Yasuji Kitazawa (北澤 保次, 20 July 1876 – 25 August 1955), better known by the pen name Rakuten Kitazawa (北澤 楽天 Kitazawa Rakuten), was a Japanese manga artist and nihonga artist. He drew many editorial cartoons and comic strips during the years from the late Meiji era through the early Showa era. He is considered by many historians to be the founding father of modern manga because his work was an inspiration to many younger manga artists and animators.
He was the first professional cartoonist in Japan, and the first to use the term "manga" in its modern sense.
Rakuten was born in 1876 in the Kita Adachi district of Ōmiya in Saitama Prefecture. He studied western-style painting under Ōno Yukihiko and Nihonga under Inoue Shunzui. He joined the English-language magazine Box of Curios in 1895, and started drawing cartoons under Frank Arthur Nankivell, an Australian artist who later emigrated to America and became a popular cartoonist for Puck magazine.
In 1899, Rakuten moved to Jiji Shimpo, a daily newspaper founded by Yukichi Fukuzawa. From January 1902, he contributed to Jiji Manga, a comics page that appeared in the Sunday edition. His comics for this page were inspired by American comic strips such as Katzenjammer Kids, Yellow Kid, and the work of Frederick Burr Opper.
In 1905, Rakuten started a full-color satirical magazine called Tokyo Puck, named after the American magazine. It was translated into English and Chinese and sold in not only Japan but also in the Korean peninsula, Mainland China, and Taiwan. He worked for this magazine until 1915 (with the exception of a short period around 1912, during which he published a magazine of his own called Rakuten Puck), and then returned to Jiji Shimpo, where he remained until his retirement in 1932.
In 1929, Rakuten held a private exhibition in Paris on the recommendation of the French ambassador, and was awarded the Legion d'honneur. During World War II, he was the chairman of the Nihon Manga Hōkō Kai, a cartoonists society organized by the government to support the war effort.
Both before and after his retirement, Rakuten trained many young manga artists and animators, including Hekoten Shimokawa, creator of Japan's first cartoon animation. Along with Ippei Okamoto, he was one of the favorite cartoonists of the young Osamu Tezuka.
Yasuji Kitazawa ( 北澤 保次 , 20 July 1876 – 25 August 1955) , better known by the pen name Rakuten Kitazawa ( 北澤 楽天 Kitazawa Rakuten) , was a Japanese manga artist and nihonga artist. He drew many editorial cartoons and comic strips during the years from the late Meiji era through the early Showa era . He is considered by many historians to be the founding father of modern manga because his work was an inspiration to many younger manga artists and animators. He was the first professional cartoonist in Japan, and the first to use the term "manga" in its modern sense. Biography Rakuten was born in 1876 in the Kita Adachi district of Ōmiya in Saitama Prefecture . He studied western-style painting under Ōno Yukihiko and Nihonga under Inoue Shunzui. He joined the English-language magazine Box of Curios in 1895, and started drawing cartoons under Frank Arthur Nankivell , an Australian artist who later emigrated to America and became a popular cartoonist for Puck magazine . In 1899, Rakuten moved to Jiji Shimpo, a dail
Kitazawa is a Japanese surname. Notable people with the surname include: Ayaka Kitazawa , a Japanese pop singer Tsuyoshi Kitazawa Yuki Kitazawa Yō Kitazawa Rakuten Kitazawa Toshimi Kitazawa Yoshihiro Kitazawa See also Higashi-Kitazawa Station Kami-Kitazawa Station Kitazawa is a Japanese surname. Notable people with the surname include: Ayaka Kitazawa , a Japanese pop singer Tsuyoshi Kitazawa Yuki Kitazawa Yō Kitazawa Rakuten Kitazawa Toshimi Kitazawa Yoshihiro Kitazawa See also Higashi-Kitazawa Station Kami-Kitazawa Station
Yonkoma manga ( 4コマ漫画 , "four cell manga ", or 4-koma for short) , a comic-strip format, generally consists of gag comic strips within four panels of equal size ordered from top to bottom. (They also sometimes run right-to-left horizontally or use a hybrid 2x2 style, depending on the layout requirements of the publication in which they appear.) Though the word yonkoma comes from the Japanese , the style also exists outside Japan in other Asian countries as well as in the English-speaking market (particularly in mid-20th century United States strips, where Peanuts popularized the format; most strips there, including the last several years of Peanuts, have since moved to a three-panel format). Origin Rakuten Kitazawa (who wrote under the name Yasuji Kitazawa) produced the first yonkoma in 1902. Entitled " Jiji Manga ", it was thought to have been influenced by the works of Frank Arthur Nankivell and of Frederick Burr Opper . Jiji Manga appeared in the Sunday edition. Structure Traditionally, Yonkoma follow a s
Artwork of Frank Nankivell, from Puck Magazine Frank Arthur Nankivell (1869–1959) was an Australian artist and political cartoonist. Nankivell was born to John and Annie Nankivell in Maldon , northwest of Castlemaine , Victoria in April, 1869. He was a book illustrator in New York circles of the 1910s and 1920s on such publications as Puck , which was America's first successful humor magazine . Nankivell studied art at Wesley College , Melbourne . He later travelled to Japan and earned a living as a cartoonist in Tokyo where he made the acquaintance of Rakuten Kitazawa , who later became father of the Japanese comic art now known as manga . Nankivell left Japan in 1894 to study art in San Francisco . He left for New York in 1896 where he worked on magazines as a popular and influential cartoonist devoting his work mainly to social subjects and to state and federal political issues. Nankivell remained in New York until 1913. Nankivell later became a member of the New York Circumnavigators Club, which was open
1943 cover Osaka Puck ( Japanese : 大阪パック Hepburn : Osaka Pakku) was a bimonthly Japanese manga magazine published in Osaka from November 1906 to March 1950. Its publisher when it first launched was Kibunkan, located in the Funeba area in central Osaka, which later changed its name to the Osaka Puck Company. When it ceased publication, it was published by the Osaka Shimbun Company. Overview Osaka Puck was launched in 1906, with the Western-style artist Akamatsu Rinsaku playing a central role. Its format placed it in opposition to the satirical comics magazine Tokyo Puck, which launched in Tokyo in 1905 under editor-in-chief Kitazawa Rakuten . In its early years, it grew its circulation by perfecting sales through station vendors. It continued regular publication as a "wholesome manga magazine" even while other satirical comics magazines shut down one after the other due to excessive competition and the intensification of the Pacific War . It changed its name to Manga Japan in 1943 in accordance with a prohibit
This is a list of notable hentai anime. Hentai is anime and manga that contains pornographic content. #0-9 1+2=Paradise A Adventure Kid Akiba Girls Aki Sora Alien from the Darkness Angel Angel Blade Angels in the Court Angel of Darkness Another Lady Innocent B Beat Angel Escalayer Behind Closed Doors Bible Black series Blood Royale Boku no Pico (Yaoi) Bondage Fairies Bondage Mansion Barabanba C Campus Call Me Tonight Cream Lemon Crimson Climax Cool Devices D Daiakuji Demon Beast Invasion Dark Shell Doctor Shameless Dragon Knight series Dragon Pink Discipline series E Elven Bride F F³ (Frantic, Frustrated, Female) Fencer of Minerva Fish in the Trap G G-Taste Girl Next Door Green Green: Erolutions H Harukoi Otome Hatsuinu Hininden Gausu Hot Tails I I Dream of Mimi Immoral Sisters series Imouto Paradise! Isaku J Jiburiru - The Devil Angel K Kama Sutra (inspired by the book, the Kama Sutra ) Kanojo x Kanojo x Kanojo Kite Unchained L La Blue Girl series Legend of Lyon Flare Level C ( Yaoi ) Lolita Anime Lolita Ani
These lists of anime serve to provide an organized and methodological approach for finding relevant content about anime topics. Dates Pre-1939 —A single page containing a descending list of releases from before 1939 Table of years in anime —A table form for individual years in anime Genres These lists are not all inclusive, each list contains works that are representative of the genre. List of action anime List of adventure anime List of sport anime List of comedy anime List of drama anime List of fantasy anime List of horror anime List of mecha anime List of mystery anime List of romance anime List of science fiction anime List of slice of life anime Lists of companies List of anime companies List of Japanese animation studios Anime aired by company Anime aired on Fuji Television Anime aired on Nippon Television Anime aired on Mainichi Broadcasting System Anime aired on Tokyo Broadcasting System Anime broadcast by Hero Anime broadcast by NHK (Japan Broadcasting Corporation) Other List of anime based on video
Boys' Love (BL) games (also known as yaoi games ) usually refers to visual novels or H games oriented around male homosexual couples for the female market. The defining factor is that both the playable character(s) and possible objects of affection are male. As with yaoi manga , the major market is assumed to be female. Games aimed at a homosexual male audience may be referred to as bara . A 2006 breakdown of the Japanese commercial BL market estimated it grosses approximately 12 billion yen annually, with video games generating 160 million yen per month. Only a very few BL games have been officially translated into English. In 2006, JAST USA announced they would be releasing Enzai as Enzai: Falsely Accused , the first license of a BL game in English translation. Some fan communities have criticized the choice of such a dark and unromantic game as the US market's first exposure to the genre. JAST USA subsequently licensed Zettai Fukujuu Meirei under the title Absolute Obedience, while Hirameki International
Dōjin ( 同人 dōjin) , often romanized as doujin , is a general Japanese term for a group of people or friends who share an interest, activity, hobbies, or achievement. The word is sometimes translated into English as clique , fandom , coterie, society, or circle (e.g., a "sewing circle"). In Japan, the term is used to refer to amateur self-published works, including manga , novels , fan guides, art collections, music , anime and video games . Some professional artists participate as a way to publish material outside the regular publishing industry. Annual research by the research agency Media Create indicated that of the $ 1.65 billion of the Otaku industry in 2007, doujin sales made up 48% ( $ 792 million). Literary societies Literary circles first appeared in the Meiji period when groups of like-minded waka writers , poets and novelists met and published literary magazines (many of which are still publishing today). Many modern writers in Japan came from these literary circles. One famous example is Ozaki Koy
Tsundere ( ツンデレ , pronounced ) is a Japanese term for a character development process that describes a person who is initially cold and even hostile towards another person before gradually showing a warmer side over time. The word is derived from the terms tsun tsun ( ツンツン ) , meaning to turn away in disgust, and dere dere ( デレデレ ) meaning to become 'lovey dovey'. Originally found in Japanese bishōjo games , the word is now part of the otaku moe phenomenon, reaching into other media such as maid cafés , anime , manga , novels, and even mass media . The term was made popular in the visual novel Kimi ga Nozomu Eien . Terminology Manga author Ken Akamatsu lists tsundere as one of the special cases in his definition of moe : "The person feeling it must be stronger: The object of 'moe' is weak and dependent (like a child) on the person, or is in a situation where she cannot oppose (like a maid)... (*Tsundere only: There will be times where the stronger and weaker role is reversed)." The concept has received i
Shinichirō Watanabe ( 渡辺 信一郎 Watanabe Shin'ichirō, born May 24, 1965 in Kyoto ) is a Japanese anime filmmaker , screenwriter , and producer. He is best known for directing the critically acclaimed and commercially successful anime series Cowboy Bebop and Samurai Champloo . Watanabe is known for incorporating multiple genres into his anime creations. In Cowboy Bebop, for example, Watanabe blends classic cowboy western with 1960s/1970s New York City film noir , jazz / blues music, Hong Kong action movies , and sets the entire series in space . In his later work, Samurai Champloo, Watanabe unites the cultures of Okinawa , hip hop , modern-day Japan , and chanbara . Career The main cast of Cowboy Bebop from left to right: Jet Black, Spike Spiegel, Faye Valentine, Edward, and Ein. Born in Kyoto , Watanabe, after joining the Japanese animation studio Sunrise , supervised the episode direction and storyboards of numerous Sunrise anime, and soon made his directorial debut as co-director of the well-received Macross u
Moe ( 萌え , pronounced ) is a Japanese slang loanword that refers to feelings of strong affection mainly towards characters in anime, manga, and video games. Moe, however, has also gained usage to refer to feelings of affection towards any subject. Moe can be related to lust; however, pure lust without other feelings is considered outside its scope. The word Moe originated in the late 1980s and early 1990s in Japan and is of uncertain origin, although there are several theories on how it came into use. Moe characters have expanded through Japanese media, and have contributed positively to the Japanese economy. Contests both online, and in the real world exist for Moe-type things including one run by one of the Japanese game rating boards . Various notable commentators such as Tamaki Saitō, Hiroki Azuma, and Kazuya Tsurumaki have also given their take on Moe, and its meaning. Overview Moe used in slang refers to feelings of affection, adoration, devotion, and excitement felt towards characters that appear in ma
Shōnen , shonen , or shounen manga ( 少年漫画 shōnen manga) is manga aimed at a young male audience. The age group varies with individual readers and different magazines, but it is primarily intended for boys between the ages of 8 to 18. The kanji characters ( 少年 ) literally mean "boy" (or "youth"), and the characters ( 漫画 ) mean "cartoon" or "comic". Thus, the complete phrase means "young person's comic", or simply "boys' comic"; its female equivalent is shōjo manga . Shōnen manga is the most popular form of manga. Summary Shōnen manga is typically characterized by high-action, often humorous plots featuring male protagonists. The camaraderie between boys or men on sports teams, fighting squads and the like is often emphasized. Main characters may also feature an ongoing desire to better themselves. Such manga often portray challenges to the protagonist's abilities, skills, and maturity, stressing self-perfection, austere self-discipline, sacrifice in the cause of duty, and honorable service to society, commun
The Akihabara neighborhood of Tokyo, a popular gathering site for otaku Otaku ( おたく/オタク ) is a Japanese term for people with obsessive interests, commonly the anime and manga fandom . Its contemporary usage originated with Akio Nakamori 's 1983 essay in Manga Burikko . Otaku may be used as a pejorative; its negativity stems from the stereotypical view of otaku and the media's reporting on Tsutomu Miyazaki , "The Otaku Murderer", in 1989. According to studies published in 2013, the term has become less negative, and an increasing number of people now self-identify as otaku. Otaku subculture is a central theme of various anime and manga works, documentaries and academic research. The subculture began in the 1980s as changing social mentalities and the nurturing of otaku traits by Japanese schools combined with the resignation of such individuals to become social outcasts. The subculture's birth coincided with the anime boom, after the release of works such as Mobile Suit Gundam before it branched into Comic M
Also known as anime-based games , this is a list of computer and video games that are based on manga or anime properties. # 7 Blades A Aah! Harimanada ( Game Boy , Game Gear , Mega Drive ) Accel World: Ginyoku no Kakusei ( PlayStation 3 , PlayStation Portable , 2012) Accel World: Kasoku no Chōten ( PlayStation 3 , PlayStation Portable , 2013) Ace wo Nerae! (Super Famicom, Telenet Japan, December 24, 1993, ¥9400, Tennis) Ah! My Goddess! (PC-FX, NEC, December 29, 1993, ¥8000, Adventure) Quiz Ah! My Goddess!: Tatakau Tsubasa to Tomo ni (Arcade, Sega/Wow Entertainment Inc./Kodansha, May 2000, Adventure/Quiz) Quiz Ah! My Goddess!: Tatakau Tsbasa to Tomo ni (Dreamcast, Sega/Wow Entertainment Inc./Kodansha, November 20, 2000, ¥5800/¥8800, Adventure) Akazukin Chacha (Game Boy, Tomy, 1995) Akazukin ChaCha (Super Famicom, Tomy, 1996, Role-playing) Akazukin ChaCha: Osawagase! Panic Race! (PC-FX, NEC, October 25, 1996, ¥7800, Board) Akira (Famito, ¥6800, Role-playing) Akira (CD-32, AMI, Famicom) Akira Psycho Ball (PlaySt
A light novel bookstore in Macau A light novel ( ライトノベル raito noberu) is a style of Japanese novel primarily, but not exclusively, targeting high-school and middle-school students ( young adult demographic ). "Light novel" is a wasei-eigo , or a Japanese term formed from words in the English language . Light novels are often called ranobe ( ラノベ ) or LN in the West. The average length of a light novel is about 50,000 words, the equivalent size of an American novel, and light novels are usually published in bunkobon size ( A6 , 10.5 cm × 14.8 cm), often with dense publishing schedules. One of the most remarkable characteristics of a light novel is that they are illustrated with anime and manga art style, often being adapted into such mediums. They are mainly published in separate book volumes, while some of them have their chapters serialized in anthology magazines before collection in book form, comparable to how manga are published. Details Light novels are an evolution of pulp magazines . To please their
Yaoi fandom refers to readers of yaoi (also called Boys' Love or BL), a genre of male-male romance narratives aimed at those who participate in communal activities organized around yaoi, such as attending conventions, maintaining or posting to fansites , creating fanfiction or fanart , etc. In the mid-1990s, estimates of the size of the Japanese yaoi fandom were at 100,000-500,000 people, but in 2008, despite increased knowledge of the genre among the general public, readership remains limited. English-language fan translations of From Eroica with Love circulated through the slash fiction community in the 1980s, forging a link between slash fiction fandom and Yaoi fandom. Most yaoi fans are teenage girls or young women. In Japan, female fans are called fujoshi, a pun which denotes their way of seeing homosexual relationships in media as being "rotten". The male equivalent is called a fudanshi. Both male and female fans are stated as being hetero- or bisexual; actual gay men fans are more likely to prefer Bara
" Wikipe-tan " drawn in a super deformed style Super deformed , or SD , is a specific style of Japanese caricature where characters are drawn in an exaggerated way, typically small and chubby, with stubby limbs and oversized heads, to make them resemble small children. This style forms an integral part of what anime fans refer to as chibi . Japanese media The super deformed style is part of Japanese culture and is seen everywhere from advertising and subway signs to anime and manga . The style was popularized by franchises like Dragon Ball and SD Gundam in the 1980s. It is often also used on anime and manga in brief interjections to show an extreme or exaggerated emotion , such as annoyance or surprise, that would be difficult to portray or would seem out of character if expressed on a more realistic face. They are meant to be cute and are often used in humorous diversions from the storyline . American media The super deformed art style has appeared in anime-influenced American series, such as Teen Titans or
Dōjin soft ( 同人ソフト ) , also sometimes called dōjin games ( 同人ゲーム ) , with dōjin sometimes transliterated as doujin or doujinshi, are video games created by Japanese hobbyists or hobbyist groups (referred to as " circles "), more for fun than for profit; essentially, the Japanese equivalent of independent video games or Fangames . Most of them are based on pre-existing material (" modding "), but some are entirely original creations. They are almost always exclusive to Windows -based PCs , but a few notable exceptions also exist for the Dreamcast , a console on which homebrew development was popular. Dōjin soft are typically available in "demo" or "trial" (体験版 taikenban) form for free on the internet, with full versions available for purchase. One game, French-Bread 's brawler Ragnarok Battle Offline , a homage / spoof of the MMORPG Ragnarok Online so impressed Gravity Corp. (the original game's designers) that it has been given an official release outside Japan. Like fangames , dōjin soft frequently use chara
The following is a list of space opera media . Space opera is a subgenre of science fiction that David G. Hartwell and Kathryn Cramer define as "colorful, dramatic, large-scale science fiction adventure, competently and sometimes beautifully written, usually focused on a sympathetic, heroic central character and plot action, and usually set in the relatively distant future, and in space or on other worlds, characteristically optimistic in tone. It often deals with war, piracy, military virtues, and very large-scale action, large stakes." The following are works that independent commentators have characterized as space opera, ordered chronologically by date of first publication. Print These are works of print media . Novels and series The Skylark series (1928–1965) and the Lensman series (1934–1948) by E. E. "Doc" Smith Arcot, Wade and Morey (1930–32) by John W. Campbell The Foundation series (1942–1999) by Isaac Asimov Alliance-Union universe (1976–present) and Foreigner universe (1994–present) by C. J. Cherr
Kazuki Takahashi ( 高橋 和希 Takahashi Kazuki, also 高橋 一雅, born October 4, 1961) is a Japanese manga artist and game creator, best known for creating Yu-Gi-Oh! . Career Takahashi started as a manga artist in 1982. His first work was Tokiō no Tsuma (闘輝王の鷹), published in 1990. One of his earliest works, Tennenshoku Danji Buray (天然色男児BURAY), was published from 1991 to 1992 and lasted two volumes. Takahashi did not find success until 1996, when he created Yu-Gi-Oh! Takahashi's Yu-Gi-Oh! manga led to the creation of the Yu-Gi-Oh! Trading Card Game published by Konami . Originally intended as a one-shot in the manga's episodic introduction of new games, the game was named "Magic and Wizards" as a reference to the card game Magic: The Gathering and its publishing company Wizards of the Coast (the card game's name was changed to "Duel Monsters" in the anime adaptations). However, Shueisha , the publisher of the Weekly Shōnen Jump magazine, received so many letters and fan-mail asking about "Magic and Wizards" that Takaha
Akira Amano ( 天野明 Amano Akira, born 1973) is a female Japanese manga artist known for the shōnen manga series Reborn! . Early versions of Reborn! were published in seinen manga magazines. In late 2003, the series, a stand-alone short story at the time, was published in the Weekly Shōnen Jump . After the success of the short story, the series began serialization in the magazine in mid-2004. Since then, the manga has been adapted into an anime, as well as five light novels and several video games. On Nikkei Entertainment's list of most successful manga artists she ranked 12th. Works Shōnen Spin Neppuu Yakyuu Densetsu Picchan Petit Petit Rabbit ( ぷちぷちラビィ Puchi Puchi Rabii) was a two volume manga published in Bessatsu Young Magazine and Young Magazine by Kodansha in 2000. Monkey Business Bakuhatsu HAWK!! Reborn! is a completed manga that was published in the Weekly Shōnen Jump from 4 April 2004 to 4 November 2012. It has an anime adaption and was being published in an English translation by Viz Media until it w
Hajime Katoki ( カトキ ハジメ Katoki Hajime, born 1963) is a Japanese mecha designer. A member of the studio Sunrise , he worked on the Gundam series as well as his work on video games , such as the Virtual On series and Policenauts . Biography Born in 1963, Katoki created designs for the graphic novel Gundam Sentinel . He then worked in the OVA series Gundam 0083 , where he designed the majority of the mobile suits in the series, including the RX-78GP03 Gundam Dendrobium Stamen and Orchis mobile weapons. His next prominent work was V Gundam , where he was the main mechanical designer, creating the main mobile suits Victory Gundam, V2 Gundam and the V2 Assault Buster Gundam. After that, he worked on G Gundam , now in design of the antagonist mobile suits. His next work was on Gundam Wing , where most of the enemy mobile suits, including the popular Tallgeese, were designed by him. He also created the mobile suits designs for Gundam Wing: Endless Waltz , and re-designed the Gundams with a more fantastic style, creat
Image of bathers from the Hokusai manga. The history of manga is said to originate from scrolls dating back to the 12th century; however, whether these scrolls are actually manga is still disputed, though it's believed they represent the basis for the right-to-left reading style. Other authors report origins closer to the 18th century. Manga is a Japanese term that can be translated as "comic"; Historians and writers on manga history have described two broad and complementary processes shaping modern manga. Their views differ in the relative importance they attribute to the role of cultural and historical events following World War II versus the role of pre-war, Meiji , and pre-Meiji Japanese culture and art. One view emphasizes events occurring during and after the Allied occupation of Japan (1945–1952), and stresses that manga was strongly shaped by United States cultural influences, including US comics brought to Japan by the GIs and by images and themes from US television, film, and cartoons (especially D
A page from the Marmalade Boy manga, volume 1 (Japanese version) Japanese manga has developed its own visual language or iconography for expressing emotion and other internal character states. This drawing style has also migrated into anime , as many manga stories are adapted into television shows and films. While this article addresses styles from both types of output, the emphasis here is on the manga origins for these styles. The popular and recognizable style of manga is very distinctive. Emphasis is often placed on line over form, and the storytelling and panel placement differ from those in American comics. Impressionistic backgrounds are very common, as are sequences in which the panel shows details of the setting rather than the characters. Panels and pages are typically read from right to left, consistent with traditional Japanese writing . Because manga is a diverse art form, however, not all manga artists adhere to the conventions most popularized in the West through series such as Akira , Sailor M
Comics is a medium used to express ideas by images, often combined with text or other visual information. Comics frequently takes the form of juxtaposed sequences of panels of images. Often textual devices such as speech balloons , captions, and onomatopoeia indicate dialogue, narration, sound effects, or other information. Size and arrangement of panels contribute to narrative pacing. Cartooning and similar forms of illustration are the most common image-making means in comics; fumetti is a form which uses photographic images. Common forms of comics include comic strips , editorial and gag cartoons , and comic books . Since the late 20th century, bound volumes such as graphic novels , comic albums , and tankōbon have become increasingly common, and online webcomics have proliferated in the 21st century. The history of comics has followed different paths in different cultures. Scholars have posited a pre-history as far back as the Lascaux cave paintings . By the mid-20th century, comics flourished particularl
Kunihiko Ikuhara ( 幾原 邦彦 Ikuhara Kunihiko, born December 21, 1964) , also known as Ikuni , is a Japanese creative artist who has collaborated on several famous anime and manga series. He is best known for creating and directing Revolutionary Girl Utena , Mawaru Penguindrum and, more recently, Yurikuma Arashi . Life Ikuhara was born on December 21, 1964 in Osaka Prefecture . He studied graphic design at the Komatsu City College , and joined Toei Animation in Tokyo after graduating. He served as assistant director to Junichi Sato on Maple Town Monogatari , Akuma-kun , Toushou!! Ramen-man and Mōretsu Atarō , and episode director on Kingyo Chuuihou! and Sailor Moon . Sailor Moon Ikuhara's most famous work with Toei was on the anime version of Sailor Moon. He served as director of many episodes over the course of the series' run, and took over the position of series director from Junichi Sato during the second season, Sailor Moon R. Additionally, Ikuhara served as the director of the first Sailor Moon theatrical m
Seinen manga ( 青年漫画 ) are manga marketed toward adolescent boys and men old enough to read kanji . In Japanese, the word " seinen " literally means "youth," but the term "seinen manga" is also used to describe the target audience of comics like Weekly Manga Times and Weekly Manga Goraku which are aimed at men from their 20s to their 50s. Seinen manga are distinguished from shōnen manga which are for younger boys, as well as the seijin-muke manga ( 成人向け漫画 ) which focus on sex, although some seinen manga like xxxHolic share some similarities with "shōnen" manga. Seinen manga can focus on action, politics, science fiction, fantasy, relationships, sports, or comedy and while they may contain sexual content (as well as other mature material), it remains predominantly more infrequent than in the seijin-muke manga. The female equivalent to seinen manga is josei manga . Seinen manga have a wide variety of art styles and variation in subject matter. Examples of seinen series include: 20th Century Boys , Akira , Tokyo
This is a list of Japanese erotic video games , also known in Japan as eroge . This list does not include fan created parodies. The market in Japan for this type of game is quite large, and only a small number of the games gain any level of recognition beyond the fans of the genre. # 3D Custom Girl A Artificial Academy Artificial Academy 2 Air Akaneiro ni Somaru Saka Akane Maniax Amorous Professor Cherry Angel Type Aries Aries Pure Dream Artificial Girl Artificial Girl 2 Artificial Girl 3 Atlach=Nacha by Alicesoft B The Baldrhead series Battle Raper series Battle Raper Battle Raper 2 Bazooka Cafe Beat Angel Escalayer Bible Black Biko 1 Biko 2: Reversible Face Biko 3 Binary Pot Binetsu Kyoushi Cherry Bittersweet Fools Boin Brave Soul Brutish Mine Bunny Black (broken link?) C Canvas2 Castle Fantasia 2 - Seima Taisen Castle Fantasia 3 - Erencia Wars Cat Girl Alliance Chain ~ The Lost Footprints Clover Heart's Come See Me Tonight Comic Party Cosplay Fetish Academy Crescendo Cross Channel Cross Days " Custom Maid
This article lists publishers of manga in various markets worldwide. Australian AlphaManga Comic Hellfun Publishing Chinese Traditional Chinese Daran Comics (or Daran Culture Enterprise ) (defunct) (Taiwan) Kadokawa Comics Taiwan (Taiwan) Tong Li Comics (Taiwan) Ever Glory Publishing (Taiwan) Sharp Point Publishing (Taiwan) King Comics Hong Kong (Hong Kong) Culturecom Comics (Hong Kong) Jade Dynasty (Hong Kong) Jonesky (Hong Kong) Kwong's Creations Co Ltd Rightman Publishing Ltd Simplified Chinese Changchun Publishing House (China) ChuangYi Publishing (Singapore) WitiComics (Hong Kong) Danish Alpha Entertainment Carlsen manga Egmont Serieforlaget Mangismo Dutch Glenat Kana Xtra English Active (digital&print) Animate Antarctic Press Bento Books Blast Books BookLOUD Inc. Dark Horse Manga DH Publishing Digital Manga Publishing Drawn and Quarterly Dream manga Eros Comix Fakku Fantagraphics Fallen Manga Studios Gen Manga Entertainment GuiltPleasure HarperCollins Image Comics IDW Publishing Kitty Media Kodansh
This is a list of terms that are specific to anime and manga . Note: Japanese words that are used in general (e.g. oniisan, kawaii and senpai) are not included on this list unless a description with a reference for notability can be provided that shows how they relate. Character traits Ahoge ( アホゲ , lit. "idiot hair") Refers to any noticeable strand of hair which sticks in a different direction from the rest of an anime character’s hair. Bishōjo ( 美少女 , lit. "pretty girl") Refers to any young, attractive woman, but also used to imply sexual availability (as in bishōjo games). Bishōnen ( 美少年 , lit. "beautiful boy", sometimes abbreviated bishie) Japanese aesthetic concept of the ideally beautiful young man: androgynous , effeminate or gender-ambiguous. In Japan, it refers to youth with such characteristics, while in Europe and the Americas, it has become a generic term for attractively androgynous males of all ages. Catgirl ( 猫娘 Nekomusume) A female character with cat ears and a cat tail, but an otherwise huma
Atsushi Ōkubo ( 大久保 篤 Ōkubo Atsushi) , also romanized as Atsushi Ohkubo , is a Japanese manga author and fantasy artist known for his work on the manga series Soul Eater , which has been adapted into an anime . Okubo worked as an assistant under Rando Ayamine , on the manga series GetBackers . He also created artwork for the video game TCG Lord of Vermilion , as well as some character designs in Bravely Default . Atsushi Ōkubo was not a model student and was more attracted to drawing than to learning. At the age of 20, after finishing studies at a manga school where he met Rando Ayamine, the artist of "Get Backers", he became Rando Ayamine's assistant for two years. Finally, he won a competition at Square Enix's Gangan magazine with his first manga series B.Ichi and it was published for four volumes. After the end of his last manga, he created Soul Eater, still for Square Enix's Gangan magazine, which brought him worldwide success. Works B. Ichi ( B壱 ) (2001-2002) - Writer, artist Soul Eater (ソウルイーター – Sōru Ī
The following are Japanese authors and illustrators who are notable for their sexually explicit or pornographic manga and novels, referred to as hentai . Individuals Yū Asagiri − manga artist of Midnight Panther Isutoshi − manga artist of Slut Girl Teruo Kakuta − manga artist of Bondage Fairies Henmaru Machino − manga artist Toshio Maeda − manga artist of La Blue Girl , Urotsukidoji , and Adventure Kid Gengoroh Tagame − manga artist who specializes in gay bondage Benkyo Tamaoki − manga artist U-Jin − manga artist of the Angel series, Sakura Diaries , and Private Psycho Lesson Hiroyuki Utatane − manga artist and director of Cool Devices Toshiki Yui − manga artist of Hot Tails and non-pornographic works Kirara and Kagome Kagome See also List of hentai anime The following are Japanese authors and illustrators who are notable for their sexually explicit or pornographic manga and novels, referred to as hentai . Individuals Yū Asagiri − manga artist of Midnight Panther Isutoshi − manga artist of Slut Girl Teruo Kak
DZ-manga ( Arabic : ديزاد مانغا , ALA-LC : dīzād māngah), sometimes written DZ manga , are comic books originally published in Algeria , either in French , Arabic or Tamazight , that draw inspiration from Japanese manga . Etymology Other name variations on DZ-manga, such as Algerian manga and manga-influenced comics can occasionally be heard as substitute names, but the term "DZ-manga" is the most commonly used. The term "international manga", as used by the Japanese Ministry of Foreign Affairs , encompasses all foreign comics which draw inspiration from the "form of presentation and expression" found in Japanese manga . History Although manga was only recently introduced to Algeria , its current popularity can be traced to the appearance on Algerian airwaves of its televised sister, the anime . In the 1980s, Algeria's lone state-controlled national television network (then RTA, later renamed ENTV and then EPTV ) broadcast youth programs that featured Japanese animated TV series dubbed in French or Arabic .
Manga , or Japanese comics , have appeared in translation in many different languages in different countries. France represents about 50% of the European manga market and in 2011 manga represented 40% of the comics being published in the country. In 2007, 70% of the comics sold in Germany were manga. In the United States , manga comprises a small (but growing) industry , especially when compared to the inroads that Japanese animation has made in the USA. One example of a manga publisher in the United States , VIZ Media , functions as the American affiliate of the Japanese publishers Shogakukan and Shueisha . The UK has fewer manga publishers than the U.S. Flipping Since written Japanese fiction usually flows from right to left, manga artists draw and publish this way in Japan. When first translating various titles into Western languages, publishers reversed the artwork and layouts in a process known as "flipping", so that readers could follow the books from left-to-right. However, various creators (such as A
Anime and manga fandom (otherwise known as fan community ) is a worldwide community of fans of anime and manga . Anime includes animated series , films and videos, while manga includes Manga , graphic novels , drawings, and related artwork. They have their origin in Japanese entertainment, but the style and culture has spread worldwide since its introduction into the West in the 1990s. Otaku Otaku is a Japanese term for people with obsessive interests, including anime, manga, or video games. In its original context, the term otaku is derived from a Japanese term for another's house or family ( お宅 , otaku), which is also used as an honorific second-person pronoun. The modern slang form, which is distinguished from the older usage by being written only in hiragana (おたく) or katakana (オタク or, less frequently, ヲタク), or rarely in rōmaji , appeared in the 1980s. In the anime Macross , first aired in 1982, the term was used by Lynn Minmay as an honorific term. It appears to have been coined by the humorist and essa
Masamune Shirow ( 士郎 正宗 Shirō Masamune, born November 23, 1961) is the pen name of Japanese manga artist Masanori Ota . The pen name is derived from the legendary sword-smith Masamune . Shirow is best known for the manga Ghost in the Shell , which has since been turned into two theatrical anime movies, two anime television series, an anime television movie, an anime OVA series, a theatrical live action movie, and several video games . Shirow is also known for creating erotic art. Career Born in the Hyōgo Prefecture capital city of Kobe , he studied oil painting at Osaka University of Arts . While in college, he developed an interest in manga , which led him to create his own complete work, Black Magic , which was published in the manga dōjinshi Atlas. His work caught the eye of Seishinsha President Harumichi Aoki, who offered to publish him. The result was best-selling manga Appleseed , a full volume of densely plotted drama taking place in an ambiguous future. The story was a sensation, and won the 1986 Sei
" Mangaka " ( 漫画家 ) is the Japanese word for manga artist . Outside Japan , manga usually refers to a Japanese comic book , and mangaka refers to the author of the manga, who is usually Japanese . As of 2006, about 3000 professional mangaka were working in Japan. Most mangaka study at an art college or manga school, or take on an apprenticeship with another artist before entering the industry as a primary creator. More rarely a mangaka breaks into the industry directly, without previously being an assistant. For example, Naoko Takeuchi , author of Sailor Moon , won a contest sponsored by Kodansha , and manga pioneer Osamu Tezuka was first published while studying an unrelated degree, without working as an assistant. A mangaka will rise to prominence through recognition of their ability when they spark the interest of institutions, individuals or a demographic of manga consumers. For example, there are contests which prospective mangaka may enter, sponsored by manga editors and publishers. They are also recogn
Manga ( 漫画 ) are comics created in Japan , or by Japanese creators in the Japanese language , conforming to a style developed in Japan in the late 19th century. The term is also now used for a variety of other works in the style of or influenced by the Japanese comics. The production of manga in many forms remains extremely prolific, so a single list covering all the notable works would not be a useful document. Accordingly, coverage is divided into the many related lists below. Lists of manga titles List of best-selling manga List of manga licensed in English List of manga series by volume count List of Osamu Tezuka manga List of hentai manga List of manga magazines List of Japanese manga magazines by circulation List of manga published by Kadokawa Shoten List of manga published by Akita Shoten List of manga published by ASCII Media Works List of manga published by Hakusensha List of manga published by Kodansha List of manga published by Shogakukan List of manga published by Shueisha Lists of manga volumes
Josei manga ( 女性漫画 , lit. comics for women, pronounced ) are Japanese comics aimed at women in their late teens on into adulthood. Josei manga are distinguished from " shōjo manga " ( 少女漫画 ) for younger girls on the one hand, and "ladies comics" ( レディースコミックス redīsu komikkusu) or "LadyComi" ( レディコミ redikomi) , which tend to have erotic content on the other. Readers can range in age from 15 to 44. In Japanese, the word josei means simply "woman", "female", "feminine", "womanhood", and has no manga-related connotations at all. Josei comics can portray realistic romance, as opposed to the mostly idealized romance of shōjo manga , but it does not always have to be. Josei tends to be both more sexually explicit and contain more mature storytelling, although that is not always true either. It is also not unusual for themes such as infidelity and rape to occur in josei manga targeted specifically more towards mature audiences. Some other famously popular josei series include Yun Kouga 's Loveless , Ai Yazawa 's Pa
A simple four-panel manga from the November 1910 issue of Shōjo (artist unknown) A page from Katsuji Matsumoto 's groundbreaking 1934 shōjo manga, The Mysterious Clover Shōjo , shojo , or shoujo manga ( 少女漫画 shōjo manga) is manga aimed at a teenage female readership. The name romanizes the Japanese 少女 ( shōjo ), literally "young woman". Shōjo manga covers many subjects in a variety of narrative styles, from historical drama to science fiction , often with a focus on romantic relationships or emotions. Strictly speaking, however, shōjo manga does not comprise a style or genre, but rather indicates a target demographic . History Japanese magazines specifically for girls, known as shōjo magazines, first appeared in 1903 with the founding of Shōjo kai ( 少女界 , Girls' World) and continued with others such as Shōjo Sekai ( 少女世界 , Girls' World) (1906) and the long-running Shōjo no tomo ( 少女の友 , Girls' Friend) (1908). The roots of the wide-eyed look commonly associated with shōjo manga dates back to early shōjo magaz
An eroge ( エロゲ or エロゲー erogē, pronounced ; a portmanteau of erotic game: ( エロ チック ゲー ム ero chikku gē mu) ) is a Japanese pornographic video game . History Japanese eroge, also known as H-Light novels or hentai games, have their origins in the early 1980s, when Japanese companies introduced their own brands of microcomputer to compete with those of the United States. Competing systems included the Sharp X1 , Fujitsu FM-7 , MSX , and NEC PC-8801 . NEC was behind its competitors in terms of hardware (with only 16 colors and no sound support) and needed a way to regain control of the market. Thus came the erotic game. The first commercial erotic computer game, Night Life , was released by Koei in 1982. It was an early graphic adventure , with sexually explicit images. That same year, Koei released another erotic title, Danchi Tsuma no Yuwaku (Seduction of the Condominium Wife), which was an early role-playing adventure game with colour graphics, owing to the eight-color palette of the NEC PC-8001 computer.
An anime music video ( AMV ) typically is a fan-made music video consisting of clips from one or more Japanese animated shows or movies set to an audio track, often songs or promotional trailer audio. The term is generally specific to Japanese anime, however, it can occasionally include American animation footage or video game footage. AMVs are not official music videos released by the musicians, they are fan compositions which synchronize edited video clips with an audio track. AMVs are most commonly posted and distributed over the Internet through AnimeMusicVideos.org or YouTube . Anime conventions frequently run AMV contests who usually show the finalists/winner's AMVs. AMVs should not be confused with music videos that employ original, professionally made animation (such as numerous music videos for songs by Iron Maiden ), or with such short music video films (such as Japanese duo Chage and Aska 's song " On Your Mark " that was produced by the film company Studio Ghibli ). AMVs should also not be confuse
A fansub (short for fan-subtitled ) is a version of a foreign film or foreign television program which has been translated by fans (as opposed to an officially licensed translation done by professionals ) and subtitled into a language other than that of the original. Process The practice of making fansubs is called fansubbing and is done by a fansubber. Fansubbers typically form groups and divide the work up. The first distribution media of fansubbed material was VHS and Betamax tapes. Early fansubs were produced using analog video editing equipment. First, a copy of the original source material or raw was obtained, most commonly from a commercial laserdisc . VHS tapes or even a homemade recording could be used as well, though that would entail a lower quality finished product. The dialogue was then translated into a script, that was then timed to match the dialogue, and typeset for appearance. The two most popular programs used in this process were JACOsub for the Commodore Amiga and Substation Alpha for MS
Omake ( 御負け , usually written おまけ) means extra in Japanese . Its primary meaning is general and widespread. It is used as an anime and manga fandom term to mean "extra or bonus". In the USA, the term is most often used in a narrow sense by anime fans to describe special features on DVD releases: deleted scenes , interviews with the actors , "the making of" documentary clips, outtakes , amusing bloopers , and so forth. However, this use of the term actually predates the DVD medium by several years. For at least the past 50 years in Japan , omake of small character figurines and toys have been giveaways that come with soft drinks and candy and sometimes the omake is more desired than the product being sold. In English, the term is often used with this meaning, although it generally only applies to features included with anime , tokusatsu , and occasionally manga . It is thus generally limited to use amongst fans of Japanese pop culture (sometimes called otaku ); like many loan words from Japanese, omake is bot
This is a list of notable manga artists . Romanized names are written in Western order (given names before family names), whereas kanji names are written in Japanese order (family names before given names). Many of them are pen names . Individuals A Yoshitoshi ABe ( 安倍 吉俊 ) Chako Abeno ( 阿倍野ちゃこ ) Mitsuru Adachi ( あだち 充 ) (Creator of Touch , H2 and Cross Game ) Tsutomu Adachi ( あだち 勉 ) Tadashi Agi ( 亜樹 直 ) Wanyan Aguda ( 完顏阿骨打 ) Yu Aida ( 相田 裕 ) Koji Aihara ( 相原 コージ ) Miki Aihara ( 相原 実貴 ) Mizuho Aimoto ( 愛本 みずほ ) Haruka Aizawa ( あいざわ 遥 ) Michiyo Akaishi ( 赤石 路代 ) Ken Akamatsu ( 赤松 健 ) (Creator of A.I. Love You and Love Hina ) Fujio Akatsuka ( 赤塚 不二夫 ) Katsu Aki ( 克・亜樹 ) Nami Akimoto ( 秋元 奈美 ) Osamu Akimoto ( 秋本 治 ) Matsuri Akino ( 秋乃 茉莉 ) Amano Akira ( 天野 明 ) George Akiyama ( ジョージ 秋山 ) Tamayo Akiyama ( 秋山 たまよ ) Risu Akizuki ( 秋月 りす ) Akira Amano ( 天野 明 ) (Creator of Reborn! ) Kozue Amano ( 天野 こずえ ) Shiro Amano ( 天野 シロ ) Yōichi Amano ( 天野 洋一 ) Yoshitaka Amano ( 天野 喜孝 ) Yuki Amemiya ( 雨宮 由樹 ) Mogura Anagura ( あ
Shotacon ( ショタコン shotakon) , short for Shōtarō complex ( 正太郎コンプレックス shōtarō konpurekkusu) , is Japanese slang describing an attraction to young boys and is shota in manga. It refers to a genre of manga and anime wherein pre-pubescent or pubescent male characters are depicted in a suggestive or erotic manner, whether in the obvious role of object of attraction, or the less apparent role of "subject" (the character the reader is designed to associate with), as in a story where the young male character is paired with a male, usually in a homoerotic manner, or with a female, in which the general community would call straight shota. It can also apply to postpubescent (adolescent or adult) characters with youthful neotenic features that would make them appear to be younger than they are. The phrase is a reference to the young male character Shōtarō ( 正太郎 ) from Tetsujin 28-go (reworked in English as Gigantor ). The equivalent term for attraction to (or art pertaining to erotic portrayal of) young girls is lolicon
This is an alphabetical list of painters who are known for painting in the Nihonga style. It has to be noted that some artists also painted in the western Yōga style, and that the division between the two groups could be blurred at points. Artists are listed by the native order of Japanese names , family name followed by given name, to ensure consistency even though some artists may be known outside Japan by their western-ordered name. The list is broken down into the period during which the artist was first active: Meiji , Taishō , Shōwa and Heisei era . Meiji era (1868-1912) Hishida Shunsō 菱田春草 1874-1911 Kawai Gyokudō 川合玉堂 1873-1957 Maeda Seison 前田青邨 1885-1977 Shimomura Kanzan 下村観山 1873-1930 Takeuchi Seihō 竹内栖鳳 1864-1942 Tomioka Tessai 富岡鉄斎 1837-1924 Uemura Shōen 上村松園 1875-1949 Yasuda Yukihiko 安田靫彦 1884-1978 Yokoyama Taikan 横山大観 1868-1958 Taishō era (1912-1926) Hayami Gyoshū 速水御舟 1894-1935 Itō Shinsui 伊東深水 1898-1972 Kaburaki Kiyokata 鏑木清方 1878-1972 Kawabata Ryūshi 川端龍子 1885-1966 Murakami Kagaku 村上華岳 1888-19
An anime club is an organization that meets to discuss, show, and promote anime in a local community setting and can also focus on broadening Japanese cultural understanding. Anime clubs are increasingly found at universities and high schools. Organizers may also use public meeting spaces such as a library or a government center. Many anime club attendees identify themselves as otaku . Although the core of anime club attendees are in their twenties, there are generally no age requirements. Adults in their fifties and sixties and teenagers also attend. Activities Anime club meetings can occur on a weekly or monthly basis. In addition to viewing anime, clubs engage in other activities such as viewing anime music videos , reading manga , karaoke and cosplaying . Many clubs host online forums to further foster community interaction, and feature a library to lend books and manga to members. Participants of an anime club often are also involved in volunteering and organization of local anime conventions . Depen
Hentai illustration The word "hentai" written in kanji Hentai ( 変態 or へんたい ) listen English: (lit. "pervert") is a word of Japanese origin which is short for ( 変態性欲 , hentai seiyoku) ; a perverse sexual desire . The original meaning of Hentai in the Japanese language is a transformation or a metamorphosis . The implication of perversion or paraphilia was derived from there. Both meanings can be distinguished in context easily. In Japanese, the term describes any type of perverse or bizarre sexual desire or act; it does not represent a genre of work. Internationally, hentai is a catch-all term to describe a genre of anime and manga pornography . English adopts and uses hentai as a genre of pornography by the commercial sale and marketing of explicit works under this label. The word's narrow Japanese-language usage and broad international usage are often incompatible. Weather Report Girl is considered yuri hentai in English usage for its depiction of lesbian sex, but in Japan it is just yuri. The definition