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Privacy law in Denmark

Privacy law in Denmark is supervised and enforced by the independent agency Datatilsynet (The Danish Data Protection Agency) based mainly upon the Act on Processing of Personal Data.

History of Danish Privacy Law

Privacy law in Denmark was originally determined by 2 acts: the Private Registers Act of 1978, and the Public Authorities’ Registers Act of 1978, which governed the private sector and the public sector respectively. These 2 acts were replaced by the Act on Processing of Personal Data July 1, 2000, thereby implementing the European Union’s Data Protection Directive (1995/46/EC). The Danish constitution also mentions privacy, in the form of paragraph 72 that stipulates that the confiscation and examination of letters and other papers; as well the interception of postal-, telegraph- and telephone communication cannot be done without a judicial order.[1] September 28, 2006 The declaration of providers of electronic communication networks and electronic communication services registration and storage of information regarding teletraffic (Bekendtgørelse om udbydere af elektroniske kommunikationsnets og elektroniske kommunikationstjenesters registrering og opbevaring af oplysninger om teletrafik) was publicised, thereby implementing the European Union’s Data Retention Directive (2006/24/EC), on "the retention of data generated or processed in connection with the provision of publicly available electronic communications services or of public communications networks and amending Directive 2002/58/EC”.[2]

The Main Acts

In Danish privacy law, there are several acts that provides the basis for the collecting and storing private date. These are the Act on Processing of Personal Data and the Data Retention Executive Order.

Act on Processing of Personal Data

The Act on Processing of Personal Data is the main law regarding when and how personal data can be processed, in an electronic system, as well as manual handling of the data, when it is contained in a register. The act applies to all private companies, associations, organisations and to the public authorities. In the private sector, the law also applies to systematic processing of personal data, even if it does not happen electronically.[3] The act differentiates between 3 different kinds of personal data, as they have to be treated differently, depending on the sensitivity of the data:

  1. Sensitive information
  2. Information regarding other purely private conditions
  3. Ordinary non-sensitive information

The different kinds of personal data have different requirements for when they can be requested from a citizen, as to avoid that too much unnecessary sensitive data will be given to organisations that does not need them. The act also gives the citizens a series of rights, designed to help give more control of what information is being stored about him or her:

  1. Right to insight into the information, that is being handled about the citizen
  2. Right to be informed that information is being collected about the citizen
  3. Right to have incorrect information deleted or corrected
The Data Retention Executive Order

The Danish Surveillance law is the ratification of the European Union’s Directive 2006/24/EC, which requires all providers of communication like telephones and internet to log certain data regarding the communication through their systems.[4] §4 of the law require phone companies to log:

  1. The caller’s phone number (A-number) as well as the name and address of the subscriber or registered user
  2. The called phone number (B-number) as well as the name and address of the subscriber or registered user
  3. The redirected phone number (C-number) as well as the name and address of the subscriber or registered user
  4. The receipt for receiving a message
  5. The identity of the used communications equipment (IMSI- and IMEI-numbers)
  6. The cell or cells a mobile phone was connected to by the communications start and end, and the exact geographical or physical location of the used cell masts used during the time of the communication
  7. The exact time of the start and end of the communication
  8. The time of the first activation of anonymous services (Prepaid mobile phones)

§5 of the law require Internet Service Providers to log the following information about the initiating and the terminating packets:

  1. The senders IP-address
  2. The receivers IP-address
  3. The transport protocol used
  4. The senders port number
  5. The receivers port number
  6. The exact time of the start and end of the communication

§5 section 2 of the law require Providers of Internet access to end users to log the following information about user:

  1. The allocated user identity
  2. The user identity and the phone number that have been allocated communications, which is a part of a public communicationsnetwork
  3. The name and address of the subscriber or registered user, to whom an IP-address, a user identity or a phone number was allocated at the time of the communication
  4. The exact time of the start and end of the communication

The European Union’s Directive 2006/24/EC do not require the member counties to record and store all of these items,[5] but the Danish government decided to expand upon the European directive, to include collection of more data. This led to a drop in Denmark’s Privacy index of 0.5, from 2.5 to 2.0[6][7]

The Data Protection Agency

The Data Protection Agency is the central independent authority that makes sure the Act on Processing of Personal Data is obeyed in Denmark. Amongst other things it provides counselling, advice, treat complaints and perform inspections of authorities and companies. It comprises The Data Council and a secretariat. Anyone can complain to The Data Protection Agency if they feel Act on Processing of Personal Data is not obeyed in Denmark, The Agency will then launch a formal investigation into the matter and if required, it can issue fines and/or injunctions. It is possible to appeal the decisions of The Agency to a Danish court of law

The Data Council

The Data Council is composed of a chairperson and six board members. Its main task is to evaluate and make rulings:

  1. Of a principal nature
  2. Of significant common interest or with significant consequences for a public authority or private company
  3. That due to special circumstances should be decided by the council
  4. That a council member wish to discuss during a council meeting

The current chairperson and 6 board members are:

  • Chairperson, High Court Judge Henrik Waaben
  1. Lawyer Janne Glæsel
  2. Professor, dr. jur. Peter Blume
  3. CEO of the Danish Consumer Council Rasmus Kjeldahl
  4. Manager of concern IT-Security Kim Aarenstrup
  5. City manager Niels Johannesen
  6. Chief physician Hans Henrik Storm
Important CasesThe Preben Randløv case

The goldsmith Preben Randløv was robbed February 8. 2008 where the robber not only got away with approximately 1.3 million DKR (€173.333) worth of jewelry, but also assaulted 2 employees, including Preben Randløv's wife. He then proceeded to upload a video from his shop surveillance camera of the masked robber, and issued a 25.000 DKR (€3.333) reward for any information that would lead to the arrest of the robber. The Data Protection Agency decided to initiate an administrative proceeding against Preben Randløv as he had not “asked the robber to consent” to the uploading of the video, and he was fined by 10.000 DKR (€1.333) by the police, as only the police have the authority to release videos of this nature. The video did lead to an arrest of 2 individuals who claimed they had bought the jewelry, but neither of them were convicted for the robbery. In October 2008, another one of Preben Randløv stores was robbed, and he told reporters during an interview, that he would upload a video of the new robbery as well.[8]

The Shell case

In March 2009 it was discovered a Shell petrol station had a wall with pictures of petrol thieves in the shop of the petrol station. The Data Protection Agency decided to prosecute them because it was not legal according to the Act on Processing of Personal Data.[9]

Privacy Problems in Denmark

According to Privacy International’s study: Leading surveillance societies in the EU and the World 2007, the main concerns in Denmark regarding privacy is the following:

  • Constitutional right to privacy depends on section 71 on personal liberty and section 72 on search and seizure
  • Comprehensive privacy law, and exempts security and defence services
  • Data privacy authority is appointed by the minister of justice, and the ministry is also responsible for the budget
  • Data privacy authority may enter any premise without a court order to investigate under the privacy law
  • Extensive interception of communications; and use of bugs on computers to monitor activity and keystrokes; and plans are in place to minimise notification
  • Police require list of all active mobile phones near the scene of a crime
  • DNA samples may be required from applicants for residency based on family ties
  • Implemented retention of communications data well before EU mandate, for one year
  • Police took the DNA of 300 youth protestors in 2007
  • Implementing air travel surveillance program
  • Parliament is over-keen to implement surveillance programs
  • Ratified Cybercrime convention

These issues have cause Denmark to receive a very low rating on their Privacy index, a 2.0 (Extensive surveillance societies) compared to a 2.5 in 2006 (Systemic failure to uphold safeguards). This places Denmark on a 34th place of the 45 included counties in the study (although United States and United Kingdom are placed on 40th and 43rd place respectively, with scores of 1.5 and 1.4)

Notes and references
  1. http://www.grundloven.dk (in Danish)
  2. "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2010-02-18. Retrieved 2010-04-06.[347]=x-347-559545
  3. http://www.datatilsynet.dk/offentlig/kort-om-persondataloven (in Danish)
  4. http://logningsdirektivet.dk (in Danish)
  5. "L_2006105EN.01005401.xml". europa.eu. Retrieved 18 January 2017.
  6. http://www.privacyinternational.org/survey/phr2005/phrtable.pdf
  7. "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2010-02-18. Retrieved 2010-04-06.[347]=x-347-559597
  8. http://ekstrabladet.dk/nationen/article1071475.ece (in Danish)
  9. http://ekstrabladet.dk/nyheder/samfund/article1137293.ece (in Danish)
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Privacy law in Denmark

topic

Privacy law in Denmark

Privacy law in Denmark is supervised and enforced by the independent agency Datatilsynet (The Danish Data Protection Agency) based mainly upon the Act on Processing of Personal Data. History of Danish Privacy Law Privacy law in Denmark was originally determined by 2 acts: the Private Registers Act of 1978, and the Public Authorities’ Registers Act of 1978, which governed the private sector and the public sector respectively. These 2 acts were replaced by the Act on Processing of Personal Data July 1, 2000, thereby implementing the European Union’s Data Protection Directive (1995/46/EC). The Danish constitution also mentions privacy, in the form of paragraph 72 that stipulates that the confiscation and examination of letters and other papers; as well the interception of postal-, telegraph- and telephone communication cannot be done without a judicial order.[1] September 28, 2006 The declaration of providers of electronic communication networks and electronic communication services registration and storage of ...more...



Law of Denmark

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Law of Denmark

Private law The Funktionærloven governs labour law concerning salaried employees. The Ferieloven governs vacation time for employees. The Købeloven governs consumer law. The Lejeloven governs landlord–tenant law. Privacy law in Denmark Public law The Straffeloven is the criminal code. The Planloven governs urban planning. The Serviceloven governs social programs. Abortion in Denmark Danish nationality law History The law of Denmark was originally based on regional laws, of which the most important was the Jyske Lov, or the Law of Jutland 1241. The Danske Lov, or the Danish Code of 1683, promoted unity. The law has been developed via judicial decisions and royal decrees. Roman law has not had much influence on the law of Denmark. See also Courts of Denmark Constitution of Denmark References Blume, Peter. In Winterton and Moys. Information Sources in Law. Second Edition. Bowker-Saur. 1997. Chapter Nine: Denmark. Pages 149 to 162. External links Guide to Law Online - Denmark from the Libr ...more...



Right to privacy

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Right to privacy

The right to privacy is an element of various legal traditions to restrain governmental and private actions that threaten the privacy of individuals.[1][2] Over 150 national constitutions mention the right to privacy.[3] Since the global surveillance disclosures of 2013, initiated by ex-NSA employee Edward Snowden, the inalienable human right to privacy has been a subject of international debate. In combating worldwide terrorism, government agencies, such as the NSA, CIA, R&AW, and GCHQ have engaged in mass, global surveillance. There is now a question as whether the right to privacy act can co-exist with the current capabilities of intelligence agencies to access and analyse virtually in every detail of an individual's life. A major question is that whether or not the right to privacy needs to be forfeited as part of the social contract to bolster defense against supposed terrorist threats. Background State of consideration of constitutional laws and acts formed by sectors and sections Privacy uses ...more...



Telephone recording laws

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Telephone recording laws

Telephone recording laws are laws that govern the civilian recording of telephone conversations by the participants. Recording of private conversations by government or law enforcement (wiretapping) are usually covered by distinct laws. Telephone tapping is strictly regulated in many countries, especially in all developed democracies, to safeguard the privacy of telephone users. Telephone tapping often must be authorized by a court, and is normally only approved when evidence shows it is not possible to detect criminal or subversive activity in less intrusive ways; often the law and regulations require that the crime investigated must be at least of a certain severity. In many jurisdictions however, permission for telephone tapping is easily obtained on a routine basis without further investigation by the court or other entity granting such permission. Illegal or unauthorized telephone tapping is often a criminal offense. However, in certain jurisdictions such as Germany, criminal courts may accept illegally ...more...



Privacy by design

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Privacy by design

Privacy by design building on Privacy Enhancing Technologies is an approach to systems engineering initially developed by people such as David Chaum, Ivan Damgård, Jan Camenish, Stefan Brands, Paul Syverson and later building on top on this people such as George Danezis and Stephan Engberg We can distinguish between 'privacy enhancing or near-perfectly secure implementations such as eCash, blinded signatures, mixnets etc. and Privacy Friendly attempts just minimizing damage to privacy best effort. Some would add the even earlier asymmetric encryption or public-private key cryptography, one-way hashes to this selection but they are debatable which the first group is not. A number of Data Privacy Officers such as John Borking in Netherlands, Ann Cavoukian in Canada have - despite lack of fully enabling solutions available in the market place - started trying to incorporate Privacy by Design in their work as early as mid 1990s[1][2] Privacy by design calls for privacy to be taken into account throughout the w ...more...



Index of Denmark-related articles

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Index of Denmark-related articles

This is an index of Denmark-related articles and topics related to the Kingdom of Denmark. A The Accreditation Institution Animals (fauna) List of birds of Denmark List of mammals of Denmark Archaeology of Denmark Architecture of Denmark List of cathedrals in Denmark List of tallest buildings in Denmark List of tallest structures in Denmark Danish design B Banks and banking List of banks in Denmark C Cinema of Denmark Danish Film Institute Films by decade Danish films before 1910 Danish films of the 1910s Danish films of the 1920s Danish films of the 1930s Danish films of the 1940s Danish films of the 1950s Danish films of the 1960s Danish films of the 1970s Danish films of the 1980s Danish films of the 1990s Danish films of the 2000s List of Danish submissions for the Academy Award for Best Foreign Language Film Censorship in Denmark Coat of arms of Denmark Danish heraldry Companies of Denmark Altona-Kiel Railw ...more...



Nothing to hide argument

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Nothing to hide argument

The nothing to hide argument states that government surveillance programs do not threaten privacy unless they uncover illegal activities, and that if they do uncover illegal activities, the person committing these activities does not have the right to keep them private. Hence, a person who favors this argument may state "I've got nothing to hide" and therefore does not express opposition to government surveillance.[1] An individual using this argument may say that a person should not worry about government or surveillance if he/she has "nothing to hide."[2] The motto "If you've got nothing to hide, you've got nothing to fear" has been used in the closed-circuit television program practiced in the United Kingdom.[3] Prevalence This argument is commonly used in discussions regarding privacy. Geoffrey Stone, a legal scholar, said that the use of the argument is "all-too-common".[3] Bruce Schneier, a data security expert and cryptographer, described it as the "most common retort against privacy advocates."[3] C ...more...



Binding corporate rules

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Binding corporate rules

Binding Corporate Rules or "BCRs" were developed by the European Union Article 29 Working Party to allow multinational corporations, international organizations, and groups of companies to make intra-organizational transfers of personal data across borders in compliance with EU Data Protection Law. The BCRs were developed as an alternative to the U.S. Department of Commerce EU Safe Harbor (which is for US organizations only) and the EU Model Contract Clauses. BCRs are required to be approved by the data protection authority in each EU Member State (such as the Information Commissioner's Office in the United Kingdom, CNIL in France, AEPD in Spain, etc.) in which the organization will rely on the BCRs. The EU has developed a mutual recognition process under which BCRs approved by one member state's data protection authority (known as the "lead" authority) and two other "co-lead" authorities, may be approved by the other relevant member states who may make comments and ask for amendments. Other members states, ...more...



IT-Political Association of Denmark

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IT-Political Association of Denmark

The IT-Political Association (Danish: IT-Politisk Forening, commonly known as IT-Pol) is a Danish non-profit NGO, which works to collect information on IT and convey this to politicians and the society to get the best possible grounds for legislation. The association is independent of political parties and communicates with politicians from all political parties. Membership is open to anyone. IT-Pol is the Danish equivalent of the Electronic Frontier Foundation. The Free Software privacy CD, Polippix, was started by and is still maintained by IT-Political Association. Issues IT-Pol is primarily concerned with issues that restricts citizens and innovation. Members of IT-Pol in the European Parliament Censorship Denmark is one of the countries in which most ISPs filters DNS traffic by default. IT-Pol regards this policy as censorship, as the filter filters content that is legal to view in Denmark. Privacy The Danish surveillance law, Overvågningsloven (in Danish) was actively fought by IT-Pol. IT- ...more...



United States v. Vuitch

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United States v. Vuitch

United States v. Vuitch, 402 U.S. 62 (1971), was a United States Supreme Court abortion rights case, which held that the District of Columbia's abortion law banning the practice except when necessary for the health or life of the woman was not unconstitutionally vague. Background Milan Vuitch, an abortion provider in the District of Columbia, had several times come under suit for providing abortion services that the government deemed not necessary for the life or health of the woman, in accordance with the DC law. Vuitch challenged the law as being unconstitutionally vague with regard to the term "health." Federal District Judge Gerhard A. Gesell agreed, dismissing Vuitch's indictment and ruling that the law failed to give the sufficient certainty required by due process of law in criminal matters. Gesell's finding was the first federal court decision declaring an abortion law unconstitutional. Decision There were two questions before the court: 1. Whether they had jurisdiction to decide the case, and 2. W ...more...



Pirate Parties International

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Pirate Parties International

  Elected in EU Parliament   Elected nationally   Elected locally   Registered for elections   Registered in some states   Unregistered but active   Status unknown   Ordinary members   Observer members in some states   Resigned   Removed due to dissolution or disbanding Pirate Parties International (PPI) is a not-for-profit international non-governmental organisation with its headquarters in Brussels, Belgium.[1] Formed in 2010, it serves as a worldwide organization for Pirate Parties, currently representing members from 42 countries. The Pirate Parties are political incarnations of the freedom of expression movement, trying to achieve their goals by the means of the established political system rather than through activism. Aims The PPI statutes[2] give its purposes as: to help establish, to support and promote, and to maintain communication and co-operation between pirate parties around the world. The PPI advocate on the international level for the promotion of the goals its Members ...more...



Privacy International

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Privacy International

Privacy International (PI) is a UK-based registered charity[2] that defends and promotes the right to privacy across the world. First formed in 1990, registered as a non-profit company in 2002 and as a charity in 2012, PI is based in London, UK. Its current executive director, since 2012, is Dr Gus Hosein. Formation, background and objectives During 1990, in response to increasing awareness about the globalisation of surveillance, more than a hundred privacy experts and human rights organizations from forty countries took steps to form an international organization for the protection of privacy.[3] Members of the new body, including computer professionals, academics, lawyers, journalists, jurists and activists, had a common interest in promoting an international understanding of the importance of privacy and data protection.[4] Meetings of the group, which took the name Privacy International (PI), were held throughout that year in North America, Europe, Asia, and the South Pacific, and members agreed to wor ...more...



Internet of things

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Internet of things

Drawing representing the Internet of things (IoT). The Internet of Things (IoT) is the network of physical devices, vehicles, home appliances and other items embedded with electronics, software, sensors, actuators, and connectivity which enables these objects to connect and exchange data.[1][2][3] Each thing is uniquely identifiable through its embedded computing system but is able to inter-operate within the existing Internet infrastructure. The figure of online capable devices increased 31% from 2016 to 8.4 billion in 2017.[4] Experts estimate that the IoT will consist of about 30 billion objects by 2020.[5] It is also estimated that the global market value of IoT will reach $7.1 trillion by 2020.[6] The IoT allows objects to be sensed or controlled remotely across existing network infrastructure,[7] creating opportunities for more direct integration of the physical world into computer-based systems, and resulting in improved efficiency, accuracy and economic benefit in addition to reduced human interve ...more...



Convention for the protection of individuals with regard to automatic processing of personal data

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Convention for the protection of individuals with regard to automatic processing of personal data

The Convention for the protection of individuals with regard to automatic processing of personal data is a 1981 Council of Europe treaty that protects the right to privacy of individuals, taking account of the increasing flow across frontiers of personal data undergoing automatic processing. All members of the Council of Europe have ratified the treaty. Mauritius, Senegal, Tunisia and Uruguay, non–Council of Europe states, have acceded to the treaty. See also Directive 95/46/EC on the protection of personal data Data privacy Data Privacy Day External links Convention for the Protection of Individuals with regard to Automatic Processing of Personal Data (Council of Europe) Ratifications. ...more...



Common Reporting Standard

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Common Reporting Standard

The Common Reporting Standard (CRS) is an information standard for the automatic exchange of tax and financial information on a global level, which the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) developed in 2014. Its purpose is to combat tax evasion. The idea was based on the USA Foreign Account Tax Compliance Act (FATCA) implementation agreements and its legal basis is the Convention on Mutual Administrative Assistance in Tax Matters. As of 2016, 83 countries had signed an agreement to implement it. First reporting is planned September 2017. The CRS has been criticised for leaving too many loopholes open, for how developing countries were not considered and involved and that non-reciprocity agreements were catering to tax havens. History Until 2014, the parties to most treaties for sharing assets, incomes and tax information internationally had shared it upon request, which was not effective in preventing tax evasion.[1] 2014 declaration In May 2014, forty-seven countries tentatively ag ...more...



Data retention

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Data retention

Data retention defines the policies of persistent data and records management for meeting legal and business data archival requirements; although sometimes interchangeable, not to be confused with the Data Protection Act 1998. The different data retention policies weigh legal and privacy concerns against economics and need-to-know concerns to determine the retention time, archival rules, data formats, and the permissible means of storage, access, and encryption. In the field of telecommunications, data retention generally refers to the storage of call detail records (CDRs) of telephony and internet traffic and transaction data (IPDRs) by governments and commercial organisations. In the case of government data retention, the data that is stored is usually of telephone calls made and received, emails sent and received, and websites visited. Location data is also collected. The primary objective in government data retention is traffic analysis and mass surveillance. By analysing the retained data, governments ...more...



Alexandra of Denmark

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Alexandra of Denmark

Alexandra of Denmark (Alexandra Caroline Marie Charlotte Louise Julia; 1 December 1844 – 20 November 1925) was Queen of the United Kingdom and the British Dominions and Empress of India as the wife of King Edward VII. Her family had been relatively obscure until 1852, when her father, Prince Christian of Schleswig-Holstein-Sonderburg-Glücksburg, was chosen with the consent of the great powers to succeed his distant cousin, Frederick VII, to the Danish throne. At the age of sixteen, she was chosen as the future wife of Albert Edward, Prince of Wales, the heir apparent of Queen Victoria. They married eighteen months later in 1863, the same year her father became king of Denmark as Christian IX and her brother was appointed to the vacant Greek throne as George I. She was Princess of Wales from 1863 to 1901, the longest anyone has ever held that title, and became generally popular; her style of dress and bearing were copied by fashion-conscious women. Largely excluded from wielding any political power, she unsuc ...more...



Electronic health record

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Electronic health record

Sample view of an electronic health record An electronic health record (EHR), or electronic medical record (EMR), is the systematized collection of patient and population electronically-stored health information in a digital format.[1] These records can be shared across different health care settings. Records are shared through network-connected, enterprise-wide information systems or other information networks and exchanges. EHRs may include a range of data, including demographics, medical history, medication and allergies, immunization status, laboratory test results, radiology images, vital signs, personal statistics like age and weight, and billing information.[2] EHR systems are designed to store data accurately and to capture the state of a patient across time. It eliminates the need to track down a patient's previous paper medical records and assists in ensuring data is accurate and legible. It can reduce risk of data replication as there is only one modifiable file, which means the file is more lik ...more...



Bellotti v. Baird (1979)

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Bellotti v. Baird (1979)

Bellotti v. Baird, 443 U.S. 622 (1979) is a United States Supreme Court case that ruled 8-1 that teenagers do not have to secure parental consent to obtain an abortion. The Court elaborated on its parental consent decision of 1976. It implies that states may be able to require a pregnant, unmarried minor to obtain parental consent to an abortion if the state law provides an alternative procedure to parental approval, such as letting the minor seek a state judge's approval instead. The plurality opinion declined to extend the full right to minors to seek and obtain an abortion, which was granted to adult women in Roe v. Wade. The Court rejected the extension to minors by placing emphasis on the especially vulnerable nature of children, their "inability to make critical decisions in an informed and mature manner; and the importance of the parental role in child rearing." See also Bellotti v. Baird (1976) List of United States Supreme Court cases, volume 443 References Wharton, Linda (2009). "Roe at Th ...more...



European Union law

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European Union law

The EU has a population of 510 million people, the largest combined economy in the world, and a very high rate of human development. A recipient of the 2012 Nobel Peace Prize, the EU is committed to "human dignity, freedom, democracy, equality, the rule of law and respect for human rights".[1] European Union law is a system of rules operating within the member states of the European Union. Since the founding of the Coal and Steel Community after World War II, the EU has developed the aim to "promote peace, its values and the well-being of its peoples".[2] The EU has political institutions, social and economic policies, which transcend nation states for the purpose of cooperation and human development.[3] According to its Court of Justice the EU represents "a new legal order of international law".[4] The EU's legal foundations are the Treaty on European Union and the Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union, unanimously agreed by the governments of 28 member states. New members may join, if they agre ...more...



Privacy-enhancing technologies

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Privacy-enhancing technologies

Privacy-Enhancing Technologies (PET) is the standardized term that refers to specific methods that act in accordance with the laws of data protection - PETs' allow online users to protect the privacy of their personally identifiable information (PII) provided to and handled by services or applications. Privacy-enhancing technologies can also be defined as: Privacy-Enhancing Technologies is a system of ICT that measures the protection of informational privacy by eliminating or minimising personal data thereby preventing unnecessary or unwanted processing of personal data, without the loss of the functionality of the information system. (van Blarkom, Borking & Olk 2003) Goals of PETs The objective of PETs is to protect personal data and ensure the users of technology that their information is confidential and management of data protection is a priority to the organizations who withhold responsibility for any PII - allowing users to take one or more of the following actions related to their personal dat ...more...



Abortion in the United States by state

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Abortion in the United States by state

Abortion in the United States is legal, via the landmark case of Roe v. Wade. Specifically, abortion is legal in all U.S. states, and every state has at least one abortion clinic.[1][2] However, individual states can regulate/limit the use of abortion or create "trigger laws", which would make abortion illegal within the first and second trimesters if Roe were overturned by the US Supreme Court. Currently, 6 states have trigger laws and 3 other states have laws intending to criminalize abortion.[3] In accordance with the US Supreme Court case of Planned Parenthood v. Casey (1992), states cannot place legal restrictions posing an undue burden for "the purpose or effect of placing a substantial obstacle in the path of a woman seeking an abortion of a nonviable fetus."[4] Current legal status nationwide Abortion laws in the U.S. prior to Roe.   Illegal   Legal in case of rape   Legal in case of danger to woman's health   Legal in case of danger to woman's health, rape or incest, or likely damaged fetus ...more...



Personality rights

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Personality rights

The right of publicity, often called personality rights, is the right of an individual to control the commercial use of his or her name, image, likeness, or other unequivocal aspects of one's identity. It is generally considered a property right as opposed to a personal right, and as such, the validity of the right of publicity can survive the death of the individual (to varying degrees depending on the jurisdiction). Classification Personality rights are generally considered to consist of two types of rights: the right of publicity, or to keep one's image and likeness from being commercially exploited without permission or contractual compensation, which is similar to the use of a trademark; and the right to privacy, or the right to be left alone and not have one's personality represented publicly without permission. In common law jurisdictions, publicity rights fall into the realm of the tort of passing off. United States jurisprudence has substantially extended this right. A commonly cited justification ...more...



Bellotti v. Baird (1976)

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Bellotti v. Baird (1976)

Bellotti v. Baird, 428 U.S. 132 (1976), was a United States Supreme Court case in which the Court upheld a Massachusetts law requiring parental consent to a minor's abortion, under the provision that "if one or both of the [minor]'s parents refuse... consent, consent may be obtained by order of a judge... for good cause shown." The decision was unanimous, and the opinion of the Court was written by Harry Blackmun. The law in question "permits a minor capable of giving informed consent to obtain a court order allowing abortion without parental consultation, and further permits even a minor incapable of giving informed consent to obtain an abortion order without parental consultation where it is shown that abortion would be in her best interests." The case was initially titled as Baird v. Quinn (Baird et al. v. Quinn et al.) since that proceedings commenced, Robert H. Quinn was the attorney general of Massachusetts. He was replaced in 1975 by Francis X. Bellotti. See also Bellotti v. Baird References F ...more...



Sophie, Countess of Wessex

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Sophie, Countess of Wessex

Sophie, Countess of Wessex, GCVO (Sophie Helen; née Rhys-Jones; born 20 January 1965), is the wife of Prince Edward, Earl of Wessex, the youngest son of Queen Elizabeth II and Prince Philip, Duke of Edinburgh. Married in 1999, she worked in public relations until 2002 and now assists her husband in his various activities. The Earl and Countess have two children: James, Viscount Severn, and Lady Louise Windsor, who are respectively eleventh and twelfth in line to the British throne. Early lifeEdit Sophie Helen Rhys-Jones was born at Radcliffe Infirmary, Oxford, on 20 January 1965, the second child and first daughter of Christopher Bournes Rhys-Jones (born 1931), a retired tyre salesman and past president of the Old Brutonian's Association, his alma mater.[1] Her mother was Mary (née O'Sullivan; 1934–2005), a charity worker and secretary.[2][3] Sophie has an elder brother, David, and was named after her father's sister, Helen, who died in a riding accident in 1960. Her godfather, actor Thane Bettany, was her f ...more...



Copyright law of the United Kingdom

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Copyright law of the United Kingdom

Under the law of United Kingdom, a copyright is an intangible property right subsisting in certain qualifying subject-matter. Copyright law is governed by the Copyright, Designs and Patents Act 1988 (the 1988 Act), as amended from time to time. As a result of increasing legal integration and harmonisation throughout the European Union a complete picture of the law can only be acquired through recourse to EU jurisprudence, although this is likely to change in the near future when the UK leaves the European Union. Background The modern concept of copyright originated in Great Britain, in the year 1710, with the Statute of Anne. Under the Statute of Anne (1710), copyright term lasted 14 years plus an optional renewal of 14 additional years. Copyright law is now governed by the Copyright, Designs and Patents Act 1988. The Act came into force on 1 August 1989, save for some minor provisions. Various amendments have been made to the original statute, mostly originating from European Union directives and related c ...more...



Google Street View privacy concerns

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Google Street View privacy concerns

Privacy advocates have objected to the Google Street View feature, pointing to photographs that show people leaving strip clubs, protesters at an abortion clinic, sunbathers in bikinis, cottagers at public parks, people picking up prostitutes and people engaging in activities visible from public property which they do not wish to be photographed and have published online.[1] Google maintains that the photos were taken from public property. However, this does not take into account that the Street View cameras take pictures from an elevated position, enabling them to look over hedges and walls designed to prevent some areas from being open to public view. Before launching the service, Google removed photos of domestic violence shelters, and it allows users to flag inappropriate or sensitive imagery for Google to review and remove.[2] When the service was first launched, the process for requesting that an image be removed was not trivial.[3] Google changed its policy to make removal more straightforward,[4] but ...more...



Duty to rescue

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Duty to rescue

A duty to rescue is a concept in tort law that arises in a number of cases, describing a circumstance in which a party can be held liable for failing to come to the rescue of another party in peril. In common law systems, it is rarely formalized in statutes which would bring the penalty of law down upon those who fail to rescue. This does not necessarily obviate a moral duty to rescue: though law is binding and carries government-authorized sanctions, there are also separate ethical arguments for a duty to rescue that may prevail even where law does not punish failure to rescue. Common law system In the common law of most English-speaking countries, there is no general duty to come to the rescue of another.[1] Generally, a person cannot be held liable for doing nothing while another person is in peril.[2][3] However, such a duty may arise in two situations: A duty to rescue arises where a person creates a hazardous situation. If another person then falls into peril because of this hazardous situation, the ...more...



Legal drinking age

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Legal drinking age

Minimum legal age to purchase alcohol by country:   Illegal regardless of age   Minimum age is 25   Minimum age is 21   Minimum age is 20   Minimum age is 19   Minimum age is 18   Minimum age is 17   Minimum age is 16   Minimum age is 15   No regulation/no age set The legal drinking age is the age at which a person can legally consume alcoholic beverages. These laws cover a wide range of issues and behaviors, addressing when and where alcohol can be consumed. The minimum age alcohol can be legally consumed can be different from the age when it can be purchased in some countries. These laws vary among different countries and many laws have exemptions or special circumstances. Most laws apply only to drinking alcohol in public places, with alcohol consumption in the home being mostly unregulated (an exception being the UK, which has a minimum legal age of five for supervised consumption in private places). Some countries also have different age limits for different types of alcoholic drinks.[1] Kaz ...more...



ZeroNet

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ZeroNet

ZeroNet is a decentralized web-like network of peer-to-peer users. Programming for the network is based in Budapest, Hungary; is built in Python; and fully open source. Instead of having an IP address, sites are identified by a public key (specifically a bitcoin address). The private key allows the owner of a site to sign and publish change, which propagate through the network. Sites can be accessed through an ordinary web browser when using the ZeroNet application, which acts as a local webhost for such pages. In addition to using bitcoin cryptography, ZeroNet uses trackers from the BitTorrent network to negotiate connections between peers. ZeroNet is anonymous by default, by hiding their IP address using the built in Tor-functionality. The BitTorrent website Play hosts a magnet link repository on ZeroNet, which links to copyrighted content. There is a Reddit community which offers support for ZeroNet. The existence of peer-to-peer online web-sites had been hypothesised for some time, with The Pirate Bay s ...more...



Ixquick

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Ixquick

Ixquick (styled "ixquick") is a metasearch engine based in Zeist and New York,[3] which highlights privacy as its distinguishing feature.[4][5][6][7][8][9][10] Founded by David Bodnick in 1998, Ixquick is owned by Surfboard Holding BV of the Netherlands, which acquired the internet company in 2000.[11] Ixquick and its sibling project Startpage.com reached their latest record (28-day average) daily direct queries of 5.7 million on 2 February 2015.[12] The company also provides the stand-alone proxy service, Ixquick Proxy, which has also been incorporated into both its Ixquick and Startpage search engines, allowing users the option to open all search results via proxy. The company developed a privacy protecting email service, called StartMail.[13] This service was released to the public in 2014.[14] History Ixquick was re-launched on 23 March 2005, with new features including a redesigned metasearch algorithm, an international phone, and lowest-price directory.[15] On 27 June 2006, following criticism of Go ...more...



Abortion law

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Abortion law

International status of abortion law, United Nations 2013 report.[1] In some cases, this map may not accurately depict the content of this article.      Legal on request      Restricted to cases of maternal life, mental health, health, rape, fetal defects, and/or socioeconomic factors      Restricted to cases of maternal life, mental health, health, rape, and/or fetal defects      Restricted to cases of maternal life, mental health, health, and/or rape      Restricted to cases of maternal life, mental health, and/or health      Restricted to cases of maternal life      Illegal with no exceptions      No information Abortion law permits, prohibits, restricts, or otherwise regulates the availability of abortion. Abortion has been a controversial subject in many societies through history on religious, moral, ethical, practical, and political grounds. It has been banned frequently and otherwise limited by law. However, abortions continue to be common in many areas, even where they are illegal ...more...



F-Secure

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F-Secure

Company offices in Helsinki, Finland F-Secure Corporation (formerly Data Fellows) is a Finnish cyber security and privacy company based in Helsinki, Finland. The company has 20 country offices and a presence in more than 100 countries, with Security Lab operations in Helsinki, Finland and in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. The company develops and sells antivirus, password management, endpoint security, and other cyber security products and services. With Radar Managed Services vulnerability scanning and Rapid Detection Service as flagship products, the company continues to expand into the corporate market. History F-Secure was first established under the name Data Fellows by Petri Allas and Risto Siilasmaa in 1988. Data Fellows trained computer users and built customized databases. Three years later, the company launched its first major software project and developed the first heuristic scanner for antivirus products. F-Secure’ first antivirus product for Windows PCs was launched in 1994. Data Fellows became F-S ...more...



Freedom of information laws by country

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Freedom of information laws by country

Freedom of Information laws (FOI laws) allow access by the general public to data held by national governments. The emergence of freedom of information legislation was a response to increasing dissatisfaction with the secrecy surrounding government policy development and decision making.[1] They establish a "right-to-know" legal process by which requests may be made for government-held information, to be received freely or at minimal cost, barring standard exceptions. Also variously referred to as open records, or sunshine laws (in the United States), governments are typically bound by a duty to publish and promote openness. In many countries there are constitutional guarantees for the right of access to information, but these are usually unused if specific support legislation does not exist. Introduction Over 100 countries around the world have implemented some form of freedom of information legislation.[2][3] Sweden's Freedom of the Press Act of 1766 is the oldest in the world.[4][5] Most freedom of infor ...more...



BAE Systems Applied Intelligence

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BAE Systems Applied Intelligence

BAE Systems Applied Intelligence (formerly Detica) is an international business and technology consulting firm owned by BAE Systems. It specializes in 'security and resilience',[1] and in collecting, managing and exploiting information to reveal so-called "actionable intelligence", "threat intelligence", "fraud containment" and customer insight. It also sells clients software for large-scale data exploitation, and analytics for intelligence-grade security and financial crime work. History[2] The business was founded in 1971 as Smith Associates carrying out research on defence matters for the UK Government. It was incorporated in 1977 and renamed Detica in 2001. It was first listed on the London Stock Exchange in 2002. In 2003 Detica acquired Rubus, an Information Technology services company. It went on to launch Streamshield, an internet security software product, in 2004. In 2005 Detica acquired Extraprise UK, a systems integrator.[3] In 2006 it bought the consultancy Evolution,[4] the computer forensics b ...more...



Sodomy law

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Sodomy law

A sodomy law is a law that defines certain sexual acts as crimes. The precise sexual acts meant by the term sodomy are rarely spelled out in the law, but are typically understood by courts to include any sexual act deemed to be "unnatural" or immoral.[1] Sodomy typically includes anal sex, oral sex, and bestiality.[2][3][4] In practice, sodomy laws have rarely been enforced against heterosexual couples, and have mostly been used to target homosexuals.[5] As of August 2016, 72 countries as well as five sub-national jurisdictions[a] have laws criminalizing homosexuality,[6] with most of them located in Muslim world of Asia and Africa. In 2006 that number was 92.[6] In 2011, the United Nations Human Rights Council passed an LGBT rights resolution, which was followed up by a report published by the UN Human Rights Commissioner which included scrutinisation of the mentioned codes. History Criminalization The Middle Assyrian Law Codes (1075 BC) state: If a man has intercourse with his brother-in-arms, they shall ...more...



Origin (digital distribution software)

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Origin (digital distribution software)

Origin is an online gaming, digital distribution and digital rights management (DRM) platform developed by Electronic Arts that allows users to purchase games on the internet for PC and mobile platforms, and download them with the Origin client (formerly EA Download Manager, EA Downloader and EA Link). Origin for Mac has been available since February 8, 2013.[2] Origin contains social features such as profile management, networking with friends with chat and direct game joining along with an in-game overlay, streaming via TwitchTV and sharing of game library and community integration with networking sites like Facebook, Xbox Live, PlayStation Network, and Nintendo Network.[3] Electronic Arts has stated that it wanted Origin to match Valve's Steam service, Origin's leading competitor, by the end of March 2012, by adding cloud game saves, auto-patching, achievements and rewards, and cross-platform releases.[4] Origin has over 50 million registered users.[5] ComponentsOrigin store Origin web store as of Fe ...more...



Catherine, Duchess of Cambridge

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Catherine, Duchess of Cambridge

Catherine, Duchess of Cambridge (born Catherine Elizabeth "Kate" Middleton; 9 January 1982[1]) is a member of the British royal family. Her husband, Prince William, Duke of Cambridge, is expected to become king of the United Kingdom and of 15 other Commonwealth realms, making Catherine a likely future queen consort.[2] Catherine was raised in Chapel Row, a village near Newbury, Berkshire, England.[3] She studied art history in Scotland at the University of St Andrews, where she met William in 2001. Their engagement was announced in November 2010 before they married on 29 April 2011 at Westminster Abbey. The Duke and Duchess's children, Prince George, Princess Charlotte, and Prince Louis of Cambridge, are third, fourth, and fifth in the line of succession respectively.[4][5][6][7][8] Catherine's impact on British and American fashion has been called the "Kate Middleton effect" in the media,[9] and in 2012 and 2013, she was selected as one of the "100 Most Influential People in the World" by Time magazine.[10 ...more...



Defamation

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Defamation

Defamation, calumny, vilification, or traducement is the communication of a false statement that, depending on the law of the country, harms the reputation of an individual, business, product, group, government, religion, or nation.[1] Under common law, to constitute defamation, a claim must generally be false and must have been made to someone other than the person defamed.[2] Some common law jurisdictions also distinguish between spoken defamation, called slander, and defamation in other media such as printed words or images, called libel.[3] False light laws protect against statements which are not technically false, but which are misleading.[4] In some civil law jurisdictions, defamation is treated as a crime rather than a civil wrong.[5] The United Nations Human Rights Committee ruled in 2012 that the libel law of one country, the Philippines, was inconsistent with Article 19 of the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights, as well as urging that "State parties [to the Covenant] should con ...more...

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Prince Philip, Duke of Edinburgh

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Prince Philip, Duke of Edinburgh

Prince Philip, Duke of Edinburgh (born Prince Philip of Greece and Denmark,[1] 10 June 1921)[fn 1] is the husband and consort of Queen Elizabeth II. A member of the House of Schleswig-Holstein-Sonderburg-Glücksburg, Philip was born into the Greek and Danish royal families. He was born in Greece, but his family was exiled from the country when he was an infant. After being educated in France, Germany, and the United Kingdom, he joined the British Royal Navy in 1939, aged 18. From July 1939, he began corresponding with the 13-year-old Princess Elizabeth, his second cousin once removed, whom he had first met in 1934. During the Second World War he served with the Mediterranean and Pacific fleets. After the war, Philip was granted permission by King George VI to marry Elizabeth. Before the official announcement of their engagement in July 1947, he abandoned his Greek and Danish royal titles and became a naturalised British subject, adopting the surname Mountbatten from his maternal grandparents. He married Eliz ...more...

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Paid tha Cost to Be da Boss

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Paid tha Cost to Be da Boss

Paid tha Cost to Be da Boss (stylized as Paid tha Cost to Be da Bo$$) is the sixth studio album by American rapper Snoop Dogg. It was released on November 26, 2002, by his Doggystyle label, alongside Priority and Capitol Records. Following his departure from the No Limit Records, he later signed a recording contract to Capitol through Priority Records. The album was supported by two singles: "From tha Chuuuch to da Palace" featuring Pharrell, and the other-Pharrell featured track "Beautiful" along with featuring Charlie Wilson. The album debuted at number 12 on the US Billboard 200, selling 174,000 copies in its first week. To date, the album became a certified platinum by the Recording Industry Association of America (RIAA), selling over 1,500,000 copies worldwide. Singles The album's lead single, called "From tha Chuuuch to da Palace" featuring a guest appearance from Pharrell, was released on October 15, 2002. The song's production was handled by The Neptunes. The music video for "From tha Chuuuch to da ...more...



Government database

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Government database

A government database collects information for various reasons, including climate monitoring, securities law compliance, geological surveys, patent applications and grants, surveillance, national security, border control, law enforcement, public health, voter registration, vehicle registration, social security, and statistics. Canada National DNA Data Bank (NDDB), a system established under the DNA Identification Act of 1998 to hold DNA profiles of persons convicted of designated offenses and DNA profiles obtained from crime scenes. Profiles may only be used for law enforcement purposes.[1][2] At the end of September 2013 the National DNA Data Bank held 277,590 profiles in the Convicted Offender Index and 88,892 profiles in the Crime Scene Index with from 500 to 600 new samples received each week.[3] Government Electronic Directory Services (GEDS), a directory of Canadian federal public servants throughout the country, including names, titles, telephone and facsimile numbers, departmental names, office ...more...



Secret ballot

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Secret ballot

Luis Guillermo Solís, President of Costa Rica, votes behind a privacy screen The secret ballot is a voting method in which a voter's choices in an election or a referendum is anonymous, forestalling attempts to influence the voter by intimidation, blackmailing, and potential vote buying. The system is one means of achieving the goal of political privacy. Secret ballots are used in conjunction with various voting systems. The most basic form of secret ballot utilizes blank pieces of paper, upon which each voter writes his or her choice. Without revealing the votes to anyone, the voter would fold the ballot paper and place it in a sealed box, which is emptied later for counting. An aspect of secret voting is the provision of a voting booth to enable the voter to write on the ballot paper without others being able to see what is being written. Today, printed ballot papers are usually provided, with the names of the candidates or questions and respective check boxes. Provisions are made at the polling place fo ...more...



DNA database

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DNA database

A DNA database or DNA databank is a database of DNA profiles which can be used in the analysis of genetic diseases, genetic fingerprinting for criminology, or genetic genealogy. DNA databases may be public or private, but the largest ones are national DNA databases. When a match is made from a national DNA database to link a crime scene to a person whose DNA profile is stored on a database, that link is often referred to as a cold hit. A cold hit is of particular value in linking a specific person to a crime scene, but is of less evidential value than a DNA match made without the use of a DNA database.[1] Research shows that DNA databases of criminal offenders reduce crime rates.[2] TypesForensic A centralised DNA database for storing DNA profiles of individuals that enables searching and comparing of DNA samples collected from a crime scene against stored profiles. The most important function of the forensic database is to produce matches between the suspected individual and crime scene bio-markers, and th ...more...



Online newspaper

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Online newspaper

An online newspaper is the online version of a newspaper, either as a stand-alone publication or as the online version of a printed periodical. Going online created more opportunities for newspapers, such as competing with broadcast journalism in presenting breaking news in a more timely manner. The credibility and strong brand recognition of well established newspapers, and the close relationships they have with advertisers, are also seen by many in the newspaper industry as strengthening their chances of survival.[1] The movement away from the printing process can also help decrease costs. Online newspapers, like printed newspapers, have legal restrictions regarding libel, privacy and copyright,[2] also apply to online publications in most countries as in the UK. Also, the UK Data Protection Act applies to online newspapers and news pages.[3] Up to 2014, the PCC ruled in the UK, but there was no clear distinction between authentic online newspapers and forums or blogs. In 2007, a ruling was passed to form ...more...



Cashless society

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Cashless society

Estimated share of payments done by non-cash methods (from studies published 2008-2013)[1] Country % Singapore 61 Netherlands 60 France 59 Sweden 59 Canada 57 Belgium 56 United Kingdom 52 United States 45 Australia 35 Germany 33 South Korea 29 Spain 16 Brazil 15 Japan 14 China 10 UAE 8 Taiwan 6 Italy 6 South Africa 6 Poland 5 Russia 4 Mexico 4 Greece 2 Colombia 2 India 2 Kenya 2 Thailand 2 Malaysia 2 Saudi Arabia 1 Peru 1 Egypt 1 Indonesia 0 Nigeria 0 A cashless society describes an economic state whereby financial transactions are not conducted with money in the form of physical banknotes or coins, but rather through the transfer of digital information (usually an electronic representation of money) between the transacting parties.[2] Cashless societies have existed, based on barter and other methods of exchange, and cashless transactions have also become possible using digital currencies such as bitcoin. However this article discusses an ...more...



Nude beach

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Nude beach

Naturists on a nude beach in Crimea, 2008 A nude beach, sometimes called a clothing-optional or free beach, is a beach where users are at liberty to be nude. Nude beaches usually have mixed bathing. Such beaches are usually on public lands, and any member of the public is allowed to use the facilities without membership in any movement or subscription to any personal belief. The use of the beach facilities is normally anonymous. Unlike a naturist resort or facility, there is normally no membership or vetting requirement for the use of a nude beach. The use of nude beach facilities is usually casual, not requiring pre-booking. Nude beaches may be official (legally sanctioned), unofficial (tolerated by residents and law enforcement), or illegal. However, nude beaches are relatively few and are usually at some distance from cities, and access is at times more difficult than at a regular beach and the facilities at these beaches tend to be very basic with a few notable exceptions. Nude bathing is one of the mos ...more...



Pornography by region

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Pornography by region

World map of pornography laws:   Generally legal with certain extreme exceptions   Partially legal, under some broad restrictions, or ambiguous status   Illegal   Data unavailable The production and distribution of pornographic films are both activities that are lawful in many, but by no means all, countries so long as the pornography features performers aged above a certain age, usually eighteen years. Further restrictions are often placed on such material. AfricaBotswana The possession of "Indecent and obscene material such as pornographic books, magazines, films, videos, DVDs and software" is prohibited in Botswana. Possession or import of such material is illegal and punishable by a fine or up to 4 years imprisonment.[1] Egypt In Egypt, it is illegal to distribute pornography.[2] The possession and import of pornography are offences.[3] Unlike numerous African nations which have no laws against child pornography, Egypt blocks child pornography websites and dealing in child pornography carries a m ...more...



Pornography

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Pornography

"XXX" is used to designate pornographic material. Pornography (often abbreviated porn) is the portrayal of sexual subject matter for the exclusive purpose of sexual arousal.[1] Pornography may be presented in a variety of media, including books, magazines, postcards, photographs, sculpture, drawing, painting, animation, sound recording, phone calls, writing, film, video, and video games. The term applies to the depiction of the act rather than the act itself, and so does not include live exhibitions like sex shows and striptease. The primary subjects of present-day pornographic depictions are pornographic models, who pose for still photographs, and pornographic actors or porn stars, who perform in pornographic films. If dramatic skills are not involved, a performer in a porn film may also be called a model. Various groups within society have considered depictions of a sexual nature immoral, addictive, and noxious, labeling them pornographic, and attempting to have them suppressed under obscenity and other ...more...



IPhone X

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IPhone X

iPhone X ("X" pronounced "ten" )[9] is a smartphone designed, developed, and marketed by Apple Inc. It was announced on September 12, 2017, alongside the iPhone 8 and iPhone 8 Plus at the Steve Jobs Theater in the Apple Park campus. The phone was released on November 3, 2017. This device marks the iPhone series' tenth anniversary, with "X" being the symbol for "ten" in Roman numerals. The iPhone X is intended to showcase what Apple considers technology of the future, specifically adopting OLED screen technology for the first time in iPhone history, as well as using a glass and stainless-steel form factor, offering wireless charging, and removing the home button in favor of introducing Face ID, a new authentication method using advanced technologies to scan the user's face to unlock the device, as well as for the use of animated emojis called Animoji. The new, nearly bezel-less form factor marks a significant change to the iPhone user interaction, involving swipe-based gestures to navigate around the operatin ...more...




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