Outline of forensic science

The following outline is provided as an overview of and topical guide to forensic science:

Forensic science – application of a broad spectrum of sciences to answer questions of interest to a legal system. This may be in matters relating to criminal law, civil law and regulatory laws. it may also relate to non-litigious matters. The term is often shortened to forensics.

Nature of forensic science

General forensics topics include:

  • Crime – breach of rules or laws for which some governing authority (via mechanisms such as legal systems) can ultimately prescribe a conviction.
  • Crime scene – location where an illegal act took place, and comprises the area from which most of the physical evidence is retrieved by trained law enforcement personnel, crime scene investigators (CSIs) or in rare circumstances, forensic scientists.
  • Mortuary investigations
  • laboratory examinations
  • CSI effect – phenomenon of popular television shows such as the CSI franchise raising the public's expectations of forensic science,[1] stemming from the "dramatic license" taken by the shows' writers in which they exaggerate the abilities of forensic science,[2][3] and this is of particular concern in the courtroom setting, where many prosecutors feel pressured to deliver more forensic evidence.[4][5]
Forensic methodologies
  • Crime Scene Investigation: crime scene is the most fruitful source to gather forensic evidence (19)
  • Forensic accounting – study and interpretation of accounting evidence.
  • Forensic animation
  • Forensic anthropology – application of physical anthropology for personnel identification in a legal setting, usually for the recovery and identification of skeletonized human remains.
  • Forensic archaeology – application of a combination of archaeological techniques and forensic science, typically in law enforcement.
  • Forensic arts – artistic techniques used in the identification, apprehension, or conviction of wanted persons.
  • Forensic astronomy – determines past celestial constellations for forensic purposes, using methods from astronomy.
  • Bloodstain pattern analysis – draws on the scientific disciplines of biology, chemistry, mathematics and physics to ascertain the details and sequence of events of a crime, including the area of origin of an impact pattern, and movement of persons or objects after bloodshed, etc.
  • Forensic botany – study of plant life in order to gain information regarding possible crimes.
  • Forensic chemistry – study of detection and identification of illicit drugs, accelerants used in arson cases, explosive and gunshot residue.
  • Computational forensics – quantitative approach involving computer-based modeling, computer simulation, analysis, and recognition in studying and solving problems posed in various forensic disciplines. Concerns the development of algorithms and software to assist forensic examination.
  • Criminalistics – analysis of physical evidence in criminal investigations. Applies various sciences to answer questions relating to examination and comparison of biological evidence, trace evidence, impression evidence (such as fingerprints, footwear impressions, and tire tracks), controlled substances, ballistics, firearm and toolmark examination, and other evidence in criminal investigations. In typical circumstances, evidence is processed in a crime lab.
  • Digital forensics – application of proven scientific methods and techniques in order to recover or investigate data from electronic or digital media, often in relation to computer crime.
    • Mobile device forensics – scientific examination, and evaluation of evidences found in Mobile Phone, e.g. Call History, Deleted SMS etc., also include SIM Card Forensics
  • Forensic document examination or questioned document examination answers questions about a disputed document using a variety of scientific processes and methods. Many examinations involve a comparison of the questioned document, or components of the document, to a set of known standards. The most common type of examination involves handwriting wherein the examiner tries to address concerns about potential authorship.
  • Forensic economics – the study and interpretation of economic damage evidence to include present day calculations of lost earnings and benefits, lost earnings and profits, etc.
  • Forensic engineering – investigation of materials, products, structures or components that fail or do not operate or function as intended, causing personal injury or damage to property. Also deals with retracing processes and procedures leading to accidents in operation of vehicles or machinery.
    • Forensic materials engineering – focuses on the material evidence from crime or accident scenes, seeking defects in those materials which might explain why an accident occurred, or the source of a specific material to identify a criminal.
  • Forensic entomology – examination of insects in, on, and around human remains to assist in determination of time or location of death. It is also possible to determine if the body was moved after death.
  • Forensic geology – examination and analysis of trace evidence in the form of soils, minerals and petroleum.
  • Forensic identification – technology and procedures to identify specific objects from the trace evidence they leave, often at a crime scene or the scene of an accident.
  • Forensic limnology – analysis of evidence collected from crime scenes in or around fresh water sources. Examination of biological organisms, in particular, diatoms, can be useful in connecting suspects with victims.
  • Forensic linguistics – deals with issues in the legal system that requires linguistic expertise.
  • Forensic meteorology – site specific analysis of past weather conditions for a point of loss.
  • Forensic odontology – study of the uniqueness of teeth, mainly for the purpose of corpse identification
  • Forensic optometry – study of glasses and other eyewear relating to crime scenes and criminal investigations
  • Forensic pathology is a field in which the principles of medicine and pathology are applied to determine a cause of death or injury in the context of a legal inquiry.
  • Forensic photography – the art of producing an accurate photographic reproduction of a crime scene to aid investigations and court proceedings.
  • Forensic profiling
  • Forensic psychiatry – the two main areas of criminal evaluations in forensic psychiatry are evaluating a defendant's competency to stand trial (CST) and determining a defendant's mental state at the time of the offense (MSO).
  • Forensic psychology – study of the mind of an individual, using forensic methods. Usually it determines the circumstances behind a criminal's behavior.
  • Forensic seismology – study of techniques to distinguish the seismic signals generated by underground nuclear explosions from those generated by earthquakes.
  • Forensic serology – study of the body fluids.[7]
  • Forensic video analysis – scientific examination, comparison, and evaluation of video in legal matters.
  • Questioned document examination – the study and interpretation of evidence that takes the form of document.
  • DNA in forensic entomology
  • Retrospective diagnosis
  • Statement analysis
  • Digital Autopsy
  • Lip Forensics- identifying suspects(terrorists) by studying the macro-structure of lips, namely, upper vermillion border, oral fissure and lower vermillion border#
History of forensic science
By period
  • Forensics in antiquity – ancient sources contain several accounts of techniques that foreshadow the concepts of forensic science that were made possible by the Scientific Revolution centuries later. Predating the scientific method, these techniques were not based on a scientific understanding of the world in the modern sense, but rather on common sense and practical experience.
By subject
  • History of autopsies – Autopsies that opened the body to determine the cause of death were attested at least in the early third millennium BC, although they were opposed in many ancient societies where it was believed that the outward disfigurement of dead persons prevented them from entering the afterlife.[8]
  • History of dissection – During ancient times, investigators appeared to largely limit themselves to non-human animals.[9] Roman law forbade dissection and autopsy of the human body,[10] so physicians such as Galen were unable to work on cadavers. Galen for example dissected the Barbary macaque and other primates, assuming their anatomy was basically the same as that of humans.[11][12][13]
Evidence
  • Ballistic impact – high velocity impact by small mass simulation analogous to runway debris or small arms fire.[14]
  • Calling card – particular object sometimes left behind by a criminal at a scene of a crime, often as a way of taunting police or obliquely claiming responsibility.
  • Fingerprint – an impression left by the friction ridges of a human finger.[15] In a wider use of the term, fingerprints are the traces of an impression from the friction ridges of any part of a human or other primate hand.
  • Footprints – impressions or images left behind by a person walking. Shoes have many different prints based on the sole design and the wear that it has received – this can help to identify suspects.[16]
  • Skid mark – mark a tire makes when a vehicle wheel stops rolling and slides or spins on the surface of the road. Skid marks are important for finding the maximum and minimum vehicle speed prior to the impact or incident.
  • Trace evidence – evidence that occurs when different objects contact one another. Such materials are often transferred by heat induced by contact friction.
Forensic tools
Organizations
Forensic practitioners
Forensic science in popular culture
See also
Place these
References
  1. N. J. Schweitzer and Michael J. Saks The CSI Effect: Popular Fiction About Forensic Science Affects Public Expectations About Real Forensic Science. Jurimetrics Archived 2007-10-02 at the Wayback Machine., Spring 2007
  2. Justis, Gregory G. (2006). Images of Legitimacy: Presentation of Forensics Programming in Contemporary News Publications. Michigan State University
  3. Simon Cole and Rachel Dioso-Villa CSI and its Effects: Media, Juries and the Burden of Proof New England Law Review, Vol. 41, No. 3, 2007.
  4. Mann, Michael D. (2006). "The 'CSI Effect': Better Jurors through Television and Science?". Buffalo Public Interest Law Journal.
  5. Donald E. Sheldon, Young S. Kim and Gregg Barak A Study of Juror Expectations and Demands Concerning Scientific Evidence: Does the 'CSI Effect' Exist? Vanderbilt Journal of Entertainment & Technology Law
  6. Kopel, David B. (2008). "Ballistic fingerprints". In Ayn Embar-seddon, Allan D. Pass (eds.). Forensic Science. Salem Press. p. 109. ISBN 978-1-58765-423-7.
  7. "Forensic serology". Forensic-medecine.info. Retrieved 2010-06-08.
  8. Schafer, Elizabeth D. (2008). "Ancient science and forensics". In Ayn Embar-seddon, Allan D. Pass (eds.). Forensic Science. Salem Press. p. 43. ISBN 978-1-58765-423-7.
  9. P Prioreschi, Determinants of the revival of dissection of the human body in the Middle Ages', Medical Hypotheses (2001) 56(2), 229–234
  10. 'Tragically, the prohibition of human dissection by Rome in 150 BC arrested this progress and few of their findings survived', Arthur Aufderheide, 'The Scientific Study of Mummies' (2003), page 5
  11. Vivian Nutton, 'The Unknown Galen', (2002), page 89
  12. Heinrich von Staden, 'Herophilus' (1989), page 140
  13. Philip Lutgendorf, 'Hanuman's Tale: The Messages of a Divine Monkey' (2007), page 348
  14. WJ Cantwell, J Morton (1991). "The impact resistance of composite materials -- a review". Composites. 22 (5): 347–62. doi:10.1016/0010-4361(91)90549-V.
  15. Peer Reviewed Glossary of the Scientific Working Group on Friction Ridge Analysis, Study and Technology (SWGFAST)
  16. BBC News, 2 March 1998. "Footprints help to track down criminals". Accessed 28 July 2006.
  17. Ask Dr. Baden. HBO. URL: http://www.hbo.com/autopsy/baden/bio.html. Accessed on: April 8, 2008.

18. # P.Chandra Sekharan, 'LIP FORENSICS' (2011), ISBN 978-81-8465-769-2; Anand Publications, 143, SFS407, Yelahanka New Town, Bangalore 560 106; India

19. P.Chandra Sekharan, " The First Human Bomb; ISBN 81-8395-035-3 ALT Publications, Hyderabad -2

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Outline of forensic science

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Outline of forensic science

The following outline is provided as an overview of and topical guide to forensic science: Forensic science – application of a broad spectrum of sciences to answer questions of interest to a legal system. This may be in matters relating to criminal law, civil law and regulatory laws. it may also relate to non-litigious matters. The term is often shortened to forensics. Nature of forensic science General forensics topics include: Crime – breach of rules or laws for which some governing authority (via mechanisms such as legal systems) can ultimately prescribe a conviction. Crime scene – location where an illegal act took place, and comprises the area from which most of the physical evidence is retrieved by trained law enforcement personnel, crime scene investigators (CSIs) or in rare circumstances, forensic scientists. Mortuary investigations laboratory examinations CSI effect – phenomenon of popular television shows such as the CSI franchise raising the public's expectations of forensic science,[1 ...more...

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Forensic science

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Forensic science

Forensic science is the application of science to criminal and civil laws, mainly—on the criminal side—during criminal investigation, as governed by the legal standards of admissible evidence and criminal procedure. Forensic scientists collect, preserve, and analyze scientific evidence during the course of an investigation. While some forensic scientists travel to the scene of the crime to collect the evidence themselves, others occupy a laboratory role, performing analysis on objects brought to them by other individuals.[1] In addition to their laboratory role, forensic scientists testify as expert witnesses in both criminal and civil cases and can work for either the prosecution or the defense. While any field could technically be forensic, certain sections have developed over time to encompass the majority of forensically related cases.[2] Forensic science is the combination of two different Latin words: forensis and science. The former, forensic, relates to a discussion or examination performed in publi ...more...

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Outline of space science

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Outline of space science

A laser-guided observation of the Milky Way Galaxy at the Paranal Observatory in Chile in 2010 The following outline is provided as an overview of and topical guide to space science: Space science encompasses all of the scientific disciplines that involve space exploration and study natural phenomena and physical bodies occurring in outer space, such as space medicine and astrobiology.[1][2] The following outline is an overview of and topical guide to space science: Branches of space science A proposed timeline of the origin of space, from physical cosmology Astronomy Outline of astronomy Fields of astronomy defined by approach Observational astronomy – Observatories on the ground as well as space observatories take measurements of celestial entities and phenomena Astrometry – studies the position and movements of celestial objects Amateur astronomy Theoretical astronomy – mathematical modelling of celestial entities and phenomena Fields of astronomy defined by scope Astrophysic ...more...

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Digital forensics

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Digital forensics

Aerial photo of FLETC, where US digital forensics standards were developed in the 1980s and '90s Digital forensics (sometimes known as digital forensic science) is a branch of forensic science encompassing the recovery and investigation of material found in digital devices, often in relation to computer crime.[1][2] The term digital forensics was originally used as a synonym for computer forensics but has expanded to cover investigation of all devices capable of storing digital data.[1] With roots in the personal computing revolution of the late 1970s and early 1980s, the discipline evolved in a haphazard manner during the 1990s, and it was not until the early 21st century that national policies emerged. Digital forensics investigations have a variety of applications. The most common is to support or refute a hypothesis before criminal or civil courts. Criminal cases involve the alleged breaking of laws that are defined by legislation and that are enforced by the police and prosecuted by the state, such as ...more...

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Outline of social science

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Outline of social science

The following outline is provided as an overview of and topical guide to social science: Social science – branch of science concerned with society and human behaviors. What type of thing is social science? Social science can be described as all of the following: Branch of science – systematic enterprise that builds and organizes knowledge in the form of testable explanations and predictions about the universe.[1][2][3] Major category of academic disciplines – an academic discipline is focused study in one academic field or profession. A discipline incorporates expertise, people, projects, communities, challenges, studies, inquiry, and research areas that are strongly associated with academic areas of study or areas of professional practice. For example, the branches of science are commonly referred to as the scientific disciplines. For instance, gravitation is strongly associated with the discipline of physics, and is considered to be part of that disciplinary knowledge. Branches of social science ...more...

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Computer forensics

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Computer forensics

Computer forensics analysis is not limited only to computer media Computer forensics (also known as computer forensic science[1]) is a branch of digital forensic science pertaining to evidence found in computers and digital storage media. The goal of computer forensics is to examine digital media in a forensically sound manner with the aim of identifying, preserving, recovering, analyzing and presenting facts and opinions about the digital information. Although it is most often associated with the investigation of a wide variety of computer crime, computer forensics may also be used in civil proceedings. The discipline involves similar techniques and principles to data recovery, but with additional guidelines and practices designed to create a legal audit trail. Evidence from computer forensics investigations is usually subjected to the same guidelines and practices of other digital evidence. It has been used in a number of high-profile cases and is becoming widely accepted as reliable within U.S. and Euro ...more...

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Forensic psychology

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Forensic psychology

Forensic psychology is the intersection between psychology and the justice system. It involves understanding fundamental legal principles, particularly with regard to expert witness testimony and the specific content area of concern (e.g., competence to stand trial, child custody and visitation, or workplace discrimination), as well as relevant jurisdictional considerations (e.g., in the United States, the definition of insanity in criminal trials differs from state to state) in order to be able to interact appropriately with judges, attorneys, and other legal professionals. An important aspect of forensic psychology is the ability to testify in court as an expert witness, reformulating psychological findings into the legal language of the courtroom, providing information to legal personnel in a way that can be understood.[1] Further, in order to be a credible witness, the forensic psychologist must understand the philosophy, rules, and standards of the judicial system. Primarily, they must understand the adv ...more...

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Outline of academic disciplines

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Outline of academic disciplines

Collage of images representing different academic disciplines An academic discipline or field of study is a branch of knowledge that is taught and researched as part of higher education. A scholar's discipline is commonly defined by the university faculties and learned societies to which he or she belongs and the academic journals in which he or she publishes research. Disciplines vary between well-established ones that exist in almost all universities and have well-defined rosters of journals and conferences and nascent ones supported by only a few universities and publications. A discipline may have branches, and these are often called sub-disciplines. There is no consensus on how some academic disciplines should be classified, for example whether anthropology and linguistics are disciplines of the social sciences or of the humanities. The following outline is provided as an overview of and topical guide to academic disciplines. Humanities Arts Performing arts Music (outline) Accompanying Chamb ...more...

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Forensic anthropology

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Forensic anthropology

Forensic anthropology is the application of the anatomical science of anthropology and its various subfields, including forensic archaeology and forensic taphonomy,[1] in a legal setting. A forensic anthropologist can assist in the identification of deceased individuals whose remains are decomposed, burned, mutilated or otherwise unrecognizable, as might happen in a plane crash. Forensic anthropologists are also instrumental to the investigation and documentation of genocide and mass graves. Along with forensic pathologists, forensic dentists, and homicide investigators, forensic anthropologists commonly testify in court as expert witnesses. Using physical markers present on a skeleton, a forensic anthropologist can potentially determine a victim's age, sex, stature, and ancestry. In addition to identifying physical characteristics of the individual, forensic anthropologists can use skeletal abnormalities to potentially determine cause of death, past trauma such as broken bones or medical procedures, as well ...more...

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Outline of applied science

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Outline of applied science

The following outline is provided as an overview of and topical guide to applied science, which is the branch of science that applies existing scientific knowledge to develop more practical applications, including inventions and other technological advancements. Science itself is the systematic enterprise that builds and organizes knowledge in the form of testable explanations and predictions about the universe.[1][2][3] Branches of applied science Applied science – application of scientific knowledge transferred into a physical environment. Agronomy – science and technology of producing and using plants for food, fuel, feed, fiber, and reclamation. Animal husbandry – agricultural practice of breeding and raising livestock. Aquaculture – also known as aquafarming, is the farming of aquatic organisms such as fish, crustaceans, molluscs and aquatic plants.[4][5] Algaculture – form of aquaculture involving the farming of species of algae. Mariculture – cultivation of marine organisms for food and ot ...more...

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Forensic linguistics

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Forensic linguistics

Forensic linguistics, legal linguistics, or language and the law, is the application of linguistic knowledge, methods and insights to the forensic context of law, language, crime investigation, trial, and judicial procedure. It is a branch of applied linguistics. There are principally three areas of application for linguists working in forensic contexts:[1] understanding language of the written law, understanding language use in forensic and judicial processes, and the provision of linguistic evidence. The discipline of forensic linguistics is not homogenous; it involves a range of experts and researchers in different areas of the field. History The phrase forensic linguistics first appeared in 1968 when Jan Svartvik, a professor of linguistics, used it in an analysis of statements by Timothy John Evans.[2] It was in regard to a case analyzing the statements given to police in the case of an alleged murder by Evans at Notting Hill police station in 1968. Evans was suspected of murdering his wife and ...more...

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Vincent Di Maio

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Vincent Di Maio

Dr. Vincent J. M. Di Maio is an American pathologist and an expert on the subject of gunshot wounds. He is originally from Brooklyn.[1] Di Maio is a board-certified anatomic, clinical and forensic pathologist, and a private forensic pathology consultant.[2] He attended St. John's University and the State University of New York (SUNY), and received postgraduate training at Duke University, SUNY, and the Office of the Chief Medical Examiner of Maryland.[3] Di Maio is a veteran of the U.S. Army Medical Corps, and served as chief medical examiner of San Antonio, Texas until 2006, when he retired; Di Maio has more than 40 years of experience as a forensic pathologist.[3][4][5][6] He is the editor-in-chief of the American Journal of Forensic Medicine and Pathology, and has been a professor of the Department of Pathology at the University of Texas Health Science Center at San Antonio.[3] Di Maio is a fellow of the National Association of Medical Examiners (NAME) and the American Academy of Forensic Sciences, and in ...more...

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Forensic podiatry

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Forensic podiatry

Forensic Podiatry is a subdiscipline of forensic science in which specialized podiatric knowledge including foot and lower limb anatomy, musculoskeletal function, deformities and diseases of the foot, ankle, lower extremities, and at times, the entire human body is used in the examination of foot-related evidence in the context of a criminal investigation. Forensic Podiatry has been defined as: "The application of sound and researched podiatry knowledge and experience in forensic investigations, to show the association of an individual with a scene of crime, or to answer any other legal question concerned with the foot or footwear that requires knowledge of the functioning foot" (Vernon & McCourt, 1999) Those who specialize in this field need to have gained knowledge and experience in podiatry and also in forensic science and practice (Vernon et al., 2009). Forensic Podiatry is usually used to assist in the process of human identification, but can also be employed to help address issues relating to qu ...more...

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Forensic pathology

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Forensic pathology

The heart of a murder victim Forensic pathology is pathology that focuses on determining the cause of death by examining a corpse. A post mortem is performed by a medical examiner, usually during the investigation of criminal law cases and civil law cases in some jurisdictions. Coroners and medical examiners are also frequently asked to confirm the identity of a corpse. Also see forensic medicine. Duties Forensic pathology is an application of medical jurisprudence. A forensic pathologist is a medical doctor who has completed training in anatomical pathology and has subsequently specialized in forensic pathology. The requirements for becoming a "fully qualified" forensic pathologist vary from country to country. Some of the different requirements are discussed below. The forensic pathologist performs autopsies/postmortem examinations to determine the cause of death. The autopsy report contains an opinion about the following: The pathologic process, injury, or disease that directly results in or initiate ...more...

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Forensic dentistry

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Forensic dentistry

Forensic dentistry or forensic odontology is the application of dental knowledge to those criminal and civil laws that are enforced by police agencies in a criminal justice system. Forensic dentists are involved in assisting investigative agencies to identify recovered human remains in addition to the identification of whole or fragmented bodies; forensic dentists may also be asked to assist in determining age, race, occupation, previous dental history and socioeconomic status of unidentified human beings. Forensic dentistry is the proper handling, examination and evaluation of dental evidence, which will be then presented in the interest of justice. The evidence that may be derived from teeth is the age (in children) and identification of the person to whom the teeth belong. This is done using dental records including radiographs, ante-mortem (prior to death) and post-mortem (after death) photographs and DNA. "Forensic odontology" is derived from Latin, meaning a forum or where legal matters are discussed. ...more...

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Forensic entomology

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Forensic entomology

Forensic entomology is the scientific study of the invasion of the succession pattern of arthropods with their developmental stages of different species found on the decomposed cadavers during legal investigations.[1] It is the application and study of insect and other arthropod biology to criminal matters. It also involves the application of the study of arthropods, including insects, arachnids, centipedes, millipedes, and crustaceans to criminal or legal cases. It is primarily associated with death investigations; however, it may also be used to detect drugs and poisons, determine the location of an incident, and find the presence and time of the infliction of wounds. Forensic entomology can be divided into three subfields: urban, stored-product and medico-legal/medico-criminal entomology. History Historically, there have been several accounts of applications for, and experimentation with, forensic entomology. The concept of forensic entomology dates back to at least the 13th century. However, only in the ...more...

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Outline of science

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Outline of science

The following outline is provided as a topical overview of science: Science – the systematic effort of acquiring knowledge—through observation and experimentation coupled with logic and reasoning to find out what can be proved or not proved—and the knowledge thus acquired. The word "science" comes from the Latin word "scientia" meaning knowledge. A practitioner of science is called a "scientist". Modern science respects objective logical reasoning, and follows a set of core procedures or rules in order to determine the nature and underlying natural laws of the universe and everything in it. Some scientists do not know of the rules themselves, but follow them through research policies. These procedures are known as the scientific method. Essence of science Research – systematic investigation into existing or new knowledge. Scientific discovery – observation of new phenomena, new actions, or new events and providing new reasoning to explain the knowledge gathered through such observations with previousl ...more...

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Forensic psychiatry

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Forensic psychiatry

Forensic psychiatry is a sub-speciality of psychiatry and is related to criminology.[1] It encompasses the interface between law and psychiatry. A forensic psychiatrist provides services – such as determination of competency to stand trial – to a court of law to facilitate the adjudicative process and provide treatment like medications and psychotherapy to criminals. Court work Forensic psychiatrists work with courts in evaluating an individual's competency to stand trial, defenses based on mental disorders (e.g., the insanity defense), and sentencing recommendations. There are two major areas of criminal evaluations in forensic psychiatry. These are Competency to Stand trial (CST) and Mental State at the Time of the Offense (MSO). Competency to stand trial (CST) This is the competency evaluation to determine that a defendant has the mental capacity to understand the charges and assist their attorney. In the United States, this is seated in the Fifth Amendment to the United States Constitution, which ensu ...more...

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List of academic fields

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List of academic fields

Mind map of top level disciplines and professions The following outline is provided as an overview of an topical guide to academic disciplines: An academic discipline or field of study is known as a branch of knowledge. It is taught as an accredited part of higher education. A scholar's discipline is commonly defined and recognized by a university faculties. That person will be accredited by learned societies to which he or she belongs along with the academic journals in which he or she publishes. However, no formal criteria exist for defining an academic discipline. Disciplines varies between universities and programs. These discipline will have well-defined rosters of journals and conferences supported by a few universities and publications. A discipline may have branches, that are called sub-disciplines. There is no consensus on how some academic disciplines should be classified (e.g., whether anthropology and linguistics are disciplines of social sciences or fields within the humanities). More general ...more...

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List of life sciences

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List of life sciences

Simulations of the fluorescence of different fluorescent proteins. The life sciences or biological sciences comprise the branches of science that involve the scientific study of life and organisms – such as microorganisms, plants, and animals including human beings – as well as related considerations like bioethics. Some life sciences focus on a specific type of life. For example, zoology is the study of animals, while botany is the study of plants. Other life sciences focus on aspects common to all or many life forms, such as anatomy and genetics. Yet other fields are interested in technological advances involving living things, such as bio-engineering. Another major, though more specific, branch of life sciences involves understanding the mind – neuroscience. The life sciences are helpful in improving the quality and standard of life. They have applications in health, agriculture, medicine, and the pharmaceutical and food science industries. There is considerable overlap between many of the topics of st ...more...

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Forensic toxicology

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Forensic toxicology

Forensic toxicology is the use of toxicology and other disciplines such as analytical chemistry, pharmacology and clinical chemistry to aid medical or legal investigation of death, poisoning, and drug use. The primary concern for forensic toxicology is not the legal outcome of the toxicological investigation or the technology utilized, but rather the obtainment and interpretation of results. A toxicological analysis can be done to various kinds of samples. A forensic toxicologist must consider the context of an investigation, in particular any physical symptoms recorded, and any evidence collected at a crime scene that may narrow the search, such as pill bottles, powders, trace residue, and any available chemicals. Provided with this information and samples with which to work, the forensic toxicologist must determine which toxic substances are present, in what concentrations, and the probable effect of those chemicals on the person. Determining the substance ingested is often complicated by the body's natura ...more...

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Forensic engineering

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Forensic engineering

Forensic engineering has been defined as "the investigation of failures - ranging from serviceability to catastrophic - which may lead to legal activity, including both civil and criminal".[1] It therefore includes the investigation of materials, products, structures or components that fail or do not operate or function as intended, causing personal injury, damage to property or economic loss. The consequences of failure may give rise to action under either criminal or civil law including but not limited to health and safety legislation, the laws of contract and/or product liability and the laws of tort. The field also deals with retracing processes and procedures leading to accidents in operation of vehicles or machinery. Generally, the purpose of a forensic engineering investigation is to locate cause or causes of failure with a view to improve performance or life of a component, or to assist a court in determining the facts of an accident. It can also involve investigation of intellectual property claims, ...more...

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Forensic firearm examination

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Forensic firearm examination

Forensic firearm examination is the forensic process of examining the characteristics of firearms as well as any cartridges or bullets left behind at a crime scene. Specialists in this field are tasked with linking bullets and cartridges to weapons and weapons to individuals. Obliterated serial numbers can be raised and recorded in an attempt to find the registered owner of the weapon. Examiners can also look for fingerprints on the weapon and cartridges, and then viable prints can be processed through fingerprint databases for a potential match. By examining unique striations, or markings, left behind on the bullet as it passes through the barrel and on the cartridge as it is hit by the firing pin, individual spent rounds can be linked back to a specific weapon. Known exemplars taken from a seized weapon can be directly compared to samples recovered from the scene using a comparison microscope. Striation images can also be uploaded to any existing national databases. Furthermore, these markings can be compa ...more...

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Physiology

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Physiology

Oil painting depicting Claude Bernard, the father of modern physiology, with his pupils Physiology (; from Ancient Greek φύσις (physis), meaning 'nature, origin', and -λογία (-logia), meaning 'study of'[1]) is the scientific study of the functions and mechanisms which work within a living system.[2][3] A sub-discipline of biology, its focus is in how organisms, organ systems, organs, cells, and biomolecules carry out the chemical and physical functions that exist in a living system.[4] Central to an understanding of physiological functioning is the investigation of the fundamental biophysical and biochemical phenomena, the coordinated homeostatic control mechanisms, and the continuous communication between cells.[5] According to the type of investigated organisms, the field can be divided into, animal physiology (including that of humans), plant physiology, cellular physiology and microbial physiology.[4] The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine is awarded to those who make significant achievements in t ...more...

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Questioned document examination

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Questioned document examination

In forensic science, questioned document examination (QDE) is the examination of documents potentially disputed in a court of law. Its primary purpose is to provide evidence about a suspicious or questionable document using scientific processes and methods. Evidence might include alterations, the chain of possession, damage to the document, forgery, origin, authenticity, or other questions that come up when a document is challenged in court. Overviews Many QD examinations involve a comparison of the questioned document, or components of the document, to a set of known standards. The most common type of examination involves handwriting wherein the examiner tries to address concerns about potential authorship. A document examiner is often asked to determine if a questioned item originated from the same source as the known item(s), then present their opinion on the matter in court as an expert witness. Other common tasks include determining what has happened to a document, determining when a document was prod ...more...

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Forensic chemistry

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Forensic chemistry

Forensic chemistry is the application of chemistry and its subfield, forensic toxicology, in a legal setting. A forensic chemist can assist in the identification of unknown materials found at a crime scene.[1] Specialists in this field have a wide array of methods and instruments to help identify unknown substances. These include high-performance liquid chromatography, gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, atomic absorption spectroscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, and thin layer chromatography. The range of different methods is important due to the destructive nature of some instruments and the number of possible unknown substances that can be found at a scene. Forensic chemists prefer using nondestructive methods first, to preserve evidence and to determine which destructive methods will produce the best results. Along with other forensic specialists, forensic chemists commonly testify in court as expert witnesses regarding their findings. Forensic chemists follow a set of standards that have ...more...

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Fingerprint

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Fingerprint

A fingerprint in its narrow sense is an impression left by the friction ridges of a human finger.[1] The recovery of fingerprints from a crime scene is an important method of forensic science. Fingerprints are easily deposited on suitable surfaces (such as glass or metal or polished stone) by the natural secretions of sweat from the eccrine glands that are present in epidermal ridges. These are sometimes referred to as "Chanced Impressions". In a wider use of the term, fingerprints are the traces of an impression from the friction ridges of any part of a human or other primate hand. A print from the sole of the foot can also leave an impression of friction ridges. Deliberate impressions of fingerprints may be formed by ink or other substances transferred from the peaks of friction ridges on the skin to a relatively smooth surface such as a fingerprint card.[2] Fingerprint records normally contain impressions from the pad on the last joint of fingers and thumbs, although fingerprint cards also typically reco ...more...

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Outline of engineering

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Outline of engineering

The following outline is provided as an overview of and topical guide to engineering: Engineering is the discipline and profession that applies scientific theories, mathematical methods, and empirical evidence to design, create, and analyze technological solutions cognizant of safety, human factors, physical laws, regulations, practicality, and cost. Branches of Engineering Aerospace engineering – branch of engineering behind the design, construction and science of aircraft and spacecraft. It is broken into two major and overlapping branches: Aeronautical engineering – deals with craft that stay within Earth's atmosphere Astronautical engineering – deals with craft that operates outside of Earth's atmosphere Applied engineering – application of management, design, and technical skills for the design and integration of systems, the execution of new product designs, the improvement of manufacturing processes, and the management and direction of physical and/or technical functions of a firm or org ...more...

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Forensic biology

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Forensic biology

Forensic biology is the application of biology to law enforcement. It includes the subdisciplines of forensic anthropology, forensic botany, forensic entomology, forensic odontology, forensic toxicology and various DNA or protein based techniques. Applications Forensic biology has been used to prove a suspect was at a crime scene, identify illegal products from endangered species,[1] solve crimes by matching crime scene evidence to suspects,[1] investigate airplane bird strikes,[1][2] and investigate bird collisions with wind turbines.[2] Disciplines Forensic anthropology Forensic anthropology is for identification and recovery of remains. In extreme cases where conventional techniques are unable to determine the identity of the remains, anthropologists are sometimes able to deduce certain characteristics based on the skeletal remains. Race, sex, age and stature can often be determined by both measuring the remains and looking for structural clues in the bones. Forensic botany A Forensic botanist looks ...more...

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Forensic accounting

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Forensic accounting

Forensic accounting, forensic accountancy or financial forensics is the specialty practice area of accounting that describes engagements that result from actual or anticipated disputes or litigation. "Forensic" means "suitable for use in a court of law", and it is to that standard and potential outcome that forensic accountants generally have to work. Forensic accountants, also referred to as forensic auditors or investigative auditors, often have to give expert evidence at the eventual trial.[1] All of the larger accounting firms, as well as many medium-sized and boutique firms and various police and government agencies have specialist forensic accounting departments. Within these groups, there may be further sub-specializations: some forensic accountants may, for example, just specialize in insurance claims, personal injury claims, fraud, anti-money-laundering, construction,[2] or royalty audits.[3] Financial forensic engagements may fall into several categories. For example: Economic damages calculatio ...more...

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Outline of psychology

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Outline of psychology

The following outline is provided as an overview of and topical guide to psychology: Psychology is the science[1] of behavior and mental processes.[2] Its immediate goal is to understand individuals and groups by both establishing general principles and researching specific cases.[3][4] Branches of psychology Subdisciplines of psychology List of psychology disciplines Basic psychological science Abnormal psychology Applied psychology Asian psychology Behavioral genetics Biological psychology Black psychology Clinical neuropsychology Critical psychology Cognitive psychology Comparative psychology Conservation psychology Criminal psychology Cultural psychology Developmental psychology Differential psychology Evolutionary psychology Experimental psychology Forensic developmental psychology Group psychology Health psychology Indigenous psychology Mathematical psychology Medical psychology Music psychology Neuropsychology Parapsychology Pediatric psychology Personality psychology ...more...

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Bloodstain pattern analysis

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Bloodstain pattern analysis

Bloodstain Pattern Analysis (BPA), one of several specialties in the field of forensic science, involves the study and analysis of bloodstains at a known or suspected violent crime scene with the goal of helping investigators draw conclusions about the nature, timing and other details of the crime. The use of bloodstains as evidence is not new; however, new experts have claimed to be able to use fluid dynamics, physics, and other calculations to determine with accuracy previous events at a crime scene. For example, the shape of blood droplets might be used to draw conclusions as to how far away the victim was from a gun when they were shot. This technique of forensic science has drawn more skeptical scrutiny since 2000; large amounts of the body of work in BPA is done by crime investigators using subjective hunches rather than scientists from other disciplines. A report released by The National Academy of Sciences in 2009 highlighted several incidents of blood spatter analysts to overstate their qualificati ...more...

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Forensic facial reconstruction

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Forensic facial reconstruction

Tsar Ivan the Terrible of Russia. Reconstruction by M. Gerasimov, Soviet archaeologist and anthropologist who developed the first technique of forensic sculpture. 1965 Forensic facial reconstruction (or forensic facial approximation) is the process of recreating the face of an individual (whose identity is often not known) from their skeletal remains through an amalgamation of artistry, anthropology, osteology, and anatomy. It is easily the most subjective—as well as one of the most controversial—techniques in the field of forensic anthropology. Despite this controversy, facial reconstruction has proved successful frequently enough that research and methodological developments continue to be advanced. In addition to remains involved in criminal investigations, facial reconstructions are created for remains believed to be of historical value and for remains of prehistoric hominids and humans. Types of identification There are two forms pertaining to identification in forensic anthropology: circumstantial ...more...

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Structural functionalism

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Structural functionalism

Structural functionalism, or simply functionalism, is "a framework for building theory that sees society as a complex system whose parts work together to promote solidarity and stability".[1] This approach looks at society through a macro-level orientation, which is a broad focus on the social structures that shape society as a whole,[2] and believes that society has evolved like organisms.[3] This approach looks at both social structure and social functions. Functionalism addresses society as a whole in terms of the function of its constituent elements; namely norms, customs, traditions, and institutions. A common analogy, popularized by Herbert Spencer, presents these parts of society as "organs" that work toward the proper functioning of the "body" as a whole.[4] In the most basic terms, it simply emphasizes "the effort to impute, as rigorously as possible, to each feature, custom, or practice, its effect on the functioning of a supposedly stable, cohesive system". For Talcott Parsons, "structural-function ...more...

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Forensic radiology

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Forensic radiology

Forensic radiology is the discipline which comprises the performance, interpretation and reportage of the radiological examinations and procedures which are needed in court procedures or law enforcement.[1] Radiological methods are widely used in identification, age estimation and establishing cause of death. Comparison of ante mortem and post mortem radiographs is one of the means of identification.[2] The scanning of baggage, vehicles and individuals have many applications. Tools like multislice helical computed tomography can be used for detailed documentation of injuries, tissue damage and complications like air embolism and pulmonary aspiration of blood. This type of digital autopsies offer certain advantages when compared to traditional autopsies.[3] References Thali Michael J.; B. G. Brogdon; Mark D. Viner (1998). Forensic Radiology. CRC Press LLC. p. 4. ISBN 0849381053. Retrieved 10 July 2014. B, Ajay (March 1, 2014). "CHEST X-RAY COMPARISON FOR IDENTIFICATION– A CASE REPORT". Journal of Sou ...more...

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Bachelor of Arts in Forensic Psychology

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Bachelor of Arts in Forensic Psychology

A Bachelor of Forensic Psychology (also referred to as Industrial Psychology) is a type of postgraduate academic Bachelor's degree awarded by universities in many countries. This degree is typically studied for in Forensic psychology. Curriculum structure A Bachelor of Arts or Science in Forensic Psychology is a four year bachelor's degree, depending on the program, forensic psychology may be offered as a concentration to a traditional bachelor's degree in psychology. Topics of study may include: Adversarial system Competency evaluation (law) Criminal law Criminal responsibility Element (criminal law) Forensic Science Forensic psychiatry Hearsay evidence Justice system Mitigating factors Settled insanity Ultimate issue Institutions with forensic psychology degree programs Institutions in the United States that have a Bachelor's in Forensic Psychology Degree Program include: Barry University[1] Florida Institute of Technology[2] St. John's University[3] Arizona State University[4 ...more...



Medical jurisprudence

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Medical jurisprudence

Autopsy room of the Charité Berlin Refrigerator in the Forensic Medicine at the Charité Berlin Medical jurisprudence or legal medicine is the branch of science and medicine involving the study and application of scientific and medical knowledge to legal problems, such as inquests, and in the field of law.[1] As modern medicine is a legal creation, regulated by the state, and medicolegal cases involving death, rape, paternity, etc. require a medical practitioner to produce evidence and appear as an expert witness, these two fields have traditionally been interdependent.[2] Forensic medicine, which includes forensic pathology, is a narrower field that involves collection and analysis of medical evidence (samples) to produce objective information for use in the legal system.[3] History Paul Zacchias is one of the earliest figures of medical jurisprudence, with association with the Papal States and Catholic church.[4] Zacchias was the personal physician to Pope Innocentius X and Pope Alexander VII, as well ...more...

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Mobile device forensics

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Mobile device forensics

Mobile device forensics is a branch of digital forensics relating to recovery of digital evidence or data from a mobile device under forensically sound conditions. The phrase mobile device usually refers to mobile phones; however, it can also relate to any digital device that has both internal memory and communication ability, including PDA devices, GPS devices and tablet computers. The use of mobile phones/devices in crime was widely recognised for some years, but the forensic study of mobile devices is a relatively new field, dating from the early 2000s and late 1990s. A proliferation of phones (particularly smartphones) and other digital devices on the consumer market caused a demand for forensic examination of the devices, which could not be met by existing computer forensics techniques.[1] Mobile devices can be used to save several types of personal information such as contacts, photos, calendars and notes, SMS and MMS messages. Smartphones may additionally contain video, email, web browsing informatio ...more...

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Branches of science

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Branches of science

The scale of the Earth mapped to the branches of science, with formal sciences as the foundation The branches of science, also referred to as sciences, "scientific fields", or "scientific disciplines" are commonly divided into three major groups: Formal sciences: the study of mathematics and logic, which use an a priori, as opposed to factual, methodology. Natural sciences: the study of natural phenomena (including cosmological, geological, chemical, and biological factors of the universe) Social sciences: the study of human behavior and societies.[1] Natural and social sciences are empirical sciences, meaning that the knowledge must be based on observable phenomena and must be capable of being verified by other researchers working under the same conditions. [2] This verifiability may well vary even within a scientific discipline [3][4] Natural, social, and formal science make up the fundamental sciences, which form the basis of interdisciplinary and applied sciences such as engineering and medici ...more...

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Observer-expectancy effect

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Observer-expectancy effect

The observer-expectancy effect (also called the experimenter-expectancy effect, expectancy bias, observer effect, or experimenter effect) is a form of reactivity in which a researcher's cognitive bias causes them to subconsciously influence the participants of an experiment. Confirmation bias can lead to the experimenter interpreting results incorrectly because of the tendency to look for information that conforms to their hypothesis, and overlook information that argues against it.[1] It is a significant threat to a study's internal validity, and is therefore typically controlled using a double-blind experimental design. An example of the observer-expectancy effect is demonstrated in music backmasking, in which hidden verbal messages are said to be audible when a recording is played backwards. Some people expect to hear hidden messages when reversing songs, and therefore hear the messages, but to others it sounds like nothing more than random sounds. Often when a song is played backwards, a listener will fa ...more...

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Forensic profiling

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Forensic profiling

Forensic profiling is the study of trace evidence in order to develop information which can be used by police authorities. This information can be used to identify suspects and convict them in a court of law. The term "forensic" in this context refers to "information that is used in court as evidence" (Geradts & Sommer 2006, p. 10). The traces originate from criminal or litigious activities themselves. However traces are information that is not strictly dedicated to the court. They may increase knowledge in broader domains linked to security that deal with investigation, intelligence, surveillance, or risk analysis (Geradts & Sommer 2008, p. 26). Forensic profiling is different than offender profiling, which only refers to the identification of an offender to the psychological profile of a criminal. In particular, forensic profiling should refer to profiling in the information sciences sense, i.e., to "The process of 'discovering' correlations between data in data bases that can be used to identi ...more...

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Science

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Science

The scale of the universe mapped to branches of science.[1] Science (from Latin scientia, meaning "knowledge")[2][3]:58 is a systematic enterprise that builds and organizes knowledge in the form of testable explanations and predictions about the universe.[a] From classical antiquity through the 19th century, science as a type of knowledge was more closely linked to philosophy. In the West, the term natural philosophy encompassed fields of study that are currently associated with disciplines such as classical physics, astronomy and medicine[4]:3[b] and was a precursor of modern natural sciences (life science and physical science).[5] In the 17th and 18th centuries, scientists increasingly sought to formulate knowledge in terms of laws of nature. Over the centuries, the term science became associated with the scientific method, a systematic way of studying the natural world and particularly in the 19th century, multiple distinguishing characteristics of contemporary modern science began to take shape.[6][7][ ...more...

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Network forensics

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Network forensics

Network forensics is a sub-branch of digital forensics relating to the monitoring and analysis of computer network traffic for the purposes of information gathering, legal evidence, or intrusion detection.[1] Unlike other areas of digital forensics, network investigations deal with volatile and dynamic information. Network traffic is transmitted and then lost, so network forensics is often a pro-active investigation.[2] Network forensics generally has two uses. The first, relating to security, involves monitoring a network for anomalous traffic and identifying intrusions. An attacker might be able to erase all log files on a compromised host; network-based evidence might therefore be the only evidence available for forensic analysis.[3] The second form relates to law enforcement. In this case analysis of captured network traffic can include tasks such as reassembling transferred files, searching for keywords and parsing human communication such as emails or chat sessions. Two systems are commonly used to co ...more...

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Forensic palynology

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Forensic palynology

Forensic palynology is the study of pollen, spores and other acid-resistant microscopic plant bodies, including dinoflagellates, to prove or disprove a relationship between objects, people and places that pertain to both criminal and civil cases. Pollen can tell a lot about where a person or object has been, because regions of the world, countries, and even different parts of a garden will have a distinctive pollen assemblage.[1] Pollen evidence can also reveal the season in which a particular object picked up the pollen.[2] Pollen has been used to trace activity at mass graves in Bosnia,[3] catch a burglar who brushed against a Hypericum bush during a crime,[4] and has even been proposed as an additive for bullets to enable tracking them.[5] For instance, a dead body may be found in a wood, and the clothes may contain pollen that was released after death (the time of death can be determined by forensic entomology), but in a place other than where it was found. That indicates that the body was moved. Palyn ...more...

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Forensic materials engineering

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Forensic materials engineering

Forensic materials engineering, a branch of forensic engineering, focuses on the material evidence from crime or accident scenes, seeking defects in those materials which might explain why an accident occurred, or the source of a specific material to identify a criminal. Many analytical methods used for material identification may be used in investigations, the exact set being determined by the nature of the material in question, be it metal, glass, ceramic, polymer or composite. An important aspect is the analysis of trace evidence such as skid marks on exposed surfaces, where contact between dissimilar materials leaves material traces of one left on the other. Provided the traces can be analysed successfully, then an accident or crime can often be reconstructed. Another aim will be to determine the cause of a broken component using the technique of fractography. Metals and alloys Crankshaft fatigue fracture Metal and alloy surfaces can be analyzed in a number of ways, including by spectroscopy and EDX ...more...

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Alison Galloway

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Alison Galloway

Alison Galloway is a forensic anthropologist at the University of California, Santa Cruz.[1] She is best known for her work in identifying the physical remains of Laci Peterson in the Scott Peterson Trial. She co-edited a book called The Evolving Female: A Life History Perspective with Mary Morbeck and Adrienne Zihlmann. (Politics and the Life Sciences Mar2000, Vol. 19 Issue 1, p119, 2p) She is also editor of Broken Bones: Anthropological Analysis of Blunt Force Trauma and co-editor of the second edition of that volume. She is also co-author of Practicing Forensic Anthropology: an eResource with Susan Kuzminsky. Galloway was appointed to the executive vice chancellor position at UCSC on September 16, 2010.[2] She replaced David Kliger who retired 2010. She stepped down from the provostship on December 31, 2016 to return to her faculty position prior to final retirement. Education She earned her BA with honors in Anthropology, with an emphasis in Archaeology, in 1975 from the University of California, Berke ...more...

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Forensic data analysis

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Forensic data analysis

Forensic Data Analysis (FDA) is a branch of Digital forensics. It examines structured data with regard to incidents of financial crime. The aim is to discover and analyse patterns of fraudulent activities. Data from application systems or from their underlying databases is referred to as structured data. Unstructured data in contrast is taken from communication and office applications or from mobile devices. This data has no overarching structure and analysis thereof means applying keywords or mapping communication patterns. Analysis of unstructured data is usually referred to as Computer forensics. Methodology The analysis of large volumes of data is typically performed in a separate database system run by the analysis team. Live systems are usually not dimensioned to run extensive individual analysis without affecting the regular users. On the other hand, it is methodically preferable to analyze data copies on separate systems and protect the analysis teams against the accusation of altering original dat ...more...

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Dunning–Kruger effect

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Dunning–Kruger effect

In the field of psychology, the Dunning–Kruger effect is a cognitive bias in which people of low ability have illusory superiority and mistakenly assess their cognitive ability as greater than it is. The cognitive bias of illusory superiority comes from the inability of low-ability people to recognize their lack of ability; without the self-awareness of metacognition, low-ability people cannot objectively evaluate their actual competence or incompetence.[1] On the other hand, people of high ability incorrectly assume that tasks that are easy for them are also easy for other people.[2] As described by social psychologists David Dunning and Justin Kruger, the cognitive bias of illusory superiority results from an internal illusion in people of low ability and from an external misperception in people of high ability; that is, "the miscalibration of the incompetent stems from an error about the self, whereas the miscalibration of the highly competent stems from an error about others."[1] Original study The psy ...more...

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SO8

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SO8

SO8 may refer to : code for Forensic Science Laboratory in the Specialist Operations, a directorate of the Metropolitan Police 6639 Marchis (1989 SO8), a Main-belt Asteroid discovered on September 25, 1989 So8 may refer to : code for Withypool during the Survey of English Dialects and also : SO(8), the special orthogonal group acting on eight-dimensional Euclidean space in mathematics SO8, an Integrated Circuit packaging technology. See Small-outline integrated circuit. ...more...



Outline of law enforcement

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Outline of law enforcement

The following outline is provided as an overview of and introduction to law enforcement: Law enforcement – subsystem of society that promotes adherence to the law by discovering and punishing persons who violate rules and norms governing that society. Although the term may encompass entities such as courts and prisons, it most frequently applies to those who directly engage in patrols or surveillance to dissuade and discover criminal activity, and those who investigate crimes and apprehend offenders.[1] Essence of law enforcement The Thin Blue Line Criminal law Coming into force Unenforced law Law enforcement agency Law enforcement jargon Law enforcement officer Disciplines Criminology Forensic science Penology Basis of law enforcement The reasons law enforcement exists: Crime – breaking the law. Without crime, there would be little need for law enforcement. Law and order (politics) Criminal law Criminal justice Law enforcement agencies Law enforcement agency (list) – go ...more...

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