Pratfall effect

In social psychology, the pratfall effect is the tendency for attractiveness to increase or decrease after an individual makes a mistake, depending on the individual's perceived ability to perform well in a general sense. A perceived highly-competent individual would be, on average, more likable after committing a blunder, while the opposite would occur if a perceived average person makes a mistake.

Originally described in 1966 by Elliot Aronson,[1] numerous studies have since been conducted to isolate the effects of gender, self-esteem, and severity of the blunder on change in attractiveness or likability. Occasionally referred to as the blemishing effect[2] when used as a form of marketing, generalizations of the pratfall effect are often used to describe the counterintuitive benefits of making mistakes.

Research

Details of the pratfall effect were first described by Aronson in his experiment testing the effects of a simple blunder on perceived attraction. The experiment was set up involving male students from the University of Minnesota who would listen to tape recordings of a confederate (actor) pretending to be a contestant for the show College Bowl. The tapes consisted of an interview with extremely difficult questions. The confederate plays the role of either an unrealistically intelligent individual who answers a majority of the questions correctly (92%), or a exceedingly mediocre one who answers only a few questions correctly (30%). After the questioning, the strong performing actor admits to a stellar high school career, marked with academic and nonacademic success, while the more unremarkable actor describes an ordinary high school career, consisting of average grades and weak involvement in extracurricular clubs. At the end of the interview, a pratfall, or small blunder, was introduced in the experimental case and omitted to serve as a control. Aronson's research found that a blunderer was rated to be more attractive only if they were previously portrayed as intelligent—blunderers portrayed as average suffered decreases in their perceived attractiveness.[1] Later research inspired by Aronson experimentally defined attractiveness as a combination of liking and respect, and replicated similar results.[3]

Gender

Effects of pratfall are most directly applicable to males. Women tend to prefer the non-blunderer regardless of gender, and although findings of pratfall cannot be readily generalized to female populations, neither population preferred the mediocre blunderer.[4]

Severity of pratfall

Research by Mettee and Wilkins reveals that severity of pratfall plays a major role on determining attractiveness after a pratfall is committed. Experimentally, each condition was conveyed by changing the response of the interviewer and blunderer:

  • Control condition: No blunder.
  • Minor pratfall condition: Sound of a cup spilling is heard and confederate reacts with anguish.
  • Major pratfall condition: Cup is spilled, and interviewer reacts with hostility toward the confederate, who apologizes profusely.

An able individual that commits a minor pratfall (2) will have an insignificant decrease in average liking and small decrease in average respect, while the able individual that commits a major pratfall (3) receives a significant increase in liking and insignificant decrease in respect. A less able individual that commits any pratfall (2,3) will have a decrease in liking, which increases with severity of blunder. Respect only decreases in the less competent individual after a minor mistake is committed.[3]

Self-esteem

Research conducted on self-image suggests that self-esteem influences whether positive aspects of the pratfall effect and self-comparisons will occur.[5] An individual with high self-esteem will prefer the non-pratfalling highly able individual to the pratfalling individual of equal ability. This is well explained by social comparison theory and tendencies for individuals to compare themselves to others more similar to themselves.[6] When an individual of similar competency to a rater commits a pratfall, the comparison between the observer and blunderer can cause mental discomfort, which may then result in lower likability ratings.[3] Since observers seek to build accurate self-evaluations, the commonality shared between the blunderer and the observer could threaten the observer's self-concept, especially in self-evaluations of abilities. A rater with a high level of self-esteem would therefore feel threatened by a blundering competent individual, therefore preferring the non-blundering able individual since that individual poses no threat to the observer's self-esteem. For the same reason, an average blunderer would pose more of a threat to an average individual, resulting in similar losses in likability. Individuals with low self-esteem tend to prefer the highly able individual. Although no research has been conducted on this topic, one such explanation suggests that a person with low self-esteem would expect to be "outshone", and desires to find relatability between themselves and the perceived competent individuals.[3]

Attitude

Kiesler and Goldberg proposed that similarity in attitude between observers and blunderers can determine the extent at which changes in attractiveness occur. Greater similarities in attitudes resulted in more derogation, even to the point where the blunderer is subject to derogation regardless of perceived ability. This was determined experimentally by directly telling observers that they were extremely similar to the confederate, especially in prose and in the form of responses to questioning.[7] This research implies that similarities in attitude can be more significant in determining attractiveness, especially with knowledge of congruences in attitude.

Explanation

Aronson explained the results of this experiment and the pratfall effect as due to increased sympathy with successful individual after they make a mistake. Later work has suggested that the pratfall effect is explained by self-comparison between blunderers and observers in addition to the observer's desires for accurate self-evaluations. The derogation toward an average confederate appears after the confederate commits the pratfall since humor allows the individuals to comfortably rate attractiveness more congruently with immediately felt (negative) emotions.[8] These emotions vary based on the ability of the observer, with the average participant feeling the most discomfort due to the participant's similarity to the mediocre performer, and the performer's mistake.[3][6] As a result of threatened self-esteem (in the observer), the perceived average individual's attractiveness is rated lower. The perceived able individual is rated higher after the pratfall since the able individual appears more relatable and therefore approachable and likable.[9]

An alternative explanation is that the pratfall effect is due to increased attention to the target individuals, which in turn results in better realization of their appropriateness and/or inappropriateness given the evaluation criteria.[10]

Examples

Notably attributed to Kennedy in the aftermath of the Bay of the Pigs Invasion[11] and to Apple's unsuccessful endeavors in mapping/navigation services.[12]

ApplicationsMarketing

Research on the potential positive effects of "blemishes" in product marketing suggests that in certain situations, desirability and eventual purchase decisions both increased after presenting a product blemish, but only under low-effort processing conditions, or when cognitive resources are low due to preoccupation or distraction. Under high-effort processing conditions, presenting a blemish decreased desirability and amounts of purchases. Primacy effects suggest that under low-effort processing conditions, positive effects create a reference point at which a product is evaluated, and conflicting negative information presented boosts the initial positive impression formed by the product.

This was demonstrated through research by approaching students before an exam—when students likely had their attention focused elsewhere—versus approaching students leisurely walking around and offering to sell them a chocolate bar. The chocolate bar was advertised positively: chilled, favored by consumers on a taste test, and offered at a discount. In the experimental condition, the chocolate bar was described as discounted since it was broken. The chocolate bar was packed in a transparent wrapper, so the broken piece of chocolate could clearly be seen by the students. Students in the low-effort experimental group were twice as likely to purchase the chocolate bar after being presented negative information, while in the high-effort group, students were half as likely to purchase the chocolate bar.[2]

References
  1. Aronson, E., Willerman, B., & Floyd, J. (1966). The effect of a pratfall on increasing interpersonal attractiveness. Psychonomic Science.
  2. Ein-Gar, D., Shiv, B., & Tormala, Z. L. (2012). When blemishing leads to blossoming: The positive effect of negative information. Journal of Consumer Research, 38(5), 846-859.
  3. Mettee, D. R., & Wilkins, P. C. (1972). When similarity" hurts": Effects of perceived ability and a humorous blunder on interpersonal attractiveness. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 22(2), 246.
  4. Deaux, K. (1972). To err is humanizing: But sex makes a difference. Representative Research in Social Psychology, 3, 20-28.
  5. Koch, Erika J., and James A. Shepperd. "Testing ability and acceptance explanations of self-esteem." Self and Identity 7.1 (2008): 54-74.
  6. Festinger, L. (1954). A theory of social comparison processes. Human relations, 7(2), 117-140.
  7. Kiesler, C. A., & Goldberg, G. N. (1968). Multi-dimensional approach to the experimental study of interpersonal attraction: Effect of a blunder on the attractiveness of a able other. Psychological reports, 22(3), 693-705.
  8. Landy, D., & Mettee, D. (1969). Evaluation of an aggressor as a function of exposure to cartoon humor. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 12(1), 66.
  9. Helmreich, R., Aronson, E., & LeFan, J. (1970). To err is humanizing sometimes: Effects of self-esteem, ability, and a pratfall on interpersonal attraction. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 16(2), 259.
  10. Yechiam, E, & Hochman, G. (2013) Losses as modulators of attention: Review and analysis of the unique effects of losses over gains. Psychological Bulletin, 139, 497-518.
  11. Berglas, S. (1996, September 1). The Entrepreneurial Ego: Pratfalls. Retrieved from Inc. Magazine: http://www.inc.com/magazine/19960901/1796.html
  12. Kessler, Z. (2012, December 13). How Apple Will Benefit From Its Miserable Maps Failure. Bloomberg. Retrieved October 18, 2013, from "Archived copy". Archived from the original on November 13, 2013. Retrieved November 13, 2013.
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Pratfall effect

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Pratfall effect

In social psychology, the pratfall effect is the tendency for attractiveness to increase or decrease after an individual makes a mistake, depending on the individual's perceived ability to perform well in a general sense. A perceived highly-competent individual would be, on average, more likable after committing a blunder, while the opposite would occur if a perceived average person makes a mistake. Originally described in 1966 by Elliot Aronson,[1] numerous studies have since been conducted to isolate the effects of gender, self-esteem, and severity of the blunder on change in attractiveness or likability. Occasionally referred to as the blemishing effect[2] when used as a form of marketing, generalizations of the pratfall effect are often used to describe the counterintuitive benefits of making mistakes. Research Details of the pratfall effect were first described by Aronson in his experiment testing the effects of a simple blunder on perceived attraction. The experiment was set up involving male students ...more...

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Elliot Aronson (born January 9, 1932) is an American psychologist who is best known for his experiments on the theory of cognitive dissonance and for his invention of the Jigsaw Classroom, a cooperative teaching technique which facilitates learning while reducing interethnic hostility and prejudice. In his popular (1972) social psychology textbook, The Social Animal, (now in its 11th edition), he stated Aronson's First Law: "People who do crazy things are not necessarily crazy," thus asserting the importance of situational factors in bizarre behavior. He is the only person in the 120-year history of the American Psychological Association to have won all three of its major awards: for writing, for teaching, and for research.[3] In 2007 he received the William James Award for Lifetime Achievement from the Association for Psychological Science, in which he was cited as the scientist who "fundamentally changed the way we look at everyday life.” [4] A Review of General Psychology survey, published in 2002, ranked ...more...

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Batman

Batman is a fictional superhero appearing in American comic books published by DC Comics. The character was created by artist Bob Kane and writer Bill Finger,[1][2] and first appeared in Detective Comics #27, in 1939. Originally named the "Bat-Man", the character is also referred to by such epithets as the Caped Crusader, the Dark Knight, and the World's Greatest Detective.[5] Batman's secret identity is Bruce Wayne, a wealthy American playboy, philanthropist, and owner of Wayne Enterprises. After witnessing the murder of his parents Dr. Thomas Wayne and Martha Wayne as a child, he swore vengeance against criminals, an oath tempered by a sense of justice. Bruce Wayne trains himself physically and intellectually and crafts a bat-inspired persona to fight crime.[6] Batman operates in the fictional Gotham City with assistance from various supporting characters, including his butler Alfred, police commissioner Gordon, and vigilante allies such as Robin. Unlike most superheroes, Batman does not possess any super ...more...

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Luigi's Mansion: Dark Moon

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Luigi's Mansion: Dark Moon

Luigi's Mansion: Dark Moon,[a] known in Europe and Australia as Luigi's Mansion 2[3], is an action-adventure video game developed by Next Level Games and published by Nintendo for the Nintendo 3DS, and is the sequel to the 2001 game Luigi's Mansion for the GameCube. The game was first released in Japan on March 20, 2013, and in most other major regions later that same month. It is the third Mario game where Luigi is the protagonist, after Mario Is Missing and the original Luigi's Mansion. In Dark Moon, the player takes control of the Mario franchise character Luigi, who is equipped with the Poltergust 5000, a specialized vacuum cleaner used to capture ghosts. In the game's single-player mode, the main goal is to retrieve the pieces of the shattered Dark Moon, a magical object that has a pacifying effect on the ghosts residing in the game's setting, Evershade Valley, by seeking out the shards in the five haunted mansions located therein. Dark Moon offers a cooperative multiplayer mode that can be played local ...more...

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Ben Turpin

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Ben Turpin

Bernard "Ben" Turpin (September 19, 1869[2] – July 1, 1940) was an American comedian and actor, best remembered for his work in silent films. His trademarks were his cross-eyed appearance and adeptness at vigorous physical comedy. Turpin worked with notable performers such as Charlie Chaplin and Laurel and Hardy, and was a part of the Mack Sennett studio team. He is believed to have been the first filmed "victim" of the pie in the face gag. When sound came to films, Turpin chose to retire, having invested profitably in real estate, although he did do occasional cameos. Personal life Turpin was born in New Orleans, Louisiana on September 19, 1869,[2] the son of a candy store owner, Ernest Turpin, and Sarah Buckley.[3] Turpin and his first wife, actress Carrie Lemieux,[4] were married in Chicago on February 18, 1907.[5] In 1923, Mrs. Turpin became ill with influenza, which caused the loss of her hearing. Heartbroken, Turpin took his seriously ill wife to the Basilica of Sainte-Anne-de-Beaupré in Quebec, hopin ...more...

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My Little Pony: Friendship Is Magic (season 1)

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My Little Pony: Friendship Is Magic (season 1)

The first season of the animated television series My Little Pony: Friendship Is Magic, developed by Lauren Faust, originally aired on The Hub in the United States. The series is based on Hasbro's My Little Pony line of toys and animated works and is often referred by collectors to be the fourth generation, or "G4", of the My Little Pony franchise. Season 1 of the series premiered on October 10, 2010 on The Hub, an American pay television channel partly owned by Hasbro, and concluded on May 6, 2011. The show follows a studious unicorn pony named Twilight Sparkle as her mentor Princess Celestia guides her to learn about friendship in the town of Ponyville. Twilight becomes close friends with five other ponies: Applejack, Rarity, Fluttershy, Rainbow Dash, and Pinkie Pie, as they all teach each other the magic of friendship. Each of the ponies represent a different facet of friendship, and Twilight soon discovers herself to be a key part of the "Elements of Harmony", ancient artifacts with powerful magic proper ...more...

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The Devil Wears Prada (film)

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The Devil Wears Prada (film)

The Devil Wears Prada is a 2006 American comedy-drama film based on Lauren Weisberger's 2003 novel of the same name. This screen adaptation stars Meryl Streep as Miranda Priestly, a powerful fashion magazine editor, and Anne Hathaway as Andrea (Andy) Sachs, a college graduate who goes to New York City and lands a job as Priestly's co-assistant. Emily Blunt and Stanley Tucci co-star as co-assistant Emily Charlton and art director Nigel, respectively. Adrian Grenier, Simon Baker, and Tracie Thoms play key supporting roles. Wendy Finerman produced and David Frankel directed the film, which was distributed by 20th Century Fox. Streep's performance drew critical acclaim and earned her many award nominations, including her record-setting 14th Oscar bid, as well as the Golden Globe for Best Actress in a Comedy or Musical. Blunt also drew favorable reviews and nominations for her performance, as did many of those involved in the film's production. The film was well received by both film critics and the public and b ...more...

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Anton Chekhov

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Anton Chekhov

Anton Pavlovich Chekhov (Russian: Антон Павлович Чехов[note 1], tr. Antón Pávlovich Chékhov, IPA: ; 29 January 1860[1] – 15 July 1904)[2] was a Russian playwright and short-story writer, who is considered to be among the greatest writers of short fiction in history. His career as a playwright produced four classics, and his best short stories are held in high esteem by writers and critics.[3][4] Along with Henrik Ibsen and August Strindberg, Chekhov is often referred to as one of the three seminal figures in the birth of early modernism in the theatre.[5] Chekhov practiced as a medical doctor throughout most of his literary career: "Medicine is my lawful wife", he once said, "and literature is my mistress."[6] Chekhov renounced the theatre after the reception of The Seagull in 1896, but the play was revived to acclaim in 1898 by Konstantin Stanislavski's Moscow Art Theatre, which subsequently also produced Chekhov's Uncle Vanya and premiered his last two plays, Three Sisters and The Cherry Orchard. These fou ...more...

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Jamie Madrox

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Jamie Madrox

James Madrox, also called the Multiple Man, is a fictional character appearing in American comic books published by Marvel Comics. Created by writer/editor Len Wein,[3] he first appeared in Giant-Size Fantastic Four #4 (February 1975). A mutant with the ability to create instant duplicates of himself, Madrox was mainly a minor or supporting character until his appearance in the 1987 miniseries Fallen Angels. The character underwent greater development under writer Peter David through his appearance in David's run of the monthly series X-Factor (vol. 1) in the 1990s, and in David's second and ongoing run of the title (vol. 3) in the 2000s. The character has appeared in multiple television, film and video game adaptations, most notably in the 2006 film X-Men: The Last Stand, in which he was portrayed by Eric Dane. The character will also receive his own solo film as part of the X-Men film series portrayed by James Franco. Publication history Jamie Madrox first appeared in Giant-Size Fantastic Four #4. In the ...more...

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Seventh Doctor

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Seventh Doctor

The Seventh Doctor is an incarnation of the Doctor, the protagonist of the BBC science fiction television series Doctor Who. He is portrayed by Scottish actor Sylvester McCoy. Within the series' narrative, the Doctor is a centuries-old Time Lord alien from the planet Gallifrey who travels in time and space in his TARDIS, frequently with companions. When the Doctor is critically injured, he can regenerate his body; in doing so, his physical appearance and personality change. McCoy portrays the seventh such incarnation, a whimsical, thoughtful character who quickly becomes more layered, secretive, and manipulative. His first companion was Melanie Bush (Bonnie Langford), a computer programmer who travelled with his previous incarnation, and who is soon succeeded by troubled teenager and explosives expert Ace (Sophie Aldred), who becomes his protégée. The Seventh Doctor first appeared on TV in 1987. After the programme was cancelled at the end of 1989, the Seventh Doctor's adventures continued in novels until t ...more...

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Box Car Racer (album)

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Box Car Racer (album)

Box Car Racer is the sole studio album by American rock band of the same name. Produced by Jerry Finn, the album was released May 21, 2002 through MCA Records. The band was a side-project of Blink-182 members Tom DeLonge and Travis Barker, with David Kennedy completing the band's studio lineup; a bassist and friend of Barker, Anthony Celestino, toured with the band throughout late 2002. The record was the only studio effort the trio produced together, and was recorded over the course of six weeks in late 2001. The record is primarily based on DeLonge's post-hardcore influences, such as Fugazi and Refused. The recording sessions were particularly difficult for him, as he had recently undergone back surgery. The record is a concept album detailing the end of the world, and features dark, moody tracks mulling over confusion. Blink-182 bassist Mark Hoppus—the only member of that band not involved in the project—felt betrayed over his lack of inclusion, which evolved into tensions between him and DeLonge. It cont ...more...

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Buster Keaton

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Buster Keaton

Joseph Frank "Buster" Keaton (October 4, 1895 – February 1, 1966)[1] was an American actor, comedian, film director, producer, screenwriter, and stunt performer.[2] He was best known for his silent films, in which his trademark was physical comedy with a consistently stoic, deadpan expression, earning him the nickname "The Great Stone Face".[3][4] Critic Roger Ebert wrote of Keaton's "extraordinary period from 1920 to 1929, [when] he worked without interruption on a series of films that make him, arguably, the greatest actor–director in the history of the movies".[4] His career declined afterward with a dispiriting loss of his artistic independence when he was hired by Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer, his wife divorced him, and he descended into alcoholism. He recovered in the 1940s, remarried, and revived his career to a degree as an honored comic performer for the rest of his life, earning an Academy Honorary Award. Many of Keaton's films from the 1920s, such as Sherlock Jr. (1924), The General (1926), and The Cameram ...more...

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Soul Sacrifice (video game)

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Soul Sacrifice (video game)

Soul Sacrifice (ソウル・サクリファイス Souru Sakurifaisu) is an action role-playing video game developed by Marvelous AQL and SCE Japan Studio and published by Sony Computer Entertainment for PlayStation Vita. It was released in Japan on March 7, 2013, in North America on April 30, 2013,[3] and in the PAL region in May 2013.[4] The core mechanic of the game is the ability to sacrifice parts of the character's body or items to create devastating attacks. These sacrifices will be permanently marked on the player character's body, meaning that they are not an infinite resource that can be tapped into.[5] The concept was created by Keiji Inafune. An expanded version of the game, titled Soul Sacrifice Delta, was announced during TGS 2013, and was released in Japan on March 6, 2014, in North America on May 13, 2014, and in the PAL region on May 14, 2014, for the PlayStation Vita. Plot The main protagonist of Soul Sacrifice is one of the innocent bystanders that has been enslaved by a powerful and cruel sorcerer known as Ma ...more...

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List of The Story of Pollyanna, Girl of Love episodes

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List of The Story of Pollyanna, Girl of Love episodes

The Story of Pollyanna, Girl of Love is an anime series adapted from Eleanor H. Porter's books Pollyanna (episodes 1-27) and Pollyanna Grows Up (episodes 28-51). The anime was directed by Hiroshi Kuzuha and produced by Junzo Nakashima and Taira Hiroshi Ishikawa. Animation direction and character design was by Sato Yoshiharu. Animation was handled by the Nippon Animation studio. It was broadcast 19:30 to 20:00 Sunday evenings on Fuji Television from 12 January 1986 to 28 December 1986. It is designated the 12th series of Nippon Animation's children's anthology series World Masterpiece Theater.[1] Episode Synopsis TableGlad Book I: Pollyanna (published 1913) [2] # Episode Title Premiere Airing Date 1 "The Little Church Girl""Kyōkai no Chiisana Musume" (教会の小さな娘)  5 January 1986 The story begins with Pollyanna Whittier, a happy, tomboyish girl who seemingly has no care in the world, and her companion, Chipmunk, a tame striped chipmunk. The two friends race up the hill, but Pollyanna moves so quickly she c ...more...



Soul of Shaolin

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Soul of Shaolin

Soul of Shaolin was a theatrical event presented on Broadway by Nederlander Worldwide Entertainment to coincide with the celebration of the Lunar New Year in January 2009. The first production from the People’s Republic of China ever to appear on Broadway,[1] its story is told through a display of Chinese martial arts, particularly Shaolin Kung Fu, handed down through generations in the Shaolin Monastery, a Chán Buddhist temple at Song Shan near Dengfeng in China. Plot The primary focus is on Hui Guang, who as an infant was separated from his mother when she hid him, together with a broken piece of jade identifying his origin, during a period of civil conflict. Discovered by Na Luo, the baby is brought to the temple and raised by the monks who live there. His education includes instruction in the ways of Shaolin Kung Fu and the daily practice of Kung Fu skills. In later years, Hui Guang encounters his mother, now begging on the streets to support herself, being molested by a gang of men. In the ensuing strug ...more...

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Maken-ki!

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Maken-ki!

Maken-ki! (マケン姫っ! Makenki!) is a Japanese manga series by Hiromitsu Takeda. It was published by Fujimi Shobo's magazine Dragon Age Pure, and later Monthly Dragon Age, after the former magazine ceased publishing. It has been adapted into an anime series by AIC that aired on AT-X in the fall of 2011. It is licensed in North America by Funimation as the title Maken-Ki! Battling Venus.[4] Two OVA episodes animated by AIC and Xebec were released from 2012 to 2013. It bundled with the 8th and 11th volumes of the manga respectively. A second season, titled Maken-Ki! Two (マケン姫っ!通 Makenki! Tsū), was animated by Xebec and aired in 2014.[5] Plot Takeru Ohyama has enrolled at Tenbi Academy, a private prep high school that converted from all-girls to co-ed. Hoping to have a life full of ogling pretty girls, he reunites with childhood friend Haruko Amaya, who shows him around school. However, he learns that the school is for students who possess magical and spiritual energies called Elements and who wield crafted weapons ...more...

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Post-presidency of Gerald Ford

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Post-presidency of Gerald Ford

Gerald Ford, 38th President of the United States, August 1974 Gerald Ford was the 38th President of the United States, serving from 1974 to 1977. After his tenure's end, Ford was active in the public sphere, traveling, writing a memoir, and voicing his opinion about contemporary issues within the United States and abroad. Early activities The Nixon pardon controversy eventually subsided. Ford's successor, Jimmy Carter, opened his 1977 inaugural address by praising the outgoing President, saying, "For myself and for our Nation, I want to thank my predecessor for all he has done to heal our land."[1] After leaving the White House, the Fords moved to Denver, Colorado. Ford successfully invested in oil with Marvin Davis, which later provided an income for Ford's children.[2] He continued to make appearances at events of historical and ceremonial significance to the nation, such as presidential inaugurals and memorial services. In January 1977, he became the president of Eisenhower Fellowships in Philadelphia, ...more...

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Stunt performer

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Stunt performer

A stunt performer, often referred to as a stuntman, stuntwoman, or daredevil, is a trained professional who performs stunts, often as a career. Overview A stuntman typically performs stunts intended for use in a motion picture or dramatized television. Stunts seen in films and television include car crashes, falls from great height, drags (for example, behind a horse), and explosions.[1][2][3] There is an inherent risk in the performance of all stunt work. The most risk exists when performing stunts in front of a live audience. In filmed performances, visible safety mechanisms can be removed by editing. In live performances the audience can see more clearly if the performer is genuinely doing what they claim or appear to do. To reduce the risk of injury or death, most often stunts are choreographed or mechanically-rigged so that, while they look dangerous, safety mechanisms are built into the performance. Despite their well-choreographed appearance, stunts are still very dangerous and physically testing exe ...more...

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Ernie Kovacs

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Ernie Kovacs

Ernest Edward "Ernie" Kovacs (January 23, 1919 – January 13, 1962) was an American comedian, actor, and writer. Kovacs's visually experimental and often spontaneous comedic style influenced numerous television comedy programs for years after his death. Many individuals and shows, such as Johnny Carson, David Letterman, Rowan and Martin's Laugh-In, Saturday Night Live, Monty Python's Flying Circus, Jim Henson, Max Headroom,[1] Chevy Chase,[2][3] Conan O’Brien,[4] Jimmy Kimmel, Captain Kangaroo, Sesame Street, The Electric Company, Dave Garroway,[5] Uncle Floyd, and many others[6][7] have credited Kovacs as an influence. Chevy Chase thanked Kovacs during his acceptance speech for his Emmy award for Saturday Night Live.[8][2] Some of Kovacs's unusual behaviors include having pet marmosets and wrestling a jaguar on his live Philadelphia television show.[9][10][11][12] When working at WABC (AM) as a morning-drive radio announcer and doing a mid-morning television series for NBC, Kovacs claimed to dislike eating ...more...

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Oregon Shakespeare Festival

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Oregon Shakespeare Festival

The Oregon Shakespeare Festival (OSF) is a regional repertory theatre in Ashland, Oregon, United States. Each year, the Festival produces eleven plays, usually from three to five by Shakespeare and the remainder by other playwrights, on three stages during an eight-month season beginning in mid-February. From its inception in 1935 through the end of the 2017 season (excepting the war years 1941–1946) the Festival has presented all 37 of Shakespeare's plays a total of 312 times and beginning in 1960, 341 non-Shakespeare plays for a total of over 30,000 performances. It has completed the complete Shakespeare canon of 37 plays in 1958, 1978, 1997, and 2016.[1] The Festival welcomed its millionth visitor in 1971, its 10-millionth in 2001, and its 20-millionth visitor in 2015. A complete list by year and theater is available at the Main article: Production history of the Oregon Shakespeare Festival. Overview Aerial view of Elizabethan and Bowmer Theatres during a "Green Show" (see below) A season at OSF con ...more...

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Here Comes the Groom

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Here Comes the Groom

Here Comes the Groom is a 1951 musical romantic comedy film produced and directed by Frank Capra and starring Bing Crosby and Jane Wyman. Based on a story by Robert Riskin and Liam O'Brien, the film is about a foreign correspondent who has five days to win back his former fiancée, or he'll lose the orphans he adopted. Filmed from December 14, 1950 to February 1951, the film was released in the United States by Paramount Pictures on September 20, 1951.[2] Plot Newspaper reporter Pete (Bing Crosby) works in a Paris orphanage. His charming way with children and music enables him to find homes for even the most troubled kids. One afternoon, Mr. and Mrs. Godfrey (Alan Reed and Minna Gombell), an American couple, come to the orphanage to adopt Bobby, a boy they saw in one of the ads Pete ran in his newspaper. Bobby misbehaves, but when Pete discovers that Mr. Godfrey plays for the Boston Symphony Orchestra, he quickly produces a young blind opera wunderkind, Theresa (Anna Maria Alberghetti), who sings her way into ...more...

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Red Riding Hood (1901 film)

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Red Riding Hood (1901 film)

Red Riding Hood was a 1901 French silent film directed by Georges Méliès, based on Charles Perrault's version of the story "Little Red Riding Hood". Plot In a bakery in the French countryside, Father Latourte, his wife, and their staff are busy with customers, pastries, and baked goods of all kinds. The Latourtes' young daughter, called Red Riding Hood, reads by the firelight until her parents leave for a moment. She starts to play boisterously, getting the bakery staff mixed up in hijinks and pratfalls. Her father and mother return, chagrined by her escapades, and she is told to take a pot of butter and a galette to her grandmother's cottage. Red Riding Hood travels through the forest on her errand, meeting a wolf, who finds out where she is going. Encountering her friends from the village school, she happily pauses her journey to play and dance with them. Meanwhile, at a windmill near the cottage, the miller Sans-Souci has comic trouble with his mule. The wolf arrives at the cottage, has a spirited fight ...more...

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Oedipus (Dryden play)

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Oedipus (Dryden play)

Title page of Oedipus: A Tragedy (1679). The heroic drama Oedipus: A Tragedy, is an adaption of Sophocles' Oedipus Rex, written by John Dryden and Nathaniel Lee. After being licensed in 1678 and published in 1679, it became a huge success on stage during the Restoration period. Career and reputation of Oedipus, a Tragedy Oedipus, a Tragedy may today have an unintended comic effect, given the bloodthirsty ending of the drama. In past centuries, however, there was a wide range of views, ranging from enthusiasm to condemnation. "Celebratur Oedipus…" In 1700, the journal "Acta eruditorum", published in Leipzig, celebrated Dryden and Lee's adaptation of Oedipus. Along with All for Love, Oedipus, a Tragedy was regarded as the climax of Dryden's dramatic work.[1] Charles Gildon, however, who revised many of Gerard Langbaine's articles in the manual on English Drama An Account of the English Dramatick Poets, harshly criticised Oedipus, a Tragedy, saying: The most understanding Judges wish they [i.e. Dryden/Lee] ...more...

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Summit Series

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Summit Series

The Summit Series, or Super Series[1] (in Russian Суперсерия СССР — Канада; Superseriya SSSR — Canada), known at the time simply as the Canada–USSR Series, was an eight-game series of ice hockey between the Soviet Union and Canada, held in September 1972. It was the first competition between the Soviet national team and a Canadian team represented by professional players of the National Hockey League (NHL), known as Team Canada. It was the first international ice hockey competition for Canada after Canada had withdrawn from international ice hockey competitions in a dispute with the International Ice Hockey Federation (IIHF). The series was organized with the intention to create a true best-on-best competition in the sport of ice hockey. The Soviets had become the dominant team in international competitions, which disallowed the professional players of Canada. Canada had had a long history of dominance of the sport prior to the Soviets' rise. The first four games of the series were held in Canada and the fin ...more...

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Spymonkey

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Spymonkey

Spymonkey is an international comedy and physical theatre company, based in Brighton. Its members are Toby Park and Petra Massey, both British, Aitor Basauri, a Spaniard, and Stephan Kreiss, a German. According to the theatre director, Tom Morris, ‘Spymonkey follow a rich comic tradition which runs from Tommy Cooper through Morecambe and Wise to Reeves and Mortimer. They are clowns supreme, the high priests of foolery.'[1] For Julian Crouch of Improbable Theatre, they are ‘groundbreaking and sharply brilliant, Spymonkey dance along the very boundary of artistic bravery. They take big risks in their work, and manage to be both true to a highly experimental process AND take their audience with them on that journey.'[1] Beginnings Park, Massey and Basauri met in 1997, when they were working with the Swiss action-theatre group Karl's Kühne Gassenschau in Zurich. The following year, in Brighton, they created their first show Stiff with Paul Weilenmann (their former boss at KKG), the director Cal McCrystal and the ...more...

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