The Oxford English Dictionary (OED) is a descriptive dictionary of the English language, published by the Oxford University Press. It traces the historical development of the English language, providing a comprehensive resource to scholars and academic researchers, as well as describing usage in its many variations throughout the world.  The second edition came to 21,728 pages in 20 volumes, published in 1989.
Work began on the dictionary in 1857, but it was not until 1884 that it began to be published in unbound fascicles as work continued on the project, under the name of A New English Dictionary on Historical Principles; Founded Mainly on the Materials Collected by The Philological Society. In 1895, the title The Oxford English Dictionary (OED) was first used unofficially on the covers of the series, and in 1928 the full dictionary was republished in ten bound volumes. In 1933, the title The Oxford English Dictionary fully replaced the former name in all occurrences in its reprinting as twelve volumes with a one-volume supplement. More supplements came over the years until 1989, when the second edition was published. Since 2000, a third edition of the dictionary has been underway, approximately a third of which is now complete.
The first electronic version of the dictionary was made available in 1988. The online version has been available since 2000, and as of April 2014 was receiving over two million hits per month. The third edition of the dictionary will probably only appear in electronic form; Nigel Portwood, chief executive of Oxford University Press, thinks it unlikely that it will ever be printed. 
As a historical dictionary, the Oxford English Dictionary explains words by showing their development rather than merely their present-day usages. Therefore, it shows definitions in the order that the sense of the word began being used, including word meanings which are no longer used. Each definition is shown with numerous short usage quotations; in each case, the first quotation shows the first recorded instance of the word that the editors are aware of and, in the case of words and senses no longer in current usage, the last quotation is the last known recorded usage. This allows the reader to get an approximate sense of the time period in which a particular word has been in use, and additional quotations help the reader to ascertain information about how the word is used in context, beyond any explanation that the dictionary editors can provide.
The format of the OED's entries has influenced numerous other historical lexicography projects. The forerunners to the OED, such as the early volumes of the Deutsches Wörterbuch, had initially provided few quotations from a limited number of sources, whereas the OED editors preferred larger groups of quite short quotations from a wide selection of authors and publications. This influenced later volumes of this and other lexicographical works.
According to the publishers, it would take a single person 120 years to "key in" the 59 million words of the OED second edition, 60 years to proofread them, and 540 megabytes to store them electronically. As of 30 November 2005, the Oxford English Dictionary contained approximately 301,100 main entries. Supplementing the entry headwords, there are 157,000 bold-type combinations and derivatives; 169,000 italicized-bold phrases and combinations; 616,500 word-forms in total, including 137,000 pronunciations; 249,300 etymologies; 577,000 cross-references; and 2,412,400 usage quotations. The dictionary's latest, complete print edition (second edition, 1989) was printed in 20 volumes, comprising 291,500 entries in 21,730 pages. The longest entry in the OED2 was for the verb set, which required 60,000 words to describe some 430 senses. As entries began to be revised for the OED3 in sequence starting from M, the longest entry became make in 2000, then put in 2007, then run in 2011.  
Despite its impressive size, the OED is neither the world's largest nor the earliest exhaustive dictionary of a language. Another earlier large dictionary is the Grimm brothers' dictionary of the German language, begun in 1838 and completed in 1961. The first edition of the Vocabolario degli Accademici della Crusca is the first great dictionary devoted to a modern European language (Italian) and was published in 1612; the first edition of Dictionnaire de l'Académie française dates from 1694. The official dictionary of Spanish is the Diccionario de la lengua española (produced, edited, and published by the Real Academia Española), and its first edition was published in 1780. The Kangxi dictionary of Chinese was published in 1716.
The dictionary began as a Philological Society project of a small group of intellectuals in London (and unconnected to Oxford University): :103–4,112 Richard Chenevix Trench, Herbert Coleridge, and Frederick Furnivall, who were dissatisfied with the existing English dictionaries. The Society expressed interest in compiling a new dictionary as early as 1844, but it was not until June 1857 that they began by forming an "Unregistered Words Committee" to search for words that were unlisted or poorly defined in current dictionaries. In November, Trench's report was not a list of unregistered words; instead, it was the study On Some Deficiencies in our English Dictionaries, which identified seven distinct shortcomings in contemporary dictionaries:
The Society ultimately realized that the number of unlisted words would be far more than the number of words in the English dictionaries of the 19th century, and shifted their idea from covering only words that were not already in English dictionaries to a larger project. Trench suggested that a new, truly comprehensive dictionary was needed. On 7 January 1858, the Society formally adopted the idea of a comprehensive new dictionary. :107–8 Volunteer readers would be assigned particular books, copying passages illustrating word usage onto quotation slips. Later the same year, the Society agreed to the project in principle, with the title A New English Dictionary on Historical Principles (NED). :ix–x
Richard Chenevix Trench (1807–1886) played the key role in the project's first months, but his Church of England appointment as Dean of Westminster meant that he could not give the dictionary project the time that it required. He withdrew and Herbert Coleridge became the first editor. :8–9
On 12 May 1860, Coleridge's dictionary plan was published and research was started. His house was the first editorial office. He arrayed 100,000 quotation slips in a 54 pigeon-hole grid. :9 In April 1861, the group published the first sample pages; later that month, Coleridge died of tuberculosis, aged 30. :x
Furnivall then became editor; he was enthusiastic and knowledgeable, yet temperamentally ill-suited for the work. :110 Many volunteer readers eventually lost interest in the project, as Furnivall failed to keep them motivated. Furthermore, many of the slips had been misplaced.
Furnivall believed that, since many printed texts from earlier centuries were not readily available, it would be impossible for volunteers to efficiently locate the quotations that the dictionary needed. As a result, he founded the Early English Text Society in 1864 and the Chaucer Society in 1868 to publish old manuscripts. :xii Furnivall's preparatory efforts lasted 21 years and provided numerous texts for the use and enjoyment of the general public, as well as crucial sources for lexicographers, but they did not actually involve compiling a dictionary. Furnivall recruited more than 800 volunteers to read these texts and record quotations. While enthusiastic, the volunteers were not well trained and often made inconsistent and arbitrary selections. Ultimately, Furnivall handed over nearly two tons of quotation slips and other materials to his successor.
In the 1870s, Furnivall unsuccessfully attempted to recruit both Henry Sweet and Henry Nicol to succeed him. He then approached James Murray, who accepted the post of editor. In the late 1870s, Furnivall and Murray met with several publishers about publishing the dictionary. In 1878, Oxford University Press agreed with Murray to proceed with the massive project; the agreement was formalized the following year. :111–2 The dictionary project finally had a publisher 20 years after the idea was conceived. It was another 50 years before the entire dictionary was complete.
Late in his editorship, Murray learned that a prolific reader named W. C. Minor was a criminal lunatic. :xiii Minor was a Yale University-trained surgeon and military officer in the American Civil War, and was confined to Broadmoor Asylum for the Criminally Insane after killing a man in London. Minor invented his own quotation-tracking system, allowing him to submit slips on specific words in response to editors' requests. The story of Murray and Minor later served as the central focus of The Surgeon of Crowthorne (US title: The Professor and the Madman ), a popular book about the creation of the OED.
During the 1870s, the Philological Society was concerned with the process of publishing a dictionary with such an immense scope. They had pages printed by publishers, but no publication agreement was reached; both the Cambridge University Press and the Oxford University Press were approached. The OUP finally agreed in 1879 (after two years of negotiating by Sweet, Furnivall, and Murray) to publish the dictionary and to pay Murray, who was both the editor and the Philological Society president. The dictionary was to be published as interval fascicles, with the final form in four 6,400-page volumes. They hoped to finish the project in ten years. :1
Murray started the project, working in a corrugated iron outbuilding called the "Scriptorium" which was lined with wooden planks, book shelves, and 1,029 pigeon-holes for the quotation slips. :xiii He tracked and regathered Furnivall's collection of quotation slips, which were found to concentrate on rare, interesting words rather than common usages. For instance, there were ten times as many quotations for abusion as for abuse. He appealed, through newspapers distributed to bookshops and libraries, for readers who would report "as many quotations as you can for ordinary words" and for words that were "rare, obsolete, old-fashioned, new, peculiar or used in a peculiar way". Murray had American philologist and liberal arts college professor Francis March manage the collection in North America; 1,000 quotation slips arrived daily to the Scriptorium and, by 1880, there were 2,500,000. :15
The first dictionary fascicle was published on 1 February 1884—twenty-three years after Coleridge's sample pages. The full title was A New English Dictionary on Historical Principles; Founded Mainly on the Materials Collected by The Philological Society; the 352-page volume, words from A to Ant, cost 12s 6d. :251 The total sales were a disappointing 4,000 copies. :169
The OUP saw that it would take too long to complete the work with unrevised editorial arrangements. Accordingly, new assistants were hired and two new demands were made on Murray. :32–33 The first was that he move from Mill Hill to Oxford, which he did in 1885. Murray had his Scriptorium re-erected on his new property. :xvii 
Murray resisted the second demand: that if he could not meet schedule, he must hire a second, senior editor to work in parallel to him, outside his supervision, on words from elsewhere in the alphabet. Murray did not want to share the work, feeling that he would accelerate his work pace with experience. That turned out not to be so, and Philip Gell of the OUP forced the promotion of Murray's assistant Henry Bradley (hired by Murray in 1884), who worked independently in the British Museum in London beginning in 1888. In 1896, Bradley moved to Oxford University.
Gell continued harassing Murray and Bradley with his business concerns—containing costs and speeding production—to the point where the project's collapse seemed likely. Newspapers reported the harassment, particularly the Saturday Review, and public opinion backed the editors. :182–83 Gell was fired, and the university reversed his cost policies. If the editors felt that the dictionary would have to grow larger, it would; it was an important work, and worth the time and money to properly finish.
Neither Murray nor Bradley lived to see it. Murray died in 1915, having been responsible for words starting with A–D, H–K, O–P, and T, nearly half the finished dictionary; Bradley died in 1923, having completed E–G, L–M, S–Sh, St, and W–We. By then, two additional editors had been promoted from assistant work to independent work, continuing without much trouble. William Craigie started in 1901 and was responsible for N, Q–R, Si–Sq, U–V, and Wo–Wy. :xix The OUP had previously thought London too far from Oxford but, after 1925, Craigie worked on the dictionary in Chicago, where he was a professor. :xix  The fourth editor was Charles Talbut Onions, who compiled the remaining ranges starting in 1914: Su–Sz, Wh–Wo, and X–Z.
In 1919–1920, J. R. R. Tolkien was employed by the OED, researching etymologies of the Waggle to Warlock range; later he parodied the principal editors as "The Four Wise Clerks of Oxenford" in the story Farmer Giles of Ham.
By early 1894, a total of 11 fascicles had been published, or about one per year: four for A–B, five for C, and two for E. Of these, eight were 352 pages long, while the last one in each group was shorter to end at the letter break (which eventually became a volume break). At this point, it was decided to publish the work in smaller and more frequent instalments; once every three months beginning in 1895 there would be a fascicle of 64 pages, priced at 2s 6d. If enough material was ready, 128 or even 192 pages would be published together. This pace was maintained until World War I forced reductions in staff. :xx Each time enough consecutive pages were available, the same material was also published in the original larger fascicles. :xx Also in 1895, the title Oxford English Dictionary (OED) was first used. It then appeared only on the outer covers of the fascicles; the original title was still the official one and was used everywhere else. :xx
The 125th and last fascicle covered words from Wise to the end of W and was published on 19 April 1928, and the full dictionary in bound volumes followed immediately. :xx
William Shakespeare is the most-quoted writer in the completed dictionary, with Hamlet his most-quoted work. George Eliot (Mary Ann Evans) is the most-quoted female writer. Collectively, the Bible is the most-quoted work (but in many different translations); the most-quoted single work is Cursor Mundi.
Between 1928 and 1933, enough additional material had been compiled to make a one-volume supplement, so the dictionary was reissued as the set of 12 volumes and a one-volume supplement in 1933.
In 1933, Oxford had finally put the dictionary to rest; all work ended, and the quotation slips went into storage. However, the English language continued to change and, by the time 20 years had passed, the dictionary was outdated.
There were three possible ways to update it. The cheapest would have been to leave the existing work alone and simply compile a new supplement of perhaps one or two volumes; but then anyone looking for a word or sense and unsure of its age would have to look in three different places. The most convenient choice for the user would have been for the entire dictionary to be re-edited and retypeset, with each change included in its proper alphabetical place; but this would have been the most expensive option, with perhaps 15 volumes required to be produced. The OUP chose a middle approach: combining the new material with the existing supplement to form a larger replacement supplement.
Robert Burchfield was hired in 1957 to edit the second supplement; Onions turned 84 that year but was still able to make some contributions, as well. The work on the supplement was expected to take about seven years. It actually took 29 years, by which time the new supplement (OEDS) had grown to four volumes, starting with A, H, O, and Sea. They were published in 1972, 1976, 1982, and 1986 respectively, bringing the complete dictionary to 16 volumes, or 17 counting the first supplement.
Burchfield emphasized the inclusion of modern-day language and, through the supplement, the dictionary was expanded to include a wealth of new words from the burgeoning fields of science and technology, as well as popular culture and colloquial speech. Burchfield said that he broadened the scope to include developments of the language in English-speaking regions beyond the United Kingdom, including North America, Australia, New Zealand, South Africa, India, Pakistan, and the Caribbean. Burchfield also removed some smaller entries that had been added to the 1933 supplement, for reasons of space; in 2012, an analysis by lexicographer Sarah Ogilvie revealed that many of these entries were in fact foreign loanwords, despite Burchfield's attempt to include more such words. The proportion was estimated from a sample calculation to amount to 17% of the foreign loan words and words from regional forms of English. Many of these had only a single recorded usage, but it ran against what was thought to be the established OED editorial practice and a perception that he had opened up the dictionary to "World English".  
By the time the new supplement was completed, it was clear that the full text of the dictionary would now need to be computerized. Achieving this would require retyping it once, but thereafter it would always be accessible for computer searching – as well as for whatever new editions of the dictionary might be desired, starting with an integration of the supplementary volumes and the main text. Preparation for this process began in 1983, and editorial work started the following year under the administrative direction of Timothy J. Benbow, with John A. Simpson and Edmund S. C. Weiner as co-editors. In 2016, Simpson published his memoir chronicling his years at the OED. See The Word Detective: Searching for the Meaning of It All at the Oxford English Dictionary - A Memoir. Basic Books, New York.
And so the New Oxford English Dictionary (NOED) project began. In the United States, more than 120 typists of the International Computaprint Corporation (now Reed Tech) started keying in over 350,000,000 characters, their work checked by 55 proof-readers in England. Retyping the text alone was not sufficient; all the information represented by the complex typography of the original dictionary had to be retained, which was done by marking up the content in SGML. A specialized search engine and display software were also needed to access it. Under a 1985 agreement, some of this software work was done at the University of Waterloo, Canada, at the Centre for the New Oxford English Dictionary, led by Frank Tompa and Gaston Gonnet; this search technology went on to become the basis for the Open Text Corporation. Computer hardware, database and other software, development managers, and programmers for the project were donated by the British subsidiary of IBM; the colour syntax-directed editor for the project, LEXX, was written by Mike Cowlishaw of IBM. The University of Waterloo, in Canada, volunteered to design the database. A. Walton Litz, an English professor at Princeton University who served on the Oxford University Press advisory council, was quoted in Time as saying "I've never been associated with a project, I've never even heard of a project, that was so incredibly complicated and that met every deadline."
By 1989, the NOED project had achieved its primary goals, and the editors, working online, had successfully combined the original text, Burchfield's supplement, and a small amount of newer material, into a single unified dictionary. The word "new" was again dropped from the name, and the second edition of the OED, or the OED2, was published. The first edition retronymically became the OED1.
The Oxford English Dictionary 2 was printed in 20 volumes. For the first time, there was no attempt to start them on letter boundaries, and they were made roughly equal in size. The 20 volumes started with A, B.B.C., Cham, Creel, Dvandva, Follow, Hat, Interval, Look, Moul, Ow, Poise, Quemadero, Rob, Ser, Soot, Su, Thru, Unemancipated, and Wave.
The content of the OED2 is mostly just a reorganization of the earlier corpus, but the retypesetting provided an opportunity for two long-needed format changes. The headword of each entry was no longer capitalized, allowing the user to readily see those words that actually require a capital letter. Murray had devised his own notation for pronunciation, there being no standard available at the time, whereas the OED2 adopted the modern International Phonetic Alphabet.  Unlike the earlier edition, all foreign alphabets except Greek were transliterated.
When the print version of the second edition was published in 1989, the response was enthusiastic. Author Anthony Burgess declared it "the greatest publishing event of the century", as quoted by the Los Angeles Times. Time dubbed the book "a scholarly Everest", and Richard Boston, writing for The Guardian, called it "one of the wonders of the world".
The supplements and their integration into the second edition were a great improvement to the OED as a whole, but it was recognized that most of the entries were still fundamentally unaltered from the first edition. Much of the information in the dictionary published in 1989 was already decades out of date, though the supplements had made good progress towards incorporating new vocabulary. Yet many definitions contained disproven scientific theories, outdated historical information, and moral values that were no longer widely accepted.  Furthermore, the supplements had failed to recognize many words in the existing volumes as obsolete by the time of the second edition's publication, meaning that thousands of words were marked as current despite no recent evidence of their use.
Accordingly, it was recognized that work on a third edition would have to begin to rectify these problems. The first attempt to produce a new edition came with the Oxford English Dictionary Additions Series, a new set of supplements to complement the OED2 with the intention of producing a third edition from them. The previous supplements appeared in alphabetical installments, whereas the new series had a full A–Z range of entries within each individual volume, with a complete alphabetical index at the end of all words revised so far, each listed with the volume number which contained the revised entry.
However, in the end only three Additions volumes were published this way, two in 1993 and one in 1997,   each containing about 3,000 new definitions. The possibilities of the World Wide Web and new computer technology in general meant that the processes of researching the dictionary and of publishing new and revised entries could be vastly improved. New text search databases offered vastly more material for the editors of the dictionary to work with, and with publication on the Web as a possibility, the editors could publish revised entries much more quickly and easily than ever before. A new approach was called for, and for this reason it was decided to embark on a new, complete revision of the dictionary.
Beginning with the launch of the first OED Online site in 2000, the editors of the dictionary began a major revision project to create a completely revised third edition of the dictionary (OED3), expected to be completed in 2037  at a projected cost of about £34 million.
Revisions were started at the letter M, with new material appearing every three months on the OED Online website. The editors chose to start the revision project from the middle of the dictionary in order that the overall quality of entries be made more even, since the later entries in the OED1 generally tended to be better than the earlier ones. However, in March 2008, the editors announced that they would alternate each quarter between moving forward in the alphabet as before and updating "key English words from across the alphabet, along with the other words which make up the alphabetical cluster surrounding them". With the relaunch of the OED Online website in December 2010, alphabetical revision was abandoned altogether.
The revision is expected to roughly double the dictionary in size.  Apart from general updates to include information on new words and other changes in the language, the third edition brings many other improvements, including changes in formatting and stylistic conventions to make entries clearer to read and enable more thorough searches to be made by computer, more thorough etymological information, and a general change of focus away from individual words towards more general coverage of the language as a whole.  While the original text drew its quotations mainly from literary sources such as novels, plays, and poetry, with additional material from newspapers and academic journals, the new edition will reference more kinds of material that were unavailable to the editors of previous editions, such as wills, inventories, account books, diaries, journals, and letters.
The production of the new edition takes full advantage of computer technology, particularly since the June 2005 inauguration of the whimsically named "Perfect All-Singing All-Dancing Editorial and Notation Application", or "Pasadena". With this XML-based system, the attention of lexicographers can be directed more to matters of content than to presentation issues such as the numbering of definitions. The new system has also simplified the use of the quotations database, and enabled staff in New York to work directly on the dictionary in the same way as their Oxford-based counterparts.
Other important computer uses include internet searches for evidence of current usage, and e-mail submissions of quotations by readers and the general public.
Wordhunt was a 2005 appeal to the general public for help in providing citations for 50 selected recent words, and produced antedatings for many. The results were reported in a BBC TV series, Balderdash and Piffle. The OED's small army of devoted readers continue to contribute quotations: the department currently receives about 200,000 a year.
OED currently contains over 600,000 entries.
In 1971, the 13-volume OED1 (1933) was reprinted as a two-volume Compact Edition, by photographically reducing each page to one-half its linear dimensions; each compact edition page held four OED1 pages in a four-up ("4-up") format. The two volume letters were A and P; the first supplement was at the second volume's end. The Compact Edition included, in a small slip-case drawer, a magnifying glass to help in reading reduced type. Many copies were inexpensively distributed through book clubs. In 1987, the second supplement was published as a third volume to the Compact Edition.
In 1991, for the 20-volume OED2 (1989), the compact edition format was re-sized to one-third of original linear dimensions, a nine-up ("9-up") format requiring greater magnification, but allowing publication of a single-volume dictionary. It was accompanied by a magnifying glass as before and A User's Guide to the "Oxford English Dictionary", by Donna Lee Berg. After these volumes were published, though, book club offers commonly continued to sell the two-volume 1971 Compact Edition.
Once the text of the dictionary was digitized and online, it was also available to be published on CD-ROM. The text of the first edition was made available in 1987. Afterward, three versions of the second edition were issued. Version 1 (1992) was identical in content to the printed second edition, and the CD itself was not copy-protected. Version 2 (1999) included the Oxford English Dictionary Additions of 1993 and 1997.
Version 3.0 was released in 2002 with additional words from the OED3 and software improvements. Version 3.1.1 (2007) added support for hard disk installation, so that the user does not have to insert the CD to use the dictionary. It has been reported that this version will work on operating systems other than Microsoft Windows, using emulation programs.  Version 4.0 of the CD has been available since June 2009 and works with Windows 7 and Mac OS X (10.4 or later). This version uses the CD drive for installation, running only from the hard drive.
On 14 March 2000, the Oxford English Dictionary Online (OED Online) became available to subscribers. The online database contains the entire OED2 and is updated quarterly with revisions that will be included in the OED3 (see above). The online edition is the most up-to-date version of the dictionary available. The OED web site is not optimized for mobile devices, but the developers have stated that there are plans to provide an API that would enable developers to develop different interfaces for querying the OED.
The price for an individual to use this edition is £195 or US$295 every year, even after a reduction in 2004; consequently, most subscribers are large organizations such as universities. Some public libraries and companies have subscribed, as well, including public libraries in the United Kingdom, where access is funded by the Arts Council, and public libraries in New Zealand.  Individuals who belong to a library which subscribes to the service are able to use the service from their own home without charge.
The OED's utility and renown as a historical dictionary have led to numerous offspring projects and other dictionaries bearing the Oxford name, though not all are directly related to the OED itself.
The Shorter Oxford English Dictionary, originally started in 1902 and completed in 1933, is an abridgement of the full work that retains the historical focus, but does not include any words which were obsolete before 1700 except those used by Shakespeare, Milton, Spenser, and the King James Bible. A completely new edition was produced from the OED2 and published in 1993, with further revisions following in 2002 and 2007.
The Concise Oxford Dictionary is a different work, which aims to cover current English only, without the historical focus. The original edition, mostly based on the OED1, was edited by Francis George Fowler and Henry Watson Fowler and published in 1911, before the main work was completed. Revised editions appeared throughout the twentieth century to keep it up to date with changes in English usage.
In 1998 the New Oxford Dictionary of English (NODE) was published. While also aiming to cover current English, NODE was not based on the OED. Instead, it was an entirely new dictionary produced with the aid of corpus linguistics. Once NODE was published, a similarly brand-new edition of the Concise Oxford Dictionary followed, this time based on an abridgement of NODE rather than the OED; NODE (under the new title of the Oxford Dictionary of English, or ODE) continues to be principal source for Oxford's product line of current-English dictionaries, including the New Oxford American Dictionary, with the OED now only serving as the basis for scholarly historical dictionaries.
The OED lists British headword spellings (e.g., labour, centre) with variants following (labor, center, etc.). For the suffix more commonly spelt -ise in British English, OUP policy dictates a preference for the spelling -ize, e.g., realize vs. realise and globalization vs. globalisation. The rationale is etymological, in that the English suffix is mainly derived from the Greek suffix -ιζειν, (-izein), or the Latin -izāre. However, -ze is also sometimes treated as an Americanism insofar as the -ze suffix has crept into words where it did not originally belong, as with analyse (British English), which is spelt analyze in American English. 
Despite, and at the same time precisely because of, its claim of authority on the English language, the Oxford English Dictionary has been criticised since at least the 1960s from various angles. It has become a target precisely because of its scope, its claims to authority, its British-centredness and relative neglect of World Englishes, its implied but not acknowledged focus on literary language and, above all, its influence. The OED, as a commercial product, has always had to manoeuvre a thin line between PR, marketing and scholarship and one can argue that its biggest problem is the critical uptake of the work by the interested public. In his review of the 1982 supplement, University of Oxford linguist Roy Harris writes that criticizing the OED is extremely difficult because "one is dealing not just with a dictionary but with a national institution", one that "has become, like the English monarchy, virtually immune from criticism in principle". He further notes that neologisms from respected "literary" authors such as Samuel Beckett and Virginia Woolf are included, whereas usage of words in newspapers or other less "respectable" sources hold less sway, even though they may be commonly used. He writes that the OED's "[b]lack-and-white lexicography is also black-and-white in that it takes upon itself to pronounce authoritatively on the rights and wrongs of usage", faulting the dictionary's prescriptive rather than descriptive usage. To Harris, this prescriptive classification of certain usages as "erroneous" and the complete omission of various forms and usages cumulatively represent the "social bias[es]" of the (presumably well-educated and wealthy) compilers. However, the identification of "erroneous and catachrestic" usages is being removed from third edition entries,  sometimes in favour of usage notes describing the attitudes to language which have previously led to these classifications.
Harris also faults the editors' "donnish conservatism" and their adherence to prudish Victorian morals, citing as an example the non-inclusion of "various centuries-old 'four-letter words'" until 1972. However, no English dictionary included such words, for fear of possible prosecution under British obscenity laws, until after the conclusion of the Lady Chatterley's Lover obscenity trial in 1960. The first dictionary to include the word fuck was the Penguin English Dictionary of 1965. Joseph Wright's English Dialect Dictionary had included shit in 1905.
The OED's claims of authority have also been questioned by linguists such as Pius ten Hacken, who notes that the dictionary actively strives towards definitiveness and authority but can only achieve those goals in a limited sense, given the difficulties of defining the scope of what it includes.
Founding editor James Murray was also reluctant to include scientific terms, despite their documentation, unless he felt that they were widely enough used. In 1902, he declined to add the word "radium" to the dictionary. 
In contrast, Tim Bray, co-creator of Extensible Markup Language (XML), credits the OED as the developing inspiration of that markup language. Similarly, author Anu Garg, founder of Wordsmith.org, has called the Oxford English Dictionary a "lex icon".
The Oxford English Dictionary is not an arbiter of proper usage, despite its widespread reputation to the contrary. The Dictionary is intended to be descriptive, not prescriptive. In other words, its content should be viewed as an objective reflection of English language usage, not a subjective collection of usage ‘dos’ and ‘don’ts’.
Here's novelist Anthony Burgess calling it "the greatest publishing event of the century". It is to be marked by a half-day seminar and lunch at that bluest of blue-blood London hostelries, Claridge's. The guest list of 250 dignitaries is a literary "Who's Who".
The Encyclopaedia Britannica and the Dictionary of National Biography are indeed yet mighty, but not quite what they used to be, whereas the OED has gone from strength to strength and is one of the wonders of the world.
|3||1897||D, E|| |
|4||1901||F, G||  |
|5p2||1901||I, J, K|||
|7||1909||O, P|| |
|8p1||1914||Q, R|| |
The Oxford English Dictionary ( OED ) is a descriptive dictionary of the English language , published by the Oxford University Press . It traces the historical development of the English language, providing a comprehensive resource to scholars and academic researchers, as well as describing usage in its many variations throughout the world. The second edition came to 21,728 pages in 20 volumes, published in 1989. Work began on the dictionary in 1857, but it was not until 1884 that it began to be published in unbound fascicles as work continued on the project, under the name of A New English Dictionary on Historical Principles; Founded Mainly on the Materials Collected by The Philological Society. In 1895, the title The Oxford English Dictionary (OED) was first used unofficially on the covers of the series, and in 1928 the full dictionary was republished in ten bound volumes. In 1933, the title The Oxford English Dictionary fully replaced the former name in all occurrences in its reprinting as twelve volume
The Concise Oxford English Dictionary (officially titled The Concise Oxford Dictionary until 2002, and widely abbreviated COD or COED ) is probably the best-known of the 'smaller' Oxford dictionaries . The latest edition of the Concise Oxford English Dictionary contains over 240,000 entries and 1,728 pages (concise only compared to the OED at over 21,000 pages). Its 12th edition, published in 2011, is used by both the United Nations and NATO as the current authority for spellings in documents written in English for international use. It is available as an e-book for a variety of handheld device platforms. In addition to providing information for general use, it documents local variations such as United States and United Kingdom usage. It was started as a derivative of the Oxford English Dictionary (OED), although section S–Z had to be written before the Oxford English Dictionary reached that stage. However, starting from the 10th edition, it is based on the Oxford Dictionary of English (also known as the NO
The Shorter Oxford English Dictionary ( SOED ) is an English language dictionary published by the Oxford University Press . The SOED is a two-volume abridgement of the twenty-volume Oxford English Dictionary (OED). Print Editions Prequel The first editor, William Little, worked on the book from 1902 until his death in 1922. The dictionary was completed by H. W. Fowler, Jessie Coulson, and C. T. Onions. An abridgement of the complete work was contemplated from 1879, when the Oxford University Press took over from the Philological Society on what was then known as A New English Dictionary on Historical Principles. However, no action was taken until 1902, when the work was begun by William Little, a fellow of Corpus Christi College, Oxford . He laboured until his death in 1922, at which point he had completed "A" to "T" and "V". The remaining letters were completed by Henry Watson Fowler ("U", "X", "Y", and "Z") and Mrs. E. A. Coulson (Jessie Coulson) ("W") under the direction of Charles Talbut Onions , who succ
The Oxford Dictionary of English ( ODE ) is a single-volume English dictionary published by Oxford University Press , first published in 1998 as The New Oxford Dictionary of English ( NODE ). The word "new" was dropped from the title with the Second Edition in 2003. This dictionary is not based on the Oxford English Dictionary and should not be mistaken for a new or updated version of the OED. It is a completely new dictionary which strives to represent as faithfully as possible the current usage of English words. The Revised Second Edition contains 355,000 words, phrases, and definitions, including biographical references and thousands of encyclopaedic entries. The Third Edition was published in August 2010, with some new words, including " vuvuzela ". It is currently the largest single-volume English-language dictionary published by Oxford University Press. Editorial principles and practices The first editor, Judy Pearsall, wrote in the introduction that it is based on a modern understanding of language an
The Compact Oxford English Dictionary of Current English is a one-volume dictionary published by Oxford University Press . It is intended for a family or upper secondary school readership. The third edition (revised), published in 2008, has 1,264 pages, somewhat smaller than the Concise Oxford English Dictionary , and should not be confused with the "Compact" (single- and two-volume photo-reduced) editions of the multi-volume Oxford English Dictionary . Publications Compact Oxford English Dictionary of Current English Third edition revised ( ISBN 978-0-19-953296-4 ): Includes over 150,000 words, phrases, and definitions. Compact Oxford Thesaurus Third edition revised ( ISBN 978-0-19-953295-7 ): Includes over 300,000 synonyms and antonyms.k References Soanes, Catherine; Sara Hawker (19 June 2008). Compact Oxford English Dictionary of Current English (3rd ed.). Oxford University Press . ISBN 978-0-19-953296-4 . External links Compact Oxford English Dictionary of Current English Compact Oxford Thesaurus Th
The Canadian Oxford Dictionary is a dictionary of Canadian English . First published by Oxford University Press Canada in 1998, it became a well-known reference for Canadian English. The second edition, published in 2004, contains about 300,000 entries, including about 2,200 true Canadianisms . It also provides information on Canadian pronunciation and on Canadian spelling, which has features of both British and American spelling: colour, centre, and travelling, but tire, aluminum and realize. Editorial staff and development method Until September 2008, Oxford maintained a permanent staff of lexicographers in Canada, led by editor Katherine Barber . With its Canadian dictionary division closed, Oxford has since been outsourcing work on Canadian dictionary products to freelance editors. Editions and versions Barber, Katherine , ed. (2005). Canadian Oxford Dictionary (2nd ed.). Don Mills, Ontario: Oxford University Press . ISBN 978-0-19-541816-3 . Prior editions Barber, Katherine, ed. (2002). The Canadian Oxf
8th edition cover Oxford Advanced Learner's English-Chinese Dictionary, 7th edition ( Simplified Chinese version) The Oxford Advanced Learner's Dictionary ( OALD ) was the first advanced learner's dictionary of English. It was first published 69 years ago. It is the largest English-language dictionary from Oxford University Press aimed at a non-native audience. Users with a more linguistic interest, requiring etymologies or copious references, usually prefer the Concise Oxford English Dictionary , or indeed the magnum opus , the Oxford English Dictionary , or other dictionaries aimed at speakers of English with native-level competence. Publications English dictionaries Oxford Advanced Learner's Dictionary of Current English Oxford Advanced Learner's Dictionary of Current English was first published in 1948; the current edition is the ninth. The following editions exist: First edition first published in 1948 (12 impressions ) Second edition first published in 1963 (19 impressions) Third edition first published
The Compact Oxford English Dictionary may refer to either of two books published by Oxford University Press : The Compact Editions of the Oxford English Dictionary , which contain the full text of the Oxford English Dictionary photographically reduced to fit in one or two volumes instead of up to 20 volumes for the conventional editions. The Compact Oxford English Dictionary of Current English , a single-volume general-purpose dictionary. The Compact Oxford English Dictionary may refer to either of two books published by Oxford University Press : The Compact Editions of the Oxford English Dictionary , which contain the full text of the Oxford English Dictionary photographically reduced to fit in one or two volumes instead of up to 20 volumes for the conventional editions. The Compact Oxford English Dictionary of Current English , a single-volume general-purpose dictionary.
The Oxford Dictionary of English Etymology is an etymological dictionary of the English language, published by Oxford University Press . The first editor of the dictionary was Charles Talbut Onions who spent his last twenty years largely devoted to completing The Oxford Dictionary of English Etymology (1966), which treated over 38,000 words and went to press just before his death. Editions C. T. Onions , ed.; edited by C. T. Onions with the assistance of G. W. S. Friedrichsen and R. W. Burchfield (1966, reprinted 1983, 1992, 1994) ISBN 0-19-861112-9 Also published by OUP: The Concise Oxford Dictionary of English language T. F. Hoad (1986) T. F. Hoad (1993) ISBN 0-19-283098-8 An Etymological Dictionary of the English Language W. W. Skeat (1963) ISBN 0-19-863104-9 See also The Oxford English Dictionary Footnotes J. A. W. Bennett , "Onions, Charles Talbut (1873–1965)," rev. Oxford Dictionary of National Biography , Oxford University Press, 2004 The Oxford Dictionary of English Etymology is an etymological
The New Oxford American Dictionary ( NOAD ) is a single-volume dictionary of American English compiled by American editors at the Oxford University Press . NOAD is based upon the New Oxford Dictionary of English (NODE), published in the United Kingdom in 1998, although with substantial editing, additional entries, and the inclusion of illustrations. It is based on a corpus linguistics analysis of Oxford's 200 million word database of contemporary American English . NOAD includes a diacritical respelling scheme to convey pronunciations, as opposed to the Gimson phonemic IPA system that is used in NODE. Editions First Published in September 2001, the first edition was edited by Elizabeth J. Jewell and Frank Abate. Second edition Published in May 2005, the second edition was edited by Erin McKean . The edition added nearly 3,000 new words, senses, and phrases. It was in a large format, with 2096 pages, and was 8½" by 11" in size. It included a CD-ROM with the full text of the dictionary for Palm OS devices. Sinc
OxfordDictionaries.com or Oxford Dictionaries Online ( ODO ) is a website produced by the Oxford University Press (OUP) publishing house , a department of the University of Oxford , which also publishes a number of print dictionaries, among other things. It includes the Oxford Dictionary of English , New Oxford American Dictionary , Oxford Thesaurus of English, Oxford American Writer’s Thesaurus and grammar and usage resources. It is updated every three months. References "The OED and Oxford Dictionaries" . Oxford English Dictionary. Oxford University Press . Retrieved 12 December 2014 . "Oxford Dictionaries content help" . Oxford Dictionaries Online. Oxford University Press . Retrieved 8 November 2014 . Harrison, Emma (19 June 2014). "Oxford dictionaries: Demise of the printed editions?" . BBC News . Retrieved 8 November 2014 . External links Official website OxfordDictionaries.com or Oxford Dictionaries Online ( ODO ) is a website produced by the Oxford University Press (OUP) publishing house , a departmen
English -English and English- Persian dictionaries A dictionary is a collection of words in one or more specific languages , often arranged alphabetically (or by radical and stroke for ideographic languages), which may include information on definitions , usage, etymologies , phonetics , pronunciations , translation, etc. or a book of words in one language with their equivalents in another, sometimes known as a lexicon . It is a lexicographical product which shows inter-relationships among the data. A broad distinction is made between general and specialized dictionaries . Specialized dictionaries include words in specialist fields, rather than a complete range of words in the language. Lexical items that describe concepts in specific fields are usually called terms instead of words, although there is no consensus whether lexicology and terminology are two different fields of study. In theory, general dictionaries are supposed to be semasiological , mapping word to definition , while specialized dictionarie
A Dictionary of American English on Historical Principles ( DAE ) is a dictionary of terms appearing in English in the United States that was published in four volumes from 1938 to 1944 by the University of Chicago Press . Intended to pick up where the Oxford English Dictionary left off, it covers American English words and phrases in use from the first English settlements up to the start of the 20th century. History The work was begun in 1925 by William A. Craigie . The first volume appeared in 1936 under the editorship of Craigie and James R. Hulbert, a professor of English at the University of Chicago. The four volume edition was completed with the help of George Watson and Allen Walker Read . The work was one of the sources for the Dictionary of Americanisms , c. 1952, prepared under the direction of Mitford Mathews. A similar, but unrelated modern work, the Dictionary of American Regional English , has been compiled to show dialect variation. Volumes II. Corn pit-Honk. III. Honk-Record. IV. Recorder-
The Australian Oxford Dictionary , sometimes abbreviated as AOD, is a dictionary of Australian English published by Oxford University Press . The AOD combines elements of the previous Oxford publication, The Australian National Dictionary (sometimes abbreviated as AND), which was a comprehensive, historically based record of 10,000 words and phrases representing Australia's contribution to English . However, The Australian National Dictionary was not a full dictionary, and could not be used as one in the normal sense. The AOD borrowed its scholarship both from the AND and from The Oxford English Dictionary , and competed with the Macquarie Dictionary when it was released in 1999. Like the Macquarie, the AOD combines elements of a normal dictionary with those of an encyclopaedic volume. It is a joint effort of Oxford University and the Australian National University . The AOD ' s current editor is Bruce Moore. Its content is largely sourced from the databases of Australian English at the Australian National D
The Oxford-Hachette French to English/English to French Dictionary is one of the most comprehensive and recent bilingual French–English/English–French dictionaries. It was the first such dictionary to be written using a computerized corpus and it contains 555,000 translations as well as 360,000 words and expressions. The work was first published in 1994, with its second, third and fourth editions appearing in 1997, 2001 and 2007 respectively. Though the dictionary is entirely bilingual, it is marketed under two different names, one for French, one for English: Le grand dictionnaire Hachette-Oxford -French et anglais-français Oxford-Hachette French Dictionary: French-English English-French It version is also available in a concise or condensed version. It is jointly published by Oxford University Press and Hachette Education . Its two main competitors are Harrap's Shorter French Dictionary published by Chambers Harrap Publishers and Collins-Robert French Dictionary published by Harper-Collins. External links O
Oxford spelling (also Oxford English Dictionary spelling , Oxford style , or Oxford English spelling ) is the spelling standard used by the Oxford University Press (OUP) for British publications, including its Oxford English Dictionary (OED) and its influential British style guide Hart's Rules , and by other publishers who are "etymology conscious", according to Merriam-Webster . Oxford spelling is best known for its preference for the suffix -ize in words like organize and recognize, versus the -ise endings that are also commonly used in current British English usage. The spelling affects about 200 verbs and is favoured because -ize corresponds more closely to the Greek root, -izo (- ιζω ), of most -ize verbs. In addition to the OUP's "Oxford"-branded dictionaries, other British dictionary publishers that list -ize suffixes first include Cassell , Collins and Longman . Oxford spelling is used by many British academic/science journals (for example, Nature ) and many international organizations (for example
Published on 15 April 1755 and written by Samuel Johnson , A Dictionary of the English Language , sometimes published as Johnson's Dictionary , is among the most influential dictionaries in the history of the English language . There was dissatisfaction with the dictionaries of the period, so in June 1746 a group of London booksellers contracted Johnson to write a dictionary for the sum of 1,500 guineas (£1,575), equivalent to about £220,000 in 2017. Johnson took seven years to complete the work, although he had claimed he could finish it in three. Remarkably, he did so single-handedly, with only clerical assistance to copy out the illustrative quotations that he had marked in books. Johnson produced several revised editions during his life. Until the completion of the Oxford English Dictionary 173 years later, Johnson's was viewed as the pre-eminent English dictionary. According to Walter Jackson Bate , the Dictionary "easily ranks as one of the greatest single achievements of scholarship, and probably the
The Oxford American Dictionary ( OAD ) is a single-volume dictionary of American English . It was the first dictionary published by the Oxford University Press to be prepared by American lexicographers and editors. The work was based on the Oxford Paperback Dictionary, published in 1979. It is no longer in print and has been superseded by the New Oxford American Dictionary . See also Other Oxford Dictionaries: New Oxford American Dictionary (NOAD) Oxford English Dictionary (OED) Shorter Oxford English Dictionary (SOED) Oxford Dictionary of English (ODE) Concise Oxford English Dictionary (COED) Australian Oxford Dictionary (AOD) Canadian Oxford Dictionary (CanOD) Oxford Advanced Learner's Dictionary (OALD) References The Oxford American Dictionary ( OAD ) is a single-volume dictionary of American English . It was the first dictionary published by the Oxford University Press to be prepared by American lexicographers and editors. The work was based on the Oxford Paperback Dictionary, published in 1979. It is no
A Dictionary of Slang and Unconventional English is a dictionary of slang originally compiled by the noted lexicographer of the English language, Eric Partridge . The first edition was published in 1937 and seven editions were eventually published by Partridge. An eighth edition was published in 1984, after Partridge's death, by editor Paul Beale; in 1990 Beale published an abridged version, Partridge's Concise Dictionary of Slang and Unconventional English . The dictionary was updated in 2005 by Tom Dalzell and Terry Victor as The New Partridge Dictionary of Slang and Unconventional English , and again in 2007 as the The Concise New Partridge Dictionary of Slang and Unconventional English , which has additional entries compared to the 2005 edition, but omits the extensive citations. Original publication Partridge published seven editions of his "hugely influential" slang dictionary before his death in 1979. The dictionary was "regarded as filling a lexicographical gap" in the English language because i
The advanced learner's dictionary is the most common type of monolingual learner's dictionary , that is, a dictionary written for someone who is learning a foreign language and who has a proficiency level of B2 or above according to the Common European Framework . It differs from a bilingual or translation dictionary, on the one hand, and a standard dictionary written for native speakers or linguistic scholars, on the other. The definitions are usually built on defining vocabulary . Although advanced learner's dictionaries have been produced for learners of several languages (including Chinese, Dutch, German, and Spanish) the majority are written for learners of English. Printed The best-known advanced learner's dictionaries are: Oxford Advanced Learner's Dictionary , first published in 1948. Longman Dictionary of Contemporary English , first published in 1978. Collins Cobuild English Dictionary, first published in 1987 and now published as Collins COBUILD Advanced Learner’s Dictionary . Cambridge Internation
The Historical Thesaurus of the Oxford English Dictionary ( HTOED ) is the print edition of the largest thesaurus in the world, the Historical Thesaurus of English ( HTE ), conceived and compiled by the English Language Department of the University of Glasgow . The HTE is a complete database of all the words in the second edition of The Oxford English Dictionary , arranged by semantic field and date. In this way, the HTE arranges the whole vocabulary of English , from the earliest written records in Old English to the present, alongside types and dates of use. It is the first historical thesaurus to be compiled for any of the world's languages and contains 800,000 meanings for 600,000 words, within 230,000 categories, covering more than 920,000 words and meanings. As the HTE website states, "in addition to providing hitherto unavailable information for linguistic and textual scholars, the Historical Thesaurus online is a rich resource for students of social and cultural history, showing how concepts develop
The Dictionary of Old English ( DOE ) is a dictionary of the Old English language , published by the Centre for Medieval Studies, University of Toronto , under the direction of Angus Cameron , Ashley Crandell Amos, and Antonette diPaolo Healey. It complements the Oxford English Dictionary ' s comprehensive survey of modern English and the Middle English Dictionary ' s comprehensive survey of Middle English . The dictionary is still under production. As of March 2015 the entries for 8 of the 24 letters of the Old English alphabet have been published, and over 60% of the total entries have been written. The dictionary has made extensive use of digital technology , and is based on a corpus of at least one copy of every known surviving text written in Old English. History The dictionary was conceived in 1968 as a replacement for the Bosworth–Toller Anglo-Saxon Dictionary , which had been compiled at a time when both the study of the Old English language and lexicographical techniques were less advanced. From the
The Oxford Latin Dictionary (or OLD ) is the standard English lexicon of Classical Latin , compiled from sources written before AD 200. Begun in 1933, it was published in fascicles between 1968 and 1982; a lightly revised second edition was released in 2012. The dictionary was created in order to meet the need for a more modern Latin-English dictionary than Lewis & Short's Latin Dictionary , while being less ambitious in scope than the unfinished Thesaurus Linguae Latinae . It was based on a new reading of classical sources, based on the advances in lexicography in creating the Oxford English Dictionary . History Although Lewis and Short's Latin Dictionary was widely used in the English world by the end of the nineteenth century, its faults were widely felt among classicists. While Oxford University Press had attempted the creation of a new Latin dictionary as early as 1875, these projects failed. The OLD was spurred by the submission of a report in 1924 by Alexander Souter on the deficiencies of Lewis
The Oxford Dictionary of Byzantium (often abbreviated to ODB ) is a three-volume historical dictionary published by the English Oxford University Press . With more than 5,000 entries, it contains comprehensive information in English on topics relating to the Byzantine Empire . It was edited by Dr. Alexander Kazhdan , and was first published in 1991. Kazhdan was a professor at Princeton University who became a Senior Research Associate at Dumbarton Oaks , Washington, DC before his death. He contributed to many of the articles in the Dictionary and always signed his initials A.K. at the end of the article to indicate his contribution. Description The dictionary is available in printed and e-reference text versions from Oxford Reference Online . It covers the main historical events of Byzantium, as well as important social and religious events. It also includes biographies of eminent political and literary personalities and describes in detail religious, social, cultural, legal and political topics. Cultural to
A Dictionary of Modern English Usage (1926), by Henry Watson Fowler (1858–1933), is a style guide to British English usage , pronunciation, and writing. Covering topics such as plurals and literary technique , distinctions among like words ( homonyms and synonyms ), and the use of foreign terms, the dictionary became the standard for other guides to writing in English. Hence, the 1926 first edition remains in print, along with the 1965 second edition, edited by Ernest Gowers, and reprinted in 1983 and 1987. The 1996 third edition, re-titled as The New Fowler’s Modern English Usage (revised in 2004) was mostly rewritten by Robert W. Burchfield, as a usage dictionary that incorporated corpus linguistics data; and the 2015 fourth edition, re-titled Fowler’s Dictionary of Modern English Usage, edited by Jeremy Butterfield, is like the third edition. Informally, users refer to the dictionary as Fowler’s Modern English Usage , Fowler , and Fowler’s . Linguistic approach In A Dictionary of Modern English Usage, Hen
The Meaning of Everything is a 2003 book by Simon Winchester . It concerns the creation of the Oxford English Dictionary under the editorship of James Murray and others, one aspect of which Winchester had previously written about in The Surgeon of Crowthorne . Sources Winchester, Simon (2003). The Meaning of Everything: The Story of the Oxford English Dictionary (hardback). Oxford University Press . ISBN 0-19-860702-4 . Winchester, Simon (2004). The Meaning of Everything: The Story of the Oxford English Dictionary (paperback). Oxford University Press . ISBN 0-19-517500-X . The Meaning of Everything is a 2003 book by Simon Winchester . It concerns the creation of the Oxford English Dictionary under the editorship of James Murray and others, one aspect of which Winchester had previously written about in The Surgeon of Crowthorne . Sources Winchester, Simon (2003). The Meaning of Everything: The Story of the Oxford English Dictionary (hardback). Oxford University Press . ISBN 0-19-860702-4 . Winchester, Si
Sindhi to English dictionaries are bilingual dictionaries which provide English equivalents of Sindhi Language words.(For instance Yadgar Sindhi to English Dictionary ) Compilations of Sindhi and English terms were created for non-Sindhi speaking students in the early 1800s. The Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bengal, Calcutta published articles with vocabulary lists in 1836 and 1843. Sindhi was one of the languages included in Leech's 1943 vocabularies of Indic languages for the British government. In 1849, George Stack published a Sindhi to English dictionary consisting of 15,000 terms, followed in 1855 by an English to Sindhi dictionary with 17000 terms, in which he used the Devanagari script. Father G. Shirt published a Sindhi to English dictionary in 1879 in which he used Arabic script and which became the basis for a number of other versions, including Parmanand Mewarm 's 1910 and 1933 works. Beginning in the 1960s, Deccan College began work on a dictionary with both Devanagari and Arabic charac
Oxford University Press ( OUP ) is the largest university press in the world, and the second oldest after Cambridge University Press . It is a department of the University of Oxford and is governed by a group of 15 academics appointed by the vice-chancellor known as the delegates of the press. They are headed by the secretary to the delegates, who serves as OUP's chief executive and as its major representative on other university bodies. Oxford University has used a similar system to oversee OUP since the 17th century. The university became involved in the print trade around 1480, and grew into a major printer of Bibles, prayer books, and scholarly works. OUP took on the project that became the Oxford English Dictionary in the late 19th century, and expanded to meet the ever-rising costs of the work. As a result, the last hundred years has seen Oxford publish children's books, school text books, music, journals, the World's Classics series, and a best-selling range of English language teaching texts to mat
The Oxford Dictionary of Philosophy (1994; second edition 2008; third edition 2016) is a dictionary of philosophy by Simon Blackburn , published by Oxford University Press . References Blackburn, Simon (2008). The Oxford Dictionary of Philosophy (revised 2nd ed.). Oxford: Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-283134-8 . External links The Oxford Dictionary of Philosophy Companion Website The Oxford Dictionary of Philosophy (1994; second edition 2008; third edition 2016) is a dictionary of philosophy by Simon Blackburn , published by Oxford University Press . References Blackburn, Simon (2008). The Oxford Dictionary of Philosophy (revised 2nd ed.). Oxford: Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-283134-8 . External links The Oxford Dictionary of Philosophy Companion Website
The Century Dictionary and Cyclopedia was one of the largest encyclopedic dictionaries of the English language. The first edition was published from 1889 to 1891 by The Century Company of New York, in six, eight, or ten volume versions (originally issued in 24 fascicles ) in 7,046 pages with some 10,000 wood-engraved illustrations. It was edited by Sanskrit scholar and linguist William Dwight Whitney , with Benjamin Eli Smith 's assistance. It was a great expansion of the smaller Imperial Dictionary of the English Language , which in turn had been based on the 1841 edition of Noah Webster 's American Dictionary . Meredith Publishing Company 's 1963 edition of The New Century Dictionary. Volume One: A — pocket veto and Volume Two: pock-mark — zymurgy & Supplements After Whitney's death in 1894, supplementary volumes were published under Smith's supervision, including The Century Cyclopedia of Names (1894) and The Century Atlas (1897). A two-volume Supplement of new vocabulary, published in 1909, completed
The Collins-Robert French Dictionary (marketed as Le Robert et Collins Dictionnaire Français-Anglais in France ) is a bilingual dictionary of English and French derived from the Collins Word Web, an analytical linguistics database. As well as its primary function as a bilingual dictionary, it also contains usage guides for English and French (known as Grammaire Active and Language in Use respectively), English and French verb tables, and maps of English and French speaking areas. Its two main competitors are Harrap's Shorter French Dictionary published by Chambers Harrap Publishers and the Oxford-Hachette French Dictionary published by Oxford University Press in conjunction with Hachette . Publications William Collins & Sons releases Collins-Robert French Dictionary (Unabridged) HarperCollins releases Collins-Robert French Dictionary (Unabridged) Collins Robert Concise French Dictionary: Paperback version of Collins-Robert French Dictionary with reduced contents, focused on contemporary readers. Collins
An 1888 advertisement for Webster's Unabridged Dictionary Webster's Dictionary is any of the dictionaries edited by Noah Webster in the early nineteenth century, and numerous unrelated dictionaries that have adopted the Webster's name. "Webster's" has become a genericized trademark in the U.S. for dictionaries of the English language, and is widely used in English dictionary titles, or even to dictionaries in general. The only modern dictionaries that trace their lineage to Noah Webster's are published by Merriam-Webster . Noah Webster's American Dictionary of the English Language Noah Webster (1758–1843), the author of the readers and spelling books which dominated the American market at the time, spent decades of research in compiling his dictionaries. His first dictionary, A Compendious Dictionary of the English Language, appeared in 1806. In it, he popularized features which would become a hallmark of American English spelling (center rather than centre, honor rather than honour, program rather than pro
The Australian National Dictionary: Australian Words and Their Origins is the historical dictionary of Australian English , recording over 16,000 English words and phrases of Australian origin and use. The dictionary was originally edited by Bill Ramson and published by Oxford University Press in 1988; the second edition was edited by Bruce Moore, Amanda Laugesen, Mark Gwynn and Julia Robinson, and was published in two volumes in August 2016. History The first lexicographer to attempt a systematic documentation of Australian English words was Edward E Morris whose Austral English was published in 1898. The next significant works on Australian words were Sidney Baker’s The Australian Language (1945) and GA Wilke’s Dictionary of Australian Colloquialisms published in 1978. The first general dictionary of Australian English that did not label Australian words specifically was Grahame Johnston’s Australian Pocket Oxford Dictionary (1976) and the Heinemann Australian Dictionary (1976). Five years later, the Macqu
The Oxford Dictionary of Saints by David Hugh Farmer is a concise reference compilation of information on more than 1300 saints and contains over 1700 entries. It is published by Oxford University Press . The first edition was published in 1978. A fifth revised edition was published in 2011. References "The Oxford Dictionary of Saints, Fifth Edition Revised (Oxford Paperback Reference)" . Amazon.com . Retrieved August 22, 2012 . "May 2011 Update" . Oxford Reference Online. A Dictionary of Saints . Retrieved August 22, 2012 . The Oxford Dictionary of Saints by David Hugh Farmer is a concise reference compilation of information on more than 1300 saints and contains over 1700 entries. It is published by Oxford University Press . The first edition was published in 1978. A fifth revised edition was published in 2011. References "The Oxford Dictionary of Saints, Fifth Edition Revised (Oxford Paperback Reference)" . Amazon.com . Retrieved August 22, 2012 . "May 2011 Update" . Oxford Reference Online. A Diction
The Macquarie Dictionary is a dictionary of Australian English . It is generally held by universities and the legal profession to be the authoritative source on Australian English . It also pays considerable attention to New Zealand English . Originally it was a publishing project of Jacaranda Press, a Brisbane educational publisher, for which an editorial committee was formed, largely from the Linguistics department of Macquarie University in Sydney , Australia. It is now published by Macquarie Dictionary Publishers an imprint of Pan Macmillan Australia Pty Ltd. In October 2007 it moved its editorial office away from Macquarie University to the University of Sydney . History First Edition The original version of the Macquarie Dictionary was based on Hamlyn's Encyclopedic World Dictionary of 1971, which in turn was based on Random House 's American College Dictionary of 1947, which was based on the 1927 New Century Dictionary , which was based on The Imperial Dictionary of the English Language , which itse
The Middle English Dictionary is a dictionary of Middle English published by the University of Michigan . "Its 15,000 pages offer a comprehensive analysis of lexicon and usage for the period 1100-1500, based on the analysis of a collection of over three million citation slips, the largest collection of this kind available." The project began in the 1920s. The first instalment, "Plan and Bibliography", containing a list of Middle English texts used for the Middle English Dictionary, was published by Hans Kurath and Sherman Kuhn in 1954. More fascicles were published in numerous volumes (in alphabetical order) over the next several decades. The dictionary was completed in 2001. In 2007, the full dictionary was made freely available and searchable online in an HTML format. See also Middle English Dictionary of Old English Oxford English Dictionary Notes Middle English Dictionary . External links Official website The Middle English Dictionary is a dictionary of Middle English published by the University of Michig
The Oxford Classical Dictionary ( OCD ) is generally considered "the best one-volume dictionary on antiquity," an encyclopedic work in English consisting of articles relating to classical antiquity and its civilizations. It was first published in 1949 (OCD or OCD), edited by Max Cary with the assistance of H. J. Rose, H. P. Harvey, and A. Souter. A second edition followed in 1970 (OCD ), edited by Nicholas G. L. Hammond and H. H. Scullard , and a third edition in 1996 (OCD ), edited by Simon Hornblower and Antony Spawforth . A revised third edition was released in 2003, which is nearly identical to the previous third edition. Finally, a fourth edition was published in 2012 (OCD ), edited by Simon Hornblower, Antony Spawforth, and Esther Eidinow , which remains the current edition. This most recent edition is marked principally by three features: first, revision to the text of approximately half the entries; second, 90 new or replaced entries (19 replaced); and, third, thoroughly updated bibliographies for
Macmillan English Dictionary for Advanced Learners , also known as MEDAL , was first published in 2002 by Macmillan Education . MEDAL is an advanced learner’s dictionary and shares most of the features of this type of dictionary: it provides definitions in simple language, using a controlled defining vocabulary ; most words have example sentences to illustrate how they are typically used; and information is given about how words combine grammatically or in collocations . MEDAL also introduced a number of innovations. These include: ‘collocation boxes’ giving lists of high-frequency collocates, identified using Sketch Engine software word frequency information, with the most frequent 7500 English words shown in red and categorised in three frequency bands, based on the idea, derived from Zipf's law , that a relatively small number of high-frequency words account for a high percentage of most texts ‘metaphor boxes’, showing how the vocabulary used for expressing common concepts (such as ‘anger’) tends to refl
The Oxford Dictionary of Quotations , first published by the Oxford University Press in 1941, is an 1100-page book listing short quotations that are common in English language and culture. Quotations are also cross-referenced. For example, on looking up Napoleon's quotation about Britain being a nation of shopkeepers , one also finds Adam Smith , who said it first. Quotations about absolute power are cross-referenced to Lord Acton , and from him to William Pitt the Elder , who said something similar. The dictionary has been jokingly called the Oxford Dikker of Quotaggers using the Oxford "-er" . The first edition in 1941 was compiled by a committee drawn from the staff of the OUP under the editorship of Alice Mary Smyth (later Alice Mary Hadfield ). She recounts some of the details of choosing and processing quotations in her book on the life of Charles Williams (one of the committee). Later editions of the Dictionary were published in 1953 and thereafter, the 6th edition appearing in 2004 ( ISBN 0-19-860
The American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language ( AHD ) is an American dictionary of English published by Boston publisher Houghton Mifflin , the first edition of which appeared in 1969. Its creation was spurred by the controversy over the Webster's Third New International Dictionary . History James Parton, the publisher (and co-owner) of the history magazine American Heritage , was appalled by the permissiveness of Webster's Third , published in 1961, and tried to buy the G. and C. Merriam Company so he could undo the changes. When that failed, he contracted with Houghton to publish a new dictionary. The AHD was edited by William Morris and relied on a usage panel of 105 writers, speakers, and eminent persons chosen for their well-known conservatism in the use of language. However, Morris made inconsistent use of the panels, often ignoring their advice and inserting his own opinions. Linguistics The AHD broke ground among dictionaries by using corpus linguistics for compiling word frequencies and o
Dictionary is an application developed by Apple Inc. as a part of macOS . The application provides definitions and synonyms from various dictionaries, Wikipedia articles and a glossary of Apple-related terms. Dictionary was introduced in OS X 10.4 with the New Oxford American Dictionary and Oxford American Writer's Thesaurus (as well as the Wikipedia and Apple sections). 10.5 added Japanese dictionaries, 10.7 added the British Oxford Dictionary of English , and 10.8 added French, German, Spanish and Chinese. History OS X's progenitor, OPENSTEP (and NEXTSTEP ) provided similar functionality, called Digital Webster, providing dictionary and thesaurus definitions from Webster's Ninth New Collegiate Dictionary and Webster's Collegiate Thesaurus (termed the "First Digital Edition"). OPENSTEP Services provide lookup from all applications. Dictionary was first introduced with Mac OS X v10.4 "Tiger" and provided definitions from the New Oxford American Dictionary, 2nd Edition . With Mac OS X 10.7 "Lion" , Dictionary
Myanmar–English Dictionary ( Burmese : မြန်မာ-အင်္ဂလိပ်အဘိဓာန် ) is a modern Government project in Myanmar (formerly Burma), first published in 1993 by the Government of Myanmar 's Myanmar Language Commission . It is a guide dictionary for translating between English and the Myanmar Language . It was recorded the members of the Myanmar Language Commission and the two Myanmar–English Dictionary Work Committees who participated in the compilation of this dictionary. Myanmar–English Dictionary Work Committee(1) U Ba Nyunt,Member of the Myanmar Language Commission,Chairman(deceased) U Htin Gyi,Member of the Myanmar Language Commission,Member Daw Kyan,Member of the Myanmar Language Commission,Member Dr.Than Htun,Member of the Myanmar Language Commission,Member U Thaw Kaung,Librarian,Universities' Library,Member U Thi Ha,Retired Professor of English,Member Staff members,Department of the Myanmar Language Commission Myanmar–English Dictionary Work Committee(2) Hla Shwe, Member of the Myanmar Language Commission, Cha
An etymological dictionary discusses the etymology of the words listed. Often, large dictionaries, such as the Oxford English Dictionary and Webster's , will contain some etymological information, without aspiring to focus on etymology. Etymological dictionaries are the product of research in historical linguistics . For a large number of words in any language, the etymology will be uncertain, disputed, or simply unknown. In such cases, depending on the space available, an etymological dictionary will present various suggestions and perhaps make a judgement on their likelihood, and provide references to a full discussion in specialist literature. The tradition of compiling "derivations" of words is pre-modern, found for example in Indian ( nirukta ), Arabic ( al-ištiqāq ) and also in Western tradition (in works such as the Etymologicum Magnum ). Etymological dictionaries in the modern sense, however, appear only in the late 18th century (with 17th-century predecessors such as Vossius ' 1662 Etymologicum lingu
The Imperial Dictionary of the English Language : A Complete Encyclopedic Lexicon, Literary, Scientific, and Technological, edited by Rev. John Ogilvie (1797–1867), was an expansion of the 1841 second edition of Noah Webster 's American Dictionary . It was published by W. G. Blackie and Co . of Scotland, 1847–1850 in two large volumes. With the addition of a third supplement volume in 1855, Ogilvie increased Webster's 70,000 word coverage to over 100,000. He included words from science , technology , and the arts ; much British usage omitted by Webster; an unusual number of provincial and Scottish words; and added quotations and encyclopedic information for many words. With over 2,000 woodcut illustrations, it was the first significantly illustrated dictionary, setting the trend which continues today. A revised and expanded edition by Charles Annandale was published in 1882 at London in four volumes, over 3,000 pages, with about 130,000 entries, revised definitions and etymologies, and 3,000 illustrations. Al
The Oxford English Corpus is a text corpus of 21st century English , used by the makers of the Oxford English Dictionary and by Oxford University Press 's language research programme. It is the largest corpus of its kind, containing nearly 2.1 billion words. It includes language from the UK, the United States, Ireland, Australia, New Zealand, the Caribbean, Canada, India, Singapore and South Africa. The text is mainly collected from web pages ; some printed texts, such as academic journals, have been collected to supplement particular subject areas. The sources are writings of all sorts, from "literary novels and specialist journals to everyday newspapers and magazines and from Hansard to the language of blogs, emails, and social media". This may be contrasted with similar databases that sample only a specific kind of writing. The corpus is generally available only to researchers at Oxford University Press, but other researchers who can demonstrate a strong need may apply for access. The digital version o
The Collins English Dictionary is a printed and online dictionary of English. It is published by HarperCollins in Glasgow . The first edition of the dictionary, in 1979, with Patrick Hanks as editor and Lawrence Urdang as editorial director, was the first British dictionary to use the full power of computer databases and typesetting in its preparation. This meant that, for instance, subject editors could control separate definitions of the same word and the results could be blended into the result, rather than one editor being responsible for a word. By the third edition, they increasingly used the Bank of English established by Hanks at COBUILD to provide typical definitions rather than examples composed by the lexicographer . Editions The current edition is the 12th edition, which was published in October 2014. The previous edition was the 11th edition, which was published in October 2011. A special "30th Anniversary" 10th edition was published in 2010, with earlier editions published once every 3–4 years.
A pronunciation respelling for English is a notation used to convey the pronunciation of words in the English language , which does not have a phonemic orthography . There are two basic types of pronunciation respelling: " Phonemic " systems, as commonly found in American dictionaries, consistently use one symbol per English phoneme. These systems are conceptually equivalent to the International Phonetic Alphabet (IPA) commonly used in bilingual dictionaries and scholarly writings, but tend to use symbols based on English rather than Romance-language spelling conventions (e.g. ē for IPA ) and avoid non-alphabetic symbols (e.g. sh for IPA ). On the other hand, "non-phonemic" or "newspaper" systems, commonly used in newspapers and other non-technical writings, avoid diacritics and literally "respell" words making use of well-known English words and spelling conventions, even though the resulting system may not have a one-to-one mapping between symbols and sounds. As an example, the pronunciation of Arkansas ,
A New English Dictionary: or, a complete collection of the most proper and significant words, commonly used in the language was an English dictionary compiled by philologist John Kersey and first published in London in 1702. Unlike previous dictionaries, which had focused on documenting difficult words, A New English Dictionary was one of the first to focus on words in common usage. It was also the first to be written by a professional lexicographer . Kersey later continued his lexicographic career by enlarging Edward Phillips ' The New World of English Words in 1706 and editing the Dictionarium Anglo-Britannicum in 1708. The original title of the Oxford English Dictionary was A New English Dictionary on Historical Principles, and it was sometimes given the abbreviation NED, for New English Dictionary. A New English Dictionary: or, a complete collection of the most proper and significant words, commonly used in the language was an English dictionary compiled by philologist John Kersey and first published in L
British and American spellings around the world: defence/labour, English is official defence/labour, English is not official Canadian defence/labour, but organize, etc. defense/labor, English is official defense/labor, English is not official Many of the differences between American and British English date back to a time when spelling standards had not yet developed. For instance, some spellings seen as "American" today were once commonly used in Britain and some spellings seen as "British" were once commonly used in the United States. A "British standard" began to emerge following the 1755 publication of Samuel Johnson 's A Dictionary of the English Language , and an "American standard" started following the work of Noah Webster and in particular his An American Dictionary of the English Language , first published in 1828. Webster's efforts at spelling reform were somewhat effective in his native country, resulting in certain well-known patterns of spelling differences between the American an
This is a list of English words that are borrowed directly or ultimately from Dravidian languages . Dravidian languages include Kannada , Malayalam , Tamil , Telugu , and a number of other languages spoken mainly in South Asia . The list is by no means exhaustive. Some of the words can be traced to specific languages, but others have disputed or uncertain origins. Words of disputed or less certain origin are in the "Dravidian languages" list. Where lexicographers generally agree on a source language, the words are listed by language. Dravidian languages Betel , a leaf of a vine belonging to the Piperaceae family; from Portuguese betel, which probably comes from Tamil or Malayalam. Candy , crystallized sugar or confection made from sugar; via Persian qand, which is probably from a Dravidian language, ultimately stemming from the Sanskrit root word 'Khanda'. Coir , cord/rope, fibre from husk of coconut; from Malayalam kayar (കയർ) or Tamil kayiru (கயிறு). The origin of this word cannot be conclusively attribut