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Ottoman Turkish language

Ottoman Turkish (; Turkish: Osmanlı Türkçesi), or the Ottoman language (Ottoman Turkish: لسان عثمانى‎, lisân-ı Osmânî, also known as تركجه‎, Türkçe or تركی‎, Türkî, "Turkish"), is the variety of the Turkish language that was used in the Ottoman Empire. It borrows, in all aspects, extensively from Arabic and Persian, and it was written in the Ottoman Turkish alphabet. During the peak of Ottoman power, Persian and Arabic vocabulary accounted for up to 88% of its vocabulary,[3] while words of Arabic origins heavily outnumbered native Turkish words.[4]

Consequently, Ottoman Turkish was largely unintelligible to the less-educated lower-class and rural Turks, who continued to use kaba Türkçe ("raw/vulgar Turkish", as in Vulgar Latin), which used far fewer foreign loanwords and is the basis of the modern Turkish language.[5] The Tanzimât era saw the application of the term "Ottoman" when referring to the language (لسان عثمانیlisân-ı Osmânî or عثمانليجهOsmanlıca) and the same distinction is made in Modern Turkish (Osmanlıca and Osmanlı Türkçesi).

Grammar
A poem about Rumi in Ottoman Turkish.
Cases
  • Nominative case: كولgöl ("the lake", "a lake"), چوربهçorba ("Chorba"), گجهgece ("night").[6]
  • Accusative case (indefinite): طاوشان گترمشṭavşan getirmiş ("he/she brought a rabbit"). No suffix.
  • Genitive case: answers the question كمڭkimiñ ("whose?"), formed with the suffix ڭ–ıñ, –iñ, –uñ, –üñ. E.g. پاشانڭpaşanıñ ("the pasha's") from پاشاpaşa ("pasha").
  • Accusative case (definite): answers the question كمىkimi ("whom?") and نه يىneyi ("what?"), formed with the suffix ى–ı, -i: طاوشانى گترمشṭavşanı getürmiş ("he/she brought the rabbit"). The variant suffix –u, –ü does not occur in Ottoman Turkish unlike in Modern Turkish because of the lack of labial vowel harmony. Thus, كولىgöli ("the lake".ACC), but Modern Turkish has gölü.
  • Dative case:
  • Locative case: answers the question نره دهnerede ("where?"), formed with the suffix ده–de, –da: مكتبدهmektebde ("at school"), قفصدهḳafeṣde ("in a cage"), باشدهbaşda ("at the start"), شهردهşehirde ("in town"). As with the indefinite accusative case, the variant suffix –te, –ta does not occur unlike in Modern Turkish.
  • Ablative case: answers the questions نره دنnereden ("from where?") and ندنneden ("why?").
  • Instrumental case: answers the question نه ايلهne ile ("with what?").
Verbs

The conjugation for the aorist tense is as follows:

Person Singular Plural
1 -irim -iriz
2 -irsiŋ -irsiŋiz
3 -ir -irler
Structure

Ottoman Turkish was highly influenced by Arabic and Persian. Arabic and Persian words in the language amounted for up to 88% of its vocabulary.[3] As in most other Turkic and other foreign languages of Islamic communities, the Arabic borrowings were not originally the result of a direct exposure of Ottoman Turkish to Arabic, a fact that is evidenced by the typically Persian phonological mutation of the words of Arabic origin.[7] [8] [9]

The conservation of archaic phonological features of the Arabic borrowings furthermore suggests that Arabic-incorporated Persian was absorbed into pre-Ottoman Turkic at an early stage, when the speakers were still located to the north-east of Persia, prior to the westward migration of the Islamic Turkic tribes. An additional argument for this is that Ottoman Turkish shares the Persian character of its Arabic borrowings with other Turkic languages that had even less interaction with Arabic, such as Tatar and Uyghur. From the early ages of the Ottoman Empire, borrowings from Arabic and Persian were so abundant that original Turkish words were hard to find.[10] In Ottoman, one may find whole passages in Arabic and Persian incorporated into the text.[10] It was however not only extensive loaning of words, but along with them much of the grammatical systems of Persian and Arabic.[10]

In a social and pragmatic sense, there were (at least) three variants of Ottoman Turkish:

  • Fasih Türkçe (Eloquent Turkish): the language of poetry and administration, Ottoman Turkish in its strict sense;
  • Orta Türkçe (Middle Turkish): the language of higher classes and trade;
  • Kaba Türkçe (Rough Turkish): the language of lower classes.

A person would use each of the varieties above for different purposes, with the fasih variant being the most heavily suffused with Arabic and Persian words and kaba the least. For example, a scribe would use the Arabic asel (عسل) to refer to honey when writing a document but would use the native Turkish word bal when buying it.

History

Historically, Ottoman Turkish was transformed in three eras:

  • Eski Osmanlı Türkçesi (Old Ottoman Turkish): the version of Ottoman Turkish used until the 16th century. It was almost identical with the Turkish used by Seljuk empire and Anatolian beyliks and was often regarded as part of Eski Anadolu Türkçesi (Old Anatolian Turkish).
  • Orta Osmanlı Türkçesi (Middle Ottoman Turkish) or Klasik Osmanlıca (Classical Ottoman Turkish): the language of poetry and administration from the 16th century until Tanzimat. It is the version of Ottoman Turkish that comes to most people's minds.
  • Yeni Osmanlı Türkçesi (New Ottoman Turkish): the version shaped from the 1850s to the 20th century under the influence of journalism and Western-oriented literature.
Language reform

In 1928, following the fall of the Ottoman Empire after World War I and the establishment of Republic of Turkey, widespread language reforms (a part in the greater framework of Atatürk's Reforms) instituted by Mustafa Kemal Atatürk saw the replacement of many Persian and Arabic origin loanwords in the language with their Turkish equivalents. It also saw the replacement of the Perso-Arabic script with the extended Latin alphabet. The changes were meant to encourage the growth of a new variety of written Turkish that more closely reflected the spoken vernacular and to foster a new variety of spoken Turkish that reinforced Turkey's new national identity as being a post-Ottoman state.

See the list of replaced loanwords in Turkish for more examples on Ottoman Turkish words and their modern Turkish counterparts. Two examples of Arabic and two of Persian loanwords are found below.

English Ottoman Modern Turkish
obligatory واجب vâcib zorunlu
hardship مشكل müşkül güçlük
city شهر şehir kent (also şehir)
war حرب harb savaş
Legacy

Historically speaking, Ottoman Turkish is not the predecessor of modern Turkish. Rather, the standard Turkish of today is essentially Türkiye Türkçesi (Turkish of Turkey) as written in the Latin alphabet and with an abundance of neologisms added, which means there are now far fewer loan words from other languages. However, Ottoman was not instantly transformed into the Turkish of today. At first, it was only the script that was changed, and while some households continued to use the Arabic system in private, most of the Turkish population was illiterate at the time, making the switch to the Latin alphabet much easier. Then, loan words were taken out, and new words fitting the growing amount of technology were introduced. Until the 1960s, Ottoman Turkish was at least partially intelligible with the Turkish of that day. One major difference between modern Turkish and Ottoman Turkish is the former's abandonment of compound word formation according to Arabic and Persian grammar rules. The usage of such phrases still exists in modern Turkish but only to a very limited extent and usually in specialist contexts; for example, the Persian genitive construction takdîr-i ilâhî (which reads literally as "the preordaining of the divine" and translates as "divine dispensation" or "destiny") is used, as opposed to the normative modern Turkish construction, ilâhî takdîr (literally, "divine preordaining").

Writing system
Calendar in Thessaloniki 1896, a cosmopolitan city; the first three lines in Ottoman script

Most Ottoman Turkish was written in the Ottoman Turkish alphabet (elifbâ الفبا), a variant of the Perso-Arabic script. The Armenian, Greek and Rashi script of Hebrew were sometimes used by Armenians, Greeks and Jews.

Numbers
1
بر
bir
2
ایكی
iki
3
اوچ
üç
4
درت
dört
5
بش
beş
6
آلتی
altı
7
یدی
yedi
8
سكز
sekiz
9
طقوز
dokuz
10
اون
on
11
اون بر
on bir
12
اون ایکی
on iki

[11]

Transliterations

The transliteration system of the İslâm Ansiklopedisi has become a de facto standard in Oriental studies for the transliteration of Ottoman Turkish texts.[12] Concerning transcription the New Redhouse, Karl Steuerwald and Ferit Develioğlu dictionaries have become standard.[13] Another transliteration system is the Deutsche Morgenländische Gesellschaft (DMG), which provides a transliteration system for any Turkic language written in Arabic script.[14] There are not many differences between the İA and the DMG transliteration systems.

İA-Transliteration[15]
ا
ب پ ت ث ج چ ح خ د ذ ر ز ژ س ش ص ض ط ظ ع غ ف ق
ك
گ ڭ ل م ن و ه ی
ʾ a b p t c ç d r z j s ş ż ʿ ġ f q k g ñ ğ g ñ l m n v h y
See also
References
  1. "Turkey - Language Reform: From Ottoman To Turkish". Countrystudies.us. Retrieved 24 May 2016.
  2. Ãgoston, Gabor; Masters, Bruce Alan (2010-05-21). Encyclopedia of the Ottoman Empire. Infobase Publishing. ISBN 978-1-4381-1025-7.
  3. Bertold Spuler. Persian Historiography & Geography Pustaka Nasional Pte Ltd ISBN 9971774887 p 69
  4. [1] Ottomans
  5. Glenny, Misha. The Balkans - Nationalism, War, and the Great Powers, 1804-1999, Penguin, New York 2001. p. 99.
  6. Some words in Ottoman Turkish were spelled with the Arabic ك, normally pronounced as , were pronounced as .
  7. Percy Ellen Algernon Frederick William Smythe Strangford, Percy Clinton Sydney Smythe Strangford, Emily Anne Beaufort Smythe Strangford, “Original Letters and Papers of the late Viscount Strangford upon Philological and Kindred Subjects”, Published by Trübner, 1878. pg 46: “The Arabic words in Turkish have all decidedly come through a Persian channel. I can hardly think of an exception, except in quite late days, when Arabic words have been used in Turkish in a different sense from that borne by them in Persian.”
  8. M. Sukru Hanioglu, “A Brief History of the Late Ottoman Empire”, Published by Princeton University Press, 2008. p. 34: “It employed a predominant Turkish syntax, but was heavily influenced by Persian and (initially through Persian) Arabic.
  9. Pierre A. MacKay, "The Fountain at Hadji Mustapha," Hesperia, Vol. 36, No. 2 (Apr. - Jun., 1967), pp. 193-195: "The immense Arabic contribution to the lexicon of Ottoman Turkish came rather through Persian than directly, and the sound of Arabic words in Persian syntax would be far more familiar to a Turkish ear than correct Arabic".
  10. Korkut Bugday. An Introduction to Literary Ottoman Routledge, 5 dec. 2014 ISBN 978-1134006557 p XV.
  11. https://archive.org/stream/ottomanturkishco00hago#page/34/mode/2up/search/numerals
  12. Korkut Buğday Osmanisch, p. 2
  13. Korkut Buğday Osmanisch, p. 13
  14. Transkriptionskommission der DMG Die Transliteration der arabischen Schrift in ihrer Anwendung auf die Hauptliteratursprachen der islamischen Welt, p. 9 Archived 2012-07-22 at the Wayback Machine.
  15. Korkut Buğday Osmanisch, p. 2f.
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Ottoman Turkish language

topic

Ottoman Turkish ( ; Turkish : Osmanlı Türkçesi ), or the Ottoman language (Ottoman Turkish: لسان عثمانى ‎, lisân-ı Osmânî , also known as تركجه ‎, Türkçe or تركی ‎, Türkî , "Turkish"), is the variety of the Turkish language that was used in the Ottoman Empire . It borrows, in all aspects, extensively from Arabic and Persian , and it was written in the Ottoman Turkish alphabet . During the peak of Ottoman power, Persian and Arabic vocabulary accounted for up to 88% of its vocabulary, while words of Arabic origins heavily outnumbered native Turkish words. Consequently, Ottoman Turkish was largely unintelligible to the less-educated lower-class and rural Turks, who continued to use kaba Türkçe ("raw/vulgar Turkish", as in Vulgar Latin ), which used far fewer foreign loanwords and is the basis of the modern Turkish language. The Tanzimât era saw the application of the term "Ottoman" when referring to the language ( لسان عثمانی ‎ lisân-ı Osmânî or عثمانليجه ‎ Osmanlıca ) and the same distinction is made in Moder ...more...



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Ottoman Turkish may refer to: Ottoman Turkish language Ottoman Turkish alphabet Ottoman Empire Ottoman Turkish may refer to: Ottoman Turkish language Ottoman Turkish alphabet Ottoman Empire ...more...



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Ottoman Turks

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The Ottoman Turks (or Osmanlı Turks, Turkish: Osmanlı Türkleri) were the Turkish-speaking population of the Ottoman Empire who formed the base of the state's military and ruling classes. Reliable information about the early history of Ottoman Turks is scarce, but they take their Turkish name, Osmanlı ("Osman" being corrupted in some European languages as "Ottoman"), from the house of Osman I (reigned ca. 1299–1326), the founder of the dynasty that ruled the Ottoman Empire for its entire 624 years. After the expansion from its home in Bithynia, the Ottoman principality began incorporating other Turkish-speaking Muslims and non-Turkish Christians, becoming the Ottoman Turks and ultimately the Turks of the present. The Ottoman Turks blocked all land routes to Europe by conquering the city of Constantinople, the capital city of the Byzantine–East Roman Empire, and Europeans had to find other ways to trade with Eastern countries. Brief history The "Ottomans" became first known to the West in the 14th century ...more...



Ottoman–Hungarian wars

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The Ottoman–Hungarian Wars were a series of battles between the Ottoman Empire and the medieval Kingdom of Hungary . Following the Byzantine Civil War , the Ottoman capture of Gallipoli , and the decisive Battle of Kosovo , the Ottoman Empire was poised to conquer the entirety of the Balkans and also sought and expressed desire to expand further north into Central Europe beginning with the Hungarian lands. Initial Hungarian success culminated in the Crusade of Varna , though without significant outside support the Hungarians were defeated. Nonetheless the Ottomans suffered more defeats at Belgrade , even after the conquest of Constantinople . In particular, the infamous Vlad the Impaler who, with limited Hungarian help, resisted Ottoman rule until the Ottomans placed his brother, a man less feared and less hated by the populace, on the throne of Wallachia . Ottoman success was once again halted at Moldavia due to Hungarian intervention, but the Turks finally succeeded when Moldavia and then Belgrade fell to B ...more...

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Ottoman architecture

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Ottoman architecture is the architecture of the Ottoman Empire which emerged in Bursa and Edirne in 14th and 15th centuries. The architecture of the empire developed from the earlier Seljuk architecture and was influenced by the Byzantine architecture , Armenian architecture , Iranian as well as Islamic Mamluk traditions after the conquest of Constantinople by the Ottomans. For almost 400 years Byzantine architectural artifacts such as the church of Hagia Sophia served as models for many of the Ottoman mosques . Overall, Ottoman architecture has been described as Byzantine influenced architecture synthesized with architectural traditions of Central Asia and the Middle East. The Ottomans achieved the highest level architecture in their lands hence or since. They mastered the technique of building vast inner spaces confined by seemingly weightless yet massive domes, and achieving perfect harmony between inner and outer spaces, as well as articulated light and shadow. Islamic religious architecture which unt ...more...



Rumelia

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Map of Rumelia in 1801 Rumelia ( Ottoman Turkish : روم ايلى ‎, Rūm-ėli; Turkish : Rumeli ), also known as Turkey in Europe , was a historical term describing the area in southeastern Europe that was administered by the Ottoman Empire , mainly the Balkan Peninsula . Etymology The term Rûm means "Roman", while Rumelia ( Turkish : Rumeli) means "Land of the Romans" in Turkish , referring to the lands conquered by the Ottoman Turks from the Byzantine Empire , at the time still known as the Roman Empire (the neologism "Byzantine Empire" was coined only in 1557 by a German historian, Hieronymus Wolf , in his work Corpus Historiæ Byzantinæ ). As such, "Roman" was long used in various languages around the Balkans to describe the lands of that empire. Indeed today the region is known by Bosnian : Rumelija , Greek : Ρωμυλία , Romylía, or Ρούμελη, Roúmeli; Albanian : Rumelia ; Macedonian and Serbian : Румелија , Rumelija and Bulgarian : Румелия , Rumeliya. In old Latin Genoese documents it is known as Romania, the commo ...more...



Russo-Turkish War (1877–1878)

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The Russo-Turkish War of 1877–78 (Turkish: 93 Harbi, lit. ' ’93 War', named for the year 1293 in the Islamic calendar) was a conflict between the Ottoman Empire and the Eastern Orthodox coalition led by the Russian Empire and composed of Bulgaria, Romania, Serbia, and Montenegro. Fought in the Balkans and in the Caucasus, it originated in emerging 19th-century Balkan nationalism. Additional factors included Russian hopes of recovering territorial losses suffered during the Crimean War, re-establishing itself in the Black Sea and supporting the political movement attempting to free Balkan nations from the Ottoman Empire. The Russian-led coalition won the war. As a result, Russia succeeded in claiming several provinces in the Caucasus, namely Kars and Batum, and also annexed the Budjak region. The principalities of Romania, Serbia, and Montenegro, each of whom had had de facto sovereignty for some time, formally proclaimed independence from the Ottoman Empire. After almost five centuries of Ottoman domi ...more...



Ottoman miniature

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Ottoman miniature or Turkish miniature was an art form in the Ottoman Empire , which can be linked to the Persian miniature tradition, as well as strong Chinese artistic influences. It was a part of the Ottoman book arts, together with illumination (tezhip), calligraphy (hat), marbling paper (ebru), and bookbinding (cilt). The words taswir or nakish were used to define the art of miniature painting in Ottoman Turkish . The studios the artists worked in were called Nakkashanes. The miniatures were usually not signed, perhaps because of the rejection of individualism, but also because the works were not created entirely by one person; the head painter designed the composition of the scene, and his apprentices drew the contours (which were called tahrir) with black or colored ink and then painted the miniature without creating an illusion of third dimension. The head painter, and much more often the scribe of the text, were indeed named and depicted in some of the manuscripts. The understanding of perspective w ...more...



Culture of the Ottoman Empire

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Ottoman culture evolved over several centuries as the ruling administration of the Turks absorbed, adapted and modified the cultures of conquered lands and their peoples. There was a strong influence from the customs and languages of Islamic societies, Turkish "the official language for the Empire, notably Arabic because of the origins of Islam, while Persian culture had a significant contribution through the heavily Persianized Seljuq Turks , the Ottomans' predecessors. Despite newer added amalgamations, the Ottoman dynasty, like their predecessors in the Sultanate of Rum and the Seljuk Empire , were thoroughly Persianised in their culture, language, habits and customs, and therefore, the empire has been described as a Persianate empire." Throughout its history, the Ottoman Empire had substantial subject populations of Orthodox subjects , Armenians , Jews and Assyrians , who were allowed a certain amount of autonomy under the confessional millet system of Ottoman government, and whose distinctive culture ...more...



Ottoman

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Look up Ottoman  or ottoman in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. Ottoman may refer to: Ottoman Empire , in existence from 1299 to 1923 Ottoman Caliphate , claimant to an Islamic caliphate from 1362 to 1924 Ottoman dynasty , ruling family of the Ottoman Empire Osmanoğlu family , modern members of the family Ottoman Turks , the Turkic ethnic group in the Ottoman Empire Ottoman Turkish language Ottoman (furniture) , padded stool or footstool Ottoman (textile) , fabric with a pronounced ribbed or corded effect, often made of silk or a mixture See also Otto Mann , character in The Simpsons Look up Ottoman  or ottoman in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. Ottoman may refer to: Ottoman Empire , in existence from 1299 to 1923 Ottoman Caliphate , claimant to an Islamic caliphate from 1362 to 1924 Ottoman dynasty , ruling family of the Ottoman Empire Osmanoğlu family , modern members of the family Ottoman Turks , the Turkic ethnic group in the Ottoman Empire Ottoman Turkish language Ottoman (furniture) , padded stool or f ...more...



Ottoman family tree

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This is a male family tree for all the Ottoman Sultans and their mothers. Ertuğrul Osman I (c. 1299–1323/4) Malhun Orhan (1323/4–1362) Nilüfer Murad I (1362–1389) Gülçiçek Bayezid I (1389–1403) Devlet Mehmed I (1413–1421) Emine Murad II (1421–1444) & (1446–1451) Hüma Mehmed the Conqueror (1444–1446) & (1451–1481) Gülbahar Bayezid II (1481–1512) Gülbahar Selim I (1512–1520) Hafsa ...more...



Turkish Cypriots

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Turkish Cypriots or Cypriot Turks (Turkish: Kıbrıs Türkleri or Kıbrıslı Türkler; Greek: Τουρκοκύπριοι) are mostly ethnic Turks originating from Cyprus. Following the Ottoman conquest of the island in 1571, about 30,000 Turkish settlers were given land once they arrived in Cyprus. Additionally, many of the islanders converted to Islam during the early years of Ottoman rule. Nonetheless, the influx of mainly Muslim settlers to Cyprus continued intermittently until the end of the Ottoman period. The fact that Turkish was the main language spoken by the Muslims of the island is a significant indicator that the majority of them were either Anatolian Turks or otherwise from a Turkic background which bequeathed a significant Turkish community, today's Turkish Cypriots. Today, while Northern Cyprus is home to a significant part of the Turkish Cypriot population, the majority of Turkish Cypriots live abroad, forming the Turkish Cypriot diaspora. This diaspora came into existence after the Ottoman Empire transferred ...more...



Ottoman dynasty

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The Ottoman dynasty (Turkish: Osmanlı Hanedanı) was made up of the members of the imperial House of Osman (Ottoman Turkish: خاندان آل عثمان‎ Ḫānedān-ı Āl-ı ʿOsmān). Also known as the Ottomans (Turkish: Osmanlılar). According to Ottoman tradition, the family originated from the Kayı tribe branch of the Oghuz Turks, under Osman I in northwestern Anatolia in the district of Bilecik Söğüt. The Ottoman dynasty, named after Osman I, ruled the Ottoman Empire from c. 1299 to 1922. During much of the Empire's history, the sultan was the absolute regent, head of state, and head of government, though much of the power often shifted to other officials such as the Grand Vizier. During the First (1876–78) and Second Constitutional Eras (1908–20) of the late Empire, a shift to constitutional monarchy was enacted, with the Grand Vizier taking on a prime ministerial role as head of government and heading an elected General Assembly. The imperial family was deposed from power and the sultanate was abolished on 1 November 1 ...more...



List of Serbian–Turkish conflicts

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These Serbian–Turkish conflicts include those of medieval Serbia against the Ottoman Empire, until World War I (modern Turkey). Middle Ages Early encounters Battle of Demotika in October 1352 Battle of Sırp Sındığı in 1364 Fall of the Serbian Empire Battle of Maritsa on 26 September 1371 Battle of Dubravnica in 1381 Battle of Pločnik in 1386 Battle of Savra in 1385 Battle of Kosovo in 1389 Serbian Despotate and Ottoman rule Battle of Tripolje in 1402 Siege of Novo Brdo in 1412 Ottoman invasion of Serbia in 1425 Ottoman invasion of Serbia in 1427 Ottoman invasion of Serbia in 1437 Ottoman invasion of Serbia in 1438 Ottoman invasion of Serbia (1439–44) Crusade of Varna Battle of Nish (1443) Battle of Zlatitsa in 1443 Battle of Kunovica in 1444 Ottoman invasion of Serbia (1454–55) Battle of Kruševac in 1454 Battle of Leskovac in 1454 Ottoman invasion of Serbia in 1456 Siege of Belgrade in 1456 Siege of Smederevo in 1456 Ottoman invasion and conquest of Serbia in 1459 Ottoman invas ...more...



Ottoman Greeks

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Ottoman Greeks ( Greek : Οθωμανοί Έλληνες, Turkish : Osmanlı Rumları ) were ethnic Greeks who lived in the Ottoman Empire (1453–1921), the Republic of Turkey 's predecessor. Ottoman Greeks, who were Greek Orthodox Christians , belonged to the Rum Millet (Millet-i Rum). They were concentrated in what is today modern Greece, eastern Thrace (especially in and around Constantinople ), western Asia Minor (especially in and around Smyrna ), central Anatolia (especially Cappadocia ), northeastern Anatolia (especially in Erzurum vilayet , in and around Trebizond and in the Pontic Mountains , roughly corresponding to the medieval Greek kingdom of Pontus ). There were also sizeable Greek communities elsewhere in the Ottoman Balkans, Ottoman Armenia, and the Ottoman Caucasus, including in what, between 1878 and 1917, made up the Russian Caucasus province of Kars Oblast , in which Pontic Greeks , northeastern Anatolian Greeks, and Caucasus Greeks who had collaborated with the Russian Imperial Army in the Russo-Turkish Wa ...more...



Administrative divisions of the Ottoman Empire

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The administrative divisions of the Ottoman Empire were administrative divisions of the state organisation of the Ottoman Empire . Outside this system were various types of vassal and tributary states . The Ottoman Empire was first subdivided into provinces, in the sense of fixed territorial units with governors appointed by the sultan, in the late 14th century. The beylerbey , or governor, of each province was appointed by the central government. Sanjaks were governed by sanjak beys (sancakbeyi), selected from the high military ranks by the central government. Beylerbeyis had authority over all the sancakbeyis in a region. Kaza was a subdivision of sancak and referred to the basic administrative district, governed by a kadi . It is considered extremely difficult to define the number and exact borders of Ottoman provinces and domains, as their borders were changed constantly. Until the Tanzimat period, the borders of administrative units fluctuated, reflecting the changing strategies of the Ottomans, the e ...more...



Serbian-Turkish Wars (1876-1878)

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The Serbian–Turkish Wars or Serbian–Ottoman Wars ( Serbian : српско-турски ратови / srpsko-turski ratovi ), also known as the Serbian Wars for Independence ( српски ратови за независност, srpski ratovi za nezavisnost ), were two consequent wars (1876-1877 and 1877-1878), fought between the Principality of Serbia and the Ottoman Empire . In conjunction with the Principality of Montenegro , Serbia declared war on the Ottoman Empire on 30 June 1876. By the intervention of major European powers, ceasefire was concluded in autumn, and the Constantinople Conference was organized. Peace was signed on 28 February 1877 on the bases of status quo ante bellum. After brief period of formal peace, Serbia declared war on the Ottoman Empire on 11 December 1877. Renewed hostilities lasted until February 1878. Final outcome of wars was decided by the Congress of Berlin (1878). Serbia gained international recognition as an independent state, and its territory was expanded. At the beginning of the conflict, Serbian army was poo ...more...



Greco-Turkish War (1897)

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The Greco-Turkish War of 1897, also called the Thirty Days' War and known in Greece as the Black '97 (Greek: Μαύρο '97, Mauro '97) or the Unfortunate War (Ατυχής πόλεμος, Atychis polemos) (Turkish: 1897 Osmanlı-Yunan Savaşı or 1897 Türk-Yunan Savaşı), was a war fought between the Kingdom of Greece and the Ottoman Empire. Its immediate cause was the question over the status of the Ottoman province of Crete, whose Greek majority long desired union with Greece. Despite the Ottoman victory on the field, an autonomous Cretan State under Ottoman suzerainty was established the following year (as a result of the intervention of the Great Powers after the war), with Prince George of Greece and Denmark as its first High Commissioner. This was the first war effort in which the military and political personnel of Greece were put to test since the Greek War of Independence in 1821. For the Ottoman Empire, this was also the first war effort in which the reorganized military personnel were put to test. The Ottoman army w ...more...



Culture of Turkey

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The culture of Turkey combines a heavily diverse and heterogeneous set of elements that have been derived from the various cultures of the Eastern Mediterranean (West Asian) and Central Asian region and to a lesser degree, Eastern European, and Caucasian traditions. Many of these traditions were initially brought together by the Ottoman Empire, a multi-ethnic and multi-religious state. During the early years of the republic, the government invested a large amount of resources into fine arts such as paintings, sculpture and architecture. This was done as both a process of modernization and of creating a cultural identity. Because of the different historical factors defining the Turkish identity the culture of Turkey combines clear efforts of modernization and Westernization undertaken in varying degrees since the 1800s with a simultaneous desire to maintain traditional religious and historical values. People Wearing western style hats was an important aspect of the modernization process. Mem ...more...



Old Anatolian Turkish

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Old Anatolian Turkish (Modern Turkish: Eski Anadolu Türkçesi) is the stage in the history of the Turkish language spoken in Anatolia from the 11th to 15th centuries. It developed into Early Ottoman Turkish. It was written in the Arabic script. Unlike in later Ottoman Turkish, short-vowel diacritics were used. It had no official status until in 1277, Mehmet I of Karaman declared a firman: Orthography Old Anatolian Turkish Ottoman Turkish (Kamus-ı Türkî spelling) Modern Turkish English گُزلٔر‬ گوزلر‬ Közler (Gözler) "Eyes" دَدَ‬ دده‬ Dede "Grandfather" كُچُك‬ كوچك‬ Küçük "Little" Alphabet Letter Modern Turkish Letter Modern Turkish ا ‬ a, e, i ص ‬ s ب ‬ b ض ‬ d پ‬ p ط ‬ t ت‬ t ظ‬ z ث ‬ s ع ‬ a ج ‬ c غ‬ ğ, g چ‬ ç ف ‬ f ح ‬ h ق ‬ k خ ‬ h ك ‬ k د ‬ d ل ‬ l ذ ‬ d, z م ‬ m ر ‬ r ن ‬ n ز ‬ z و ‬ o, ö, u, ü, v ژ ‬ j ه ‬ h س ‬ s لا ‬ la, le ش ‬ ş ى ‬ i, y, ı See also Ottoman Turkish language Turkish language Mehmet I of Karaman Karamanids References Old Anatolian Turkish at MultiTree on the L ...more...



Ottoman Caliphate

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The Ottoman Caliphate , under the Ottoman dynasty of the Ottoman Empire , was the last Sunni Islamic caliphate of the late medieval and the early modern era. During the period of Ottoman growth, Ottoman rulers claimed caliphal authority since Murad I 's conquest of Edirne in 1362. Later Selim I , through conquering and unification of Muslim lands, became the defender of the Holy Cities of Mecca and Medina which further strengthened the Ottoman claim to caliphate in the Muslim world . The demise of the Ottoman Caliphate took place because of a slow erosion of power in relation to Western Europe , and because of the end of the Ottoman state in consequence of the partitioning of the Ottoman Empire by the League of Nations mandate . Abdülmecid II , the last Ottoman caliph, held his caliphal position for a couple of years after the partitioning, but with Mustafa Kemal's secular reforms and the subsequent exile of the royal Osmanoğlu family from the Republic of Turkey in 1924, the caliphal position was abolished. ...more...



Kuruş

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The kuruş ( pl .   kuruşlar ) is a Turkish currency subunit. Since 2005 , one Turkish lira is equal to 100 kuruş. The kuruş, better known as the piastre , was also the standard unit of currency in the Ottoman Empire up to 1844 and the subdivision of the former lira from then until the 1970s. It was subdivided into 40 para or 120 akçe . Name The Turkish word kuruş ( Ottoman Turkish : قروش ‎, kurûş; Greek : γρόσι , grosi or grosha) is derived from the French gros ("heavy"). It is cognate with the German groschen and Hungarian garas. The name piastre or piaster derives from the Italian piastra . History Current Turkish 50 kuruş coin The kuruş was introduced in 1688. It was initially a large, silver coin, approximately equal to the French écu , or, from other sources, to the Spanish dollar . However, during the 18th and early 19th centuries, debasement reduced the kuruş to a billon coin weighing less than 3 grams. At the beginning of the 19th century, silver coins were in circulation for 1 akçe, 1, 5, 10 and 20 ...more...



Crimean Tatar language

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"Welcome to Crimea" ( Qırımğa hoş keldiñiz! ) written in Crimean Tatar Cyrillic, airport bus, Simferopol International Airport Crimean Tatar Latin script on a plate in Bakhchisaray An example of Crimean Tatar Arabic script Crimean Tatar (Къырымтатарджа Qırımtatarca, Къырымтатар тили Qırımtatar tili), also called Crimean Turkish or simply Crimean , is a Kipchak Turkic language spoken in Crimea and the Crimean Tatar diasporas of Uzbekistan , Turkey , Romania and Bulgaria , as well as small communities in the United States and Canada. It should not be confused with Tatar proper , spoken in Tatarstan and adjacent regions in Russia ; the languages are related but not mutually intelligible . Crimean Tatar arrived in the 13th century with the Mongol Golden Horde , succeeding the Crimean Greek and Crimean Gothic Principality of Theodoro , and continued through the 15th–18th century Crimean Khanate period. Though only distantly related, it has been extensively influenced by nearby Oghuz Turkic languages such as Turki ...more...



Ottoman Navy

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Naval ensigns of the Empire c. 1793 to 1923 The Ottoman Navy ( Turkish : Osmanlı Donanması or Donanma-yı Humâyûn), also known as the Ottoman Fleet , was established in the early 14th century after the Ottoman Empire first expanded to reach the sea in 1323 by capturing Karamürsel , the site of the first Ottoman naval shipyard and the nucleus of the future Navy. During its long existence, it was involved in many conflicts and signed a number of maritime treaties. At its height, the Navy extended to the Indian Ocean , sending an expedition to Indonesia in 1565. For much of its history, the Navy was led by the position of the Kapudan Pasha (Grand Admiral; literally "Captain Pasha"). This position was abolished in 1867, when it was replaced by the Minister of the Navy ( Turkish : Bahriye Nazırı ) and a number of Fleet Commanders ( Turkish : Donanma Komutanları ). After the end of the Ottoman Empire and the declaration of the Republic of Turkey in 1923, the Navy's tradition was continued under the modern Turkish Na ...more...



Turkish War of Independence

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The Turkish War of Independence (Turkish: Kurtuluş Savaşı "War of Liberation", also known figuratively as İstiklâl Harbi "Independence War" or Millî Mücadele "National Campaign"; May 19, 1919 – July 24, 1923) was fought between the Turkish National Movement and the proxies of the Allies – namely Greece on the Western front, Armenia on the Eastern, France on the Southern and with them, the United Kingdom and Italy in Constantinople (now Istanbul) – after parts of the Ottoman Empire were occupied and partitioned following the Ottomans' defeat in World War I. Few of the occupying British, French, and Italian troops had been deployed or engaged in combat. The Turkish National Movement (Kuva-yi Milliye) in Anatolia culminated in the formation of a new Grand National Assembly (GNA; Turkish: BMM) by Mustafa Kemal Atatürk and his colleagues. After the end of the Turkish-Armenian, Franco-Turkish, Greco-Turkish fronts (often referred to as the Eastern Front, the Southern Front, and the Western Front of the war ...more...



Ottoman Greece

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Most of the areas which today are within modern Greece 's borders were at some point in the past a part of the Ottoman Empire . This period of Ottoman rule in Greece, lasting from the mid-15th century until the successful Greek War of Independence that broke out in 1821 and the proclamation of the First Hellenic Republic in 1822 (preceded by the creation of the autonomous Septinsular Republic in 1800), is known in Greek as Tourkokratia ( Greek : Τουρκοκρατία , "Turkish rule"; English: "Turkocracy" ). Some regions, however, like the Ionian islands , various temporary Venetian possessions of the Stato da Mar , or Mani peninsula in Peloponnese did not become part of the Ottoman administration, although the latter was under Ottoman suzerainty . The Byzantine Empire , the remnant of the ancient Roman Empire which ruled most of the Greek-speaking world for over 1100 years, had been fatally weakened since the sacking of Constantinople by the Latin Crusaders in 1204. The Ottoman advance into Greece was preceded by v ...more...



Anatolian beyliks

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A map of the independent Turkic beyliks in Anatolia during the late 14th century History of the Turkic peoplesPre-14th century Turkic Khaganate 552–744   Western Turkic   Eastern Turkic Khazar Khaganate 618–1048 Xueyantuo 628–646 Great Bulgaria 632–668   Danube Bulgaria   Volga Bulgaria Kangar union 659–750 Turk Shahi 665–850 Turgesh Khaganate 699–766 Uyghur Khaganate 744–840 Karluk Yabgu State 756–940 Kara-Khanid Khanate 840–1212   Western Kara-Khanid   Eastern Kara-Khanid Ganzhou Uyghur Kingdom 848–1036 Qocho 856–1335 Pecheneg Khanates860–1091 Kimek confederation743–1035 Cumania1067–1239 Oghuz Yabgu State750–1055 Ghaznavid Empire 963–1186 Seljuk Empire 1037–1194   Sultanate of Rum Kerait khanate 11th century–13th century Khwarazmian Empire 1077–1231 Naiman Khanate –1204 Qarlughid Kingdom 1224–1266 Delhi Sultanate 1206–1526   Mamluk dynasty   Khalji dynasty   Tughlaq dynasty Golden Horde | 1240s–1502 Mamluk Sultanate (Cairo) 1250–1517   Bahri dynasty   Ottoman Empire 1299–1923 Other Turkic dynas ...more...



Ottoman Cyprus

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The Eyalet of Cyprus was an eyalet (province) of the Ottoman Empire made up of the island of Cyprus , which was annexed into the Empire in 1571. The Ottomans changed the way they administered Cyprus multiple times. It was a sanjak (sub-province) of the Eyalet of the Archipelago from 1670 to 1703, and again from 1784 onwards; a fief of the Grand Vizier (1703–1745 and 1748–1784); and again an eyalet for the short period from 1745 to 1748. Ottoman raids and conquest During Venetian rule, the Ottomans at times raided Cyprus. In 1489, the first year of Venetian control, Turks attacked the Karpass Peninsula , pillaging and taking captives to be sold into slavery . In 1539 the Turkish fleet attacked and destroyed Limassol . Fearing the ever-expanding Ottoman Empire , the Venetians had fortified Famagusta , Nicosia , and Kyrenia , but most other cities were easy prey. In the summer of 1570, the Turks struck again, but this time with a full-scale invasion rather than a raid. About 60,000 troops, including cavalry a ...more...



Albanians in Turkey

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Albanians in Turkey (Albanian: Shqiptarët në Turqi, Turkish: Türkiye'deki Arnavutlar) are ethnic Albanian citizens and denizens of Turkey. They consist of Albanians who arrived during the Ottoman period, Kosovar/Macedonian and Tosk Cham Albanians fleeing from Serbian and Greek persecution after the beginning of the Balkan Wars, alongside some Albanians from Montenegro and Albania proper. A 2008 report from the Turkish National Security Council (MGK) estimated that approximately 1.3 million people of Albanian ancestry live in Turkey, and more than 500,000 recognizing their ancestry, language and culture. There are other estimates however that place the number of people in Turkey with Albanian ancestry and or background upward to 5 million. Demographics In the census of 1965, 12,832 Turkish citizens spoke Albanian as first language, which is only 0.04% of the population. While there were 403,445 Albanian speakers in total in 1965 census. These people were mostly living in Bursa (0.3%), Sakarya (0.2%), Tokat ...more...



Languages of Cyprus

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The official languages of the Republic of Cyprus are Greek and Turkish . In Northern Cyprus , Turkish was made the only official language by the 1983 constitution. The everyday spoken language ( vernacular ) of the majority of the population is Cypriot Greek , and that of Turkish Cypriots is Cypriot Turkish . For official purposes, the standard languages ( Standard Modern Greek and Standard Turkish) are used. Three "religious groups" are recognised by the constitution; two have their own language: Armenian (the language of Armenian Cypriots ) and Cypriot Arabic (the language of Maronite Cypriots ). Sometimes Kurbetcha , the language of the Kurbet, the Cypriot Roma, is included alongside the other two in literature, but it is not officially recognised in any capacity. The 2011 census of the Republic recorded 679,883 native speakers of Greek, 34,814 of English, 24,270 of Romanian, 20,984 of Russian and 18,388 of Bulgarian of a total of 840,407. Following the 1974 Turkish invasion , Cyprus was effectively di ...more...



Mustafa Kemal Atatürk

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Mustafa Kemal Atatürk ( Turkish:  ; 19 May 1881 ( conventional )  – 10 November 1938) was a Turkish army officer, revolutionary , and founder of the Republic of Turkey , serving as its first President from 1923 until his death in 1938. Ideologically a secularist and nationalist , his policies and theories became known as Kemalism . Atatürk came to prominence for his role in securing the Ottoman Turkish victory at the Battle of Gallipoli during World War I . Following the Empire's defeat and subsequent dissolution , he led the Turkish National Movement , which resisted against the mainland Turkey's partition among the victorious Allied powers. Establishing a provisional government in present-day Turkish capital Ankara , he defeated the forces sent by the Allies , thus, emerging victorious from what is later referred to as the Turkish War of Independence . He subsequently proceeded to abolish the decrepit Ottoman Empire and proclaimed the foundation of the Turkish Republic in its place. As the president of the ...more...



Greek genocide

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The Greek genocide , part of which is known as the Pontic genocide , was the systematic genocide of the Christian Ottoman Greek population from its historic homeland in Anatolia during World War I and its aftermath (1914–22). It was instigated by the government of the Ottoman Empire and the Turkish national movement against the indigenous Greek population of the Empire and it included massacres, forced deportations involving death marches , summary expulsions, arbitrary execution, and the destruction of Christian Orthodox cultural, historical, and religious monuments. According to various sources, several hundred thousand Ottoman Greeks died during this period. Most of the refugees and survivors fled to Greece (amounting to over a quarter of the prior population of Greece). Some, especially those in Eastern provinces, took refuge in the neighbouring Russian Empire . Thus by the end of the 1919–22 Greco-Turkish War , most of the Greeks of Asia Minor had either fled or had been killed. Those remaining were ...more...




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