, other superheroes like Ultraman and Ultra Seven also gripped him. In 1977, he won the Young Jump award ( Twelve Newcomers Manga Award since 2003) for Osorubeki Kodomotachi . That same year, his Hachi-jihan no Kettō was a finalist at Akatsuka . The publication of Hisashi's baseball manga Susume!! Pi
Ecchi ( エッチ etchi, pronounced ) is an often used slang term in the Japanese language for playfully sexual actions. As an adjective , it is used with the meaning of "sexy", "dirty" or "naughty"; as a verb , ecchi suru ( エッチする ) , with the meaning to have sex; or as a noun , to describe someone of lascivious behavior . It is perhaps softer than the Japanese word ero (エロ from Eros ), and does not imply perversion in the way hentai does. The word ecchi has been adopted by fans of Japanese media to describe works with sexual overtones. In Japanese, the word ecchi is often used to describe a person's conduct, but in fandom, it has come to be used to refer to softcore or playful sexuality, as distinct from the word hentai, which connotes perversion or fetishism. Works described as ecchi do not show sexual intercourse or genitalia, but sexual themes are referenced. Ecchi themes are a type of fan service , and can be found in most comedy shōnen and seinen manga and harem anime . Etymology and use in Japan The correc
Meganekko ( メガネっ娘 ) (メガネ, also めがね or 眼鏡, pronounced megane ("glasses") and ko for "child" (子) but using the kanji for "daughter" (娘)) is an anime and manga fandom character archetype. Male characters who wear glasses are referred to as megane, megane-kun, megane otoko, or meganedanshi (メガネ男子). See also Moe Geek chic Notes Dru Pagliassotti , Megane & Clockwork Heart Web-Japan - This Month's Buzzword: Megane danshi Meganekko ( メガネっ娘 ) (メガネ, also めがね or 眼鏡, pronounced megane ("glasses") and ko for "child" (子) but using the kanji for "daughter" (娘)) is an anime and manga fandom character archetype. Male characters who wear glasses are referred to as megane, megane-kun, megane otoko, or meganedanshi (メガネ男子). See also Moe Geek chic Notes Dru Pagliassotti , Megane & Clockwork Heart Web-Japan - This Month's Buzzword: Megane danshi
Chūtarō Takamizawa ( 高見澤 仲太郎 Takamizawa Chūtarō, February 10, 1899 - December 12, 1989) , better known by the pen name Suihō Tagawa (田河 水泡, Tagawa Suihō), was a Japanese manga artist . Born in Sumida, Tokyo , Chūtarō Takamizawa grew up an orphan : his mother died upon his birth , his father and his uncle (who served as one of his stepparents) both died several years afterwards. He graduated from Fukagawa 's municipal Rinkai Jinjo elementary school in 1911. In 1919, he was conscripted into the Imperial Japanese Army , and left in 1922. In 1925, he graduated from Nihon Bijutsu Gakkō ("Japan School of Art"). In 1926, he became a rakugo author. He began producing manga in 1927. He gained a regular assignment selling manga stories and adopted the pen name Awa Takamizu , which was later corrupted into Suihō Tagawa : Suihō literally means "water bubble". In 1928 he married Junko (younger sister of Hideo Kobayashi ) in a church ceremony. In 1931, he began the long-running series Norakuro in Kodansha 's anthology maga
Shinichi Watanabe dressed in the style of his 'Nabeshin' character. Shinichi Watanabe ( 渡邊 慎一 Watanabe Shin'ichi, born September 6, 1964) is a Japanese anime director and voice actor . He is best known for his over-the-top adaptation of Rikdo Koshi 's Excel Saga , in which he appears as the character Nabeshin. Watanabe stated that the nickname Nabeshin (which is a combination of "nabe" in Watanabe and "shin" in Shinichi) came to him from Kami-sama. About his unique appearance (dressing similar to the character Arsène Lupin III ) Watanabe said he grew out his afro and started wearing bright clothing in order to stand out and get attention. Works Chief Director Work Fair, then Partly Piggy (1997-1998) - Debut work as Chief Director Gravitation: Lyrics of Love (1999) Lupin III : Da Capo of Love: Fujiko's Unlucky Days (1999) Excel Saga (1999-2000) Dotto! Koni-chan (2000-2001) (up to the 13th episode) Puni Puni Poemy (2001) Tenchi Muyo! GXP (2002) éX-D: Danger Zone (2002) Nerima Daikon Brothers (2006) Yamato Nades
This page provides lists of best-selling manga series to date. This list is limited to Japanese manga and does not include manhwa , manhua or original English-language manga . The series are listed according to the highest sales estimate of their collected tankōbon volumes as reported in reliable sources. Series currently running are highlighted in green, and all series are listed in their English official titles when available. Sources that provide the number of copies a series has in circulation/print, rather than actually sold are denoted by a "†". At least 100 million copies Manga series Author(s) Publisher Demographic No. of collected volumes Serialized Approximate sales One Piece Eiichiro Oda Shueisha Shōnen 86 1997–present 416 million† Dragon Ball Akira Toriyama Shueisha Shōnen 42 1984–1995 240 million Naruto Masashi Kishimoto Shueisha Shōnen 72 1999–2014 220 million Golgo 13 Takao Saito Shogakukan Seinen 185 1968–present 200 million (japan) Case Closed Gosho Aoyama Shogakukan Shōnen 93 1994–present 20
Ken Ishikawa ( 石川賢 Ishikawa Ken, June 28, 1948 – November 15, 2006) was a Japanese manga artist . He is renowned as the co-creator (with Go Nagai ) of the Getter Robo anime series, as well as four of their subsequent manga continuations. According to Go Nagai, he considered Ken Ishikawa his greatest friend and ally. Death Ken Ishikawa collapsed at a dinner banquet after golfing; he was rushed to the hospital where he was pronounced dead. After Ishikawa's death, illustrator Naoto Tsushima released the manga Getter Robo Hien: The Earth Suicide , which was based on drafts and notes Ishikawa had written before his death, in 2007. Influences Kazuki Nakashima , chief editor of the Getter Robo Saga compilation cited Ken Ishikawa as an influence when he worked on the series composition of the anime show, Gurren Lagann , and also gave a memorial address at his funeral. He also calls himself Ken Ishikawa's number one fan. Ishikawa's early art is quite reminiscent of that of his mentor, Go Nagai . An adaptation of Ishi
Yoshiaki Kawajiri ( 川尻 善昭 Kawajiri Yoshiaki, born November 18, 1950) is a writer and director of Japanese animation . He is the creator of titles such as Wicked City , Ninja Scroll , and Vampire Hunter D: Bloodlust . Career Kawajiri was born on November 18, 1950 and grew up in Yokohama , Kanagawa Prefecture , Japan . After he graduated from high school in 1968 he worked as an animator at Mushi Production Animation until it closed in 1972. He then joined Madhouse Studio and in the 1970s was promoted to animation director. He finally debuted as a film director with 1984's Lensman: Secret of The Lens , directing jointly with the more experienced Kazuyuki Hirokawa (Kawajiri also did the character design along with Kazuo Tomizawa). Gaining an interest in darker animation, he next directed The Running Man. Afterwards, he was instructed to make a 35-minute short based on Hideyuki Kikuchi 's novels, which was released as Wicked City . After completing it, however, his producers were so impressed that he was asked to
Hayao Miyazaki ( Japanese : 宮崎 駿 Hepburn : Miyazaki Hayao, born January 5, 1941) is a Japanese film director, producer, screenwriter, animator, author, and manga artist . A co-founder of Studio Ghibli , a film and animation studio, he has attained international acclaim as a masterful storyteller and as a maker of anime feature films, and is widely regarded as one of the greatest animation directors. Born in Bunkyō , Tokyo, Miyazaki expressed interest in manga and animation from an early age, and he joined Toei Animation in 1963. During his early years at Toei Animation he worked as an in-between artist and later collaborated with director Isao Takahata . Notable films to which Miyazaki contributed at Toei include Doggie March and Gulliver's Travels Beyond the Moon . He provided key animation to other films at Toei, such as Puss in Boots and Animal Treasure Island , before moving to A-Pro in 1971, where he co-directed Lupin the Third Part I alongside Takahata. After moving to Zuiyō Eizō (later known as Nippon
Junichi Sato ( 佐藤 順一 Satō Jun'ichi, born March 11, 1960) is an anime director. Sato is known for working on shōjo -based anime and the magical girl genre. He is associated with TYO Animations (formerly Hal Film Maker ). Born in Ama , Aichi Prefecture , Japan, his first major work was directing the first two seasons of Sailor Moon for Toei Animation , after which he handed the position over to Kunihiko Ikuhara , although he continued to storyboard and direct episodes for the later seasons. He later went on to co-direct Ojamajo Doremi , as well as the critically acclaimed Princess Tutu . Sato served as chief director for long-runner Sgt. Frog and in recent years has become more known for his "healing anime" such as Aria and Umi Monogatari . Works Anime television Queen Millennia (1981) (Production Manager) Patalliro! (1982) (Production Manager) Bemubemu Hunter Kotengu Tenmaru (1983) (Storyboard, Episode Director) Tongari Bōshi no Memoru ("Wee Wendy" in the U.S.) (1984) (Storyboard, Episode Director) Mobile Suit
Noboru Okamoto ( 岡本 登 Okamoto Noboru, born February 15, 1932 in Tokyo , Japan) , known by the pen name Sanpei Shirato ( 白土 三平 Shirato Sanpei) , is a Japanese manga artist and essayist known for his social criticism as well as his realistic drawing style and the characters in his scenarios. He is considered a pioneer of gekiga . The son of the Japanese proletarian painter Toki Okamoto , his dream to become an artist equal with his father started when he became a Kamishibai artist. He is also known for his work published in the early issues of the manga anthology magazine Garo in 1964, which he began publishing so as to serialize his comic Kamui. Biography In his childhood Shirato's father was active in the proletarian culture movement, being one of the few people to be photographed with the tortured corpse of proletarian leader Kobayashi Takiji . As he grew up he experienced the rancor of the war years, and it is said that these grim emotions come out in the nihilistic society portrayed in his works. Shirato d
Yoshiharu Tsuge ( つげ義春 Tsuge Yoshiharu, born 30 October 1937) is a Japanese cartoonist and essayist . He was active in comics between 1955 and 1987. His works range from tales of ordinary life to dream-like surrealism , and often show his interest in traveling about Japan. He has garnered the most attention from the surrealistic works he had published in the late 1960s in the avant-garde magazine Garo . Tsuge began producing comics in 1955 for the rental comics industry that flourished in impoverished post-War Japan. Initially, he made comics in the hard-boiled gekiga style–dark, realistic tales with negative endings. When rental comics ceased to be viable employment in the mid-1960s, Tsuge was in dire straits until he was picked up by the publishers of the avant garde comics magazine Garo . From 1965 to 1970, he entered his most widely known phase when he produced often surrealistic and introspective works for Garo. The June 1968 issue saw the most famous of these: the dream-based "Neji-shiki" (most commonly
A film comic ( フィルムコミック firumu komikku) or anime comics ( アニメコミックス anime komikkusu) are Japanese manga volumes which use illustrated images from an anime series, film, or video release, rather than original custom art. They generally contain the full dialog from the anime from which they are adapted. While usually published in book form, they are also sometimes released electronically as e-books , occasionally called e-manga. Companies such as Tokyopop and Viz release film comics under the trademarks Cine-manga and Ani-manga , respectively. The technique is similar to photo comics , many of which use stills from live-action movies or television series to adapt these stories to the comics medium. Film comics have been well received in English-speaking countries, with some titles selling more than 500,000 copies. References " Tokyopop and Disney expand on Cinemanga Success ". Anime News Network . April 6, 2004. Accessed 20 July 2007. " 'Avatar Cine-Manga' Tops 500k ". ICv2. May 25, 2006. Accessed 20 July 2007.
Example of shōnen-ai artwork, originally published at Animexx Yaoi ( ; Japanese : やおい , Japanese: ), primarily known as Boys' Love (BL) ( ボーイズ ラブ bōizu rabu) in Japan, is a Japanese genre of fictional media focusing on romantic or sexual relationships between male characters , typically marketed for a female audience and usually created by female authors. Yaoi also attracts male readers, although manga specifically marketed for a gay male audience ( bara ) is considered a separate genre . The main characters in yaoi usually conform to the formula of the seme (the "top" , or dominant figure) who pursues the uke (the "bottom" , or passive figure). Material classified as yaoi typically depicts gay relationships between male characters and may include homoerotic content. Although the yaoi genre is also called Boys' Love (commonly abbreviated as BL), the characters may be of any age above puberty , including adults. Works featuring prepubescent boys are labelled shotacon and seen as a distinct genre. Yaoi derives
A magical girlfriend , exotic girlfriend , supernatural lover , monster girlfriend , or nonhuman woman , is a female (or male, in rare cases) stock character often associated with romantic comedy anime and manga series, and is sometimes considered a genre of its own, or as the leading lady of the "fantastic romance" genre, which combines the fantasy and romance genres. As Thomas LaMarre states, "Anime fans become familiar with a whole range of female figures that are either not really human (robots, aliens, deities, animals), or that possess extra-human powers of some kind or another (from cyborg enhancements to magical or psychic abilities), which take them beyond the merely human woman." Magical girlfriends can be one or many in a single series (always attached to the male lead). Because of the tendency for rivals to appear even when there is one female lead and because of the unnatural gender balance among the cast, magical girlfriend comedies are often conflated with harem comedies. A good example of t
A bishōjo game ( 美少女ゲーム bishōjo gēmu, literally "pretty girl game") , or gal game ( ギャルゲーム gyaru gēmu, often shortened to " galge ") , is "a type of Japanese video game centered on interactions with attractive girls". These games are a subgenre of dating sims targeted towards a heterosexual male audience. Bishōjo games are similar to Choose Your Own Adventure books in the way of narrative. Where the game tells a story, but the player may make choices to change how the story flows. Bishōjo games are a uniquely Japanese phenomenon. While in the Western industries, those games can be considered as visual novel , this Japanese market for Bishōjo games have its own growth unrelated to the Western world. They form a sizeable fraction of the Japanese market: the most popular have sold over a million copies, and they make up the majority of offline PC games in Japan. Nevertheless, only a few titles of this sort have been translated or commercialized outside of East Asia . History 1980s Bishōjo games began to appear
Q-version is the English translation for the Chinese term Q版 ( pinyin : Kiū bǎn), referring to the cartoonification or infantilization in the artistic renderings of real life or serious human, animal figures or other characters or objects, especially in the styles of Anime . "Q" is a Chinese approximation of the English word "cute". Q-version characters, in the forms of cartoons, video animation, and plastic or stuffed toys have established a trend in many Asian countries outside of China such as Japan, South Korea, Taiwan, Hong Kong and Singapore. The term Q-version was most likely coined in Chinese by the Hong Kongers due to the success of such anime as SD Gundam , Dr. Slump and later on Dragonball during the mid-1980s. Mainland China was hit by the Q-version craze of late, but with much controversy, such as the Q-version Kuso edition of the government's official grade school Chinese language textbook, in which the term "Q-version", instead of meaning "populated by Anime characters", rather means kuso , or
Daisuke Nishio ( 西尾 大介 Nishio Daisuke, born April 1, 1959) is a Japanese animator and director. He joined Toei Doga (now Toei Animation ) as animator in 1981. After doing several TV series, he was promoted to assistant director on Dr. Slump - Arale-chan in 1982. He debuted as director for Dragon Ball in 1986 and made his film debut that same year with Dragon Ball: The Legend of Shenlong . Nishio also directed its sequel TV series, Dragon Ball Z , and several of its films. Filmography Director Dragon Ball (1986-1989) - Series Director, Storyboard, Episode Director Dragon Ball: The Legend of Shenlong (1986) - Director Dragon Ball: Sleeping Princess in Devil's Castle (1987) - Director Crying Freeman: Episode 1 - Portrait of a Killer (1988) - Director Dragon Ball Z (1989-1993) - Series Director (#1-199), Storyboard, Episode Director Dragon Ball Z: Return My Gohan!! (1989) - Director Dragon Ball Z: The World's Strongest (1990) - Director Dragon Ball Z: The Ultimate Battle for the Entire Earth (1990) - Director 3×3
A fandub is a fan-made dub or redub of a live-action or animated production. Dubbing is the act of re-recording of a live-action or animated production, typically in a language other than the original. Most productions are translated from different languages, but fandubs do exist for productions that were produced in the fandubber's native language. The dialogue can range from being a close translation to a completely altered version of the original script's story and plots, as well as the personalities of protagonists. The reasons behind fandubbing can range from the production not receiving an official dub to the official dub being poorly received. Fandubs are most commonly done with Japanese animation , but can include live action and animated series and movies in any language. Versions where the story line, character personalities, and content are dramatically altered, typically in a humorous manner, are called "Abridged Series" and "fundubs". Because fandubs typically use copyrighted material, fandubs fa
Yuri ( 百合 , " lily ") , also known by the wasei-eigo construction Girls' Love ( ガールズラブ gāruzu rabu) , is a Japanese jargon term for content and a genre involving love between women in manga , anime , and related Japanese media. Yuri focuses on the sexual orientation or the romantic orientation aspects of the relationship, or both, the latter of which sometimes being called shōjo-ai by Western fandom. The themes yuri deals with have their roots in the Japanese lesbian fiction of the early twentieth century, with pieces such as Yaneura no Nishojo by Nobuko Yoshiya . Nevertheless, it is not until the 1970s that lesbian-themed works began to appear in manga, by the hand of artists such as Ryoko Yamagishi and Riyoko Ikeda . The 1990s brought new trends in manga and anime, as well as in dōjinshi productions, along with more acceptance for this kind of content. In 2003, the first manga magazine specifically dedicated to yuri, Yuri Shimai , was launched, and this was followed by its revival Comic Yuri Hime ,
Alternative manga are Japanese comics that are published outside of the more commercial manga market, or which have different art styles, themes, and narratives to those found in the more popular manga magazines. History Alternative manga originated in the lending libraries of post-war Japan, which charged a small fee for borrowing books. This market was essentially its own marketplace with many manga being printed exclusively for it. The market was notorious amongst parental groups for containing more lewd content than the normal mainstream manga publishers would allow. Consequently, the market tended to appeal to a slightly older adolescent audience, rather than the child-dominated audience of the mainstream magazine anthologies of the time. In 1958 an author named Yoshihiro Tatsumi decided to create comics that had a darker and more realistic tone. Rejecting the title of manga, which in Japanese means "frivolous pictures", Tatsumi instead called these comics gekiga , meaning "dramatic pictures". This was s
Shōji Kawamori in his studio, in May 2011 Shōji Kawamori ( 河森 正治 Kawamori Shōji, born February 20, 1960) is a Japanese anime creator and producer, screenwriter , visual artist, and mecha designer. Personal life Shoji Kawamori was born in Toyama, Japan in 1960. Later in his youth he attended Keio University in the late seventies and in the same years as Macross screenwriter Hiroshi Ōnogi and character designer Haruhiko Mikimoto , where they became friends and founded a Mobile Suit Gundam fan club called "Gunsight One", a name the group would use years later during the development of the fictional world of the Macross series. Anime creation and production Shoji Kawamori occasionally used the alias Eiji Kurokawa (黒河影次 Kurokawa Eiji) early in his anime career when he started as a teenage intern at Studio Nue and worked as assistant artist and animator there during the late seventies and early eighties. Later on his career Kawamori created or co-created the concepts which served as basis for several anime series s
Year 24 Group ( 24年組 Nijūyo-nen Gumi) is a label applied by critics and fans to a nebulous group of female manga artist considered to have revolutionized shōjo manga (girls' comics) in the 1970s. Their works often examine "radical and philosophical issues," including sexuality and gender issues, and many of their works are now considered "classics" of shōjo manga. The name Fabulous Year 24 Group ( 花の24年組 Hana no Nijūyo-nen Gumi) , comes from the fact that manga artists said to belong to this group were generally born around Shōwa 24 (1949). The origin of the term is unknown. In English, they have also been called the "Magnificent Forty-Niners." The exact membership is not precisely defined, but the three artists most often mentioned by critics or scholars as possible members are Moto Hagio , Yumiko Ōshima , and Keiko Takemiya . Other artists who have been included in a list include Toshie Kihara , Ryoko Yamagishi , Minori Kimura , Riyoko Ikeda , Nanae Sasaya , and Mineko Yamada . Toku argues that the Y
The ACG is an abbreviation of " A nime, C omic and G ames", used in some subcultures of Greater China . Because a strong economic and cultural connection exists between anime, manga and games in the Japanese market, ACG is used to describe this phenomenon in relative fields. The term refers in particular to Japanese anime , manga and video games , with the video games usually referring to galgames . The term is not normally translated into Chinese; if the meaning needs to be translated, it is usually "動漫遊戲" (dòngmànyóuxì, animation, comics and games), "two-dimensional space" (二次元, Èr cìyuán; Japanese : 2次元 , translit. nijigen ) or "動漫遊" (dòngmànyóu, animation, comics and games). Etymology In 1995, a Taiwanese fan of animation and comics using the name "AIplus" established a board at National Sun Yat-sen University 's BBS; the board was named the "ACG_Review Board", referring to animation, comics and games. It is considered the first appearance of the term "ACG". Popularizing by Taiwanese anime and comics
Manga ( 漫画 Manga) are comics created in Japan or by creators in the Japanese language , conforming to a style developed in Japan in the late 19th century. They have a long and complex pre-history in earlier Japanese art . The term manga ( kanji : 漫画 ; hiragana : まんが ; katakana : マンガ ; listen ; English: or ) in Japan is a word used to refer to both comics and cartooning . "Manga" as a term used outside Japan refers to comics originally published in Japan. In Japan, people of all ages read manga. The medium includes works in a broad range of genres: action-adventure, business and commerce, comedy, detective, historical drama, horror, mystery, romance, science fiction and fantasy, sexuality, sports and games, and suspense, among others. Many manga are translated into other languages. Since the 1950s, manga has steadily become a major part of the Japanese publishing industry, representing a ¥ 406 billion market in Japan in 2007 (approximately $ 3.6 billion) and ¥420 billion (approximately $5.5 billion) i
Ikki Kajiwara ( 梶原 一騎 Kajiwara Ikki, September 4, 1936 – January 21, 1987) was a Japanese author , manga writer, and film producer, also known under the pseudonym Asao Takamori ( 高森 朝雄 Takamori Asao) . His real name is Asaki Takamori ( 高森 朝樹 Takamori Asaki) . The pseudonym was used since he was writing for a rival magazine at the time. Having multiple names would prevent overlap within the two magazines. He is known for fighting and sports themes, with images of heroic young men with the occasional fine details as he moves from one topic to another. He considered Tiger Mask and Star of the Giants to be his life's work. He was married to Pai Ping-ping and fathered a daughter, Pai Hsiao-yen , who was kidnapped, tortured, and murdered in 1997. Works Manga All listings are as Ikki Kajiwara unless otherwise specified. Ai to Makoto (art: Takumi Nagayasu ) Asahi no Koibito (as Asao Takamori, art: Eiji Kazama ) Ashita no Joe (art: Tetsuya Chiba ) Akaki Chi no Eleven (art: Mitsuyoshi Sonoda ) Champion Futoshi (art:
Satoshi Kon ( 今 敏 Kon Satoshi, October 12, 1963 – August 24, 2010 ) was a Japanese film director, animator , screenwriter and manga artist from Sapporo, Hokkaidō and a member of the Japanese Animation Creators Association (JAniCA). He was a graduate of the Graphic Design department of the Musashino Art University . He is sometimes credited as " Yoshihiro Wanibuchi " ( 鰐淵良宏 Wanibuchi Yoshihiro) in the credits of Paranoia Agent . He was the younger brother of guitarist and studio musician Tsuyoshi Kon. Biography Early life Satoshi Kon was born on October 12, 1963. Due to his father's job transfer, Kon's education from the fourth elementary grade up to the second middle school grade was based in Sapporo . Kon was a classmate and close friend of manga artist Seihō Takizawa. While attending Hokkaido Kushiro Koryo High School , Kon aspired to become an animator. His favorite works were Space Battleship Yamato (1974), Heidi, Girl of the Alps (1974), Future Boy Conan (1978) and Mobile Suit Gundam (1979), as well
Dōjinshi ( 同人誌 , often transliterated doujinshi) is the Japanese term for self-published works, usually magazines, Manga or novels. Dōjinshi are often the work of amateurs, though some professional artists participate as a way to publish material outside the regular industry. Dōjinshi are part of a wider category of dōjin including art collections, anime , hentai and games . Groups of dōjinshi artists refer to themselves as a sākuru ( サークル , circle ) . A number of such groups actually consist of a single artist: they are sometimes called kojin sākuru ( 個人サークル , personal circles) . Since the 1980s, the main method of distribution has been through regular dōjinshi conventions, the largest of which is called Comiket (short for "Comic Market") held in the summer and winter in Tokyo 's Big Sight . At the convention, over 20 acres (81,000 m ) of dōjinshi are bought, sold, and traded by attendees. Dōjinshi creators who base their materials on other creators' works normally publish in small numbers to maintain a low
Yoshiyuki Tomino ( 富野 由悠季 Tomino Yoshiyuki, born 富野 喜幸 November 5, 1941) is a Japanese mecha anime creator, animator, songwriter, director, screenwriter and novelist. He was born in Odawara , Kanagawa Prefecture , and studied at Nihon University 's College of Art. He is best known for creating the Gundam anime franchise. Career Tomino, began his career in 1963 with Osamu Tezuka 's company, Mushi Productions , scripting the storyboards and screenplay of the first Japanese anime television series, Tetsuwan Atomu (also known as Astro Boy ). He later became one of the most important members of the anime studio Sunrise , going on to direct numerous anime through the 1970s, 1980s and 1990s. Tomino is perhaps best known for his transformation of the " Super Robot " mecha anime genre into the " Real Robot " genre with 1979's Mobile Suit Gundam , the first in the Gundam franchise . He has also won numerous awards, including the "Best Director" award at the recent 2006 Tokyo International Anime Fair (for the 2005 film
Magical girls ( 魔法 少女 mahō shōjo, also known as mahou shoujo or majokko ) is a subgenre of Japanese fantasy anime and manga which feature girls who use magic. Although the genre has origins in Japan, it has been used as a motif outside Japan in Western works such as Miraculous Ladybug , Star vs. the Forces of Evil , Steven Universe , Winx Club and W.I.T.C.H. . Genre history Anime and manga Manga and anime historians regard the Princess Knight manga, released in 1953, as the prototype for the magical girl genre. Himitsu no Akko-chan , serialized nine years later (1962) in Ribon , is generally accepted to be the earliest magical girl manga. Sally the Witch , adapted from the manga of the same name, is regarded by historians as the first magical girl anime. Sally the Witch was inspired by the Japanese dub of the television series Bewitched . Mahōtsukai Chappy (1972) and Majokko Megu-chan (1974–1975) popularized the term "majokko" (little witch) as a name for the genre. Megu-chan has been noted for its portray
Anime ( Japanese : アニメ , , plural: anime) is a Japanese term for hand-drawn or computer animation . The word is the abbreviated pronunciation of "animation" in Japanese, where this term references all animation. Outside Japan, anime is used to refer specifically to animation from Japan or as a Japanese-disseminated animation style often characterized by colorful graphics, vibrant characters and fantastical themes. Arguably, the culturally abstract approach to the word's meaning may open up the possibility of anime produced in countries other than Japan. For simplicity, many Westerners strictly view anime as a Japanese animation product. Some scholars suggest defining anime as specifically or quintessentially Japanese may be related to a new form of orientalism . The earliest commercial Japanese animation dates to 1917, and Japanese anime production has since continued to increase steadily. The characteristic anime art style emerged in the 1960s with the works of Osamu Tezuka and spread internationally
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Hideaki Anno ( 庵野 秀明 Anno Hideaki, born May 22, 1960) is a Japanese animator, film director and actor . He is best known for his part in creating the popular anime series Neon Genesis Evangelion . His style has become defined by the bits of postmodernism he instills into his work, as well as the extensive portrayal of characters' thoughts and emotions, often through unconventional scenes incorporating the mental deconstruction of those characters. He married manga artist Moyoko Anno on April 27, 2002. Anno's other directorial efforts include Kare Kano (1998), Love & Pop (1998), Shiki-Jitsu (2000), Cutie Honey (2004), Re: Cutie Honey (2004), Rebuild of Evangelion (2007–), and Shin Godzilla (2016). Anime directed by Anno that have won the Animage Anime Grand Prix award have been Nadia: The Secret of Blue Water in 1990, Neon Genesis Evangelion in 1995 and 1996, and The End of Evangelion in 1997. Biography Childhood and personal life Anno was born in Ube, Yamaguchi ; he attended Wakō Kindergarten, Unoshim
Kazuo Koike ( 小池 一夫 Koike Kazuo, born May 8, 1936 in Daisen , Akita Prefecture ) is a prolific Japanese manga writer ( gensakusha ), novelist and entrepreneur. Career Early in Koike's career, he studied under Golgo 13 creator Takao Saito and served as a writer on the series. Koike, along with artist Goseki Kojima , made the manga Kozure Okami ( Lone Wolf and Cub ), and Koike also contributed to the scripts for the 1970s film adaptations of the series, which starred famous Japanese actor Tomisaburo Wakayama . Koike and Kojima became known as the "Golden Duo" because of the success of Lone Wolf and Cub. Another series written by Koike, Crying Freeman , which was illustrated by Ryoichi Ikegami , was adapted into a 1995 live-action film by French director Christophe Gans . Kazuo Koike started the Gekika Sonjuku, a college course meant to teach people how to be a manga artist. In addition to his more violent, action-oriented manga, Koike, an avid golfer, has also written golf manga. He has also written mahjong man
Mitsuteru Yokoyama ( 横山 光輝 Yokoyama Mitsuteru, June 18, 1934 – April 15, 2004) was a Japanese manga artist born in Suma-ku , Kobe-shi , Hyogo . His personal name was originally spelled Mitsuteru ( 光照 ) , with the same pronunciation. His works include Tetsujin 28-go , Giant Robo , Akakage , Babel II , Sally the Witch , Princess Comet , and adaptations of the Chinese classics Water Margin and Romance of the Three Kingdoms . Early life Yokoyama spent his boyhood during World War II and was evacuated to Tottori with his family. He graduated from Kobe municipal Ota junior high school and went on to the Kobe municipal Suma high school. Osamu Tezuka 's " Metropolis " made a deep impression on Yokoyama who wished to become a manga artist in earnest and so he contributed his works to a comic book in his high school days. He entered the Sumitomo Mitsui Banking Corporation after graduation from high school, but quit his job before five months passed because there was no time to draw a manga . He found a new job as a pub
Yukinobu Hoshino ( 星野 之宣 Hoshino Yukinobu, born January 29, 1954) is a Japanese manga artist . He was born in Kushiro , Hokkaidō and dropped out of Aichi Prefectural University of Fine Arts and Music mid-semester from the fine arts department. He made his debut in 1975 with Kotetsu no Queen and with Harukanaru Asa won the Tezuka prize for an outstanding manga . On 1976, he wrote Blue City for Shukan Shonen Jump . He won an Excellence Prize at the 2008 Japan Media Arts Festival for Munakata Kyouju Ikouroku . Initially, his artistic style was similar to that of Mikiya Mochizuki and had humoristic touches, but moved on to the gekiga style. He is known for using the gekiga style to create detailed and serious science fiction stories based on American and European SF novels but creating a completely different storyline. He had also drawn various works based on ancient and pre-historic histories. Amongst other things, he is known for his graphic novel series, 2001 Nights . His work is acknowledged by the British Mu
Tadao Nagahama (長浜 忠夫 Nagahama Tadao) (September 26, 1936 – January 14, 1980) was a director of both puppet shows and animation . He is best known as the director of Sunrise and Toei Company 's Robot Romance Trilogy , which added human drama to the Super Robot Genre. Nagahama also directed several hit anime series that are still well known among Japanese viewers. Moreover, he produced hits with works of all genres, including sports , comedies , shōnen , shōjo , and Super Robots . He has been referred to as "the Emperor" in imitation of film director Akira Kurosawa . He and his wife contracted hepatitis while traveling overseas. Although his wife survived, he died from the disease at the age of 43. Filmography Puppetry 伊賀の影丸 (Iga no Kagemaru), 1964 ひょっこりひょうたん島 (Hyokkoryoutan Island), 1964–1969 Anime Obake no Q-tarō , 1965 (episode director) Pāman , 1967 (episode director) Star of the Giants , 1968 (director) Chingo Muchabei , 1971 (episode director) Shin Obake no Q-tarō , 1971 (director) Do-Konjo Gael , 1972 (
Harem ( ハーレムもの hāremumono; "from harem ") in anime and manga is an emphasis on polygamous or love triangle relationships characterized by a protagonist surrounded amorously by three or more members of either the same and/or opposing gender, sex, and/or love interests. When it is a yuri or male -hetero oriented harem series, the polygynous relationship is informally referred to as a female harem or seraglios . When it is a yaoi or female -hetero oriented harem series, the polyandrous relationship is informally referred to as a male harem , reverse harem , or gyaku hāremu ( 逆 ハーレム ) . Etymology The word derives from Harem , which was a term used to refer to the most private rooms of a household in the Islamic world , especially among the upper class where only women and close relatives were permitted inside. Structure Because romance is rarely the main focus of an entire series, a harem structure is ambiguous. The most distinguishable trait is the group of polyamorous females and/or males who accompany the pr
Clamp ( クランプ Kuranpu) is an all-female Japanese manga artist group that formed in the mid-1980s. It consists of leader Nanase Ohkawa ( 大川 七瀬 Ōkawa Nanase) , and three artists whose roles shift for each series: Mokona ( もこな Mokona) , Tsubaki Nekoi ( 猫井 椿 Nekoi Tsubaki) , and Satsuki Igarashi ( いがらし 寒月 Igarashi Satsuki) . Almost 100 million Clamp tankōbon copies have been sold worldwide as of October 2007. Beginning as an eleven-member dōjinshi circle in the mid-1980s, they began creating original work in 1987. By the time they debuted with RG Veda in 1989, the group was reduced to seven members. In 1993, three more members left, leaving the four members who are currently still part of the group. In 2006, the members decided to change their names; Ohkawa later changed her name back from Ageha Ohkawa to Nanase Ohkawa, while the other three members retained their new names. History Before their debut (1980s–1989) Clamp originally began in the mid-1980s as an eleven-member dōjinshi circle named Clamp Cluster. Thi
Shigeru Sugiura ( 杉浦 茂 Sugiura Shigeru, 3 April 1908 – 23 April 2000) was a Japanese manga artist famous for his surreal , nonsense gag manga. Career After initially studying painting, Sugiura became an assistant to the manga artist Suihō Tagawa . He soon began drawing his own manga in 1933 and came to fame after World War II with a series of comedic manga for children based on stories like those of Sasuke Sarutobi , Jiraiya , and Journey to the West . Sugiura closely followed popular culture and thus his manga were also influenced by such contemporary fads as Godzilla , pro wrestling , and American science fiction films . The philosophy of his manga "is of yukai, pleasure and amusement, pursuing the path as far from seriousness as possible. . . . The praxis of yukai is essentially the body in free motion, and Sugiura’s characters are defined by an excess of movement." The result was a visual style that was often surreal and absurd . A craftsman, Sugiura could not keep up with the mass production of manga
Mecha anime and manga , known in Japan as robot anime ( ロボットアニメ robotto anime) and robot manga ( ロボット漫画 robotto manga) , are anime and manga that feature robots ( mecha ) in battle. The genre is broken down into two subcategories, "super robot" is one category in which the anime or manga includes a super sized totally non plausible robot. The second category is " real robot ", wherein the robots used are explainable by real world physics. Mecha series cover a wide variety of genres from comedy to drama, and has expanded into other media, such as video game adaptations. Mecha has also contributed to the popularity of scale model robots . History The genre started with Mitsuteru Yokoyama 's 1956 manga Tetsujin 28-go (which was later animated in 1963 and also released abroad as Gigantor ). Its inclusion is debatable however, as the robot was controlled by remote instead of a cockpit in the machine. Not long after that the genre was largely defined by author Go Nagai , into something considerably more fantastical
Kenta Shinohara ( 篠原 健太 Shinohara Kenta, born January 9, 1974) is a Japanese manga artist . He is best known for his manga series Sket Dance , which was serialized in Weekly Shōnen Jump from 2007 to 2013 and won the Shogakukan Manga Award in 2010. Biography Shinohara was born on January 9, 1974, in Chiba Prefecture . Starting his career as a salaryman , Shinohara decided to drop out of his white-collar job for two years while preparing for his debut as a manga artist. Shinohara worked as an assistant under Hideaki Sorachi on Gintama for a short time using the alias Shintaroh Nakae ( なかえ しんたろう Nakae Shintarō) , an anagram of "Kenta Shinohara". During his stint with Sorachi, Shinohara called him a "teacher" who taught him necessary skills. In June and September 2003, Shinohara was one of the final candidates for the monthly JUMP 12 Outstanding Rookie Manga Award (ジャンプ十二傑新人漫画賞) both months, though he failed to win either award. Shinohara wrote two one-shots for Sket Dance in the winter and summer of 2006, subm
The history of anime can be traced back to the start of the 20th century, with the earliest verifiable films dating from 1917. The first generation of animators in the late 1910s included Ōten Shimokawa , Jun'ichi Kōuchi and Seitaro Kitayama , commonly referred to as the " fathers " of anime. Propaganda films , such as Momotarō no Umiwashi (1943) and Momotarō: Umi no Shinpei (1945), the latter being the first anime feature film, were made during World War II . During the 1970s, anime developed further, separating itself from its Western roots, and developing distinct genres such as mecha and its super robot subgenre. Typical shows from this period include Astro Boy , Lupin III and Mazinger Z . During this period several filmmakers became famous, especially Hayao Miyazaki and Mamoru Oshii . In the 1980s, anime became mainstream in Japan , experiencing a boom in production with the rise in popularity of anime like Gundam , Macross , Dragon Ball , and genres such as real robot , space opera and cyberpunk . Space
Voice acting in Japan is acting as a narrator , or as an actor in radio plays , or as a character actor in anime and video games . It also involves performing voice-overs for non-Japanese movies and television programs. Because Japan's large animation industry produces 60% of the animated series in the world, voice acting in Japan has a far greater prominence than voice acting in most other countries. Some voice actors—especially certain voice actresses—often have devoted international fan-clubs. Some fans may watch a show merely to hear a particular voice actor. Some Japanese voice actors have capitalized on their fame to become singers , and many others have become live movie or television actors. There are around 130 voice-acting schools in Japan. Broadcast companies and talent agencies often have their own troupes of vocal actors. Magazines focusing specifically on voice acting are published in Japan, with Voice Animage being the longest running. The English term character voice (or CV), has been comm
Katsuji Matsumoto ( 松本かつぢ , 1904–1986) was a Japanese illustrator and shōjo manga artist. Matsumoto's 16-page The Mysterious Clover (1934) is recognized as a pioneering work in the field of manga, but he is best known for his shōjo manga Kurukuru Kurumi-chan, serialized from 1938 to 1940, and again from 1949 to 1954. His illustrations were popular from the 1930s through the 1950s, and he contributed illustrations to numerous popular girls' novels by some of the period's most famous authors, including Yasunari Kawabata and Nobuko Yoshiya . He was also a prolific illustrator of children's books and created merchandise for babies, small children, and girls. The Gallery Katsuji Matsumoto in Tokyo is managed by his surviving children. Early life and professional debut Matsumoto was born in Kobe, the son of Toraji ( 寅治 ) and Ishi ( いし ) Matsumoto, but moved with his family to Tokyo at the age of eight. At the age of 13, he began attending what was then called Rikkyō (St. Paul's) Middle School. Through th
Tomoharu Katsumata ( 勝間田 具治 Katsumata Tomoharu, born in 1938 in Shizuoka Prefecture , Japan) is a Japanese film director best known for his work on various anime works. A leading director at the Toei Animation studio during the 1960s, 1970s, and 1980s, Katsumata worked as a director on several of Toei's anime television adaptations of manga by Go Nagai , including Devilman (1972), Mazinger Z (1972), Cutey Honey (1973), Great Mazinger (1974), UFO Robo Grendizer (1975) and Gaiking (1976) (both Grendizer and Gaiking became later part of Jim Terry's Force Five package on U.S. television). Katsumata also directed a TV adaptation of Ginga: Nagareboshi Gin in 1986. Katsumata graduated from Nippon University 's film school in 1960 and began working with the Kyoto division of the Toei Company that same year as an assistant director to Masahiro Makino , Eiichi Kudo , Tomotaka Tasaka on his samurai dramas. After a few years, Katsumata moved to Toei Doga (Toei Animation) in Tokyo , working as a director on some of Toei's