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Rakuten Kitazawa

Yasuji Kitazawa (北澤 保次, 20 July 1876 – 25 August 1955), better known by the pen name Rakuten Kitazawa (北澤 楽天 Kitazawa Rakuten), was a Japanese manga artist and nihonga artist. He drew many editorial cartoons and comic strips during the years from the late Meiji era through the early Showa era. He is considered by many historians to be the founding father of modern manga because his work was an inspiration to many younger manga artists and animators.

He was the first professional cartoonist in Japan, and the first to use the term "manga" in its modern sense.[1]

Biography

Rakuten was born in 1876 in the Kita Adachi district of Ōmiya in Saitama Prefecture. He studied western-style painting under Ōno Yukihiko and Nihonga under Inoue Shunzui. He joined the English-language magazine Box of Curios in 1895, and started drawing cartoons under Frank Arthur Nankivell, an Australian artist who later emigrated to America and became a popular cartoonist for Puck magazine.

In 1899, Rakuten moved to Jiji Shimpo, a daily newspaper founded by Yukichi Fukuzawa. From January 1902, he contributed to Jiji Manga, a comics page that appeared in the Sunday edition. His comics for this page were inspired by American comic strips such as Katzenjammer Kids, Yellow Kid, and the work of Frederick Burr Opper.

In 1905, Rakuten started a full-color satirical magazine called Tokyo Puck, named after the American magazine. It was translated into English and Chinese and sold in not only Japan but also in the Korean peninsula, Mainland China, and Taiwan. He worked for this magazine until 1915 (with the exception of a short period around 1912, during which he published a magazine of his own called Rakuten Puck), and then returned to Jiji Shimpo, where he remained until his retirement in 1932.

In 1929, Rakuten held a private exhibition in Paris on the recommendation of the French ambassador, and was awarded the Legion d'honneur. During World War II, he was the chairman of the Nihon Manga Hōkō Kai, a cartoonists society organized by the government to support the war effort.

Influence

Both before and after his retirement, Rakuten trained many young manga artists and animators, including Hekoten Shimokawa, creator of Japan's first cartoon animation. Along with Ippei Okamoto, he was one of the favorite cartoonists of the young Osamu Tezuka.[2]

Notable works
Tagosaku to Mokubē no Tōkyō-Kenbutsu (1902)
  • Rakuten drew many political cartoons for Jiji Shimpō and Tokyo Puck. His early style was critical of the government, but after the High Treason Incident it became more conservative.
  • Many of Rakuten's most popular comic strips were published in Jiji Manga.
    • Tagosaku to Mokubē no Tōkyō-Kenbutsu (田吾作と杢兵衛の東京見物,, "Tagosaku and Mokube's Sightseeing in Tokyo") - started 1902. The story of two country bumpkins on a sightseeing trip in Tokyo. Knowing nothing about modern culture, they behave foolishly (for example, by separately eating lumps of sugar for coffee).
    • Haikara Kidorō no Sippai (灰殻木戸郎の失敗,, "The Failures of Kidoro Haikara") - started 1902. The story of a young man who boasts of his imperfect knowledge of the West but ends up embarrassing himself. His name can be read "Mr. European style affected man".
    • Chame to Dekobō (茶目と凸坊,, "Chame and Dekobo") - Stories about two mischievous boys, counterparts of the Katzenjammer Kids in Japan. The characters Chame and Dekobo appeared as dolls and on playing cards in one of the first examples of character merchandising in Japan.
    • Teino Nukesaku (丁野抜作,, "Nukesaku Teino") - started 1915. The story of a wooden-head man, Nukesaku Teino, whose name can be read "Mr. Foolish Wooden-head". He was a popular character during the Taishō era in Japan.
    • Tonda Haneko Jō (とんだはね子嬢,, "Miss Haneko Tonda") - started 1928. The story of a tomboyish girl, Haneko Tonda, whose name can be read "Hopping-jumping girl". Haneko was the first girl protagonist in manga and influenced early shōjo manga like Machiko Hasegawa's Nakayoshi Techō.
Notes
  1. The first cartoonist to use the term "manga" in the narrower sense of "caricature" was probably Ippyō Imaizumi, Rakuten's predecessor as political cartoonist at the Jiji Shimpo, in 1892. See 新聞漫画 [Newspaper Manga] (PDF). The Japan Newspaper Museum (in Japanese). Archived from the original (PDF) on 22 July 2011. Retrieved 3 January 2009.
  2. Osamu Tezuka, Tezuka Osamu Manga no Ougi (Secrets of Osamu Tezuka manga), pp. 16-27, ISBN 4-06-175991-4
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Rakuten Kitazawa

topic

Yasuji Kitazawa ( 北澤 保次 , 20 July 1876 – 25 August 1955) , better known by the pen name Rakuten Kitazawa ( 北澤 楽天 Kitazawa Rakuten) , was a Japanese manga artist and nihonga artist. He drew many editorial cartoons and comic strips during the years from the late Meiji era through the early Showa era . He is considered by many historians to be the founding father of modern manga because his work was an inspiration to many younger manga artists and animators. He was the first professional cartoonist in Japan, and the first to use the term "manga" in its modern sense. Biography Rakuten was born in 1876 in the Kita Adachi district of Ōmiya in Saitama Prefecture . He studied western-style painting under Ōno Yukihiko and Nihonga under Inoue Shunzui. He joined the English-language magazine Box of Curios in 1895, and started drawing cartoons under Frank Arthur Nankivell , an Australian artist who later emigrated to America and became a popular cartoonist for Puck magazine . In 1899, Rakuten moved to Jiji Shimpo, a dail



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Seinen manga

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Seinen manga ( 青年漫画 ) are manga marketed toward adolescent boys and men old enough to read kanji . In Japanese, the word " seinen " literally means "youth," but the term "seinen manga" is also used to describe the target audience of comics like Weekly Manga Times and Weekly Manga Goraku which are aimed at men from their 20s to their 50s. Seinen manga are distinguished from shōnen manga which are for younger boys, as well as the seijin-muke manga ( 成人向け漫画 ) which focus on sex, although some seinen manga like xxxHolic share some similarities with "shōnen" manga. Seinen manga can focus on action, politics, science fiction, fantasy, relationships, sports, or comedy and while they may contain sexual content (as well as other mature material), it remains predominantly more infrequent than in the seijin-muke manga. The female equivalent to seinen manga is josei manga . Seinen manga have a wide variety of art styles and variation in subject matter. Examples of seinen series include: 20th Century Boys , Akira , Tokyo



List of eroge

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This is a list of Japanese erotic video games , also known in Japan as eroge . This list does not include fan created parodies. The market in Japan for this type of game is quite large, and only a small number of the games gain any level of recognition beyond the fans of the genre. # 3D Custom Girl A Artificial Academy Artificial Academy 2 Air Akaneiro ni Somaru Saka Akane Maniax Amorous Professor Cherry Angel Type Aries Aries Pure Dream Artificial Girl Artificial Girl 2 Artificial Girl 3 Atlach=Nacha by Alicesoft B The Baldrhead series Battle Raper series Battle Raper Battle Raper 2 Bazooka Cafe Beat Angel Escalayer Bible Black Biko 1 Biko 2: Reversible Face Biko 3 Binary Pot Binetsu Kyoushi Cherry Bittersweet Fools Boin Brave Soul Brutish Mine Bunny Black (broken link?) C Canvas2 Castle Fantasia 2 - Seima Taisen Castle Fantasia 3 - Erencia Wars Cat Girl Alliance Chain ~ The Lost Footprints Clover Heart's Come See Me Tonight Comic Party Cosplay Fetish Academy Crescendo Cross Channel Cross Days " Custom Maid



List of manga publishers

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This article lists publishers of manga in various markets worldwide. Australian AlphaManga Comic Hellfun Publishing Chinese Traditional Chinese Daran Comics (or Daran Culture Enterprise ) (defunct) (Taiwan) Kadokawa Comics Taiwan (Taiwan) Tong Li Comics (Taiwan) Ever Glory Publishing (Taiwan) Sharp Point Publishing (Taiwan) King Comics Hong Kong (Hong Kong) Culturecom Comics (Hong Kong) Jade Dynasty (Hong Kong) Jonesky (Hong Kong) Kwong's Creations Co Ltd Rightman Publishing Ltd Simplified Chinese Changchun Publishing House (China) ChuangYi Publishing (Singapore) WitiComics (Hong Kong) Danish Alpha Entertainment Carlsen manga Egmont Serieforlaget Mangismo Dutch Glenat Kana Xtra English Active (digital&print) Animate Antarctic Press Bento Books Blast Books BookLOUD Inc. Dark Horse Manga DH Publishing Digital Manga Publishing Drawn and Quarterly Dream manga Eros Comix Fakku Fantagraphics Fallen Manga Studios Gen Manga Entertainment GuiltPleasure HarperCollins Image Comics IDW Publishing Kitty Media Kodansh



Glossary of anime and manga

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This is a list of terms that are specific to anime and manga . Note: Japanese words that are used in general (e.g. oniisan, kawaii and senpai) are not included on this list unless a description with a reference for notability can be provided that shows how they relate. Character traits Ahoge ( アホゲ , lit. "idiot hair") Refers to any noticeable strand of hair which sticks in a different direction from the rest of an anime character’s hair. Bishōjo ( 美少女 , lit. "pretty girl") Refers to any young, attractive woman, but also used to imply sexual availability (as in bishōjo games). Bishōnen ( 美少年 , lit. "beautiful boy", sometimes abbreviated bishie) Japanese aesthetic concept of the ideally beautiful young man: androgynous , effeminate or gender-ambiguous. In Japan, it refers to youth with such characteristics, while in Europe and the Americas, it has become a generic term for attractively androgynous males of all ages. Catgirl ( 猫娘 Nekomusume) A female character with cat ears and a cat tail, but an otherwise huma



Atsushi Ōkubo

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Atsushi Ōkubo ( 大久保 篤 Ōkubo Atsushi) , also romanized as Atsushi Ohkubo , is a Japanese manga author and fantasy artist known for his work on the manga series Soul Eater , which has been adapted into an anime . Okubo worked as an assistant under Rando Ayamine , on the manga series GetBackers . He also created artwork for the video game TCG Lord of Vermilion , as well as some character designs in Bravely Default . Atsushi Ōkubo was not a model student and was more attracted to drawing than to learning. At the age of 20, after finishing studies at a manga school where he met Rando Ayamine, the artist of "Get Backers", he became Rando Ayamine's assistant for two years. Finally, he won a competition at Square Enix's Gangan magazine with his first manga series B.Ichi and it was published for four volumes. After the end of his last manga, he created Soul Eater, still for Square Enix's Gangan magazine, which brought him worldwide success. Works B. Ichi ( B壱 ) (2001-2002) - Writer, artist Soul Eater (ソウルイーター – Sōru Ī



List of hentai authors

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The following are Japanese authors and illustrators who are notable for their sexually explicit or pornographic manga and novels, referred to as hentai . Individuals Yū Asagiri − manga artist of Midnight Panther Isutoshi − manga artist of Slut Girl Teruo Kakuta − manga artist of Bondage Fairies Henmaru Machino − manga artist Toshio Maeda − manga artist of La Blue Girl , Urotsukidoji , and Adventure Kid Gengoroh Tagame − manga artist who specializes in gay bondage Benkyo Tamaoki − manga artist U-Jin − manga artist of the Angel series, Sakura Diaries , and Private Psycho Lesson Hiroyuki Utatane − manga artist and director of Cool Devices Toshiki Yui − manga artist of Hot Tails and non-pornographic works Kirara and Kagome Kagome See also List of hentai anime The following are Japanese authors and illustrators who are notable for their sexually explicit or pornographic manga and novels, referred to as hentai . Individuals Yū Asagiri − manga artist of Midnight Panther Isutoshi − manga artist of Slut Girl Teruo Kak



DZ-manga

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DZ-manga ( Arabic : ديزاد مانغا ‎‎, ALA-LC : dīzād māngah), sometimes written DZ manga , are comic books originally published in Algeria , either in French , Arabic or Tamazight , that draw inspiration from Japanese manga . Etymology Other name variations on DZ-manga, such as Algerian manga and manga-influenced comics can occasionally be heard as substitute names, but the term "DZ-manga" is the most commonly used. The term "international manga", as used by the Japanese Ministry of Foreign Affairs , encompasses all foreign comics which draw inspiration from the "form of presentation and expression" found in Japanese manga . History Although manga was only recently introduced to Algeria , its current popularity can be traced to the appearance on Algerian airwaves of its televised sister, the anime . In the 1980s, Algeria's lone state-controlled national television network (then RTA, later renamed ENTV and then EPTV ) broadcast youth programs that featured Japanese animated TV series dubbed in French or Arabic .



Manga outside Japan

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Manga , or Japanese comics , have appeared in translation in many different languages in different countries. France represents about 50% of the European manga market and in 2011 manga represented 40% of the comics being published in the country. In 2007, 70% of the comics sold in Germany were manga. In the United States , manga comprises a small (but growing) industry , especially when compared to the inroads that Japanese animation has made in the USA. One example of a manga publisher in the United States , VIZ Media , functions as the American affiliate of the Japanese publishers Shogakukan and Shueisha . The UK has fewer manga publishers than the U.S. Flipping Since written Japanese fiction usually flows from right to left, manga artists draw and publish this way in Japan. When first translating various titles into Western languages, publishers reversed the artwork and layouts in a process known as "flipping", so that readers could follow the books from left-to-right. However, various creators (such as A



Anime and manga fandom

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Anime and manga fandom (otherwise known as fan community ) is a worldwide community of fans of anime and manga . Anime includes animated series , films and videos, while manga includes Manga , graphic novels , drawings, and related artwork. They have their origin in Japanese entertainment, but the style and culture has spread worldwide since its introduction into the West in the 1990s. Otaku Otaku is a Japanese term for people with obsessive interests, including anime, manga, or video games. In its original context, the term otaku is derived from a Japanese term for another's house or family ( お宅 , otaku), which is also used as an honorific second-person pronoun. The modern slang form, which is distinguished from the older usage by being written only in hiragana (おたく) or katakana (オタク or, less frequently, ヲタク), or rarely in rōmaji , appeared in the 1980s. In the anime Macross , first aired in 1982, the term was used by Lynn Minmay as an honorific term. It appears to have been coined by the humorist and essa



Masamune Shirow

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Masamune Shirow ( 士郎 正宗 Shirō Masamune, born November 23, 1961) is the pen name of Japanese manga artist Masanori Ota . The pen name is derived from the legendary sword-smith Masamune . Shirow is best known for the manga Ghost in the Shell , which has since been turned into two theatrical anime movies, two anime television series, an anime television movie, an anime OVA series, a theatrical live action movie, and several video games . Shirow is also known for creating erotic art. Career Born in the Hyōgo Prefecture capital city of Kobe , he studied oil painting at Osaka University of Arts . While in college, he developed an interest in manga , which led him to create his own complete work, Black Magic , which was published in the manga dōjinshi Atlas. His work caught the eye of Seishinsha President Harumichi Aoki, who offered to publish him. The result was best-selling manga Appleseed , a full volume of densely plotted drama taking place in an ambiguous future. The story was a sensation, and won the 1986 Sei



Mangaka

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" Mangaka " ( 漫画家 ) is the Japanese word for manga artist . Outside Japan , manga usually refers to a Japanese comic book , and mangaka refers to the author of the manga, who is usually Japanese . As of 2006, about 3000 professional mangaka were working in Japan. Most mangaka study at an art college or manga school, or take on an apprenticeship with another artist before entering the industry as a primary creator. More rarely a mangaka breaks into the industry directly, without previously being an assistant. For example, Naoko Takeuchi , author of Sailor Moon , won a contest sponsored by Kodansha , and manga pioneer Osamu Tezuka was first published while studying an unrelated degree, without working as an assistant. A mangaka will rise to prominence through recognition of their ability when they spark the interest of institutions, individuals or a demographic of manga consumers. For example, there are contests which prospective mangaka may enter, sponsored by manga editors and publishers. They are also recogn



Lists of manga

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Manga ( 漫画 ) are comics created in Japan , or by Japanese creators in the Japanese language , conforming to a style developed in Japan in the late 19th century. The term is also now used for a variety of other works in the style of or influenced by the Japanese comics. The production of manga in many forms remains extremely prolific, so a single list covering all the notable works would not be a useful document. Accordingly, coverage is divided into the many related lists below. Lists of manga titles List of best-selling manga List of manga licensed in English List of manga series by volume count List of Osamu Tezuka manga List of hentai manga List of manga magazines List of Japanese manga magazines by circulation List of manga published by Kadokawa Shoten List of manga published by Akita Shoten List of manga published by ASCII Media Works List of manga published by Hakusensha List of manga published by Kodansha List of manga published by Shogakukan List of manga published by Shueisha Lists of manga volumes



Josei manga

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Josei manga ( 女性漫画 , lit. comics for women, pronounced  ) are Japanese comics aimed at women in their late teens on into adulthood. Josei manga are distinguished from " shōjo manga " ( 少女漫画 ) for younger girls on the one hand, and "ladies comics" ( レディースコミックス redīsu komikkusu) or "LadyComi" ( レディコミ redikomi) , which tend to have erotic content on the other. Readers can range in age from 15 to 44. In Japanese, the word josei means simply "woman", "female", "feminine", "womanhood", and has no manga-related connotations at all. Josei comics can portray realistic romance, as opposed to the mostly idealized romance of shōjo manga , but it does not always have to be. Josei tends to be both more sexually explicit and contain more mature storytelling, although that is not always true either. It is also not unusual for themes such as infidelity and rape to occur in josei manga targeted specifically more towards mature audiences. Some other famously popular josei series include Yun Kouga 's Loveless , Ai Yazawa 's Pa



Shōjo manga

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A simple four-panel manga from the November 1910 issue of Shōjo (artist unknown) A page from Katsuji Matsumoto 's groundbreaking 1934 shōjo manga, The Mysterious Clover Shōjo , shojo , or shoujo manga ( 少女漫画 shōjo manga) is manga aimed at a teenage female readership. The name romanizes the Japanese 少女 ( shōjo ), literally "young woman". Shōjo manga covers many subjects in a variety of narrative styles, from historical drama to science fiction , often with a focus on romantic relationships or emotions. Strictly speaking, however, shōjo manga does not comprise a style or genre, but rather indicates a target demographic . History Japanese magazines specifically for girls, known as shōjo magazines, first appeared in 1903 with the founding of Shōjo kai ( 少女界 , Girls' World) and continued with others such as Shōjo Sekai ( 少女世界 , Girls' World) (1906) and the long-running Shōjo no tomo ( 少女の友 , Girls' Friend) (1908). The roots of the wide-eyed look commonly associated with shōjo manga dates back to early shōjo magaz



Eroge

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An eroge ( エロゲ or エロゲー erogē, pronounced  ; a portmanteau of erotic game: ( エロ チック ゲー ム ero chikku gē mu) ) is a Japanese pornographic video game . History Japanese eroge, also known as H-Light novels or hentai games, have their origins in the early 1980s, when Japanese companies introduced their own brands of microcomputer to compete with those of the United States. Competing systems included the Sharp X1 , Fujitsu FM-7 , MSX , and NEC PC-8801 . NEC was behind its competitors in terms of hardware (with only 16 colors and no sound support) and needed a way to regain control of the market. Thus came the erotic game. The first commercial erotic computer game, Night Life , was released by Koei in 1982. It was an early graphic adventure , with sexually explicit images. That same year, Koei released another erotic title, Danchi Tsuma no Yuwaku (Seduction of the Condominium Wife), which was an early role-playing adventure game with colour graphics, owing to the eight-color palette of the NEC PC-8001 computer.



Anime music video

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An anime music video ( AMV ) typically is a fan-made music video consisting of clips from one or more Japanese animated shows or movies set to an audio track, often songs or promotional trailer audio. The term is generally specific to Japanese anime, however, it can occasionally include American animation footage or video game footage. AMVs are not official music videos released by the musicians, they are fan compositions which synchronize edited video clips with an audio track. AMVs are most commonly posted and distributed over the Internet through AnimeMusicVideos.org or YouTube . Anime conventions frequently run AMV contests who usually show the finalists/winner's AMVs. AMVs should not be confused with music videos that employ original, professionally made animation (such as numerous music videos for songs by Iron Maiden ), or with such short music video films (such as Japanese duo Chage and Aska 's song " On Your Mark " that was produced by the film company Studio Ghibli ). AMVs should also not be confuse



Fansub

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A fansub (short for fan-subtitled ) is a version of a foreign film or foreign television program which has been translated by fans (as opposed to an officially licensed translation done by professionals ) and subtitled into a language other than that of the original. Process The practice of making fansubs is called fansubbing and is done by a fansubber. Fansubbers typically form groups and divide the work up. The first distribution media of fansubbed material was VHS and Betamax tapes. Early fansubs were produced using analog video editing equipment. First, a copy of the original source material or raw was obtained, most commonly from a commercial laserdisc . VHS tapes or even a homemade recording could be used as well, though that would entail a lower quality finished product. The dialogue was then translated into a script, that was then timed to match the dialogue, and typeset for appearance. The two most popular programs used in this process were JACOsub for the Commodore Amiga and Substation Alpha for MS



Omake

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Omake ( 御負け , usually written おまけ) means extra in Japanese . Its primary meaning is general and widespread. It is used as an anime and manga fandom term to mean "extra or bonus". In the USA, the term is most often used in a narrow sense by anime fans to describe special features on DVD releases: deleted scenes , interviews with the actors , "the making of" documentary clips, outtakes , amusing bloopers , and so forth. However, this use of the term actually predates the DVD medium by several years. For at least the past 50 years in Japan , omake of small character figurines and toys have been giveaways that come with soft drinks and candy and sometimes the omake is more desired than the product being sold. In English, the term is often used with this meaning, although it generally only applies to features included with anime , tokusatsu , and occasionally manga . It is thus generally limited to use amongst fans of Japanese pop culture (sometimes called otaku ); like many loan words from Japanese, omake is bot



List of manga artists

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This is a list of notable manga artists . Romanized names are written in Western order (given names before family names), whereas kanji names are written in Japanese order (family names before given names). Many of them are pen names . Individuals A Yoshitoshi ABe ( 安倍 吉俊 ) Chako Abeno ( 阿倍野ちゃこ ) Mitsuru Adachi ( あだち 充 ) (Creator of Touch , H2 and Cross Game ) Tsutomu Adachi ( あだち 勉 ) Tadashi Agi ( 亜樹 直 ) Wanyan Aguda ( 完顏阿骨打 ) Yu Aida ( 相田 裕 ) Koji Aihara ( 相原 コージ ) Miki Aihara ( 相原 実貴 ) Mizuho Aimoto ( 愛本 みずほ ) Haruka Aizawa ( あいざわ 遥 ) Michiyo Akaishi ( 赤石 路代 ) Ken Akamatsu ( 赤松 健 ) (Creator of A.I. Love You and Love Hina ) Fujio Akatsuka ( 赤塚 不二夫 ) Katsu Aki ( 克・亜樹 ) Nami Akimoto ( 秋元 奈美 ) Osamu Akimoto ( 秋本 治 ) Matsuri Akino ( 秋乃 茉莉 ) Amano Akira ( 天野 明 ) George Akiyama ( ジョージ 秋山 ) Tamayo Akiyama ( 秋山 たまよ ) Risu Akizuki ( 秋月 りす ) Akira Amano ( 天野 明 ) (Creator of Reborn! ) Kozue Amano ( 天野 こずえ ) Shiro Amano ( 天野 シロ ) Yōichi Amano ( 天野 洋一 ) Yoshitaka Amano ( 天野 喜孝 ) Yuki Amemiya ( 雨宮 由樹 ) Mogura Anagura ( あ



Shotacon

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Shotacon ( ショタコン shotakon) , short for Shōtarō complex ( 正太郎コンプレックス shōtarō konpurekkusu) , is Japanese slang describing an attraction to young boys and is shota in manga. It refers to a genre of manga and anime wherein pre-pubescent or pubescent male characters are depicted in a suggestive or erotic manner, whether in the obvious role of object of attraction, or the less apparent role of "subject" (the character the reader is designed to associate with), as in a story where the young male character is paired with a male, usually in a homoerotic manner, or with a female, in which the general community would call straight shota. It can also apply to postpubescent (adolescent or adult) characters with youthful neotenic features that would make them appear to be younger than they are. The phrase is a reference to the young male character Shōtarō ( 正太郎 ) from Tetsujin 28-go (reworked in English as Gigantor ). The equivalent term for attraction to (or art pertaining to erotic portrayal of) young girls is lolicon



List of Nihonga painters

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This is an alphabetical list of painters who are known for painting in the Nihonga style. It has to be noted that some artists also painted in the western Yōga style, and that the division between the two groups could be blurred at points. Artists are listed by the native order of Japanese names , family name followed by given name, to ensure consistency even though some artists may be known outside Japan by their western-ordered name. The list is broken down into the period during which the artist was first active: Meiji , Taishō , Shōwa and Heisei era . Meiji era (1868-1912) Hishida Shunsō 菱田春草 1874-1911 Kawai Gyokudō 川合玉堂 1873-1957 Maeda Seison 前田青邨 1885-1977 Shimomura Kanzan 下村観山 1873-1930 Takeuchi Seihō 竹内栖鳳 1864-1942 Tomioka Tessai 富岡鉄斎 1837-1924 Uemura Shōen 上村松園 1875-1949 Yasuda Yukihiko 安田靫彦 1884-1978 Yokoyama Taikan 横山大観 1868-1958 Taishō era (1912-1926) Hayami Gyoshū 速水御舟 1894-1935 Itō Shinsui 伊東深水 1898-1972 Kaburaki Kiyokata 鏑木清方 1878-1972 Kawabata Ryūshi 川端龍子 1885-1966 Murakami Kagaku 村上華岳 1888-19



Anime club

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An anime club is an organization that meets to discuss, show, and promote anime in a local community setting and can also focus on broadening Japanese cultural understanding. Anime clubs are increasingly found at universities and high schools. Organizers may also use public meeting spaces such as a library or a government center. Many anime club attendees identify themselves as otaku . Although the core of anime club attendees are in their twenties, there are generally no age requirements. Adults in their fifties and sixties and teenagers also attend. Activities Anime club meetings can occur on a weekly or monthly basis. In addition to viewing anime, clubs engage in other activities such as viewing anime music videos , reading manga , karaoke and cosplaying . Many clubs host online forums to further foster community interaction, and feature a library to lend books and manga to members. Participants of an anime club often are also involved in volunteering and organization of local anime conventions . Depen



Hentai

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Hentai illustration The word "hentai" written in kanji Hentai ( 変態 or へんたい )   listen   English: (lit. "pervert") is a word of Japanese origin which is short for ( 変態性欲 , hentai seiyoku) ; a perverse sexual desire . The original meaning of Hentai in the Japanese language is a transformation or a metamorphosis . The implication of perversion or paraphilia was derived from there. Both meanings can be distinguished in context easily. In Japanese, the term describes any type of perverse or bizarre sexual desire or act; it does not represent a genre of work. Internationally, hentai is a catch-all term to describe a genre of anime and manga pornography . English adopts and uses hentai as a genre of pornography by the commercial sale and marketing of explicit works under this label. The word's narrow Japanese-language usage and broad international usage are often incompatible. Weather Report Girl is considered yuri hentai in English usage for its depiction of lesbian sex, but in Japan it is just yuri. The definition




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