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Oxford English Dictionary

The Oxford English Dictionary (OED) is a descriptive dictionary of the English language, published by the Oxford University Press.[1] It traces the historical development of the English language, providing a comprehensive resource to scholars and academic researchers, as well as describing usage in its many variations throughout the world.[2] [3] The second edition came to 21,728 pages in 20 volumes, published in 1989.

Work began on the dictionary in 1857, but it was not until 1884 that it began to be published in unbound fascicles as work continued on the project, under the name of A New English Dictionary on Historical Principles; Founded Mainly on the Materials Collected by The Philological Society. In 1895, the title The Oxford English Dictionary (OED) was first used unofficially on the covers of the series, and in 1928 the full dictionary was republished in ten bound volumes. In 1933, the title The Oxford English Dictionary fully replaced the former name in all occurrences in its reprinting as twelve volumes with a one-volume supplement. More supplements came over the years until 1989, when the second edition was published. Since 2000, a third edition of the dictionary has been underway, approximately a third of which is now complete.

The first electronic version of the dictionary was made available in 1988. The online version has been available since 2000, and as of April 2014 was receiving over two million hits per month. The third edition of the dictionary will probably only appear in electronic form; Nigel Portwood, chief executive of Oxford University Press, thinks it unlikely that it will ever be printed.[4] [5]

Historical nature

As a historical dictionary, the Oxford English Dictionary explains words by showing their development rather than merely their present-day usages.[6] Therefore, it shows definitions in the order that the sense of the word began being used, including word meanings which are no longer used. Each definition is shown with numerous short usage quotations; in each case, the first quotation shows the first recorded instance of the word that the editors are aware of and, in the case of words and senses no longer in current usage, the last quotation is the last known recorded usage. This allows the reader to get an approximate sense of the time period in which a particular word has been in use, and additional quotations help the reader to ascertain information about how the word is used in context, beyond any explanation that the dictionary editors can provide.

The format of the OED's entries has influenced numerous other historical lexicography projects. The forerunners to the OED, such as the early volumes of the Deutsches Wörterbuch, had initially provided few quotations from a limited number of sources, whereas the OED editors preferred larger groups of quite short quotations from a wide selection of authors and publications. This influenced later volumes of this and other lexicographical works.[7]

Entries and relative size
Diagram of the types of English vocabulary included in the OED, devised by James Murray, its first editor.

According to the publishers, it would take a single person 120 years to "key in" the 59 million words of the OED second edition, 60 years to proofread them, and 540 megabytes to store them electronically.[8] As of 30 November 2005, the Oxford English Dictionary contained approximately 301,100 main entries. Supplementing the entry headwords, there are 157,000 bold-type combinations and derivatives;[9] 169,000 italicized-bold phrases and combinations;[10] 616,500 word-forms in total, including 137,000 pronunciations; 249,300 etymologies; 577,000 cross-references; and 2,412,400 usage quotations. The dictionary's latest, complete print edition (second edition, 1989) was printed in 20 volumes, comprising 291,500 entries in 21,730 pages. The longest entry in the OED2 was for the verb set, which required 60,000 words to describe some 430 senses. As entries began to be revised for the OED3 in sequence starting from M, the longest entry became make in 2000, then put in 2007, then run in 2011.[11] [12] [13]

Despite its impressive size, the OED is neither the world's largest nor the earliest exhaustive dictionary of a language. Another earlier large dictionary is the Grimm brothers' dictionary of the German language, begun in 1838 and completed in 1961. The first edition of the Vocabolario degli Accademici della Crusca is the first great dictionary devoted to a modern European language (Italian) and was published in 1612; the first edition of Dictionnaire de l'Académie française dates from 1694. The official dictionary of Spanish is the Diccionario de la lengua española (produced, edited, and published by the Real Academia Española), and its first edition was published in 1780. The Kangxi dictionary of Chinese was published in 1716.[14]

History
Oxford English Dictionary Publications
Publication date Volume range Title Volume
1888 A and B A New ED Vol. 1
1893 C NED Vol. 2
1897 D and E NED Vol. 3
1900 F and G NED Vol. 4
1901 H to K NED Vol. 5
1908 L to N NED Vol. 6
1909 O and P NED Vol. 7
1914 Q to Sh NED Vol. 8
1919 Si to St NED Vol. 9/1
1919 Su to Th NED Vol. 9/2
1926 Ti to U NED Vol. 10/1
1928 V to Z NED Vol. 10/2
1928 All NED 10 vols.
1933 All & sup. Oxford ED 13 vols.
1972 A OED Sup. Vol. 1
1976 H OED Sup. Vol. 2
1982 O OED Sup. Vol. 3
1986 Sea OED Sup. Vol. 4
1989 All OED 2nd Ed. 20 vols.
1993 All OED Add. Ser. Vols. 1–2
1997 All OED Add. Ser. Vol. 3
Origins

The dictionary began as a Philological Society project of a small group of intellectuals in London (and unconnected to Oxford University):[15] :103–4,112 Richard Chenevix Trench, Herbert Coleridge, and Frederick Furnivall, who were dissatisfied with the existing English dictionaries. The Society expressed interest in compiling a new dictionary as early as 1844,[16] but it was not until June 1857 that they began by forming an "Unregistered Words Committee" to search for words that were unlisted or poorly defined in current dictionaries. In November, Trench's report was not a list of unregistered words; instead, it was the study On Some Deficiencies in our English Dictionaries, which identified seven distinct shortcomings in contemporary dictionaries:[17]

  • Incomplete coverage of obsolete words
  • Inconsistent coverage of families of related words
  • Incorrect dates for earliest use of words
  • History of obsolete senses of words often omitted
  • Inadequate distinction among synonyms
  • Insufficient use of good illustrative quotations
  • Space wasted on inappropriate or redundant content.

The Society ultimately realized that the number of unlisted words would be far more than the number of words in the English dictionaries of the 19th century, and shifted their idea from covering only words that were not already in English dictionaries to a larger project. Trench suggested that a new, truly comprehensive dictionary was needed. On 7 January 1858, the Society formally adopted the idea of a comprehensive new dictionary.[15] :107–8 Volunteer readers would be assigned particular books, copying passages illustrating word usage onto quotation slips. Later the same year, the Society agreed to the project in principle, with the title A New English Dictionary on Historical Principles (NED).[18] :ix–x

Early editors

Richard Chenevix Trench (1807–1886) played the key role in the project's first months, but his Church of England appointment as Dean of Westminster meant that he could not give the dictionary project the time that it required. He withdrew and Herbert Coleridge became the first editor.[19] :8–9

Frederick Furnivall, 1825–1910

On 12 May 1860, Coleridge's dictionary plan was published and research was started. His house was the first editorial office. He arrayed 100,000 quotation slips in a 54 pigeon-hole grid.[19] :9 In April 1861, the group published the first sample pages; later that month, Coleridge died of tuberculosis, aged 30.[18] :x

Furnivall then became editor; he was enthusiastic and knowledgeable, yet temperamentally ill-suited for the work.[15] :110 Many volunteer readers eventually lost interest in the project, as Furnivall failed to keep them motivated. Furthermore, many of the slips had been misplaced.

Furnivall believed that, since many printed texts from earlier centuries were not readily available, it would be impossible for volunteers to efficiently locate the quotations that the dictionary needed. As a result, he founded the Early English Text Society in 1864 and the Chaucer Society in 1868 to publish old manuscripts.[18] :xii Furnivall's preparatory efforts lasted 21 years and provided numerous texts for the use and enjoyment of the general public, as well as crucial sources for lexicographers, but they did not actually involve compiling a dictionary. Furnivall recruited more than 800 volunteers to read these texts and record quotations. While enthusiastic, the volunteers were not well trained and often made inconsistent and arbitrary selections. Ultimately, Furnivall handed over nearly two tons of quotation slips and other materials to his successor.[20]

In the 1870s, Furnivall unsuccessfully attempted to recruit both Henry Sweet and Henry Nicol to succeed him. He then approached James Murray, who accepted the post of editor. In the late 1870s, Furnivall and Murray met with several publishers about publishing the dictionary. In 1878, Oxford University Press agreed with Murray to proceed with the massive project; the agreement was formalized the following year.[15] :111–2 The dictionary project finally had a publisher 20 years after the idea was conceived. It was another 50 years before the entire dictionary was complete.

Late in his editorship, Murray learned that a prolific reader named W. C. Minor was a criminal lunatic.[15] :xiii Minor was a Yale University-trained surgeon and military officer in the American Civil War, and was confined to Broadmoor Asylum for the Criminally Insane after killing a man in London. Minor invented his own quotation-tracking system, allowing him to submit slips on specific words in response to editors' requests. The story of Murray and Minor later served as the central focus of The Surgeon of Crowthorne (US title: The Professor and the Madman[15] ), a popular book about the creation of the OED.

Oxford editors
James Murray in the Scriptorium at Banbury Road

During the 1870s, the Philological Society was concerned with the process of publishing a dictionary with such an immense scope. They had pages printed by publishers, but no publication agreement was reached; both the Cambridge University Press and the Oxford University Press were approached. The OUP finally agreed in 1879 (after two years of negotiating by Sweet, Furnivall, and Murray) to publish the dictionary and to pay Murray, who was both the editor and the Philological Society president. The dictionary was to be published as interval fascicles, with the final form in four 6,400-page volumes. They hoped to finish the project in ten years.[19] :1

Murray started the project, working in a corrugated iron outbuilding called the "Scriptorium" which was lined with wooden planks, book shelves, and 1,029 pigeon-holes for the quotation slips.[18] :xiii He tracked and regathered Furnivall's collection of quotation slips, which were found to concentrate on rare, interesting words rather than common usages. For instance, there were ten times as many quotations for abusion as for abuse.[21] He appealed, through newspapers distributed to bookshops and libraries, for readers who would report "as many quotations as you can for ordinary words" and for words that were "rare, obsolete, old-fashioned, new, peculiar or used in a peculiar way".[21] Murray had American philologist and liberal arts college professor Francis March manage the collection in North America; 1,000 quotation slips arrived daily to the Scriptorium and, by 1880, there were 2,500,000.[19] :15

The first dictionary fascicle was published on 1 February 1884—twenty-three years after Coleridge's sample pages. The full title was A New English Dictionary on Historical Principles; Founded Mainly on the Materials Collected by The Philological Society; the 352-page volume, words from A to Ant, cost 12s 6d.[19] :251 The total sales were a disappointing 4,000 copies.[22] :169

The OUP saw that it would take too long to complete the work with unrevised editorial arrangements. Accordingly, new assistants were hired and two new demands were made on Murray.[19] :32–33 The first was that he move from Mill Hill to Oxford, which he did in 1885. Murray had his Scriptorium re-erected on his new property.[18] :xvii [19]

The 78 Banbury Road, Oxford, house, erstwhile residence of James Murray, Editor of the Oxford English Dictionary

Murray resisted the second demand: that if he could not meet schedule, he must hire a second, senior editor to work in parallel to him, outside his supervision, on words from elsewhere in the alphabet. Murray did not want to share the work, feeling that he would accelerate his work pace with experience. That turned out not to be so, and Philip Gell of the OUP forced the promotion of Murray's assistant Henry Bradley (hired by Murray in 1884), who worked independently in the British Museum in London beginning in 1888. In 1896, Bradley moved to Oxford University.[19]

Gell continued harassing Murray and Bradley with his business concerns—containing costs and speeding production—to the point where the project's collapse seemed likely. Newspapers reported the harassment, particularly the Saturday Review, and public opinion backed the editors.[22] :182–83 Gell was fired, and the university reversed his cost policies. If the editors felt that the dictionary would have to grow larger, it would; it was an important work, and worth the time and money to properly finish.

Neither Murray nor Bradley lived to see it. Murray died in 1915, having been responsible for words starting with A–D, H–K, O–P, and T, nearly half the finished dictionary; Bradley died in 1923, having completed E–G, L–M, S–Sh, St, and W–We. By then, two additional editors had been promoted from assistant work to independent work, continuing without much trouble. William Craigie started in 1901 and was responsible for N, Q–R, Si–Sq, U–V, and Wo–Wy.[18] :xix The OUP had previously thought London too far from Oxford but, after 1925, Craigie worked on the dictionary in Chicago, where he was a professor.[18] :xix [19] The fourth editor was Charles Talbut Onions, who compiled the remaining ranges starting in 1914: Su–Sz, Wh–Wo, and X–Z.[23]

In 1919–1920, J. R. R. Tolkien was employed by the OED, researching etymologies of the Waggle to Warlock range;[24] later he parodied the principal editors as "The Four Wise Clerks of Oxenford" in the story Farmer Giles of Ham.[25]

By early 1894, a total of 11 fascicles had been published, or about one per year: four for A–B, five for C, and two for E.[18] Of these, eight were 352 pages long, while the last one in each group was shorter to end at the letter break (which eventually became a volume break). At this point, it was decided to publish the work in smaller and more frequent instalments; once every three months beginning in 1895 there would be a fascicle of 64 pages, priced at 2s 6d. If enough material was ready, 128 or even 192 pages would be published together. This pace was maintained until World War I forced reductions in staff.[18] :xx Each time enough consecutive pages were available, the same material was also published in the original larger fascicles.[18] :xx Also in 1895, the title Oxford English Dictionary (OED) was first used. It then appeared only on the outer covers of the fascicles; the original title was still the official one and was used everywhere else.[18] :xx

Completion of first edition and first supplement

The 125th and last fascicle covered words from Wise to the end of W and was published on 19 April 1928, and the full dictionary in bound volumes followed immediately.[18] :xx

William Shakespeare is the most-quoted writer in the completed dictionary, with Hamlet his most-quoted work. George Eliot (Mary Ann Evans) is the most-quoted female writer. Collectively, the Bible is the most-quoted work (but in many different translations); the most-quoted single work is Cursor Mundi.[8]

Between 1928 and 1933, enough additional material had been compiled to make a one-volume supplement, so the dictionary was reissued as the set of 12 volumes and a one-volume supplement in 1933.[18]

Second supplement

In 1933, Oxford had finally put the dictionary to rest; all work ended, and the quotation slips went into storage. However, the English language continued to change and, by the time 20 years had passed, the dictionary was outdated.[26]

There were three possible ways to update it. The cheapest would have been to leave the existing work alone and simply compile a new supplement of perhaps one or two volumes; but then anyone looking for a word or sense and unsure of its age would have to look in three different places. The most convenient choice for the user would have been for the entire dictionary to be re-edited and retypeset, with each change included in its proper alphabetical place; but this would have been the most expensive option, with perhaps 15 volumes required to be produced. The OUP chose a middle approach: combining the new material with the existing supplement to form a larger replacement supplement.

Robert Burchfield was hired in 1957 to edit the second supplement;[27] Onions turned 84 that year but was still able to make some contributions, as well. The work on the supplement was expected to take about seven years.[26] It actually took 29 years, by which time the new supplement (OEDS) had grown to four volumes, starting with A, H, O, and Sea. They were published in 1972, 1976, 1982, and 1986 respectively, bringing the complete dictionary to 16 volumes, or 17 counting the first supplement.

Burchfield emphasized the inclusion of modern-day language and, through the supplement, the dictionary was expanded to include a wealth of new words from the burgeoning fields of science and technology, as well as popular culture and colloquial speech. Burchfield said that he broadened the scope to include developments of the language in English-speaking regions beyond the United Kingdom, including North America, Australia, New Zealand, South Africa, India, Pakistan, and the Caribbean. Burchfield also removed some smaller entries that had been added to the 1933 supplement, for reasons of space;[28] in 2012, an analysis by lexicographer Sarah Ogilvie revealed that many of these entries were in fact foreign loanwords, despite Burchfield's attempt to include more such words. The proportion was estimated from a sample calculation to amount to 17% of the foreign loan words and words from regional forms of English. Many of these had only a single recorded usage, but it ran against what was thought to be the established OED editorial practice and a perception that he had opened up the dictionary to "World English".[29] [30] [31]

Second edition

By the time the new supplement was completed, it was clear that the full text of the dictionary would now need to be computerized. Achieving this would require retyping it once, but thereafter it would always be accessible for computer searching – as well as for whatever new editions of the dictionary might be desired, starting with an integration of the supplementary volumes and the main text. Preparation for this process began in 1983, and editorial work started the following year under the administrative direction of Timothy J. Benbow, with John A. Simpson and Edmund S. C. Weiner as co-editors.[32] In 2016, Simpson published his memoir chronicling his years at the OED. See The Word Detective: Searching for the Meaning of It All at the Oxford English Dictionary - A Memoir. Basic Books, New York.

Editing an entry of the NOED using LEXX

And so the New Oxford English Dictionary (NOED) project began. In the United States, more than 120 typists of the International Computaprint Corporation (now Reed Tech) started keying in over 350,000,000 characters, their work checked by 55 proof-readers in England.[32] Retyping the text alone was not sufficient; all the information represented by the complex typography of the original dictionary had to be retained, which was done by marking up the content in SGML.[32] A specialized search engine and display software were also needed to access it. Under a 1985 agreement, some of this software work was done at the University of Waterloo, Canada, at the Centre for the New Oxford English Dictionary, led by Frank Tompa and Gaston Gonnet; this search technology went on to become the basis for the Open Text Corporation.[33] Computer hardware, database and other software, development managers, and programmers for the project were donated by the British subsidiary of IBM; the colour syntax-directed editor for the project, LEXX, was written by Mike Cowlishaw of IBM.[34] The University of Waterloo, in Canada, volunteered to design the database. A. Walton Litz, an English professor at Princeton University who served on the Oxford University Press advisory council, was quoted in Time as saying "I've never been associated with a project, I've never even heard of a project, that was so incredibly complicated and that met every deadline."[35]

By 1989, the NOED project had achieved its primary goals, and the editors, working online, had successfully combined the original text, Burchfield's supplement, and a small amount of newer material, into a single unified dictionary. The word "new" was again dropped from the name, and the second edition of the OED, or the OED2, was published. The first edition retronymically became the OED1.

The Oxford English Dictionary 2 was printed in 20 volumes. For the first time, there was no attempt to start them on letter boundaries, and they were made roughly equal in size. The 20 volumes started with A, B.B.C., Cham, Creel, Dvandva, Follow, Hat, Interval, Look, Moul, Ow, Poise, Quemadero, Rob, Ser, Soot, Su, Thru, Unemancipated, and Wave.

The content of the OED2 is mostly just a reorganization of the earlier corpus, but the retypesetting provided an opportunity for two long-needed format changes. The headword of each entry was no longer capitalized, allowing the user to readily see those words that actually require a capital letter.[36] Murray had devised his own notation for pronunciation, there being no standard available at the time, whereas the OED2 adopted the modern International Phonetic Alphabet.[36] [37] Unlike the earlier edition, all foreign alphabets except Greek were transliterated.[36]

The British quiz show Countdown has awarded the leather-bound complete version to the champions of each series since its inception in 1982.[38]

When the print version of the second edition was published in 1989, the response was enthusiastic. Author Anthony Burgess declared it "the greatest publishing event of the century", as quoted by the Los Angeles Times.[39] Time dubbed the book "a scholarly Everest",[35] and Richard Boston, writing for The Guardian, called it "one of the wonders of the world".[40]

Additions series

The supplements and their integration into the second edition were a great improvement to the OED as a whole, but it was recognized that most of the entries were still fundamentally unaltered from the first edition. Much of the information in the dictionary published in 1989 was already decades out of date, though the supplements had made good progress towards incorporating new vocabulary. Yet many definitions contained disproven scientific theories, outdated historical information, and moral values that were no longer widely accepted.[41] [42] Furthermore, the supplements had failed to recognize many words in the existing volumes as obsolete by the time of the second edition's publication, meaning that thousands of words were marked as current despite no recent evidence of their use.[43]

Accordingly, it was recognized that work on a third edition would have to begin to rectify these problems.[41] The first attempt to produce a new edition came with the Oxford English Dictionary Additions Series, a new set of supplements to complement the OED2 with the intention of producing a third edition from them.[44] The previous supplements appeared in alphabetical installments, whereas the new series had a full A–Z range of entries within each individual volume, with a complete alphabetical index at the end of all words revised so far, each listed with the volume number which contained the revised entry.[44]

However, in the end only three Additions volumes were published this way, two in 1993 and one in 1997,[45] [46] [47] each containing about 3,000 new definitions.[8] The possibilities of the World Wide Web and new computer technology in general meant that the processes of researching the dictionary and of publishing new and revised entries could be vastly improved. New text search databases offered vastly more material for the editors of the dictionary to work with, and with publication on the Web as a possibility, the editors could publish revised entries much more quickly and easily than ever before.[48] A new approach was called for, and for this reason it was decided to embark on a new, complete revision of the dictionary.

  • Oxford English Dictionary Additions Series Volume 1 (ISBN 978-0-19-861292-6): Includes over 20,000 illustrative quotations showing the evolution of each word or meaning.
  • Oxford English Dictionary Additions Series Volume 3 (ISBN 978-0-19-860027-5): Contains 3,000 new words and meanings from around the English-speaking world. Published by Clarendon Press.
Third edition

Beginning with the launch of the first OED Online site in 2000, the editors of the dictionary began a major revision project to create a completely revised third edition of the dictionary (OED3), expected to be completed in 2037[49] [50] at a projected cost of about £34 million.[51]

Revisions were started at the letter M, with new material appearing every three months on the OED Online website. The editors chose to start the revision project from the middle of the dictionary in order that the overall quality of entries be made more even, since the later entries in the OED1 generally tended to be better than the earlier ones. However, in March 2008, the editors announced that they would alternate each quarter between moving forward in the alphabet as before and updating "key English words from across the alphabet, along with the other words which make up the alphabetical cluster surrounding them".[52] With the relaunch of the OED Online website in December 2010, alphabetical revision was abandoned altogether.[53]

The revision is expected to roughly double the dictionary in size.[5] [54] Apart from general updates to include information on new words and other changes in the language, the third edition brings many other improvements, including changes in formatting and stylistic conventions to make entries clearer to read and enable more thorough searches to be made by computer, more thorough etymological information, and a general change of focus away from individual words towards more general coverage of the language as a whole.[48] [55] While the original text drew its quotations mainly from literary sources such as novels, plays, and poetry, with additional material from newspapers and academic journals, the new edition will reference more kinds of material that were unavailable to the editors of previous editions, such as wills, inventories, account books, diaries, journals, and letters.[54]

John Simpson was the first chief editor of the OED3. He retired in 2013 and was replaced by Michael Proffitt, who is the eighth chief editor of the dictionary.[56]

The production of the new edition takes full advantage of computer technology, particularly since the June 2005 inauguration of the whimsically named "Perfect All-Singing All-Dancing Editorial and Notation Application", or "Pasadena". With this XML-based system, the attention of lexicographers can be directed more to matters of content than to presentation issues such as the numbering of definitions. The new system has also simplified the use of the quotations database, and enabled staff in New York to work directly on the dictionary in the same way as their Oxford-based counterparts.[57]

Other important computer uses include internet searches for evidence of current usage, and e-mail submissions of quotations by readers and the general public.[58]

Wordhunt was a 2005 appeal to the general public for help in providing citations for 50 selected recent words, and produced antedatings for many. The results were reported in a BBC TV series, Balderdash and Piffle. The OED's small army of devoted readers continue to contribute quotations: the department currently receives about 200,000 a year.[59]

OED currently contains over 600,000 entries.[60]

Formats
Compact editions
The Compact Oxford English Dictionary (second edition, 1991).
Part of an entry in the 1991 compact edition, with a centimetre scale showing the very small type sizes used.

In 1971, the 13-volume OED1 (1933) was reprinted as a two-volume Compact Edition, by photographically reducing each page to one-half its linear dimensions; each compact edition page held four OED1 pages in a four-up ("4-up") format. The two volume letters were A and P; the first supplement was at the second volume's end. The Compact Edition included, in a small slip-case drawer, a magnifying glass to help in reading reduced type. Many copies were inexpensively distributed through book clubs. In 1987, the second supplement was published as a third volume to the Compact Edition.

In 1991, for the 20-volume OED2 (1989), the compact edition format was re-sized to one-third of original linear dimensions, a nine-up ("9-up") format requiring greater magnification, but allowing publication of a single-volume dictionary. It was accompanied by a magnifying glass as before and A User's Guide to the "Oxford English Dictionary", by Donna Lee Berg.[61] After these volumes were published, though, book club offers commonly continued to sell the two-volume 1971 Compact Edition.[25]

  • The Compact Oxford English Dictionary (second edition, 1991, ISBN 978-0-19-861258-2): Includes definitions of 500,000 words, 290,000 main entries, 137,000 pronunciations, 249,300 etymologies, 577,000 cross-references, and over 2,412,000 illustrative quotations, a magnifying glass.
Electronic versions
A screenshot of the first version of the OED second edition CD-ROM software.
OED2 4th Edition CD-ROM.

Once the text of the dictionary was digitized and online, it was also available to be published on CD-ROM. The text of the first edition was made available in 1987.[62] Afterward, three versions of the second edition were issued. Version 1 (1992) was identical in content to the printed second edition, and the CD itself was not copy-protected. Version 2 (1999) included the Oxford English Dictionary Additions of 1993 and 1997.

Version 3.0 was released in 2002 with additional words from the OED3 and software improvements. Version 3.1.1 (2007) added support for hard disk installation, so that the user does not have to insert the CD to use the dictionary. It has been reported that this version will work on operating systems other than Microsoft Windows, using emulation programs.[63] [64] Version 4.0 of the CD has been available since June 2009 and works with Windows 7 and Mac OS X (10.4 or later).[65] This version uses the CD drive for installation, running only from the hard drive.

On 14 March 2000, the Oxford English Dictionary Online (OED Online) became available to subscribers.[66] The online database contains the entire OED2 and is updated quarterly with revisions that will be included in the OED3 (see above). The online edition is the most up-to-date version of the dictionary available. The OED web site is not optimized for mobile devices, but the developers have stated that there are plans to provide an API that would enable developers to develop different interfaces for querying the OED.[67]

The price for an individual to use this edition is £195 or US$295 every year, even after a reduction in 2004; consequently, most subscribers are large organizations such as universities. Some public libraries and companies have subscribed, as well, including public libraries in the United Kingdom, where access is funded by the Arts Council,[68] and public libraries in New Zealand.[69] [70] Individuals who belong to a library which subscribes to the service are able to use the service from their own home without charge.

  • Oxford English Dictionary Second edition on CD-ROM Version 3.1:
  • Oxford English Dictionary Second edition on CD-ROM Version 4.0: Includes 500,000 words with 2.5 million source quotations, 7,000 new words and meanings. Includes Vocabulary from OED 2nd Edition and all 3 Additions volumes. Supports Windows 2000-7 and Mac OS X 10.4-10.5). Flash-based dictionary.
Relationship to other Oxford dictionaries

The OED's utility and renown as a historical dictionary have led to numerous offspring projects and other dictionaries bearing the Oxford name, though not all are directly related to the OED itself.

The Shorter Oxford English Dictionary, originally started in 1902 and completed in 1933,[72] is an abridgement of the full work that retains the historical focus, but does not include any words which were obsolete before 1700 except those used by Shakespeare, Milton, Spenser, and the King James Bible.[73] A completely new edition was produced from the OED2 and published in 1993,[74] with further revisions following in 2002 and 2007.

The Concise Oxford Dictionary is a different work, which aims to cover current English only, without the historical focus. The original edition, mostly based on the OED1, was edited by Francis George Fowler and Henry Watson Fowler and published in 1911, before the main work was completed.[75] Revised editions appeared throughout the twentieth century to keep it up to date with changes in English usage.

In 1998 the New Oxford Dictionary of English (NODE) was published. While also aiming to cover current English, NODE was not based on the OED. Instead, it was an entirely new dictionary produced with the aid of corpus linguistics.[76] Once NODE was published, a similarly brand-new edition of the Concise Oxford Dictionary followed, this time based on an abridgement of NODE rather than the OED; NODE (under the new title of the Oxford Dictionary of English, or ODE) continues to be principal source for Oxford's product line of current-English dictionaries, including the New Oxford American Dictionary, with the OED now only serving as the basis for scholarly historical dictionaries.

Spelling

The OED lists British headword spellings (e.g., labour, centre) with variants following (labor, center, etc.). For the suffix more commonly spelt -ise in British English, OUP policy dictates a preference for the spelling -ize, e.g., realize vs. realise and globalization vs. globalisation. The rationale is etymological, in that the English suffix is mainly derived from the Greek suffix -ιζειν, (-izein), or the Latin -izāre.[77] However, -ze is also sometimes treated as an Americanism insofar as the -ze suffix has crept into words where it did not originally belong, as with analyse (British English), which is spelt analyze in American English.[78] [79]

Reception

Despite, and at the same time precisely because of, its claim of authority[80] on the English language, the Oxford English Dictionary has been criticised since at least the 1960s from various angles. It has become a target precisely because of its scope, its claims to authority, its British-centredness and relative neglect of World Englishes,[81] its implied but not acknowledged focus on literary language and, above all, its influence. The OED, as a commercial product, has always had to manoeuvre a thin line between PR, marketing and scholarship and one can argue that its biggest problem is the critical uptake of the work by the interested public. In his review of the 1982 supplement,[82] University of Oxford linguist Roy Harris writes that criticizing the OED is extremely difficult because "one is dealing not just with a dictionary but with a national institution", one that "has become, like the English monarchy, virtually immune from criticism in principle". He further notes that neologisms from respected "literary" authors such as Samuel Beckett and Virginia Woolf are included, whereas usage of words in newspapers or other less "respectable" sources hold less sway, even though they may be commonly used. He writes that the OED's "[b]lack-and-white lexicography is also black-and-white in that it takes upon itself to pronounce authoritatively on the rights and wrongs of usage", faulting the dictionary's prescriptive rather than descriptive usage. To Harris, this prescriptive classification of certain usages as "erroneous" and the complete omission of various forms and usages cumulatively represent the "social bias[es]" of the (presumably well-educated and wealthy) compilers. However, the identification of "erroneous and catachrestic" usages is being removed from third edition entries,[83] [84] sometimes in favour of usage notes describing the attitudes to language which have previously led to these classifications.[85]

Harris also faults the editors' "donnish conservatism" and their adherence to prudish Victorian morals, citing as an example the non-inclusion of "various centuries-old 'four-letter words'" until 1972. However, no English dictionary included such words, for fear of possible prosecution under British obscenity laws, until after the conclusion of the Lady Chatterley's Lover obscenity trial in 1960. The first dictionary to include the word fuck was the Penguin English Dictionary of 1965.[86] Joseph Wright's English Dialect Dictionary had included shit in 1905.[87]

The OED's claims of authority have also been questioned by linguists such as Pius ten Hacken, who notes that the dictionary actively strives towards definitiveness and authority but can only achieve those goals in a limited sense, given the difficulties of defining the scope of what it includes.[88]

Founding editor James Murray was also reluctant to include scientific terms, despite their documentation, unless he felt that they were widely enough used. In 1902, he declined to add the word "radium" to the dictionary.[89] [90]

In contrast, Tim Bray, co-creator of Extensible Markup Language (XML), credits the OED as the developing inspiration of that markup language.[91] Similarly, author Anu Garg, founder of Wordsmith.org, has called the Oxford English Dictionary a "lex icon".[92]

See also
Notes
  1. "Guide to the Third Edition of the OED". Oxford University Press. Retrieved 30 August 2014. The Oxford English Dictionary is not an arbiter of proper usage, despite its widespread reputation to the contrary. The Dictionary is intended to be descriptive, not prescriptive. In other words, its content should be viewed as an objective reflection of English language usage, not a subjective collection of usage ‘dos’ and ‘don’ts’.
  2. "As a historical dictionary, the OED is very different from those of current English, in which the focus is on present-day meanings." [1]
  3. "The OED is a historical dictionary, with a structure that is very different from that of a dictionary of current English."[2]
  4. Jamieson, Alastair (29 August 2010). "Oxford English Dictionary 'will not be printed again'". The Telegraph. Retrieved 11 August 2012.
  5. Flanagan, Padraic (20 April 2014). "RIP for OED as world's finest dictionary goes out of print". The Telegraph. Retrieved 8 June 2014.
  6. "The Oxford English Dictionary". Oxford Dictionaries. Retrieved 26 May 2015.
  7. Osselton, Noel (2000). "Murray and his European Counterparts". In Mugglestone, Lynda. Lexicography and the OED: Pioneers in the Untrodden Forest. Oxford: Oxford University Press. ISBN 0191583464.
  8. "Dictionary Facts". Oxford English Dictionary Online. Retrieved 1 June 2014.
  9. A bold type combination has a significantly different meaning from the sum of its parts, for instance sauna-like is unlike an actual sauna."Preface to the Second Edition: General explanations: Combinations". Oxford English Dictionary Online. 1989. Archived from the original on 16 May 2008. Retrieved 16 May 2008.
  10. Italicized combinations are obvious from their parts (for example television aerial), unlike bold combinations. "Preface to the Second Edition: General explanations: Combinations". Oxford English Dictionary Online. 1989. Archived from the original on 16 May 2008. Retrieved 16 May 2008.
  11. Winchester, Simon (28 May 2011). "A Verb for Our Frantic Time". The New York Times. Retrieved 26 December 2013.
  12. Simpson, John (13 December 2007). "December 2007 revisions – Quarterly updates". Oxford English Dictionary Online. OED. Retrieved 3 August 2010.
  13. Gilliver, Peter (2013). "Make, put, run: Writing and rewriting three big verbs in the OED". Dictionaries: Journal of the Dictionary Society of North America. 34 (34): 10–23. doi:10.1353/dic.2013.0009. Retrieved 8 June 2014.
  14. "Kangxi Dictionary". cultural-china.com. Retrieved 21 October 2013.
  15. Winchester, Simon (1999). The Professor and the Madman. New York: HarperPerennial. ISBN 978-0-06-083978-9.
  16. Gilliver, Peter (2013). "Thoughts on Writing a History of the Oxford English Dictionary". Dictionaries: Journal of the Dictionary Society of North America. 34: 175. doi:10.1353/dic.2013.0011. Retrieved 10 March 2015.
  17. Trench, Richard Chenevix (1857). "On Some Deficiencies in Our English Dictionaries". Transactions of the Philological Society. 9: 3–8.
  18. Craigie, W. A.; Onions, C. T. (1933). A New English Dictionary on Historical Principles: Introduction, Supplement, and Bibliography. Oxford: Clarendon Press.
  19. Mugglestone, Lynda (2005). Lost for Words: The Hidden History of the Oxford English Dictionary. Yale University Press. ISBN 978-0-300-10699-2.
  20. "Reading Programme". Oxford English Dictionary Online. Retrieved 7 June 2014.
  21. Murray, K. M. Elizabeth (1977). Caught in the Web of Words: James Murray and the Oxford English Dictionary. Yale University Press. p. 178. ISBN 978-0-300-08919-6.
  22. Winchester, Simon (2003). The Meaning of Everything: The Story of the Oxford English Dictionary. Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-860702-4.
  23. Mugglestone, Lynda (2000). Lexicography and the OED : Pioneers in the Untrodden Forest. Oxford University Press. p. 245.
  24. "Contributors: Tolkien". Oxford English Dictionary Online. Retrieved 3 October 2012.
  25. Considine, John (1998). "Why do large historical dictionaries give so much pleasure to their owners and users?" (PDF). Proceedings of the 8th EURALEX International Congress: 579–587. Retrieved 8 June 2014.
  26. "Preface to the Second Edition: The history of the Oxford English Dictionary: A Supplement to the Oxford English Dictionary, 1957–1986". Oxford English Dictionary Online. 1989. Archived from the original on 16 May 2008. Retrieved 16 May 2008.
  27. Simpson, John (2002). "The Revolution in English Lexicography" (PDF). Dictionaries: Journal of the Dictionary Society of North America. 23: 1–15. doi:10.1353/dic.2002.0004. Retrieved 22 July 2014.
  28. Ogilvie, Sarah (30 November 2012). "Focusing on the OED's missing words is missing the point". The Guardian. Retrieved 2 October 2014.
  29. Ogilvie, Sarah (2012). Words of the World: A Global History of the Oxford English Dictionary. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 978-1-107-02183-9.
  30. Kaufman, Leslie (28 November 2012). "Dictionary Dust-Up (Danchi Is Involved)". The New York Times. Retrieved 8 June 2014.
  31. Flood, Alison (26 November 2012). "Former OED editor covertly deleted thousands of words, book claims". The Guardian. Retrieved 8 June 2014.
  32. "Preface to the Second Edition: The history of the Oxford English Dictionary: The New Oxford English Dictionary project". Oxford English Dictionary Online. 1989. Archived from the original on 16 May 2008. Retrieved 16 May 2008.
  33. Tompa, Frank (10 November 2005). "UW Centre for the New OED and Text Research". Retrieved 4 June 2014.
  34. Cowlishaw, Mike F. (1987). "LEXX—A Programmable Structured Editor". IBM Journal of Research and Development. 31 (1): 73–80. doi:10.1147/rd.311.0073. Retrieved 7 June 2014.
  35. Gray, Paul (27 March 1989). "A Scholarly Everest Gets Bigger". Time. Retrieved 7 June 2014.
  36. "Preface to the Second Edition: Introduction: Special features of the Second Edition". Oxford English Dictionary Online. 1989. Archived from the original on 16 May 2008. Retrieved 16 May 2008.
  37. "Preface to the Second Edition: Introduction: The translation of the phonetic system". Oxford English Dictionary Online. 1989. Archived from the original on 16 May 2008. Retrieved 16 May 2008.
  38. "Countdown". UKGameshows. Retrieved 2 June 2014.
  39. Fisher, Dan (25 March 1989). "20-Volume English set costs $2,500; New Oxford Dictionary – Improving on the ultimate". Los Angeles Times. Here's novelist Anthony Burgess calling it "the greatest publishing event of the century". It is to be marked by a half-day seminar and lunch at that bluest of blue-blood London hostelries, Claridge's. The guest list of 250 dignitaries is a literary "Who's Who".
  40. Boston, Richard (24 March 1989). "The new, 20-volume Oxford English Dictionary: Oxford's A to Z – The origin". The Guardian. London. The Encyclopaedia Britannica and the Dictionary of National Biography are indeed yet mighty, but not quite what they used to be, whereas the OED has gone from strength to strength and is one of the wonders of the world.
  41. "Preface to the Second Edition: The history of the Oxford English Dictionary: The New Oxford English Dictionary project". Oxford English Dictionary Online. 1989. Archived from the original on 16 December 2003. Retrieved 16 December 2003.
  42. Brewer, Charlotte (28 December 2011). "Which edition contains what?". Examining the OED. Retrieved 7 June 2014.
  43. Brewer, Charlotte (28 December 2011). "Review of OED3". Examining the OED. Retrieved 7 June 2014.
  44. "Preface to the Additions Series (vol. 1): Introduction". Oxford English Dictionary Online. 1993. Archived from the original on 16 May 2008. Retrieved 16 May 2008.
  45. Oxford English Dictionary Additions Series. 1. Oxford: Clarendon Press. 1993. ISBN 978-0-19-861292-6.
  46. Oxford English Dictionary Additions Series. 2. Oxford: Clarendon Press. 1993. ISBN 978-0-19-861299-5.
  47. Oxford English Dictionary Additions Series. 3. Oxford: Clarendon Press. 1996. ISBN 978-0-19-860027-5.
  48. Simpson, John (31 January 2011). "The Making of the OED, 3rd ed" (video). Retrieved 7 June 2014.
  49. Willen Brown, Stephanie (26 August 2007). "From Unregistered Words to OED3". CogSci Librarian. Retrieved 23 October 2007.
  50. Winchester, Simon (27 May 2007). "History of the Oxford English Dictionary". TVOntario (Podcast). Big Ideas. Retrieved 1 December 2007.
  51. "History of the OED". Oxford English Dictionary Online. Retrieved 1 June 2014.
  52. "March 2008 update". Oxford English Dictionary Online. Retrieved 1 June 2014.
  53. Brewer, Charlotte (12 February 2012). "OED Online and OED3". Examining the OED. Retrieved 7 June 2014.
  54. Simpson, John (March 2000). "Preface to the Third Edition of the OED". Oxford English Dictionary Online. Retrieved 1 June 2014.
  55. Durkin, Philip N. R. (1999). "Root and Branch: Revising the etymological component of the Oxford English Dictionary". Transactions of the Philological Society. 97 (1): 1–49. doi:10.1111/1467-968X.00044. Retrieved 8 June 2014.
  56. "John Simpson, Chief Editor of the Oxford English Dictionary, to retire". Oxford English Dictionary Online. Retrieved 7 June 2014.
  57. Thompson, Liz (December 2005). "Pasadena: a brand new system for the OED". Oxford English Dictionary News. Oxford University Press. p. 4. Retrieved 6 January 2014.
  58. "Collecting the Evidence". Oxford English Dictionary Online. Retrieved 8 June 2014.
  59. "Reading Programme". Oxford English Dictionary Online. Retrieved 8 June 2014.
  60. http://public.oed.com/about/
  61. The Compact Oxford English Dictionary. Oxford University Press. 1991. ISBN 978-0-19-861258-2.
  62. Logan, H. M. (1989). "Report on a New OED Project: A Study of the History of New Words in the New OED". Computers and the Humanities. 23 (4–5): 385–395. doi:10.1007/BF02176644. JSTOR 30204378.
  63. Holmgren, R. J. (21 December 2013). "v3.x under Macintosh OSX and Linux". Oxford English Dictionary (OED) on CD-ROM in a 16-, 32-, or 64-bit Windows environment. Retrieved 7 June 2014.
  64. Bernie. "Oxford English Dictionary News". Newsgroupalt.english.usage. Usenet: 07ymc.5870$pa7.1359@newssvr27.news.prodigy.com. Retrieved 7 June 2014.
  65. "The Oxford English Dictionary Second Edition on CD-ROM Version 4.0 Windows/Mac Individual User Version". Oxford University Press. Retrieved 26 December 2013.
  66. New, Juliet (23 March 2000). "'The world's greatest dictionary' goes online". Ariadne. ISSN 1361-3200. Retrieved 18 March 2007.
  67. "Looking Forward to an Oxford English Dictionary API". Webometric Thoughts. 21 August 2009. Retrieved 7 June 2014.
  68. Kite, Lorien (15 November 2013). "The evolving role of the Oxford English Dictionary". Financial Times. ISSN 0307-1766. Retrieved 22 June 2015.
  69. "How do I know if my public library subscribes?". Oxford University Press. Retrieved 6 January 2013.
  70. "Oxford University Press Databases available through EPIC". EPIC. Retrieved 7 June 2014.
  71. Current OED Version 4.0
  72. Burnett, Lesley S. (1986). "Making it short: The Shorter Oxford English Dictionary" (PDF). ZuriLEX '86 Proceedings: 229–233. Retrieved 7 June 2014.
  73. Blake, G. Elizabeth; Bray, Tim; Tompa, Frank Wm (1992). "Shortening the OED: Experience with a Grammar-Defined Database". ACM Transactions on Information Systems. 10 (3): 213–232. doi:10.1145/146760.146764. Retrieved 29 July 2014.
  74. Brown, Lesley, ed. (1993). The New Shorter Oxford English Dictionary on Historical Principles. Oxford: Clarendon Press. ISBN 978-0-19-861134-9.
  75. The Concise Oxford Dictionary: The Classic First Edition (facsimile reprint). Oxford University Press. 2011. ISBN 978-0-19-969612-3.
  76. Quinion, Michael (18 September 2010). "Review: Oxford Dictionary of English". World Wide Words. Retrieved 29 July 2014.
  77. "-ize, suffix". Oxford English Dictionary Online. Retrieved 1 June 2014. (Subscription required (help)).
  78. "Verbs ending in -ize, -ise, -yze, and -yse : Oxford Dictionaries Online". Askoxford.com. Retrieved 3 August 2010.
  79. See also -ise/-ize at American and British English spelling differences.
  80. "History of the OED". Oxford English Dictionary Online. Retrieved 18 February 2012.
  81. Luk, Vivian (13 August 2013). "UBC prof lobbies Oxford English dictionary to be less British". Toronto Star. Canadian Press. Retrieved 9 February 2016.
  82. Harris, Roy (1982). "Review of RW Burchfield A Supplement to the OED Volume 3: O—Scz". TLS. 3: 935–6.
  83. Oxford University Press (2017). "Key to symbols and other conventional entries". Oxford English Dictionary online. Retrieved 28 October 2017.
  84. Brewer, Charlotte (21 March 2010). "Language and Usage". Examining the OED. Retrieved 4 June 2014.
  85. "literally, adv. (sense I. 1. c.)". Oxford English Dictionary Online. September 2011. Retrieved 4 June 2014. (Subscription required (help)).
  86. "fuck, v". Oxford English Dictionary Online. March 2008. Retrieved 1 June 2014. (Subscription required (help)).
  87. Page 390 in part V of the English Dialect Dictionary by Joseph Wright
  88. ten Hacken, Pius (2012). "In what sense is the OED the definitive record of the English language?" (PDF). Proceedings of the 15th EURALEX International Congress: 834–845. Retrieved 28 July 2014.
  89. Gross, John, The Oxford Book of Parodies, Oxford University Press, 2010, pg. 319
  90. Brewer, Charlotte (4 February 2008). "Spoof slip for radium". Examining the OED. Retrieved 4 June 2014.
  91. Bray, Tim (9 April 2003). "On Semantics and Markup". ongoing by Tim Bray. Retrieved 4 June 2014.
  92. "Globe & Mail". Wordsmith. 11 February 2002. Retrieved 3 August 2010.
Further reading
External links
1st edition
Internet Archive
Vol. Year Letters Links
1 1888 A, B [3]
2 1893 C [4]
3 1897 D, E [5] [6]
3p1 1897 D [7]
4 1901 F, G [8] [9] [10]
5 1901 H–K [11]
5p1 1901 H [12]
5p2 1901 I, J, K [13]
6p1 1908 L [14]
6p2 1908 M, N [15]
7 1909 O, P [16] [17]
8p1 1914 Q, R [18] [19]
8p2 1914 S–Sh [20] [21]
9p1 1919 Si–St [22] [23]
9p2 1919 Su–Th [24] [25]
10p1 1926 Ti–U [26] [27]
10p2 1928 V–Z [28] [29]
Sup. 1933 A–Z [30]
HathiTrust
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Oxford English Dictionary

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The Oxford English Dictionary ( OED ) is a descriptive dictionary of the English language , published by the Oxford University Press . It traces the historical development of the English language, providing a comprehensive resource to scholars and academic researchers, as well as describing usage in its many variations throughout the world. The second edition came to 21,728 pages in 20 volumes, published in 1989. Work began on the dictionary in 1857, but it was not until 1884 that it began to be published in unbound fascicles as work continued on the project, under the name of A New English Dictionary on Historical Principles; Founded Mainly on the Materials Collected by The Philological Society. In 1895, the title The Oxford English Dictionary (OED) was first used unofficially on the covers of the series, and in 1928 the full dictionary was republished in ten bound volumes. In 1933, the title The Oxford English Dictionary fully replaced the former name in all occurrences in its reprinting as twelve volume ...more...



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Oxford spelling

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Oxford spelling (also Oxford English Dictionary spelling , Oxford style , or Oxford English spelling ) is the spelling standard used by the Oxford University Press (OUP) for British publications, including its Oxford English Dictionary (OED) and its influential British style guide Hart's Rules , and by other publishers who are "etymology conscious", according to Merriam-Webster . Oxford spelling is best known for its preference for the suffix -ize in words like organize and recognize, versus the -ise endings that are also commonly used in current British English usage. The spelling affects about 200 verbs and is favoured because -ize corresponds more closely to the Greek root, -izo (- ιζω ), of most -ize verbs. In addition to the OUP's "Oxford"-branded dictionaries, other British dictionary publishers that list -ize suffixes first include Cassell , Collins and Longman . Oxford spelling is used by many British academic/science journals (for example, Nature ) and many international organizations (for exampl ...more...



Advanced learner's dictionary

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The advanced learner's dictionary is the most common type of monolingual learner's dictionary , that is, a dictionary written for someone who is learning a foreign language and who has a proficiency level of B2 or above according to the Common European Framework . It differs from a bilingual or translation dictionary, on the one hand, and a standard dictionary written for native speakers or linguistic scholars, on the other. The definitions are usually built on defining vocabulary . Although advanced learner's dictionaries have been produced for learners of several languages (including Chinese, Dutch, German, and Spanish) the majority are written for learners of English . Printed The best-known advanced learner's dictionaries are: Oxford Advanced Learner's Dictionary , first published in 1948. Longman Dictionary of Contemporary English , first published in 1978. Collins Cobuild English Dictionary, first published in 1987 and now published as Collins COBUILD Advanced Learner’s Dictionary . Cambridge Internatio ...more...



Oxford Dictionary of Byzantium

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The Oxford Dictionary of Byzantium (often abbreviated to ODB ) is a three-volume historical dictionary published by the English Oxford University Press . With more than 5,000 entries, it contains comprehensive information in English on topics relating to the Byzantine Empire . It was edited by Dr. Alexander Kazhdan , and was first published in 1991. Kazhdan was a professor at Princeton University who became a Senior Research Associate at Dumbarton Oaks , Washington, DC before his death. He contributed to many of the articles in the Dictionary and always signed his initials A.K. at the end of the article to indicate his contribution. Description The dictionary is available in printed and e-reference text versions from Oxford Reference Online . It covers the main historical events of Byzantium, as well as important social and religious events. It also includes biographies of eminent political and literary personalities and describes in detail religious, social, cultural, legal and political topics. Cultural to ...more...



Oxford American Dictionary

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The Oxford American Dictionary ( OAD ) is a single-volume dictionary of American English . It was the first dictionary published by the Oxford University Press to be prepared by American lexicographers and editors. The work was based on the Oxford Paperback Dictionary, published in 1979. It is no longer in print and has been superseded by the New Oxford American Dictionary . See also Other Oxford Dictionaries: New Oxford American Dictionary (NOAD) Oxford English Dictionary (OED) Shorter Oxford English Dictionary (SOED) Oxford Dictionary of English (ODE) Concise Oxford English Dictionary (COED) Australian Oxford Dictionary (AOD) Canadian Oxford Dictionary (CanOD) Oxford Advanced Learner's Dictionary (OALD) References The Oxford American Dictionary ( OAD ) is a single-volume dictionary of American English . It was the first dictionary published by the Oxford University Press to be prepared by American lexicographers and editors. The work was based on the Oxford Paperback Dictionary, published in 1979. It is no ...more...



Webster's Dictionary

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An 1888 advertisement for Webster's Unabridged Dictionary Webster's Dictionary is any of the dictionaries edited by Noah Webster in the early nineteenth century, and numerous unrelated dictionaries that have adopted the Webster's name. "Webster's" has become a genericized trademark in the U.S. for dictionaries of the English language, and is widely used in English dictionary titles, or even to dictionaries in general. The only modern dictionaries that trace their lineage to Noah Webster's are published by Merriam-Webster . Noah Webster's American Dictionary of the English Language Noah Webster (1758–1843), the author of the readers and spelling books which dominated the American market at the time, spent decades of research in compiling his dictionaries. His first dictionary, A Compendious Dictionary of the English Language, appeared in 1806. In it, he popularized features which would become a hallmark of American English spelling (center rather than centre, honor rather than honour, program rather than pro ...more...



Historical Thesaurus of the Oxford English Dictionary

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The Historical Thesaurus of the Oxford English Dictionary ( HTOED ) is the print edition of the largest thesaurus in the world, the Historical Thesaurus of English ( HTE ), conceived and compiled by the English Language Department of the University of Glasgow . The HTE is a complete database of all the words in the second edition of The Oxford English Dictionary , arranged by semantic field and date. In this way, the HTE arranges the whole vocabulary of English , from the earliest written records in Old English to the present, alongside types and dates of use. It is the first historical thesaurus to be compiled for any of the world's languages and contains 800,000 meanings for 600,000 words, within 230,000 categories, covering more than 920,000 words and meanings. As the HTE website states, "in addition to providing hitherto unavailable information for linguistic and textual scholars, the Historical Thesaurus online is a rich resource for students of social and cultural history, showing how concepts develop ...more...



Cambridge Advanced Learner's Dictionary

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Cambridge Advanced Learner's Dictionary 3rd Edition CD-ROM Cambridge Advanced Learner's Dictionary (unofficially Cambridge English Dictionary or Cambridge Dictionary ) was first published in 1995 under the name Cambridge International Dictionary of English , by the Cambridge University Press. The dictionary has over 140,000 words, phrases, and meanings. It is suitable for learners at CEF levels B2-C2. Editions First edition first published in 2003 Second edition first published in 2005 Third edition first published in 2008 Fourth edition first published in 2013 See also Advanced learner's dictionary External links Cambridge Advanced Learner's Dictionary online Cambridge Advanced Learner's Dictionary 3rd Edition CD-ROM Cambridge Advanced Learner's Dictionary (unofficially Cambridge English Dictionary or Cambridge Dictionary ) was first published in 1995 under the name Cambridge International Dictionary of English , by the Cambridge University Press. The dictionary has over 140,000 words, phrases, and meanings. ...more...



Oxford Latin Dictionary

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The Oxford Latin Dictionary (or OLD ) is the standard English lexicon of Classical Latin , compiled from sources written before AD 200. Begun in 1933, it was published in fascicles between 1968 and 1982; a lightly revised second edition was released in 2012. The dictionary was created in order to meet the need for a more modern Latin-English dictionary than Lewis & Short's Latin Dictionary , while being less ambitious in scope than the unfinished Thesaurus Linguae Latinae . It was based on a new reading of classical sources, based on the advances in lexicography in creating the Oxford English Dictionary . History Although Lewis and Short's Latin Dictionary was widely used in the English world by the end of the nineteenth century, its faults were widely felt among classicists. While Oxford University Press had attempted the creation of a new Latin dictionary as early as 1875, these projects failed. The OLD was spurred by the submission of a report in 1924 by Alexander Souter on the deficiencies of Lewis ...more...



Australian Oxford Dictionary

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The Australian Oxford Dictionary , sometimes abbreviated as AOD, is a dictionary of Australian English published by Oxford University Press . The AOD combines elements of the previous Oxford publication, The Australian National Dictionary (sometimes abbreviated as AND), which was a comprehensive, historically based record of 10,000 words and phrases representing Australia's contribution to English . However, The Australian National Dictionary was not a full dictionary, and could not be used as one in the normal sense. The AOD borrowed its scholarship both from the AND and from The Oxford English Dictionary , and competed with the Macquarie Dictionary when it was released in 1999. Like the Macquarie, the AOD combines elements of a normal dictionary with those of an encyclopaedic volume. It is a joint effort of Oxford University and the Australian National University . The AOD ' s current editor is Bruce Moore. Its content is largely sourced from the databases of Australian English at the Australian National D ...more...



Oxford-Hachette French Dictionary: French–English English–French

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The Oxford-Hachette French to English/English to French Dictionary is one of the most comprehensive and recent bilingual French–English/English–French dictionaries. It was the first such dictionary to be written using a computerized corpus and it contains 555,000 translations as well as 360,000 words and expressions. The work was first published in 1994, with its second, third and fourth editions appearing in 1997, 2001 and 2007 respectively. Though the dictionary is entirely bilingual, it is marketed under two different names, one for French, one for English: Le grand dictionnaire Hachette-Oxford -French et anglais-français Oxford-Hachette French Dictionary: French-English English-French It version is also available in a concise or condensed version. It is jointly published by Oxford University Press and Hachette Education . Its two main competitors are Harrap's Shorter French Dictionary published by Chambers Harrap Publishers and Collins-Robert French Dictionary published by Harper-Collins. External links O ...more...



Google Dictionary

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Google Dictionary is an online dictionary service of Google that can be accessed by using the "define" operator in Google Search . It originated in its Google Translate service, and was discontinued as a separate service in August 2011. It was believed that, until August 2010, Google used many definitions from Collins COBUILD . COBUILD entries were easy to recognize by their characteristic full-sentence definitions as well as grammar codes such as [N-VAR], which in Google Dictionary went unexplained. In August 2010, a blog site reported that Google Dictionary switched from the Collins COBUILD Advanced Learner's English Dictionary to the Oxford Pocket Dictionary of Current English as its English definitions provider. This report, although close, was not quite accurate, as in fact the content now came from another Oxford dictionary, the Oxford American College Dictionary. Languages Fully served Language Dictionary Pashto English Oxford American College Dictionary French German Italian Korean Spanish Russian C ...more...



The American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language

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The American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language ( AHD ) is an American dictionary of English published by Boston publisher Houghton Mifflin , the first edition of which appeared in 1969. Its creation was spurred by the controversy over the Webster's Third New International Dictionary . History James Parton, the publisher (and co-owner) of the history magazine American Heritage , was appalled by the permissiveness of Webster's Third , published in 1961, and tried to buy the G. and C. Merriam Company so he could undo the changes. When that failed, he contracted with Houghton to publish a new dictionary. The AHD was edited by William Morris and relied on a usage panel of 105 writers, speakers, and eminent persons chosen for their well-known conservatism in the use of language. However, Morris made inconsistent use of the panels, often ignoring their advice and inserting his own opinions. Linguistics The AHD broke ground among dictionaries by using corpus linguistics for compiling word frequencies and o ...more...



Longman Dictionary of Contemporary English

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Longman Dictionary of Contemporary English ( LDOCE ) was first published by Longman in 1978. The dictionary is available in various formats: paper only; paper with a bundled premium website; online access only or a gratis online version. LDOCE is an advanced learner's dictionary , providing definitions by using a restricted vocabulary, helping non-native English speakers to understand meanings easily. The latest version of Longman Dictionary of Contemporary English is the sixth edition. The premium website was revised during 2014 and 2015 and offers over a million corpus examples, exceeding that of the paper version and also supplying sound files for every word and 88,000 example sentences, along with various tools for study, teaching, examinations and grammar. The 9000 most important English words to learn have been highlighted via the Longman Communication 9000. The gratis LDOCE online was updated to its current layout in 2008 and offers a search (with spelling assistance), definitions; collocations; many ...more...



Dictionary of Old English

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The Dictionary of Old English ( DOE ) is a dictionary of the Old English language , published by the Centre for Medieval Studies, University of Toronto , under the direction of Angus Cameron , Ashley Crandell Amos, and Antonette diPaolo Healey. It complements the Oxford English Dictionary ' s comprehensive survey of modern English and the Middle English Dictionary ' s comprehensive survey of Middle English . The dictionary is still under production. As of March 2015 the entries for 8 of the 24 letters of the Old English alphabet have been published, and over 60% of the total entries have been written. The dictionary has made extensive use of digital technology , and is based on a corpus of at least one copy of every known surviving text written in Old English. History The dictionary was conceived in 1968 as a replacement for the Bosworth–Toller Anglo-Saxon Dictionary , which had been compiled at a time when both the study of the Old English language and lexicographical techniques were less advanced. From the ...more...



Collins English Dictionary

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The Collins English Dictionary is a printed and online dictionary of English. It is published by HarperCollins in Glasgow . The first edition of the dictionary, in 1979, with Patrick Hanks as editor and Lawrence Urdang as editorial director, was the first British dictionary to use the full power of computer databases and typesetting in its preparation. This meant that, for instance, subject editors could control separate definitions of the same word and the results could be blended into the result, rather than one editor being responsible for a word. By the third edition, they increasingly used the Bank of English established by Hanks at COBUILD to provide typical definitions rather than examples composed by the lexicographer . Editions The current edition is the 12th edition, which was published in October 2014. The previous edition was the 11th edition, which was published in October 2011. A special "30th Anniversary" 10th edition was published in 2010, with earlier editions published once every 3–4 years. ...more...



Dictionary (software)

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Dictionary is an application developed by Apple Inc. as a part of macOS . The application provides definitions and synonyms from various dictionaries, Wikipedia articles and a glossary of Apple-related terms. Dictionary was introduced in OS X 10.4 with the New Oxford American Dictionary and Oxford American Writer's Thesaurus (as well as the Wikipedia and Apple sections). 10.5 added Japanese dictionaries, 10.7 added the British Oxford Dictionary of English , and 10.8 added French, German, Spanish and Chinese. History OS X's progenitor, OPENSTEP (and NEXTSTEP ) provided similar functionality, called Digital Webster, providing dictionary and thesaurus definitions from Webster's Ninth New Collegiate Dictionary and Webster's Collegiate Thesaurus (termed the "First Digital Edition"). OPENSTEP Services provide lookup from all applications. Dictionary was first introduced with Mac OS X v10.4 "Tiger" and provided definitions from the New Oxford American Dictionary, 2nd Edition . With Mac OS X 10.7 "Lion" , Dictionary ...more...



The Oxford Dictionary of Quotations

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The Oxford Dictionary of Quotations , first published by the Oxford University Press in 1941, is an 1100-page book listing short quotations that are common in English language and culture. Quotations are also cross-referenced. For example, on looking up Napoleon's quotation about Britain being a nation of shopkeepers , one also finds Adam Smith , who said it first. Quotations about absolute power are cross-referenced to Lord Acton , and from him to William Pitt the Elder , who said something similar. The dictionary has been jokingly called the Oxford Dikker of Quotaggers using the Oxford "-er" . The first edition in 1941 was compiled by a committee drawn from the staff of the OUP under the editorship of Alice Mary Smyth (later Alice Mary Hadfield ). She recounts some of the details of choosing and processing quotations in her book on the life of Charles Williams (one of the committee). Later editions of the Dictionary were published in 1953 and thereafter, the 6th edition appearing in 2004 ( ISBN   0-19-860 ...more...



A Dictionary of Modern English Usage

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A Dictionary of Modern English Usage (1926), by Henry Watson Fowler (1858–1933), is a style guide to British English usage , pronunciation, and writing. Covering topics such as plurals and literary technique , distinctions among like words ( homonyms and synonyms ), and the use of foreign terms, the dictionary became the standard for other guides to writing in English. Hence, the 1926 first edition remains in print, along with the 1965 second edition, edited by Ernest Gowers, and reprinted in 1983 and 1987. The 1996 third edition, re-titled as The New Fowler’s Modern English Usage (revised in 2004) was mostly rewritten by Robert W. Burchfield, as a usage dictionary that incorporated corpus linguistics data; and the 2015 fourth edition, re-titled Fowler’s Dictionary of Modern English Usage, edited by Jeremy Butterfield, takes the same approach as the third edition (and only revised some entries). Informally, users refer to the dictionary as Fowler’s Modern English Usage , Fowler , and Fowler’s . Linguistic ap ...more...



Australian English vocabulary

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Australian English is a major variety of the English language spoken throughout Australia . Most of the vocabulary of Australian English is shared with British English , though there are notable differences. The vocabulary of Australia is drawn from many sources, including various dialects of British English as well as Gaelic languages , some Indigenous Australian languages , and Polynesian languages . One of the first dictionaries of Australian slang was Karl Lentzner 's Dictionary of the Slang-English of Australia and of Some Mixed Languages in 1892. The first dictionary based on historical principles that covered Australian English was E. E. Morris 's Austral English: A Dictionary of Australasian Words, Phrases and Usages (1898). In 1981, the more comprehensive Macquarie Dictionary of Australian English was published. Oxford University Press published their own Australian Oxford Dictionary in 1999, as a joint effort with the Australian National University . Oxford University Press also published The Austr ...more...



Oxford University Press

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Oxford University Press ( OUP ) is the largest university press in the world, and the second oldest after Cambridge University Press . It is a department of the University of Oxford and is governed by a group of 15 academics appointed by the vice-chancellor known as the delegates of the press. They are headed by the secretary to the delegates, who serves as OUP's chief executive and as its major representative on other university bodies. Oxford University has used a similar system to oversee OUP since the 17th century. The university became involved in the print trade around 1480, and grew into a major printer of Bibles, prayer books, and scholarly works. OUP took on the project that became the Oxford English Dictionary in the late 19th century, and expanded to meet the ever-rising costs of the work. As a result, the last hundred years has seen Oxford publish children's books, school text books, music, journals, the World's Classics series, and a best-selling range of English language teaching texts to mat ...more...



Comparison of English dictionaries

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These tables compare modern and notable English dictionaries , split by market segment . Unless noted after the edition number, all are single-volume works. Number of entries Note that the publisher's definition of an entry differs. Some publishers count derivatives as separate entries while others count expressions consisting of more than one word as separate entries. The number of entries is a marketing term that should never be used to compare dictionaries. As an example, the 6th Edition of the Shorter Oxford English Dictionary (SOED6, 2007) contains approximately: 104,000 entries (where only the word "back" is listed.) 125,000 entries when parts of speech are separately listed ("back" is listed 5 times, 2 times as a noun, as an adjective, as a verb, and also as an adverb.) 172,000 entries when derivatives are also counted. 600,000 entries when different meanings (12 meanings for the first "back" noun listing alone) and phrases (at the back of, back and edge, behind one's back etc) are also counted. The 2n ...more...



Oxford Classical Dictionary

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The Oxford Classical Dictionary ( OCD ) is generally considered "the best one-volume dictionary on antiquity," an encyclopedic work in English consisting of articles relating to classical antiquity and its civilizations. It was first published in 1949 (OCD or OCD), edited by Max Cary with the assistance of H. J. Rose , H. P. Harvey, and Alexander Souter . A second edition followed in 1970 (OCD ), edited by Nicholas G. L. Hammond and H. H. Scullard , and a third edition in 1996 (OCD ), edited by Simon Hornblower and Antony Spawforth . A revised third edition was released in 2003, which is nearly identical to the previous third edition. Finally, a fourth edition was published in 2012 (OCD ), edited by Simon Hornblower, Antony Spawforth, and Esther Eidinow , which remains the current edition. This most recent edition is marked principally by three features: first, revision to the text of approximately half the entries; second, 90 new or replaced entries (19 replaced); and, third, thoroughly updated bibliograp ...more...



Collins-Robert French Dictionary

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The Collins-Robert French Dictionary (marketed as Le Robert et Collins Dictionnaire Français-Anglais in France ) is a bilingual dictionary of English and French derived from the Collins Word Web, an analytical linguistics database. As well as its primary function as a bilingual dictionary, it also contains usage guides for English and French (known as Grammaire Active and Language in Use respectively), English and French verb tables, and maps of English and French speaking areas. Its two main competitors are Harrap's Shorter French Dictionary published by Chambers Harrap Publishers and the Oxford-Hachette French Dictionary published by Oxford University Press in conjunction with Hachette . Publications William Collins & Sons releases Collins-Robert French Dictionary (Unabridged) HarperCollins releases Collins-Robert French Dictionary (Unabridged) Collins Robert Concise French Dictionary: Paperback version of Collins-Robert French Dictionary with reduced contents, focused on contemporary readers. Collins ...more...



The Oxford Dictionary of Philosophy

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The Oxford Dictionary of Philosophy (1994; second edition 2008; third edition 2016) is a dictionary of philosophy by Simon Blackburn , published by Oxford University Press . References Blackburn, Simon (2008). The Oxford Dictionary of Philosophy (revised 2nd ed.). Oxford: Oxford University Press. ISBN   0-19-283134-8 . External links The Oxford Dictionary of Philosophy Companion Website The Oxford Dictionary of Philosophy (1994; second edition 2008; third edition 2016) is a dictionary of philosophy by Simon Blackburn , published by Oxford University Press . References Blackburn, Simon (2008). The Oxford Dictionary of Philosophy (revised 2nd ed.). Oxford: Oxford University Press. ISBN   0-19-283134-8 . External links The Oxford Dictionary of Philosophy Companion Website ...more...



List of Canadian English dictionaries

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List of Canadian English dictionaries : Canadian Oxford Dictionary ISBN   0195418166 Collins Canadian Dictionary ISBN   0007337523 A Dictionary of Canadianisms on Historical Principles ISBN   0771519761 Gage Canadian Dictionary ISBN   0771519818 Houghton Mifflin Canadian Dictionary ISBN   0395296544 ITP Nelson Canadian Dictionary ISBN   0176065911 Penguin Canadian Dictionary ISBN   0773050078 Reader's Digest Webster's Canadian Dictionary and Thesaurus ISBN   1554750520 Websters Canadian Dictionary ISBN   1596951311 Winston Canadian Dictionary ISBN   0176425691 Variants Dictionary of Prince Edward Island English ISBN   0802057810 Dictionary of Newfoundland English ISBN   0802068197 Dictionary of Newfoundland & Labrador ISBN   1895109345 See also List of Canadian English dictionaries : Canadian Oxford Dictionary ISBN   0195418166 Collins Canadian Dictionary ISBN   0007337523 A Dictionary of Canadianisms on Historical Principles ISBN   0771519761 Gage Canadian Dictionary ISBN   0771519818 Houghton Mifflin C ...more...



Middle English Dictionary

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The Middle English Dictionary is a dictionary of Middle English published by the University of Michigan . "Its 15,000 pages offer a comprehensive analysis of lexicon and usage for the period 1100-1500, based on the analysis of a collection of over three million citation slips, the largest collection of this kind available." The project began in the 1920s. The first instalment, "Plan and Bibliography", containing a list of Middle English texts used for the Middle English Dictionary, was published by Hans Kurath and Sherman Kuhn in 1954. More fascicles were published in numerous volumes (in alphabetical order) over the next several decades. The dictionary was completed in 2001. In 2007, the full dictionary was made freely available and searchable online in an HTML format. See also Middle English Dictionary of Old English Oxford English Dictionary Notes Middle English Dictionary . External links Official website The Middle English Dictionary is a dictionary of Middle English published by the University of Michig ...more...



Myanmar–English Dictionary

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Myanmar–English Dictionary ( Burmese : မြန်မာ-အင်္ဂလိပ်အဘိဓာန် ) is a modern Government project in Myanmar (formerly Burma), first published in 1993 by the Government of Myanmar 's Myanmar Language Commission . It is a guide dictionary for translating between English and the Myanmar Language . It was recorded the members of the Myanmar Language Commission and the two Myanmar–English Dictionary Work Committees who participated in the compilation of this dictionary. Myanmar–English Dictionary Work Committee(1) U Ba Nyunt,Member of the Myanmar Language Commission,Chairman(deceased) U Htin Gyi,Member of the Myanmar Language Commission,Member Daw Kyan,Member of the Myanmar Language Commission,Member Dr.Than Htun,Member of the Myanmar Language Commission,Member U Thaw Kaung,Librarian,Universities' Library,Member U Thi Ha,Retired Professor of English,Member Staff members,Department of the Myanmar Language Commission Myanmar–English Dictionary Work Committee(2) Hla Shwe, Member of the Myanmar Language Commission, Cha ...more...



Garner's Modern English Usage

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Garner's Modern English Usage (GMEU), written by Bryan Garner and published by Oxford University Press , is a usage dictionary and style guide for contemporary Modern English . It was first published in 1998 as A Dictionary of Modern American Usage , with a focus on American English , which it retained for the next two editions as Garner's Modern American Usage (GMAU). It was expanded to cover English more broadly in the 2016 fourth edition, under the present title. The work covers issues of usage, pronunciation, and style, from distinctions among commonly confused words and phrases and notes on how to prevent verbosity and obscurity. In addition, it contains essays about the English language. An abridged version of the first edition was also published as The Oxford Dictionary of American Usage and Style in 2000. Editions The first edition was published in 1998 as A Dictionary of Modern American Usage, released in an abridged, paperback edition in 2000 as The Oxford Dictionary of American Usage and Style (no ...more...



The Imperial Dictionary of the English Language

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The Imperial Dictionary of the English Language : A Complete Encyclopedic Lexicon, Literary, Scientific, and Technological, edited by Rev. John Ogilvie (1797–1867), was an expansion of the 1841 second edition of Noah Webster 's American Dictionary . It was published by W. G. Blackie and Co . of Scotland, 1847–1850 in two large volumes. With the addition of a third supplement volume in 1855, Ogilvie increased Webster's 70,000 word coverage to over 100,000. He included words from science , technology , and the arts ; much British usage omitted by Webster; an unusual number of provincial and Scottish words; and added quotations and encyclopedic information for many words. With over 2,000 woodcut illustrations, it was the first significantly illustrated dictionary, setting the trend which continues today. A revised and expanded edition by Charles Annandale was published in 1882 at London in four volumes, over 3,000 pages, with about 130,000 entries, revised definitions and etymologies, and 3,000 illustrations. Al ...more...



Dictionary of American Regional English

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The Dictionary of American Regional English ( DARE ) is a record of American English as spoken in the United States , from its beginnings to the present. It differs from other dictionaries in that it does not document the standard language used throughout the country. Instead, it contains regional and folk speech, those words, phrases, and pronunciations that vary from one part of the country to another, or that we learn from our families and friends rather than from our teachers and books. For DARE, a "region" may be as small as a city or part of a city, or as large as most (but not all) of the country. Humanities magazine has described it as "a bold synthesis of linguistic atlas and historical dictionary", and William Safire called it "the most exciting new linguistic project in the twentieth century". The Dictionary is based both on face-to-face interviews with 2,777 people carried out in 1,002 communities across the country between 1965 and 1970, and on a large collection of print and (recently) electron ...more...



A New English Dictionary

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A New English Dictionary: or, a complete collection of the most proper and significant words, commonly used in the language was an English dictionary compiled by philologist John Kersey and first published in London in 1702. Unlike previous dictionaries, which had focused on documenting difficult words, A New English Dictionary was one of the first to focus on words in common usage. It was also the first to be written by a professional lexicographer . Kersey later continued his lexicographic career by enlarging Edward Phillips ' The New World of English Words in 1706 and editing the Dictionarium Anglo-Britannicum in 1708. The original title of the Oxford English Dictionary was A New English Dictionary on Historical Principles, and it was sometimes given the abbreviation NED, for New English Dictionary. A New English Dictionary: or, a complete collection of the most proper and significant words, commonly used in the language was an English dictionary compiled by philologist John Kersey and first published in L ...more...



Merriam–Webster's Dictionary of English Usage

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Merriam–Webster's Dictionary of English Usage is a usage dictionary published by Merriam-Webster , Inc., of Springfield, Massachusetts . It is currently available in a reprint edition (1994) ISBN   0-87779-132-5 or ISBN   978-0-87779-132-4 . (The 1989 edition did not include Merriam– in the title. It was added as part of the rebranding campaign to emphasize the differences between Merriam–Webster's dictionaries and dictionaries of other publishers using the generic trademark Webster's.) The book has been praised by language experts. Stan Carey at the blog Sentence First concludes that it operates "in such a thorough and unbiased way is what elevates MWDEU so far above the ordinary. Each entry is presented in a much broader context than is typically the case in books that advise on English usage and style." It is critically acclaimed by the linguist Geoffrey Pullum , who calls it "the best usage book I know of... utterly wonderful." It is known for its historical scholarship, analysis, use of examples, and ...more...



Sindhi to English dictionaries

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Sindhi to English dictionaries are bilingual dictionaries which provide English equivalents of Sindhi Language words.(For instance Yadgar Sindhi to English Dictionary ) Compilations of Sindhi and English terms were created for non-Sindhi speaking students in the early 1800s. The Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bengal, Calcutta published articles with vocabulary lists in 1836 and 1843. Sindhi was one of the languages included in Leech's 1943 vocabularies of Indic languages for the British government. In 1849, George Stack published a Sindhi to English dictionary consisting of 15,000 terms, followed in 1855 by an English to Sindhi dictionary with 17000 terms, in which he used the Devanagari script. Father G. Shirt published a Sindhi to English dictionary in 1879 in which he used Arabic script and which became the basis for a number of other versions, including Parmanand Mewarm 's 1910 and 1933 works. Beginning in the 1960s, Deccan College began work on a dictionary with both Devanagari and Arabic charac ...more...



Oxford Dictionary of Biology

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Oxford Dictionary of Biology (often abbreviated to ODB ) is a multiple editions dictionary published by the English Oxford University Press . With more than 5,500 entries, it contains comprehensive information in English on topics relating to biology , biophysics , and biochemistry . The first edition was published in 1985 as A Concise Dictionary of Biology. The seventh edition, A Dictionary of Biology, was published in 2015 and it was edited by Robert Hine and Elizabeth Martin. Robert Hine studied at Kings College London and University of Aberdeen and since 1984 he has contributed to numerous journals and books. Digital and on-line availability The sixth and the seventh edition edition of the ODB are available online for members of subscribed institutions and for subscribed individuals via Oxford Reference . Editions The first edition of Oxford Dictionary of Biology was first published in 1985 and the seventh edition in 2015. Year Edition 1985 First edition 1990 Second edition 1996 Third edition 2000 Fou ...more...



The New Grove Dictionary of Music and Musicians

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The New Grove Dictionary of Music and Musicians is an encyclopedic dictionary of music and musicians. Along with the German-language Musik in Geschichte und Gegenwart , it is one of the largest reference works on western music. Originally published under the title A Dictionary of Music and Musicians , and later as Grove's Dictionary of Music and Musicians , it has gone through several editions since the 19th century and is widely used. In recent years it has been made available as an electronic resource called Grove Music Online , which is now an important part of Oxford Music Online . A Dictionary of Music and Musicians A Dictionary of Music and Musicians was first published in four volumes (1879, 1880, 1883, 1889) edited by George Grove with an Appendix edited by J. A. Fuller Maitland in the fourth volume. An Index edited by Mrs. E. Wodehouse was issued as a separate volume in 1890. In 1900, minor corrections were made to the plates and the entire series was reissued in four volumes, with the index added to ...more...



American and British English spelling differences

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British and American spellings around the world:    defence/labour/organise, English is official    defence/labour/organise, English is not official    Canadian defence/labour, but organize, etc.    defense/labor/organize, English is official    defense/labor/organize, English is not official Many of the differences between American and British English date back to a time when spelling standards had not yet developed. For instance, some spellings seen as "American" today were once commonly used in Britain and some spellings seen as "British" were once commonly used in the United States. A "British standard" began to emerge following the 1755 publication of Samuel Johnson 's A Dictionary of the English Language , and an "American standard" started following the work of Noah Webster and in particular his An American Dictionary of the English Language , first published in 1828. Webster's efforts at spelling reform were somewhat effective in his native country, resulting in certain well-known patterns of spelling ...more...




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