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Pratfall effect

In social psychology, the pratfall effect is the tendency for attractiveness to increase or decrease after an individual makes a mistake, depending on the individual's perceived ability to perform well in a general sense. A perceived highly-competent individual would be, on average, more likable after committing a blunder, while the opposite would occur if a perceived average person makes a mistake.

Originally described in 1966 by Elliot Aronson,[1] numerous studies have since been conducted to isolate the effects of gender, self-esteem, and severity of the blunder on change in attractiveness or likability. Occasionally referred to as the blemishing effect[2] when used as a form of marketing, generalizations of the pratfall effect are often used to describe the counterintuitive benefits of making mistakes.

Research

Details of the pratfall effect were first described by Aronson in his experiment testing the effects of a simple blunder on perceived attraction. The experiment was set up involving male students from the University of Minnesota who would listen to tape recordings of a confederate (actor) pretending to be a contestant for the show College Bowl. The tapes consisted of an interview with extremely difficult questions. The confederate plays the role of either an unrealistically intelligent individual who answers a majority of the questions correctly (92%), or a exceedingly mediocre one who answers only a few questions correctly (30%). After the questioning, the strong performing actor admits to a stellar high school career, marked with academic and nonacademic success, while the more unremarkable actor describes an ordinary high school career, consisting of average grades and weak involvement in extracurricular clubs. At the end of the interview, a pratfall, or small blunder, was introduced in the experimental case and omitted to serve as a control. Aronson's research found that a blunderer was rated to be more attractive only if they were previously portrayed as intelligent—blunderers portrayed as average suffered decreases in their perceived attractiveness.[1] Later research inspired by Aronson experimentally defined attractiveness as a combination of liking and respect, and replicated similar results.[3]

Gender

Effects of pratfall are most directly applicable to males. Women tend to prefer the non-blunderer regardless of gender, and although findings of pratfall cannot be readily generalized to female populations, neither population preferred the mediocre blunderer.[4]

Severity of pratfall

Research by Mettee and Wilkins reveals that severity of pratfall plays a major role on determining attractiveness after a pratfall is committed. Experimentally, each condition was conveyed by changing the response of the interviewer and blunderer:

  • Control condition: No blunder.
  • Minor pratfall condition: Sound of a cup spilling is heard and confederate reacts with anguish.
  • Major pratfall condition: Cup is spilled, and interviewer reacts with hostility toward the confederate, who apologizes profusely.

An able individual that commits a minor pratfall (2) will have an insignificant decrease in average liking and small decrease in average respect, while the able individual that commits a major pratfall (3) receives a significant increase in liking and insignificant decrease in respect. A less able individual that commits any pratfall (2,3) will have a decrease in liking, which increases with severity of blunder. Respect only decreases in the less competent individual after a minor mistake is committed.[3]

Self-esteem

Research conducted on self-image suggests that self-esteem influences whether positive aspects of the pratfall effect and self-comparisons will occur.[5] An individual with high self-esteem will prefer the non-pratfalling highly able individual to the pratfalling individual of equal ability. This is well explained by social comparison theory and tendencies for individuals to compare themselves to others more similar to themselves.[6] When an individual of similar competency to a rater commits a pratfall, the comparison between the observer and blunderer can cause mental discomfort, which may then result in lower likability ratings.[3] Since observers seek to build accurate self-evaluations, the commonality shared between the blunderer and the observer could threaten the observer's self-concept, especially in self-evaluations of abilities. A rater with a high level of self-esteem would therefore feel threatened by a blundering competent individual, therefore preferring the non-blundering able individual since that individual poses no threat to the observer's self-esteem. For the same reason, an average blunderer would pose more of a threat to an average individual, resulting in similar losses in likability. Individuals with low self-esteem tend to prefer the highly able individual. Although no research has been conducted on this topic, one such explanation suggests that a person with low self-esteem would expect to be "outshone", and desires to find relatability between themselves and the perceived competent individuals.[3]

Attitude

Kiesler and Goldberg proposed that similarity in attitude between observers and blunderers can determine the extent at which changes in attractiveness occur. Greater similarities in attitudes resulted in more derogation, even to the point where the blunderer is subject to derogation regardless of perceived ability. This was determined experimentally by directly telling observers that they were extremely similar to the confederate, especially in prose and in the form of responses to questioning.[7] This research implies that similarities in attitude can be more significant in determining attractiveness, especially with knowledge of congruences in attitude.

Explanation

Aronson explained the results of this experiment and the pratfall effect as due to increased sympathy with successful individual after they make a mistake. Later work has suggested that the pratfall effect is explained by self-comparison between blunderers and observers in addition to the observer's desires for accurate self-evaluations. The derogation toward an average confederate appears after the confederate commits the pratfall since humor allows the individuals to comfortably rate attractiveness more congruently with immediately felt (negative) emotions.[8] These emotions vary based on the ability of the observer, with the average participant feeling the most discomfort due to the participant's similarity to the mediocre performer, and the performer's mistake.[3] [6] As a result of threatened self-esteem (in the observer), the perceived average individual's attractiveness is rated lower. The perceived able individual is rated higher after the pratfall since the able individual appears more relatable and therefore approachable and likable.[9]

An alternative explanation is that the pratfall effect is due to increased attention to the target individuals, which in turn results in better realization of their appropriateness and/or inappropriateness given the evaluation criteria.[10]

Examples

Notably attributed to Kennedy in the aftermath of the Bay of the Pigs Invasion[11] and to Apple's unsuccessful endeavors in mapping/navigation services.[12]

Applications
Marketing

Research on the potential positive effects of "blemishes" in product marketing suggests that in certain situations, desirability and eventual purchase decisions both increased after presenting a product blemish, but only under low-effort processing conditions, or when cognitive resources are low due to preoccupation or distraction. Under high-effort processing conditions, presenting a blemish decreased desirability and amounts of purchases. Primacy effects suggest that under low-effort processing conditions, positive effects create a reference point at which a product is evaluated, and conflicting negative information presented boosts the initial positive impression formed by the product.

This was demonstrated through research by approaching students before an exam—when students likely had their attention focused elsewhere—versus approaching students leisurely walking around and offering to sell them a chocolate bar. The chocolate bar was advertised positively: chilled, favored by consumers on a taste test, and offered at a discount. In the experimental condition, the chocolate bar was described as discounted since it was broken. The chocolate bar was packed in a transparent wrapper, so the broken piece of chocolate could clearly be seen by the students. Students in the low-effort experimental group were twice as likely to purchase the chocolate bar after being presented negative information, while in the high-effort group, students were half as likely to purchase the chocolate bar.[2]

References
  1. Aronson, E., Willerman, B., & Floyd, J. (1966). The effect of a pratfall on increasing interpersonal attractiveness. Psychonomic Science.
  2. Ein-Gar, D., Shiv, B., & Tormala, Z. L. (2012). When blemishing leads to blossoming: The positive effect of negative information. Journal of Consumer Research, 38(5), 846-859.
  3. Mettee, D. R., & Wilkins, P. C. (1972). When similarity" hurts": Effects of perceived ability and a humorous blunder on interpersonal attractiveness. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 22(2), 246.
  4. Deaux, K. (1972). To err is humanizing: But sex makes a difference. Representative Research in Social Psychology, 3, 20-28.
  5. Koch, Erika J., and James A. Shepperd. "Testing ability and acceptance explanations of self-esteem." Self and Identity 7.1 (2008): 54-74.
  6. Festinger, L. (1954). A theory of social comparison processes. Human relations, 7(2), 117-140.
  7. Kiesler, C. A., & Goldberg, G. N. (1968). Multi-dimensional approach to the experimental study of interpersonal attraction: Effect of a blunder on the attractiveness of a able other. Psychological reports, 22(3), 693-705.
  8. Landy, D., & Mettee, D. (1969). Evaluation of an aggressor as a function of exposure to cartoon humor. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 12(1), 66.
  9. Helmreich, R., Aronson, E., & LeFan, J. (1970). To err is humanizing sometimes: Effects of self-esteem, ability, and a pratfall on interpersonal attraction. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 16(2), 259.
  10. Yechiam, E, & Hochman, G. (2013) Losses as modulators of attention: Review and analysis of the unique effects of losses over gains. Psychological Bulletin, 139, 497-518.
  11. Berglas, S. (1996, September 1). The Entrepreneurial Ego: Pratfalls. Retrieved from Inc. Magazine: http://www.inc.com/magazine/19960901/1796.html
  12. Kessler, Z. (2012, December 13). How Apple Will Benefit From Its Miserable Maps Failure. Bloomberg. Retrieved October 18, 2013, from "Archived copy". Archived from the original on November 13, 2013. Retrieved November 13, 2013.
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Pratfall effect

topic

In social psychology , the pratfall effect is the tendency for attractiveness to increase or decrease after an individual makes a mistake, depending on the individual's perceived ability to perform well in a general sense. A perceived highly-competent individual would be, on average, more likable after committing a blunder, while the opposite would occur if a perceived average person makes a mistake. Originally described in 1966 by Elliot Aronson , numerous studies have since been conducted to isolate the effects of gender, self-esteem, and severity of the blunder on change in attractiveness or likability. Occasionally referred to as the blemishing effect when used as a form of marketing, generalizations of the pratfall effect are often used to describe the counterintuitive benefits of making mistakes. Research Details of the pratfall effect were first described by Aronson in his experiment testing the effects of a simple blunder on perceived attraction. The experiment was set up involving male students from ...more...



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A list of 'effects' that have been noticed within the field of psychology . Audience effect Ambiguity effect Assembly bonus effect Badeer-Meinhof effect Barnum effect Bezold effect Birthday-number effect Boomerang effect Bouba/kiki effect Bystander effect Cocktail party effect Contrast effect Coolidge effect Cross-race effect Dunning–Kruger effect Endowment effect False-consensus effect False-fame effect Fan effect Framing effect Florence Nightingale effect Flynn effect Focusing effect Generation effect Google effect Halo effect Hawthorne effect Hedonic treadmill Hostile media effect Hypersonic effect Irrelevant speech effect Kappa effect Kinetic depth effect Kuleshov Effect Lady Macbeth effect Lake Wobegon effect Lawn dart effect Levels-of-processing effect Less-is-better effect Martha Mitchell effect Matthew effect (education) McCollough effect McGurk effect Mere-exposure effect Microwave auditory effect Misinformation effect Missing letter effect Modality effect Mozart effect Munchausen syndrome Name-lette ...more...



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Physical comedy is a form of comedy focused on manipulation of the body for a humorous effect. It can include slapstick , clowning , mime , physical stunts, or making funny faces. Physical comedy originated as part of the Commedia dell'arte . It is now sometimes incorporated into sitcoms; for example, in the sitcom Three's Company , actor John Ritter frequently performed pratfalls (landing on the buttocks ). Cartoons also commonly depict physical comedy, such as in Tom and Jerry and Wile E. Coyote and The Road Runner Slapstick elements include the trip, the slip, the double take , the collide, the fall (or faint) and the roar. Examples Charlie Chaplin started his film career as a physical comedian; although he developed additional means of comic expression, Chaplin's mature works continued to contain elements of slapstick. A notable contributor to the revolutionization of physical comedy is Italian-Australian comedian Cristian Speranza. Other comedians to employ physical comedy as a medium for their characte ...more...



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Summit Series

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The Summit Series , or Super Series (in Russian Суперсерия СССР — Канада; Superseriya SSSR — Canada), known at the time simply as the Canada–USSR Series , was an eight-game series of ice hockey between the Soviet Union and Canada , held in September 1972. It was the first competition between the Soviet national team and a Canadian team represented by professional players of the National Hockey League (NHL), known as Team Canada. It was the first international ice hockey competition for Canada after Canada had withdrawn from international ice hockey competitions in a dispute with the International Ice Hockey Federation (IIHF). The series was organized with the intention to create a true best-on-best competition in the sport of ice hockey. The Soviets had become the dominant team in international competitions, which disallowed the professional players of Canada. Canada had had a long history of dominance of the sport prior to the Soviets' rise. The first four games of the series were held in Canada and the fina ...more...



Ted Baxter

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Ted Baxter is a fictional character on the sitcom The Mary Tyler Moore Show (1970–1977). Portrayed by Ted Knight , the Baxter character is a broad parody of a vain, shallow, buffoonish TV newsman. Knight's comedic model was William Powell , and he also drew on various Los Angeles newscasters, including George Putnam , in helping shape the character. The role was originally conceived with Jack Cassidy in mind but Cassidy turned it down, although he did appear in an early episode as Ted's equally egocentric brother Hal. Ted Baxter has become a symbolic figure, and is often used when criticizing media figures, particularly news anchors hired for style and appearance rather than journalistic ability. Character Ted and friends prepare for his wedding in Mary's kitchen, 1975. Ted is the pompous nit-wit, narcissistic anchorman for fictitious station WJM-TV in Minneapolis , Minnesota . Satirizing the affectations of news anchormen, the character speaks in a vocal fry register parody of the narrator of the old Movie ...more...



Oregon Shakespeare Festival

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The Oregon Shakespeare Festival ( OSF ) is a regional repertory theatre in Ashland, Oregon , United States. Each year, the festival produces eleven plays on three stages during a season that lasts from mid-February to early November. From its inception in 1935 through the end of the 2016 season (excepting the war years 1941–1946) the Festival has presented all 37 of Shakespeare's plays a total of 308 times and beginning in 1960, 341 non-Shakespeare plays for a total of over 30,000 performances. It has completed the complete Shakespeare canon of 37 plays in 1958, 1978, 1997, and 2016. The Festival welcomed its millionth visitor in 1971, its 10-millionth in 2001, and its 20-millionth visitor in 2015. A complete list by year and theater is available at the Main article: Production history of the Oregon Shakespeare Festival . Overview Aerial view of Elizabethan and Bowmer Theatres during a “Green Show” (see below) A season at OSF consists of a wide range of classic and contemporary plays produced in three theatr ...more...



Ben Turpin

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Bernard "Ben" Turpin (September 19, 1869  – July 1, 1940) was an American comedian and actor, best remembered for his work in silent films . Personal life Turpin was born in New Orleans, Louisiana on September 19, 1869, the son of a candy store owner, Ernest Turpin, and Sarah Buckley. Turpin and his first wife, actress Carrie Lemieux, were married in Chicago on February 18, 1907. In 1923, Mrs. Turpin became ill with influenza , which caused the loss of her hearing. Heartbroken, Turpin took his seriously ill wife to the Basilica of Sainte-Anne-de-Beaupré in Quebec, hoping she would be healed. She eventually became an invalid, with Turpin placing his career on hold to care for her. Carrie died on October 2, 1925. Turpin remarried on July 8, 1926 to Babette Dietz in Los Angeles. He was a Roman Catholic , and a member of the Good Shepherd Parish and the Catholic Motion Picture Guild in Beverly Hills, California . Vaudeville Turpin worked in vaudeville , burlesque , and circuses . He had a distinctive appeara ...more...



Maken-ki!

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Maken-ki! ( マケン姫っ! Makenki!) is a Japanese manga series by Hiromitsu Takeda . It was published by Fujimi Shobo 's magazine Dragon Age Pure , and later Monthly Dragon Age , after the former magazine ceased publishing. It has been adapted into an anime series by AIC that aired on AT-X in the fall of 2011. It is licensed in North America by Funimation as the title Maken-Ki! Battling Venus . Two OVA episodes animated by AIC and Xebec were released from 2012 to 2013. It bundled with the 8th and 11th volumes of the manga respectively. A second season, titled Maken-Ki! Two ( マケン姫っ!通 Makenki! Tsū) , was animated by Xebec and aired in 2014. Plot Takeru Ohyama has enrolled at Tenbi Academy, a private prep high school that converted from all-girls to co-ed. Hoping to have a life full of ogling pretty girls, he reunites with childhood friend Haruko Amaya , who shows him around school. However, he learns that the school is for students who possess magical and spiritual energies called Elements and who wield crafted weapo ...more...



List of The Transformers (TV series) characters

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This is a list of characters from The Transformers television series. Autobots The Autobots (also known as Cybertrons in Japan) are the heroes in the Transformers toyline and related spin-off comics and cartoons . Their main leader is Optimus Prime , but other "Primes" have also commanded the Autobots such as Rodimus Prime . They are constantly at war with the Decepticons . In the U.S. cartoon line, the Autobots were the descendants of a line of robots created as consumer goods by the Quintessons ; the Decepticons , are descended instead from robots designed as military hardware. Other terms for the Autobots are Autorobots (in Italy ), Autoboterna (in Sweden ), Kibery (in Ukraine ), and Robotrikim (in Israel ). Main characters Name Alternate mode First appearance Last appearance Voiced by Status Orion Pax/Optimus Prime 1984 Freightliner Semi More Than Meets the Eye (Part 1) The Rebirth (Part 3) Peter Cullen and Laurie Faso (as Orion Pax) Alive (Dead in Headmasters) (Alive in Masterforce) Optimus Prime is the ...more...



Box Car Racer (album)

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Box Car Racer is the sole studio album by American rock band of the same name . Produced by Jerry Finn , the album was released May 21, 2002 through MCA Records . The band was a side-project of Blink-182 members Tom DeLonge and Travis Barker , with David Kennedy completing the band's studio lineup; a bassist and friend of Barker, Anthony Celestino, toured with the band throughout late 2002. The record was the only studio effort the trio produced together, and was recorded over the course of six weeks in late 2001. The record is primarily based on DeLonge's post-hardcore influences, such as Fugazi and Refused . The recording sessions were particularly difficult for him, as he had recently undergone back surgery. The record is a concept album detailing the end of the world, and features dark, moody tracks mulling over confusion. Blink-182 bassist Mark Hoppus —the only member of that band not involved in the project—felt betrayed over his lack of inclusion, which evolved into tensions between him and DeLonge. It ...more...



Soul of Shaolin

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Soul of Shaolin was a theatrical event presented on Broadway by Nederlander Worldwide Entertainment to coincide with the celebration of the Lunar New Year in January 2009. The first production from the People’s Republic of China ever to appear on Broadway, its story is told through a display of Chinese martial arts , particularly Shaolin Kung Fu , handed down through generations in the Shaolin Monastery , a Chán Buddhist temple at Song Shan near Dengfeng in China . Plot The primary focus is on Hui Guang, who as an infant was separated from his mother when she hid him, together with a broken piece of jade identifying his origin, during a period of civil conflict. Discovered by Na Luo, the baby is brought to the temple and raised by the monks who live there. His education includes instruction in the ways of Shaolin Kung Fu and the daily practice of Kung Fu skills. In later years, Hui Guang encounters his mother, now begging on the streets to support herself, being molested by a gang of men. In the ensuing stru ...more...



Stunt performer

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A stunt performer , often referred to as a stuntman, stuntwoman , or daredevil , is a trained professional who performs stunts , often as a career. Overview A stuntman typically performs stunts intended for use in a motion picture or dramatized television . Stunts seen in films and television include car crashes, falls from great height, drags (for example, behind a horse), and explosions. There is an inherent risk in the performance of all stunt work. The most risk exists when performing stunts in front of a live audience. In filmed performances, visible safety mechanisms can be removed by editing. In live performances the audience can see more clearly if the performer is genuinely doing what they claim or appear to do. To reduce the risk of injury or death, most often stunts are choreographed or mechanically-rigged so that, while they look dangerous, safety mechanisms are built into the performance. Despite their well-choreographed appearance, stunts are still very dangerous and physically testing exercises ...more...



Here Comes the Groom

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Here Comes the Groom is a 1951 musical romantic comedy film produced and directed by Frank Capra and starring Bing Crosby and Jane Wyman . Based on a story by Robert Riskin and Liam O'Brien , the film is about a foreign correspondent who has five days to win back his former fiancée, or he'll lose the orphans he adopted. Filmed from December 14, 1950 to February 1951, the film was released in the United States by Paramount Pictures on September 20, 1951. Plot Newspaper reporter Pete ( Bing Crosby ) works in a Paris orphanage. His charming way with children and music enables him to find homes for even the most troubled kids. One afternoon, Mr. and Mrs. Godfrey ( Alan Reed and Minna Gombell ), an American couple, come to the orphanage to adopt Bobby, a boy they saw in one of the ads Pete ran in his newspaper. Bobby misbehaves, but when Pete discovers that Mr. Godfrey plays for the Boston Symphony Orchestra , he quickly produces a young blind opera wunderkind , Theresa ( Anna Maria Alberghetti ), who sings her wa ...more...



My Little Pony: Friendship Is Magic (season 1)

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The first season of the animated television series My Little Pony: Friendship Is Magic , developed by Lauren Faust , originally aired on The Hub in the United States. The series is based on Hasbro 's My Little Pony line of toys and animated works and is often referred by collectors to be the fourth generation, or "G4", of the My Little Pony franchise. Season 1 of the series premiered on October 10, 2010 on The Hub, an American pay television channel partly owned by Hasbro , and concluded on May 6, 2011. The show follows a studious unicorn pony named Twilight Sparkle as her mentor Princess Celestia guides her to learn about friendship in the town of Ponyville. Twilight becomes close friends with five other ponies: Applejack, Rarity, Fluttershy, Rainbow Dash, and Pinkie Pie, as they all teach each other the magic of friendship. Each of the ponies represent a different facet of friendship, and Twilight soon discovers herself to be a key part of the "Elements of Harmony", ancient artifacts with powerful magic pro ...more...



Oedipus (Dryden play)

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Title page of Oedipus: A Tragedy (1679). The heroic drama Oedipus: A Tragedy , is an adaption of Sophocles ' Oedipus Rex , written by John Dryden and Nathaniel Lee . After being licensed in 1678 and published in 1679, it became a huge success on stage during the Restoration period. Career and reputation of Oedipus, a Tragedy Oedipus, a Tragedy may today have an unintended comic effect, given the bloodthirsty ending of the drama. In past centuries, however, there was a wide range of views, ranging from enthusiasm to condemnation. "Celebratur Oedipus…" In 1700, the journal "Acta eruditorum", published in Leipzig , celebrated Dryden and Lee's adaptation of Oedipus. Along with All for Love , Oedipus, a Tragedy was regarded as the climax of Dryden's dramatic work. Charles Gildon , however, who revised many of Gerard Langbaine 's articles in the manual on English Drama An Account of the English Dramatick Poets, harshly criticised Oedipus, a Tragedy, saying: The most understanding Judges wish they [i.e. Dryden/Lee] ...more...



Spymonkey

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Spymonkey is an international comedy and physical theatre company, based in Brighton . Its members are Toby Park and Petra Massey , both British, Aitor Basauri, a Spaniard, and Stephan Kreiss, a German. According to the theatre director, Tom Morris , ‘Spymonkey follow a rich comic tradition which runs from Tommy Cooper through Morecambe and Wise to Reeves and Mortimer . They are clowns supreme, the high priests of foolery.' For Julian Crouch of Improbable Theatre , they are ‘groundbreaking and sharply brilliant, Spymonkey dance along the very boundary of artistic bravery. They take big risks in their work, and manage to be both true to a highly experimental process AND take their audience with them on that journey.' Beginnings Park, Massey and Basauri met in 1997, when they were working with the Swiss action-theatre group Karl's Kühne Gassenschau in Zurich. The following year, in Brighton, they created their first show Stiff with Paul Weilenmann (their former boss at KKG), the director Cal McCrystal and the ...more...



List of The Story of Pollyanna, Girl of Love episodes

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The Story of Pollyanna, Girl of Love is an anime series adapted from Eleanor H. Porter 's books Pollyanna (episodes 1-27) and Pollyanna Grows Up (episodes 28-51). The anime was directed by Hiroshi Kuzuha and produced by Junzo Nakashima and Taira Hiroshi Ishikawa. Animation direction and character design was by Sato Yoshiharu . Animation was handled by the Nippon Animation studio. It was broadcast 19:30 to 20:00 Sunday evenings on Fuji Television from 12 January 1986 to 28 December 1986. It is designated the 12th series of Nippon Animation's children's anthology series World Masterpiece Theater . Episode Synopsis Table Glad Book I: Pollyanna (published 1913) # Episode Title Premiere Airing Date 1 "The Little Church Girl""Kyōkai no Chiisana Musume" (教会の小さな娘)   5 January 1986 The story begins with Pollyanna Whittier, a happy, tomboyish girl who seemingly has no care in the world, and her companion, Chipmunk, a tame striped chipmunk. The two friends race up the hill, but Pollyanna's inertia is too much and she ke ...more...





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