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Privacy law in Denmark

Privacy law in Denmark is supervised and enforced by the independent agency Datatilsynet (The Danish Data Protection Agency) based mainly upon the Act on Processing of Personal Data.

History of Danish Privacy Law

Privacy law in Denmark was originally determined by 2 acts: the Private Registers Act of 1978, and the Public Authorities’ Registers Act of 1978, which governed the private sector and the public sector respectively. These 2 acts were replaced by the Act on Processing of Personal Data July 1, 2000, thereby implementing the European Union’s Data Protection Directive (1995/46/EC). The Danish constitution also mentions privacy, in the form of paragraph 72 that stipulates that the confiscation and examination of letters and other papers; as well the interception of postal-, telegraph- and telephone communication cannot be done without a judicial order.[1] September 28, 2006 The declaration of providers of electronic communication networks and electronic communication services registration and storage of information regarding teletraffic (Bekendtgørelse om udbydere af elektroniske kommunikationsnets og elektroniske kommunikationstjenesters registrering og opbevaring af oplysninger om teletrafik) was publicised, thereby implementing the European Union’s Data Retention Directive (2006/24/EC), on "the retention of data generated or processed in connection with the provision of publicly available electronic communications services or of public communications networks and amending Directive 2002/58/EC”.[2]

The Main Acts

In Danish privacy law, there are several acts that provides the basis for the collecting and storing private date. These are the Act on Processing of Personal Data and the Data Retention Executive Order.

Act on Processing of Personal Data

The Act on Processing of Personal Data is the main law regarding when and how personal data can be processed, in an electronic system, as well as manual handling of the data, when it is contained in a register. The act applies to all private companies, associations, organisations and to the public authorities. In the private sector, the law also applies to systematic processing of personal data, even if it does not happen electronically.[3] The act differentiates between 3 different kinds of personal data, as they have to be treated differently, depending on the sensitivity of the data:

  1. Sensitive information
  2. Information regarding other purely private conditions
  3. Ordinary non-sensitive information

The different kinds of personal data have different requirements for when they can be requested from a citizen, as to avoid that too much unnecessary sensitive data will be given to organisations that does not need them. The act also gives the citizens a series of rights, designed to help give more control of what information is being stored about him or her:

  1. Right to insight into the information, that is being handled about the citizen
  2. Right to be informed that information is being collected about the citizen
  3. Right to have incorrect information deleted or corrected
The Data Retention Executive Order

The Danish Surveillance law is the ratification of the European Union’s Directive 2006/24/EC, which requires all providers of communication like telephones and internet to log certain data regarding the communication through their systems.[4] §4 of the law require phone companies to log:

  1. The caller’s phone number (A-number) as well as the name and address of the subscriber or registered user
  2. The called phone number (B-number) as well as the name and address of the subscriber or registered user
  3. The redirected phone number (C-number) as well as the name and address of the subscriber or registered user
  4. The receipt for receiving a message
  5. The identity of the used communications equipment (IMSI- and IMEI-numbers)
  6. The cell or cells a mobile phone was connected to by the communications start and end, and the exact geographical or physical location of the used cell masts used during the time of the communication
  7. The exact time of the start and end of the communication
  8. The time of the first activation of anonymous services (Prepaid mobile phones)

§5 of the law require Internet Service Providers to log the following information about the initiating and the terminating packets:

  1. The senders IP-address
  2. The receivers IP-address
  3. The transport protocol used
  4. The senders port number
  5. The receivers port number
  6. The exact time of the start and end of the communication

§5 section 2 of the law require Providers of Internet access to end users to log the following information about user:

  1. The allocated user identity
  2. The user identity and the phone number that have been allocated communications, which is a part of a public communicationsnetwork
  3. The name and address of the subscriber or registered user, to whom an IP-address, a user identity or a phone number was allocated at the time of the communication
  4. The exact time of the start and end of the communication

The European Union’s Directive 2006/24/EC do not require the member counties to record and store all of these items,[5] but the Danish government decided to expand upon the European directive, to include collection of more data. This led to a drop in Denmark’s Privacy index of 0.5, from 2.5 to 2.0[6] [7]

The Data Protection Agency

The Data Protection Agency is the central independent authority that makes sure the Act on Processing of Personal Data is obeyed in Denmark. Amongst other things it provides counselling, advice, treat complaints and perform inspections of authorities and companies. It comprises The Data Council and a secretariat. Anyone can complain to The Data Protection Agency if they feel Act on Processing of Personal Data is not obeyed in Denmark, The Agency will then launch a formal investigation into the matter and if required, it can issue fines and/or injunctions. It is possible to appeal the decisions of The Agency to a Danish court of law

The Data Council

The Data Council is composed of a chairperson and six board members. Its main task is to evaluate and make rulings:

  1. Of a principal nature
  2. Of significant common interest or with significant consequences for a public authority or private company
  3. That due to special circumstances should be decided by the council
  4. That a council member wish to discuss during a council meeting

The current chairperson and 6 board members are:

  • Chairperson, High Court Judge Henrik Waaben
  1. Lawyer Janne Glæsel
  2. Professor, dr. jur. Peter Blume
  3. CEO of the Danish Consumer Council Rasmus Kjeldahl
  4. Manager of concern IT-Security Kim Aarenstrup
  5. City manager Niels Johannesen
  6. Chief physician Hans Henrik Storm
Important Cases
The Preben Randløv case

The goldsmith Preben Randløv was robbed February 8. 2008 where the robber not only got away with approximately 1.3 million DKR (€173.333) worth of jewelry, but also assaulted 2 employees, including Preben Randløv's wife. He then proceeded to upload a video from his shop surveillance camera of the masked robber, and issued a 25.000 DKR (€3.333) reward for any information that would lead to the arrest of the robber. The Data Protection Agency decided to initiate an administrative proceeding against Preben Randløv as he had not “asked the robber to consent” to the uploading of the video, and he was fined by 10.000 DKR (€1.333) by the police, as only the police have the authority to release videos of this nature. The video did lead to an arrest of 2 individuals who claimed they had bought the jewelry, but neither of them were convicted for the robbery. In October 2008, another one of Preben Randløv stores was robbed, and he told reporters during an interview, that he would upload a video of the new robbery as well.[8]

The Shell case

In March 2009 it was discovered a Shell petrol station had a wall with pictures of petrol thieves in the shop of the petrol station. The Data Protection Agency decided to prosecute them because it was not legal according to the Act on Processing of Personal Data.[9]

Privacy Problems in Denmark

According to Privacy International’s study: Leading surveillance societies in the EU and the World 2007, the main concerns in Denmark regarding privacy is the following:

  • Constitutional right to privacy depends on section 71 on personal liberty and section 72 on search and seizure
  • Comprehensive privacy law, and exempts security and defence services
  • Data privacy authority is appointed by the minister of justice, and the ministry is also responsible for the budget
  • Data privacy authority may enter any premise without a court order to investigate under the privacy law
  • Extensive interception of communications; and use of bugs on computers to monitor activity and keystrokes; and plans are in place to minimise notification
  • Police require list of all active mobile phones near the scene of a crime
  • DNA samples may be required from applicants for residency based on family ties
  • Implemented retention of communications data well before EU mandate, for one year
  • Police took the DNA of 300 youth protestors in 2007
  • Implementing air travel surveillance program
  • Parliament is over-keen to implement surveillance programs
  • Ratified Cybercrime convention

These issues have cause Denmark to receive a very low rating on their Privacy index, a 2.0 (Extensive surveillance societies) compared to a 2.5 in 2006 (Systemic failure to uphold safeguards). This places Denmark on a 34th place of the 45 included counties in the study (although United States and United Kingdom are placed on 40th and 43rd place respectively, with scores of 1.5 and 1.4)

Notes and references
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Automatic number-plate recognition


License-plate recognition process Automatic number-plate recognition (ANPR; see also other names below) is a technology that uses optical character recognition on images to read vehicle registration plates to create vehicle location data. It can use existing closed-circuit television, road-rule enforcement cameras, or cameras specifically designed for the task. ANPR is used by police forces around the world for law enforcement purposes, including to check if a vehicle is registered or licensed. It is also used for electronic toll collection on pay-per-use roads and as a method of cataloguing the movements of traffic, for example by highways agencies. Automatic number plate recognition can be used to store the images captured by the cameras as well as the text from the license plate, with some configurable to store a photograph of the driver. Systems commonly use infrared lighting to allow the camera to take the picture at any time of day or night. ANPR technology must take into account plate variat ...more...



Uber Technologies Inc. is a global taxi technology company headquartered in San Francisco , California , United States , operating in 633 cities worldwide. It develops, markets and operates the Uber car transportation and food delivery mobile apps . Uber drivers use their own cars although drivers can rent a car to drive with Uber. The name "Uber" is a reference to the common (and somewhat colloquial) word " uber ", meaning "topmost" or "super", and having its origins in the German word über , meaning "above". Uber has been a pioneer in the sharing economy , so much so that the changes in industries as a result of it have been referred to as Uberisation . Uber has also been the subject of protests and legal actions and is the subject of a criminal investigation. Operations Icon for Uber rider app as of May 2017 The Uber app software requires the drivers to have a smartphone , and users must have access to either a smartphone or the mobile website. Pricing and payments An Uber ride in Bogotá, Colombia run ...more...

Freedom of speech by country


Freedom of speech is the concept of the inherent human right to voice one's opinion publicly without fear of censorship or punishment. "Speech" is not limited to public speaking and is generally taken to include other forms of expression. The right is preserved in the United Nations Universal Declaration of Human Rights and is granted formal recognition by the laws of most nations. Nonetheless the degree to which the right is upheld in practice varies greatly from one nation to another. In many nations, particularly those with relatively authoritarian forms of government, overt government censorship is enforced. Censorship has also been claimed to occur in other forms (see propaganda model) and there are different approaches to issues such as hate speech, obscenity, and defamation laws even in countries seen as liberal democracies. International law Wikisource has original text related to this article: Universal Declaration of Human Rights The United Nations Universal Declaration of Human Rights, adopt ...more...



The concept of e-service (short for electronic service) represents one prominent application of utilizing the use of information and communication technologies (ICTs) in different areas. However, providing an exact definition of e-service is hard to come by as researchers have been using different definitions to describe e-service. Despite these different definitions, it can be argued that they all agree about the role of technology in facilitating the delivery of services which make them more of electronic services. It seems compelling to adopt Rowley's (2006) approach who defines e-services as: “…deeds, efforts or performances whose delivery is mediated by information technology. Such e-service includes the service element of e-tailing, customer support, and service delivery”. This definition reflect three main components- service provider, service receiver and the channels of service delivery (i.e., technology). For example, as concerned to public e-service, public agencies are the service provider and c ...more...

Society for Worldwide Interbank Financial Telecommunication


The Society for Worldwide Interbank Financial Telecommunication (SWIFT) provides a network that enables financial institutions worldwide to send and receive information about financial transactions in a secure, standardized and reliable environment. SWIFT also sells software and services to financial institutions, much of it for use on the SWIFTNet Network, and ISO 9362. Business Identifier Codes (BICs, previously Bank Identifier Codes) are popularly known as "SWIFT codes". The majority of international interbank messages use the SWIFT network. As of 2015, SWIFT linked more than 11,000 financial institutions in more than 200 countries and territories, who were exchanging an average of over 15 million messages per day (compared to an average of 2.4 million daily messages in 1995). SWIFT transports financial messages in a highly secure way but does not hold accounts for its members and does not perform any form of clearing or settlement. SWIFT does not facilitate funds transfer: rather, it sends payment ord ...more...

Bellotti v. Baird (1979)


Bellotti v. Baird , 443 U.S. 622 (1979) is a United States Supreme Court case that ruled 8-1 that teenagers do not have to secure parental consent to obtain an abortion . The Court elaborated on its parental consent decision of 1976. It implies that states may be able to require a pregnant, unmarried minor to obtain parental consent to an abortion if the state law provides an alternative procedure to parental approval, such as letting the minor seek a state judge's approval instead. The plurality opinion declined to extend the full right to minors to seek and obtain an abortion, which was granted to adult women in Roe v. Wade . The Court rejected the extension to minors by placing emphasis on the especially vulnerable nature of children, their "inability to make critical decisions in an informed and mature manner; and the importance of the parental role in child rearing." See also Bellotti v. Baird (1976) List of United States Supreme Court cases, volume 443 References Wharton, Linda (2009). "Roe at Thirty-S ...more...

Smart meter


Newer retrofitted U.S. domestic digital electricity meter Elster REX with 900MHz mesh network topology for automatic meter reading and "EnergyAxis" time-of-use metering. Each local mesh networked smart meter has a hub such as this Elster A3 Type A30 which interfaces 900MHz smart meters to the metering automation server via a landline. A very old and rusted box housing a smart meter as found near a Circle K supermarket along the main road in South Bali near Gianyar . A smart meter is an electronic device that records consumption of electric energy in intervals of an hour or less and communicates that information at least daily back to the utility for monitoring and billing. Smart meters enable two-way communication between the meter and the central system. Unlike home energy monitors, smart meters can gather data for remote reporting. Such an advanced metering infrastructure (AMI) differs from traditional automatic meter reading (AMR) in that it enables two-way communications with the meter. Communications f ...more...

Sexual and reproductive health and rights


Sexual and reproductive health and rights or SRHR is the concept of human rights applied to sexuality and reproduction. It is a combination of four fields that in some contexts are more or less distinct from each other, but less so or not at all in other contexts. These four fields are sexual health, sexual rights, reproductive health and reproductive rights. In the concept of SRHR, these four fields are treated as separate but inherently intertwined. Distinctions between these four fields are not always made. Sexual health and reproductive health are sometimes treated as synonymous to each other, as are sexual rights and reproductive rights. In some cases, sexual rights are included in the term sexual health, or vice versa. Not only do different non-governmental organisations (NGOs) and governments use different terminologies, but different terminologies are often used within the same organization. Some of the notable global NGOs that fight for sexual and reproductive health and rights include IPPF (Inter ...more...

List of national identity card policies by country


This is a list of identity document policies by country. A national identity document ("ID" or "identity card") is defined as an identity card with photo, usable as an identity card at least inside the country, and which is issued by an official authority. Regional government issued driver's licenses and other cards indicating certain permissions are not counted here as national identity cards. So for example, by this criteria, the United States drivers license is excluded, as these are local (state) government issued (although these or the state ID are all-but required as nation-wide identification). Identity card policies by country Countries with compulsory identity cards According to a 1996 publication by Privacy International, around 100 countries had enacted laws making identity cards compulsory. In these countries, the card must be shown on demand by authorised personnel under specified circumstances. In some countries alternative proof of identity, such as a driving licence is acceptable. Priva ...more...

History of abortion


The practice of abortion —the termination of a pregnancy—has been known since ancient times. Various methods have been used to perform an abortion, including the administration of abortifacient herbs, the use of sharpened implements, the application of abdominal pressure, and other techniques. Abortion laws and their enforcement have fluctuated through various eras. In many western countries during the 20th century various pro-abortion groups, were successful in having abortion bans repealed. While abortion remains legal in most of the West, this legality is regularly challenged by anti-abortion groups. Premodern era Bas relief at Angkor Wat , c.  1150 , depicting a demon performing an abortion upon a woman who has been sent to the underworld. The Vedic and smrti laws of India reflected a concern with preserving the male seed of the three upper castes; and the religious courts imposed various penances for the woman or excommunication for a priest who provided an abortion. The only evidence of the death penal ...more...

Abortion law


Abortion law permits, prohibits, restricts, or otherwise regulates the availability of abortion . Abortion has been a controversial subject in many societies through history on religious, moral, ethical, practical, and political grounds. It has been banned frequently and otherwise limited by law. However, abortions continue to be common in many areas, even where they are illegal. According to the World Health Organization (WHO), abortion rates are similar in countries where the procedure is legal and in countries where it is not, due to unavailability of modern contraceptives in areas where abortion is illegal. Also according to the WHO, the number of abortions worldwide is declining due to increased access to contraception. Almost two-thirds of the world's women currently reside in countries where abortion may be obtained on request for a broad range of social , economic , or personal reasons. Abortion laws vary widely by country. Three countries in Latin America ( Dominican Republic , El Salvador , and Ni ...more...

National identification number


A national identification number , national identity number , or national insurance number is used by the governments of many countries as a means of tracking their citizens , permanent residents , and temporary residents for the purposes of work, taxation, government benefits , health care, and other governmentally-related functions. The number appears on identity documents issued by several of the countries. The ways in which such a system is implemented vary among countries, but in most cases citizens are issued an identification number upon reaching legal age, or when they are born. Non-citizens may be issued such numbers when they enter the country, or when granted a temporary or permanent residence permit. Many countries issued such numbers for a singular purpose, but over time, they become a de facto national identification number. For example, the United States developed its Social Security number system as a means of organizing disbursing of Social Security benefits. However, due to function creep , ...more...

Legal drinking age


The legal drinking age is the age at which a person can legally consume or purchase alcoholic beverages . These laws cover a wide range of issues and behaviors, addressing when and where alcohol can be consumed. The minimum age alcohol can be legally consumed can be different from the age when it can be purchased in some countries. These laws vary among different countries and many laws have exemptions or special circumstances. Most laws apply only to drinking alcohol in public places, with alcohol consumption in the home being mostly unregulated (an exception being the UK, which has a minimum legal age of five for supervised consumption in private places). Some countries also have different age limits for different types of alcoholic drinks. Some Islamic nations prohibit Muslims , or both Muslims and non-Muslims, from drinking alcohol at any age. In other countries, it is not illegal for minors to drink alcohol, but the alcohol can be seized without compensation. In some cases, it is illegal to sell or give ...more...

European Court of Justice


The European Court of Justice ( ECJ ), officially just the Court of Justice ( French : Cour de Justice ), is the highest court in the European Union in matters of European Union law . As a part of the Court of Justice of the European Union it is tasked with interpreting EU law and ensuring its equal application across all EU member states . The Court was established in 1952 and is based in Luxembourg . It is composed of one judge per member state – currently 28 – although it normally hears cases in panels of three, five or 15 judges. The court has been led by president Koen Lenaerts since 2015. History The court was established in 1952, by the Treaty of Paris (1951) as part of the European Coal and Steel Community . It was established with seven judges, allowing both representation of each of the six member States and being an unequal number of judges in case of a tie. One judge was appointed from each member state and the seventh seat rotated between the "large Member States" (West Germany, France and Ital ...more...

Catherine, Duchess of Cambridge


Catherine, Duchess of Cambridge (Catherine Elizabeth "Kate"; née Middleton; born 9 January 1982 ) is a member of the British royal family. Her husband, Prince William, Duke of Cambridge, is second in line to become King of the United Kingdom and 15 other Commonwealth realms, making Catherine a likely future queen consort. Catherine grew up in Chapel Row, a village near Newbury, Berkshire, England. She studied art history in Scotland at the University of St Andrews, where she met William in 2001. Their engagement was announced in November 2010 before they married on 29 April 2011 at Westminster Abbey. The Duke and Duchess's children, Prince George and Princess Charlotte of Cambridge, are third and fourth in the line of succession respectively, and the couple are expecting their third child. Catherine's impact on British and American fashion has been called the "Kate Middleton effect" in the media, and in 2012 and 2013, she was selected as one of the "100 Most Influential People in the World" by Time magazi ...more...

Transport Layer Security


Transport Layer Security (TLS) – and its predecessor, Secure Sockets Layer (SSL), which is now prohibited from use by the Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF) – are cryptographic protocols that provide communications security over a computer network. Several versions of the protocols find widespread use in applications such as web browsing, email, Internet faxing, instant messaging, and voice over IP (VoIP). Websites are able to use TLS to secure all communications between their servers and web browsers. The TLS protocol aims primarily to provide privacy and data integrity between two communicating computer applications. When secured by TLS, connections between a client (e.g., a web browser) and a server (e.g., have one or more of the following properties: The connection is private (or secure) because symmetric cryptography is used to encrypt the data transmitted. The keys for this symmetric encryption are generated uniquely for each connection and are based on a shared secret negotiated a ...more...

Convention on the Rights of the Child


The United Nations Convention on the Rights of the Child (commonly abbreviated as the CRC or UNCRC) is a human rights treaty which sets out the civil, political, economic, social, health and cultural rights of children. The Convention defines a child as any human being under the age of eighteen, unless the age of majority is attained earlier under national legislation. Nations that ratify this convention are bound to it by international law. Compliance is monitored by the UN Committee on the Rights of the Child, which is composed of members from countries around the world. Once a year, the Committee submits a report to the Third Committee of the United Nations General Assembly, which also hears a statement from the CRC Chair, and the Assembly adopts a Resolution on the Rights of the Child. Governments of countries that have ratified the Convention are required to report to, and appear before, the United Nations Committee on the Rights of the Child periodically to be examined on their progress with regards ...more...

International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights


The International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights (ICCPR) is a multilateral treaty adopted by the United Nations General Assembly with resolution 2200A (XXI) on 19 December 1966, and in force from 23 March 1976 in accordance with Article 49 of the covenant. Article 49 allowed that the covenant will enter into force three months after the date of the deposit of the thirty-fifth instrument of ratification or accession. The covenant commits its parties to respect the civil and political rights of individuals, including the right to life, freedom of religion, freedom of speech, freedom of assembly, electoral rights and rights to due process and a fair trial. As of February 2017, the Covenant has 169 parties and six more signatories without ratification. The ICCPR is part of the International Bill of Human Rights, along with the International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights (ICESCR) and the Universal Declaration of Human Rights (UDHR). The ICCPR is monitored by the United Nations Human R ...more...

Cops (TV series)


Cops (stylized as COPS ) is an American half-hour documentary / reality legal series that follows police officers , constables , sheriff 's deputies, federal agents , and state troopers during patrols and other police activities including prostitution and narcotics stings. It is one of the longest-running television programs in the United States and in May 2011 became the longest-running show on Fox with the announcement that America's Most Wanted was being canceled after 23 years (that show's host, John Walsh also appeared many times on Cops). In 2013, the program moved from Fox to the cable network Spike, now known as Paramount Network . Cops follows the activities of police officers by assigning television camera crews to accompany them as they perform their duties. The show's formula follows the cinéma vérité convention, which does not consist of any narration or scripted dialog, depending entirely on the commentary of the officers and on the actions of the people with whom they come into contact. Each ...more...



Surveillance as compared with sousveillance Sousveillance ( soo-VAY-ləns) is the recording of an activity by a participant in the activity, typically by way of small wearable or portable personal technologies. The term "sousveillance", coined by Steve Mann, stems from the contrasting French words sur, meaning "above", and sous, meaning "below", i.e. "surveillance" denotes the "eye-in-the-sky" watching from above, whereas "sousveillance" denotes bringing the camera or other means of observation down to human level, either physically (mounting cameras on people rather than on buildings), or hierarchically (ordinary people doing the watching, rather than higher authorities or architectures doing the watching). While surveillance and sousveillance both generally refer to visual monitoring, the terms also denote other forms of monitoring such as audio surveillance or sousveillance. In the audio sense (e.g. recording of phone conversations) sousveillance is referred to as "one party consent". Undersight ...more...

Open-source hardware


The RepRap general-purpose 3D printer with the ability to make copies of most of its own structural parts Open-source hardware ( OSH ) consists of physical artifacts of technology designed and offered by the open design movement. Both free and open-source software (FOSS) and open-source hardware are created by this open-source culture movement and apply a like concept to a variety of components. It is sometimes, thus, referred to as FOSH (free and open-source hardware). The term usually means that information about the hardware is easily discerned so that others can make it – coupling it closely to the maker movement . Hardware design (i.e. mechanical drawings, schematics , bills of material , PCB layout data, HDL source code and integrated circuit layout data), in addition to the software that drives the hardware, are all released under free/ libre terms. The original sharer gains feedback and potentially improvements on the design from the FOSH community. There is now significant evidence that such sharin ...more...

Age of consent


The age of consent is the age at which a person is considered to be legally competent to consent to sexual acts and is thus the minimum age of a person with whom another person is legally permitted to engage in sexual activity. The distinguishing aspect of the age of consent laws is that the person below the minimum age is regarded as the victim and his or her sex partner is regarded as the offender, unless both are underage. The purpose of setting an age of consent is to protect an underage person from sexual advances. The term age of consent rarely appears in legal statutes . Generally, a law will instead establish the age below which it is illegal to engage in sexual activity with that person. It has sometimes been used with other meanings, such as the age at which a person becomes competent to consent to marriage , but the meaning given above is the one now generally understood. It should not be confused with the age of majority , age of criminal responsibility , the voting age , the drinking age , the ...more...

Terrorist Finance Tracking Program


The Terrorist Finance Tracking Program (TFTP) is a United States government program to access financial transactions on the international SWIFT network that was revealed by The New York Times, The Wall Street Journal and The Los Angeles Times in June 2006. It was part of the Bush administration's War on Terrorism. After the covert action was disclosed, the so-called SWIFT-agreement was negotiated between the United States and the European Union. Overview A series of articles published on June 23, 2006, by the New York Times, the Wall Street Journal and the Los Angeles Times revealed that the United States government, specifically the Treasury and the CIA, had a program to access the SWIFT transaction database after the September 11th attacks. According to the June 2006 New York Times article, the program helped lead to the capture of an al-Qaeda operative known as Hambali in 2003, believed to be the mastermind of the 2002 Bali bombing, as well as helped identify a Brooklyn man convicted in 2005 for laund ...more...

Origin (digital distribution software)


Origin is an online gaming , digital distribution and digital rights management (DRM) platform developed by Electronic Arts that allows users to purchase games on the internet for PC and mobile platforms, and download them with the Origin client (formerly EA Download Manager, EA Downloader and EA Link). Origin for Mac has been available since February 8, 2013. Origin contains social features such as profile management, networking with friends with chat and direct game joining along with an in-game overlay, streaming via TwitchTV and sharing of game library and community integration with networking sites like Facebook , Xbox Live , PlayStation Network , and Nintendo Network . Electronic Arts has stated that it wanted Origin to match Valve 's Steam service , Origin's leading competitor, by the end of March 2012, by adding cloud game saves, auto-patching, achievements and rewards, and cross-platform releases. Origin has over 50 million registered users. Components Origin store Origin web store as of February 2 ...more...

Identity document


An identity document (also called a piece of identification or ID, or colloquially as papers) is any document which may be used to prove a person's identity. If issued in a small, standard credit card size form, it is usually called an identity card (IC, ID card, Citizen Card), or Passport Card. Some countries issue formal identity documents, while others may require identity verification using informal documents. When the identity document incorporates a person's photograph, it may be called photo ID. In the absence of a formal identity document, a driver's license may be accepted in many countries for identity verification. Some countries do not accept driver's licenses for identification, often because in those countries they do not expire as documents and can be old or easily forged. Most countries accept passports as a form of identification. Some countries require all people to have an identity document available at any time. Many countries require all foreigners to have a passport or occasionally a ...more...

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