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Privacy law in Denmark

Privacy law in Denmark is supervised and enforced by the independent agency Datatilsynet (The Danish Data Protection Agency) based mainly upon the Act on Processing of Personal Data.

History of Danish Privacy Law

Privacy law in Denmark was originally determined by 2 acts: the Private Registers Act of 1978, and the Public Authorities’ Registers Act of 1978, which governed the private sector and the public sector respectively. These 2 acts were replaced by the Act on Processing of Personal Data July 1, 2000, thereby implementing the European Union’s Data Protection Directive (1995/46/EC). The Danish constitution also mentions privacy, in the form of paragraph 72 that stipulates that the confiscation and examination of letters and other papers; as well the interception of postal-, telegraph- and telephone communication cannot be done without a judicial order.[1] September 28, 2006 The declaration of providers of electronic communication networks and electronic communication services registration and storage of information regarding teletraffic (Bekendtgørelse om udbydere af elektroniske kommunikationsnets og elektroniske kommunikationstjenesters registrering og opbevaring af oplysninger om teletrafik) was publicised, thereby implementing the European Union’s Data Retention Directive (2006/24/EC), on "the retention of data generated or processed in connection with the provision of publicly available electronic communications services or of public communications networks and amending Directive 2002/58/EC”.[2]

The Main Acts

In Danish privacy law, there are several acts that provides the basis for the collecting and storing private date. These are the Act on Processing of Personal Data and the Data Retention Executive Order.

Act on Processing of Personal Data

The Act on Processing of Personal Data is the main law regarding when and how personal data can be processed, in an electronic system, as well as manual handling of the data, when it is contained in a register. The act applies to all private companies, associations, organisations and to the public authorities. In the private sector, the law also applies to systematic processing of personal data, even if it does not happen electronically.[3] The act differentiates between 3 different kinds of personal data, as they have to be treated differently, depending on the sensitivity of the data:

  1. Sensitive information
  2. Information regarding other purely private conditions
  3. Ordinary non-sensitive information

The different kinds of personal data have different requirements for when they can be requested from a citizen, as to avoid that too much unnecessary sensitive data will be given to organisations that does not need them. The act also gives the citizens a series of rights, designed to help give more control of what information is being stored about him or her:

  1. Right to insight into the information, that is being handled about the citizen
  2. Right to be informed that information is being collected about the citizen
  3. Right to have incorrect information deleted or corrected
The Data Retention Executive Order

The Danish Surveillance law is the ratification of the European Union’s Directive 2006/24/EC, which requires all providers of communication like telephones and internet to log certain data regarding the communication through their systems.[4] §4 of the law require phone companies to log:

  1. The caller’s phone number (A-number) as well as the name and address of the subscriber or registered user
  2. The called phone number (B-number) as well as the name and address of the subscriber or registered user
  3. The redirected phone number (C-number) as well as the name and address of the subscriber or registered user
  4. The receipt for receiving a message
  5. The identity of the used communications equipment (IMSI- and IMEI-numbers)
  6. The cell or cells a mobile phone was connected to by the communications start and end, and the exact geographical or physical location of the used cell masts used during the time of the communication
  7. The exact time of the start and end of the communication
  8. The time of the first activation of anonymous services (Prepaid mobile phones)

§5 of the law require Internet Service Providers to log the following information about the initiating and the terminating packets:

  1. The senders IP-address
  2. The receivers IP-address
  3. The transport protocol used
  4. The senders port number
  5. The receivers port number
  6. The exact time of the start and end of the communication

§5 section 2 of the law require Providers of Internet access to end users to log the following information about user:

  1. The allocated user identity
  2. The user identity and the phone number that have been allocated communications, which is a part of a public communicationsnetwork
  3. The name and address of the subscriber or registered user, to whom an IP-address, a user identity or a phone number was allocated at the time of the communication
  4. The exact time of the start and end of the communication

The European Union’s Directive 2006/24/EC do not require the member counties to record and store all of these items,[5] but the Danish government decided to expand upon the European directive, to include collection of more data. This led to a drop in Denmark’s Privacy index of 0.5, from 2.5 to 2.0[6][7]

The Data Protection Agency

The Data Protection Agency is the central independent authority that makes sure the Act on Processing of Personal Data is obeyed in Denmark. Amongst other things it provides counselling, advice, treat complaints and perform inspections of authorities and companies. It comprises The Data Council and a secretariat. Anyone can complain to The Data Protection Agency if they feel Act on Processing of Personal Data is not obeyed in Denmark, The Agency will then launch a formal investigation into the matter and if required, it can issue fines and/or injunctions. It is possible to appeal the decisions of The Agency to a Danish court of law

The Data Council

The Data Council is composed of a chairperson and six board members. Its main task is to evaluate and make rulings:

  1. Of a principal nature
  2. Of significant common interest or with significant consequences for a public authority or private company
  3. That due to special circumstances should be decided by the council
  4. That a council member wish to discuss during a council meeting

The current chairperson and 6 board members are:

  • Chairperson, High Court Judge Henrik Waaben
  1. Lawyer Janne Glæsel
  2. Professor, dr. jur. Peter Blume
  3. CEO of the Danish Consumer Council Rasmus Kjeldahl
  4. Manager of concern IT-Security Kim Aarenstrup
  5. City manager Niels Johannesen
  6. Chief physician Hans Henrik Storm
Important CasesThe Preben Randløv case

The goldsmith Preben Randløv was robbed February 8. 2008 where the robber not only got away with approximately 1.3 million DKR (€173.333) worth of jewelry, but also assaulted 2 employees, including Preben Randløv's wife. He then proceeded to upload a video from his shop surveillance camera of the masked robber, and issued a 25.000 DKR (€3.333) reward for any information that would lead to the arrest of the robber. The Data Protection Agency decided to initiate an administrative proceeding against Preben Randløv as he had not “asked the robber to consent” to the uploading of the video, and he was fined by 10.000 DKR (€1.333) by the police, as only the police have the authority to release videos of this nature. The video did lead to an arrest of 2 individuals who claimed they had bought the jewelry, but neither of them were convicted for the robbery. In October 2008, another one of Preben Randløv stores was robbed, and he told reporters during an interview, that he would upload a video of the new robbery as well.[8]

The Shell case

In March 2009 it was discovered a Shell petrol station had a wall with pictures of petrol thieves in the shop of the petrol station. The Data Protection Agency decided to prosecute them because it was not legal according to the Act on Processing of Personal Data.[9]

Privacy Problems in Denmark

According to Privacy International’s study: Leading surveillance societies in the EU and the World 2007, the main concerns in Denmark regarding privacy is the following:

  • Constitutional right to privacy depends on section 71 on personal liberty and section 72 on search and seizure
  • Comprehensive privacy law, and exempts security and defence services
  • Data privacy authority is appointed by the minister of justice, and the ministry is also responsible for the budget
  • Data privacy authority may enter any premise without a court order to investigate under the privacy law
  • Extensive interception of communications; and use of bugs on computers to monitor activity and keystrokes; and plans are in place to minimise notification
  • Police require list of all active mobile phones near the scene of a crime
  • DNA samples may be required from applicants for residency based on family ties
  • Implemented retention of communications data well before EU mandate, for one year
  • Police took the DNA of 300 youth protestors in 2007
  • Implementing air travel surveillance program
  • Parliament is over-keen to implement surveillance programs
  • Ratified Cybercrime convention

These issues have cause Denmark to receive a very low rating on their Privacy index, a 2.0 (Extensive surveillance societies) compared to a 2.5 in 2006 (Systemic failure to uphold safeguards). This places Denmark on a 34th place of the 45 included counties in the study (although United States and United Kingdom are placed on 40th and 43rd place respectively, with scores of 1.5 and 1.4)

Notes and references
  1. http://www.grundloven.dk (in Danish)
  2. "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2010-02-18. Retrieved 2010-04-06.[347]=x-347-559545
  3. http://www.datatilsynet.dk/offentlig/kort-om-persondataloven (in Danish)
  4. http://logningsdirektivet.dk (in Danish)
  5. "L_2006105EN.01005401.xml". europa.eu. Retrieved 18 January 2017.
  6. http://www.privacyinternational.org/survey/phr2005/phrtable.pdf
  7. "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2010-02-18. Retrieved 2010-04-06.[347]=x-347-559597
  8. http://ekstrabladet.dk/nationen/article1071475.ece (in Danish)
  9. http://ekstrabladet.dk/nyheder/samfund/article1137293.ece (in Danish)
External links
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Women in law

Louise Arbour CC GOQ (born 1947) was the UN High Commissioner for Human Rights, a former justice of the Supreme Court of Canada and the Court of Appeal for Ontario and a former Chief Prosecutor of the International Criminal Tribunals for the former Yugoslavia and Rwanda. Women in law describes the role played by women in the legal profession and related occupations, which includes lawyers (also called barristers, advocates, solicitors, attorneys or legal counselors), paralegals, prosecutors (also called District Attorneys or Crown Prosecutors), judges, legal scholars (including feminist legal theorists), law professors and law school deans. In the US, while women made up 34% of the legal profession in 2014, women are underrepresented in senior positions in all areas of the profession. There has been an increase in women in the law field from the 1970s to 2010, but the increase has been seen in entry level jobs. In the United States, 60% of attorneys are women; however, the percent of female equity partners ...more...



Caroline, Princess of Hanover

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Caroline, Princess of Hanover

Caroline, Princess of Hanover (Caroline Louise Marguerite Grimaldi; born 23 January 1957), is the eldest child of Rainier III, Prince of Monaco, and American actress Grace Kelly. She is the elder sister of Prince Albert II and Princess Stéphanie. Until the births of her niece and nephew Princess Gabriella and Prince Jacques of Monaco in December 2014 she had been heir presumptive to the throne of Monaco since 2005, a position which she previously held from 1957 to 1958. Caroline is married to Ernst August, Prince of Hanover (born 1954), the pretender to the former throne of the Kingdom of Hanover,[4] as well as the heir male of George III of the United Kingdom. Family and early life Caroline was born on 23 January 1957 in the Prince's Palace, Monaco. She is the eldest child of Rainier III, Prince of Monaco, and his wife, former American actress Grace Kelly. Christened Caroline Louise Marguerite, she belongs to the House of Grimaldi. She was the heir presumptive from her birth to 14 March 1958, when her brot ...more...



Sophia Magdalena of Denmark

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Sophia Magdalena of Denmark

Sophia Magdalena of Denmark (Danish: Sofie Magdalene; 3 July 1746 – 21 August 1813) was Queen of Sweden as the spouse of King Gustav III. Early life Princess Sofie Magdalene was born on 3 July 1746 at Christiansborg Palace in Copenhagen as the eldest surviving child of King Frederick V of Denmark and his first consort, the former Princess Louise of Great Britain. She was the heir presumptive to the throne of Denmark from the death of her elder brother in 1747 until the birth of her second brother in 1749, and retained her status as next in line to the Danish throne after her brother until her marriage.[1] She was therefore often referred to as Crown Princess of Denmark.[2] Portrait by Carl Gustaf Pilo, c. 1765 In the spring of 1751, at the age of five, she was betrothed to Gustav, the heir apparent to the throne of Sweden, and she was brought up to be the Queen of Sweden.[3] The marriage was arranged by the Riksdag of the Estates, not by the Swedish royal family. The marriage was arranged as a way of ...more...



UEFA Euro 2024 bids

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UEFA Euro 2024 bids

The bidding process of UEFA Euro 2024 will end on 27 September 2018 when the host country will be announced. Two bids came before the deadline, 3 March 2017, which were Germany and Turkey as single bids. The host will be announced on 27 September 2018 in Nyon, Switzerland. Hosting requirements Press agencies revealed on 5 November 2014, that the European football governing body UEFA will decide on the host of Euro 2024 in 2018. The bidding concept for UEFA Euro 2024 was ratified on 9 December 2016. For the first time ever, bid requirements must contain specific criteria relating to the respect of human rights, based on the United Nations "Guiding Principles on Business and Human Rights". The tournament is expected to continue the format of the 2016 and 2020 editions, with a total of 51 matches taking place for a duration of up to 32 days, with 24 teams competing in the tournament. The required capacities for the ten stadiums are as follows: 3 stadia with 50,000 seats (preferably one of which with at lea ...more...



Airbnb

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Airbnb

Airbnb is an American company which operates an online marketplace and hospitality service for people to lease or rent short-term lodging including holiday cottages, apartments, homestays, hostel beds, or hotel rooms, to participate in or facilitate experiences related to tourism such as walking tours, and to make reservations at restaurants. The company does not own any real estate or conduct tours; it is a broker which receives percentage service fees in conjunction with every booking. Like all hospitality services, Airbnb is an example of collaborative consumption and sharing.[3][4][5] The company has over 4 million lodging listings in 65,000 cities and 191 countries and has facilitated over 260 million check-ins.[6] Product overview Airbnb iPhone app screenshot Airbnb can be accessed via either its websites or mobile apps for iOS, Apple Watch, and Android.[7] Registration and account creation is free.[8] With each booking, the company charges guests a 6–12% guest services fee and charges hosts a 3 ...more...



Night owl (person)

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Night owl (person)

Night owls may make natural amateur astronomers. A night owl, evening person or simply owl, is a person who tends to stay up until late at night. In several countries, especially in Scandinavia, early birds are called A-people and night owls are called B-people.[1][2] Night owls who are involuntarily unable to fall asleep for several hours after a normal time may have delayed sleep phase syndrome. The opposite of a night owl is an early bird – a lark as opposed to an owl – which is someone who tends to begin sleeping at a time that is considered early and also wakes early. Researchers traditionally use the terms morningness and eveningness[3] for the two chronotypes or diurnality and nocturnality in animal behavior. Origins of term Owls, like this one in Poland, are often nocturnal. The term is derived from the primarily nocturnal habits of the owl. Most owls sleep during the day and hunt for food at night. Characteristics Usually, people who are night owls stay awake past midnight, and extreme nig ...more...



Law enforcement in Greenland

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Law enforcement in Greenland

Law enforcement in Greenland, a constituent country of the Kingdom of Denmark, is provided by a branch of the Rigspolitiet, the Danish national police service. Since 2006, Greenland has constituted one of the 12 police districts of the Rigspolitiet, headed by a commissioner based in Nuuk, the capital of Greenland. Levels of crime Greenland is thought to be a relatively safe place. "Single women traveling in Greenland don't generally encounter any special worries." (Lonely Planet) Greenland's main problems in crime are generally linked to drinking or drug use, which has led to outlawing of alcohol in some towns and villages (Lonely Planet). Some bars like the "disreputable Hotel Tupilak disco produces plenty of broken glass." Other issues such as domestic violence and solvent abuse also plague Greenland. Most large towns of populations upwards of 1,000 and some smaller ones have a police presence with a contact number to keep on good relations with locals and tourists. Prison system The Greenlandic prison ...more...



Vivaldi (web browser)

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Vivaldi (web browser)

Vivaldi is a freeware, cross-platform web browser developed by Vivaldi Technologies, a company founded by Opera Software co-founder and former CEO Jon Stephenson von Tetzchner and Tatsuki Tomita. The browser was officially launched on April 12, 2016.[8][9] The browser is aimed at staunch technologists, heavy Internet users, and previous Opera web browser users disgruntled by Opera's transition from the Presto layout engine to the Blink layout engine, which removed many popular features.[8][10] Vivaldi aims to revive the old, popular features of Opera 12.[11] The browser has gained popularity since the launch of its first technical preview.[12][13] The browser has 1 million users as of January 2017.[14] History Vivaldi began as a virtual community website that replaced My Opera, which was shut down by Opera Software in March 2014.[15] Jon Stephenson von Tetzchner was angered by this decision because he believed that this community helped make the Opera web browser what it was. Tetzchner then launched the Viva ...more...



Financial intelligence

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Financial intelligence

Financial intelligence (FININT) is the gathering of information about the financial affairs of entities of interest, to understand their nature and capabilities, and predict their intentions. Generally the term applies in the context of law enforcement and related activities. One of the main purposes of financial intelligence is to identify financial transactions that may involve tax evasion, money laundering or some other criminal activity. FININT may also be involved in identifying financing of criminal and terrorist organisations. Financial intelligence can be broken down into two main areas, collection and analysis. Collection is normally done by a government agency, known as a financial intelligence organisation or Financial Intelligence Unit (FIU). The agency will collect raw transactional information and Suspicious activity reports (SAR) usually provided by banks and other entities as part of regulatory requirements. Data may be shared with other countries through intergovernmental networks. Analysi ...more...



Abortion in the United States

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Abortion in the United States

Abortion in the United States has been, and remains, a controversial issue in United States culture and politics. Various anti-abortion laws have been in force in each state since at least 1900. Before the U.S. Supreme Court decision Roe v. Wade legalized abortion nationwide in 1973, it was already legal in several states, but the decision imposed a uniform framework for state legislation on the subject. It established a minimal period during which abortion must be legal (with more or fewer restrictions throughout the pregnancy). That basic framework, modified in Planned Parenthood v. Casey (1992), remains nominally in place, although the effective availability of abortion varies significantly from state to state, as many counties have no abortion providers. In accordance with Planned Parenthood v. Casey, states cannot place legal restrictions posing an undue burden for "the purpose or effect of placing a substantial obstacle in the path of a woman seeking an abortion of a nonviable fetus." In the United St ...more...



Snapchat

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Snapchat

Snapchat is a multimedia messaging app popular in North America and Europe[6] created by Evan Spiegel, Bobby Murphy, and Reggie Brown,[7] former students at Stanford University, and developed by Snap Inc., originally Snapchat Inc. One of the principal concepts of Snapchat is that pictures and messages are only available for a short time before they become inaccessible. The app has evolved from originally focusing on person-to-person photo sharing to presently featuring "Stories" of 24-hour chronological content, along with "Discover" to let brands show ad-supported short-form entertainment. Snapchat has become notable for representing a new, mobile-first direction for social media, and places significant emphasis on users interacting with virtual stickers and augmented reality objects. As of February 2018, Snapchat has 187 million daily active users.[8][9] History Prototype According to documents and deposition statements, Reggie Brown brought the idea for a disappearing pictures application to Evan Spiegel ...more...



Temporary Committee on the ECHELON Interception System

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Temporary Committee on the ECHELON Interception System

The Temporary Committee on the ECHELON Interception System was a Committee of the European Parliament that was set up in 2000 to investigate the global surveillance network ECHELON. The committee issued its final report in 2001. Background On 15 June 2000, the Conference of Presidents of the European Parliament proposed setting up a temporary committee on the ECHELON interception system. The goal of the committee was to confirm the existence of ECHELON and to assess the compatibility of such a system with European law. The committee was chaired by the Portuguese politician Carlos Coelho. It began investigating the ECHELON system in late 2000. Final report In 2001, the committee concluded that the ECHELON surveillance system "almost certainly" existed, but it also acknowledged that beyond stepping up diplomatic pressure on the Five Eyes to abide by privacy laws, there is not much that the European Union could do to evade their surveillance. In its final report, the committee noted the following two feat ...more...



Schengen Information System

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Schengen Information System

The Schengen Information System (SIS) is a governmental database maintained by the European Commission. The SIS is used by twenty-six European countries to find information about individuals and entities for the purposes of national security, border control and law enforcement. A second technical version of this system, SIS II, went live on 9 April 2013. Participating nations Information in SIS is shared among the institutions of countries participating in the Schengen Agreement Application Convention (SAAC). The five original participating countries were France, Germany, Belgium, the Netherlands, and Luxembourg. Twenty-one additional countries have joined the system since its creation: Spain, Portugal, Italy, Austria, Greece, Finland, Sweden, Switzerland, Denmark, Iceland, Norway, Estonia, the Czech Republic, Hungary, Latvia, Lithuania, Malta, Poland, Slovakia, Slovenia and Liechtenstein. Among the current participants, Iceland, Liechtenstein, Norway, and Switzerland are not members of the European Union. ...more...



International tax planning

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International tax planning

International tax planning also known as international tax structures or expanded worldwide planning (EWP), is an element of international taxation created to implement directives from several tax authorities following the 2008 worldwide recession. History In 2010, the United States introduced the Foreign Account Tax Compliance Act (FATCA). Later the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) expanded these directives and proposed a new international system for the automatic exchange of information – known as the Common Reporting Standard (CRS). The organisation also attempted to limit companies’ ability to shift profits to low-tax locations, a practice known as base erosion and profit shifting (BEPS). The goal of this worldwide exchange of tax information being tax transparency, it requires the exchange of a significant volume of information. As a result, there are concerns about privacy and data breach in interested industries. EWP has been an important element on the agenda of the OEC ...more...



Child corporal punishment laws

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Child corporal punishment laws

The legality of corporal punishment of children varies by country. Corporal punishment of minor children by parents or adult guardians, which is any punishment intended to cause physical pain, has been traditionally legal in nearly all countries unless explicitly outlawed. According to a 2014 estimate by Human Rights Watch, "Ninety percent of the world’s children live in countries where corporal punishment and other physical violence against children is still legal". Many countries' laws provide for a defence of "reasonable chastisement" against charges of assault and other crimes for parents using corporal punishment. This defence is ultimately derived from English law. Since South Africa banned corporal punishment in late 2017, corporal punishment of children by parents (or other adults) is banned in 55 countries. Prohibition Countries (or territories) that have completely prohibited corporal punishment of children are listed below (in chronological order):  Sweden (1966) Norway (1972) Austria (1977) Fi ...more...



Five Eyes

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Five Eyes

The Five Eyes, often abbreviated as FVEY, is an intelligence alliance comprising Australia, Canada, New Zealand, the United Kingdom and the United States. These countries are parties to the multilateral UKUSA Agreement, a treaty for joint cooperation in signals intelligence.[1][2][3] The origins of the FVEY can be traced back to the post-World War II period, when the Atlantic Charter was issued by the Allies to lay out their goals for a post-war world. During the course of the Cold War, the ECHELON surveillance system was initially developed by the FVEY to monitor the communications of the former Soviet Union and the Eastern Bloc, although it is now used to monitor billions of private communications worldwide.[4][5] In the late 1990s, the existence of ECHELON was disclosed to the public, triggering a major debate in the European Parliament and, to a lesser extent, the United States Congress. As part of efforts in the ongoing War on Terror since 2001, the FVEY further expanded their surveillance capabilities ...more...



Jonathan's Law

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Jonathan's Law

Jonathan's Law, a New York statute co-sponsored by Harvey Weisenberg signed into law in May 2007, by governor Eliot Spitzer, entitles parents and legal guardians access to all child abuse investigation files and medical history records.[1][2] The legislative measure is intended to hold residential mental health facilities accountable by requiring notification of guardians in cases of ill treatment, and requires written reports of ensuing investigations. Jonathan's Law was sponsored by Assemblyman Harvey Weisenberg (D–Long Beach) and State Sen. Thomas P. Morahan (R–New City); Mike and Lisa Carey, the parents of Jonathan Carey, promoted Jonathan's Law. Jonathan Carey, who had severe autism, was abused and neglected at school and later killed by a direct care worker. Background The State of New York's OPWDD prevented the family of Jonathan Carey from accessing records relating to their son, who had been diagnosed with autism. Jonathan attended the private Anderson School in Dutchess County in 2004. The Anderso ...more...



Body worn video (police equipment)

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Body worn video (police equipment)

Body worn camera (Iwitness) Body worn camera (Zepcam) Body-worn Camera (Shenzhen Jingyi Smart Technology Co., Ltd.) In policing equipment, body worn video (abbreviated to BWV, and also known as a body camera, body-worn camera, or wearable camera) is a wearable audio, video, or photographic recording system used to record events in which police officers or other law enforcers are involved. They are typically worn on the torso of the body. Body worn cameras for policing are often similar to other body worn video equipment used by members of the public, commercially, or by the military, but are designed to address specific requirements related to law enforcement. Definition The definition used in a market survey prepared for the United States Department of Justice in 2016 is that body worn cameras "are cameras with at least one microphone and internal data storage, and allow audio/video footage to be stored and analyzed with compatible software. The cameras are typically located on the police offi ...more...



International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights

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International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights

The International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights (ICCPR) is a multilateral treaty adopted by the United Nations General Assembly with resolution 2200A (XXI) on 16 December 1966, and in force from 23 March 1976 in accordance with Article 49 of the covenant. Article 49 allowed that the covenant will enter into force three months after the date of the deposit of the thirty-fifth instrument of ratification or accession. The covenant commits its parties to respect the civil and political rights of individuals, including the right to life, freedom of religion, freedom of speech, freedom of assembly, electoral rights and rights to due process and a fair trial.[2] As of February 2017, the Covenant has 170 parties and six more signatories without ratification.[1] The ICCPR is part of the International Bill of Human Rights, along with the International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights (ICESCR) and the Universal Declaration of Human Rights (UDHR).[3] The ICCPR is monitored by the United Nations ...more...



Digital rights

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Digital rights

The term digital rights describes the human rights that allow individuals to access, use, create, and publish digital media or to access and use computers, other electronic devices, or communications networks. The term is particularly related to the protection and realization of existing rights, such as the right to privacy or freedom of expression, in the context of new digital technologies, especially the Internet. Right to Internet access is recognized as a right by the laws of several countries. Human rights and the Internet A number of human rights have been identified as relevant with regard to the Internet. These include freedom of expression, data protection and privacy and freedom of association. Furthermore, the right to education and multilingualism, consumer rights, and capacity building in the context of the right to development have also been identified. The Internet is a global public good that should be accessible to all and respectful of the rights of others, said an influential Jesuit mag ...more...



Intelligence agency

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Intelligence agency

The George Bush Center for Intelligence is the headquarters of the Central Intelligence Agency. An intelligence agency is a government agency responsible for the collection, analysis, and exploitation of information in support of law enforcement, national security, military, and foreign policy objectives.[1] Means of information gathering are both overt and covert and may include espionage, communication interception, cryptanalysis, cooperation with other institutions, and evaluation of public sources. The assembly and propagation of this information is known as intelligence analysis or intelligence assessment. Intelligence agencies can provide the following services for their national governments. Give early warning of impending crises; Serve national and international crisis management by helping to discern the intentions of current or potential opponents; Inform national defense planning and military operations; Protect sensitive information secrets, both of their own sources and activities, and t ...more...



Convention for the Protection of Human Rights and Dignity of the Human Being with regard to the Application of Biology and Medic

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Convention for the Protection of Human Rights and Dignity of the Human Being with regard to the Application of Biology and Medic


National Defence Radio Establishment

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National Defence Radio Establishment

The National Defence Radio Establishment (Swedish: Försvarets radioanstalt, FRA) is a Swedish government agency organised under the Ministry of Defence. The two main tasks of FRA are signals intelligence (SIGINT), and support to government authorities and state-owned companies regarding computer security.[2][7] The FRA is not allowed to initialize any surveillance on their own,[8] and operates purely on assignment from the Government, the Government Offices, the Armed Forces, The Swedish National Police Board and Swedish Security Service (SÄPO).[7] Decisions and oversight regarding information interception is provided by the Defence Intelligence Court and the Defence Intelligence Commission; additional oversight regarding protection of privacy is provided by the Swedish Data Protection Authority.[9] History Signals Intelligence has existed in Sweden since 1905 when Swedish General Staff and Naval Staff respectively, had departments for signals intelligence and cryptanalysis. These departments succeeded, for ...more...



Transgender

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Transgender

Transgender people are those who have a gender identity or gender expression that differs from their assigned sex.[1][2][3] Transgender people are sometimes called transsexual if they desire medical assistance to transition from one sex to another. Transgender is also an umbrella term: in addition to including people whose gender identity is the opposite of their assigned sex (trans men and trans women), it may include people who are not exclusively masculine or feminine (people who are Intersex, genderqueer or non-binary, including bigender, pangender, genderfluid, or agender).[2][4][5] Other definitions of transgender also include people who belong to a third gender, or else conceptualize transgender people as a third gender.[6][7] Infrequently, the term transgender is defined very broadly to include cross-dressers,[8] regardless of their gender identity. Being transgender is independent of sexual orientation:[9] transgender people may identify as heterosexual, homosexual, bisexual, asexual, or may decline ...more...



Stop Online Piracy Act

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Stop Online Piracy Act

The Stop Online Piracy Act (SOPA) was a controversial United States bill introduced by U.S. Representative Lamar S. Smith (R-TX) to expand the ability of U.S. law enforcement to combat online copyright infringement and online trafficking in counterfeit goods. Provisions included the requesting of court orders to bar advertising networks and payment facilities from conducting business with infringing websites, and web search engines from linking to the websites, and court orders requiring Internet service providers to block access to the websites. The proposed law would have expanded existing criminal laws to include unauthorized streaming of copyrighted content, imposing a maximum penalty of five years in prison. Proponents of the legislation said it would protect the intellectual-property market and corresponding industry, jobs and revenue, and was necessary to bolster enforcement of copyright laws, especially against foreign-owned and operated websites. Claiming flaws in present laws that do not cover fore ...more...



Media ethics

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Media ethics

Media ethics is the subdivision of applied ethics dealing with the specific ethical principles and standards of media, including broadcast media, film, theatre, the arts, print media and the internet. The field covers many varied and highly controversial topics, ranging from war journalism to Benetton ad campaigns. Media ethics involves promoting and defending values such as a universal respect for life and the rule of law and legality.[1] Literature regarding the ways in which specifically the Internet impacts media ethics in journalism online is scarce, thereby complicating the idea for a universal code of media ethics.[2] History of Media Ethics Research and publications in the field of information ethics has been produced since the 1980s.[3] Notable figures include and Robert Hauptman (who focused his work specifically on censorship, privacy, access to information, balance in collection development, copyright, fair use, and codes of ethics), Rafael Capurro, Barbara J. Kostrewski and Charles Oppenheim ( ...more...




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