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Ottoman Turkish language

Ottoman Turkish , or the Ottoman language (لسان عثمانى‎‎, Lisân-ı Osmânî, also known as تركجه‎, Türkçe or تركی‎, Türkî, "Turkish"), is the variety of the Turkish language that was used in the Ottoman Empire. It borrows, in all aspects, extensively from Arabic and Persian, and it was written in the Ottoman Turkish alphabet. During the peak of Ottoman power, Persian and Arabic vocabulary accounted for up to 88% of its vocabulary,[2] while words of Arabic origins heavily outnumbered native Turkish words.[3]

Consequently, Ottoman Turkish was largely unintelligible to the less-educated lower-class and rural Turks, who continued to use kaba Türkçe ("raw/vulgar Turkish", as in Vulgar Latin), which used far fewer foreign loanwords and is the basis of the modern Turkish language.[4] The Tanzimât era saw the application of the term "Ottoman" when referring to the language (لسان عثمانیlisân-ı Osmânî or عثمانليجهOsmanlıca) and the same distinction is made in Modern Turkish (Osmanlıca and Osmanlı Türkçesi).

Grammar
A poem about Rumi in Ottoman Turkish.
Cases
  • Nominative case: كولgöl ("the lake", "a lake"), چوربهçorba ("Chorba"), گجهgece ("night").[5]
  • Accusative case (indefinite): طاوشان گترمشṭavşan getirmiş ("he brought a rabbit"). No suffix.
  • Genitive case: answers the question كمڭkimiñ ("whose?"), formed with the suffix ڭ–ıñ, –iñ, –uñ, –üñ. E.g. پاشانڭpaşanıñ ("the pasha's") from پاشاpaşa ("pasha").
  • Accusative case (definite): answers the question كمىkimi ("whom?") and نه يىneyi ("what?"), formed with the suffix ى–ı, -i: طاوشانى گترمشṭavşanı getürmiş ("he brought the rabbit"). The variant suffix –u, –ü does not occur in Ottoman Turkish unlike in Modern Turkish because of the lack of labial vowel harmony. Thus, كولىgöli ("the lake".ACC), but Modern Turkish has gölü.
  • Dative case:
  • Locative case: answers the question نره دهnerede ("where?"), formed with the suffix ده–de, –da: مكتبدهmektebde ("at school"), قفصدهḳafeṣde ("in a cage"), باشدهbaşda ("at the start"), شهردهşehirde ("in town"). As with the indefinite accusative case, the variant suffix –te, –ta does not occur unlike in Modern Turkish.
  • Ablative case: answers the questions نره دنnereden ("from where?") and ندنneden ("why?").
  • Instrumental case: answers the question نه ايلهne ile ("with what?").
Verbs

The conjugation for the aorist tense is as follows:

Person Singular Plural
1 -irim -iriz
2 -irsiŋ -irsiŋiz
3 -ir -irler
Structure

Ottoman Turkish was highly influenced by Arabic and Persian. Arabic and Persian words in the language amounted for up to 88% of its vocabulary.[2] As in most other Turkic and other foreign languages of Islamic communities, the Arabic borrowings were not originally the result of a direct exposure of Ottoman Turkish to Arabic, a fact that is evidenced by the typically Persian phonological mutation of the words of Arabic origin.[6] [7] [8]

The conservation of archaic phonological features of the Arabic borrowings furthermore suggests that Arabic-incorporated Persian was absorbed into pre-Ottoman Turkic at an early stage, when the speakers were still located to the northeast of Persia, prior to the westward migration of the Islamic Turkic tribes. An additional argument for this is that Ottoman Turkish shares the Persian character of its Arabic borrowings with other Turkic languages that had even less interaction with Arabic, such as Tatar and Uyghur. From the early ages of the Ottoman Empire, borrowings from Arabic and Persian were so abundant that original Turkish words were hard to find.[9] In Ottoman, one may find whole passages in Arabic and Persian incorporated into the text.[9] It was however not only extensive loaning of words, but along with them much of the grammatical systems of Persian and Arabic.[9]

In a social and pragmatic sense, there were (at least) three variants of Ottoman Turkish:

  • Fasih Türkçe (Eloquent Turkish): the language of poetry and administration, Ottoman Turkish in its strict sense;
  • Orta Türkçe (Middle Turkish): the language of higher classes and trade;
  • Kaba Türkçe (Rough Turkish): the language of lower classes.

A person would use each of the varieties above for different purposes, with the fasih variant being the most heavily suffused with Arabic and Persian words and kaba the least. For example, a scribe would use the Arabic asel (عسل) to refer to honey when writing a document but would use the native Turkish word bal when buying it.

History

Historically, Ottoman Turkish was transformed in three eras:

  • Eski Osmanlı Türkçesi (Old Ottoman Turkish): the version of Ottoman Turkish used until the 16th century. It was almost identical with the Turkish used by Seljuk empire and Anatolian beyliks and was often regarded as part of Eski Anadolu Türkçesi (Old Anatolian Turkish).
  • Orta Osmanlı Türkçesi (Middle Ottoman Turkish) or Klasik Osmanlıca (Classical Ottoman Turkish): the language of poetry and administration from the 16th century until Tanzimat. It is the version of Ottoman Turkish that comes to most people's minds.
  • Yeni Osmanlı Türkçesi (New Ottoman Turkish): the version shaped from the 1850s to the 20th century under the influence of journalism and Western-oriented literature.
Language reform

In 1928, following the fall of the Ottoman Empire after World War I and the establishment of Republic of Turkey, widespread language reforms (a part in the greater framework of Atatürk's Reforms) instituted by Mustafa Kemal Atatürk saw the replacement of many Persian and Arabic origin loanwords in the language with their Turkish equivalents. It also saw the replacement of the Perso-Arabic script with the extended Latin alphabet. The changes were meant to encourage the growth of a new variety of written Turkish that more closely reflected the spoken vernacular and to foster a new variety of spoken Turkish that reinforced Turkey's new national identity as being a post-Ottoman state.

See the list of replaced loanwords in Turkish for more examples on Ottoman Turkish words and their modern Turkish counterparts. Two examples of Arabic and two of Persian loanwords are found below.

English Ottoman Modern Turkish
obligatory واجب vâcib zorunlu
hardship مشكل müşkül güçlük
city شهر şehir kent (also şehir)
war حرب harb savaş
Legacy

Historically speaking, Ottoman Turkish is not the predecessor of modern Turkish. Rather, the standard Turkish of today is essentially Türkiye Türkçesi (Turkish of Turkey) as written in the Latin alphabet and with an abundance of neologisms added, which means there are now far fewer loan words from other languages. However, Ottoman was not instantly transformed into the Turkish of today. At first, it was only the script that was changed, and while some households continued to use the Arabic system in private, most of the Turkish population was illiterate at the time, making the switch to the Latin alphabet much easier. Then, loan words were taken out, and new words fitting the growing amount of technology were introduced. Until the 1960s, Ottoman Turkish was at least partially intelligible with the Turkish of that day. One major difference between modern Turkish and Ottoman Turkish is the former's abandonment of compound word formation according to Arabic and Persian grammar rules. The usage of such phrases still exists in modern Turkish but only to a very limited extent and usually in specialist contexts; for example, the Persian genitive construction takdîr-i ilâhî (which reads literally as "the preordaining of the divine" and translates as "divine dispensation" or "destiny") is used, as opposed to the normative modern Turkish construction, ilâhî takdîr (literally, "divine preordaining").

Writing system
Calendar in Thessaloniki 1896, a cosmopolitan city; the first three lines in Ottoman script

Most Ottoman Turkish was written in the Ottoman Turkish alphabet (elifbâ الفبا), a variant of the Perso-Arabic script. The Armenian, Greek and Rashi script of Hebrew were sometimes used by Armenians, Greeks and Jews.

Numbers
1
بر
bir
2
ایكی
iki
3
اوچ
üç
4
درت
dört
5
بش
beş
6
آلتی
altı
7
یدی
yedi
8
سكز
sekiz
9
طقوز
dokuz
10
اون
on
11
اون بر
on bir
12
اون ایکی
on iki

[10]

Transliterations

The transliteration system of the İslâm Ansiklopedisi has become a de facto standard in Oriental studies for the transliteration of Ottoman Turkish texts.[11] Concerning transcription the New Redhouse, Karl Steuerwald and Ferit Develioğlu dictionaries have become standard.[12] Another transliteration system is the Deutsche Morgenländische Gesellschaft (DMG), which provides a transliteration system for any Turkic language written in Arabic script.[13] There are not many differences between the İA and the DMG transliteration systems.

İA-Transliteration[14]
ا‎
ب‎ پ‎ ت‎ ث‎ ج‎ چ‎ ح‎ خ‎ د‎ ذ‎ ر‎ ز‎ ژ‎ س‎ ش‎ ص‎ ض‎ ط‎ ظ‎ ع‎ غ‎ ف‎ ق‎
ك‎
گ‎ ڭ‎ ل‎ م‎ ن‎ و‎ ه‎ ی‎
ʾ a b p t c ç d r z j s ş ż ʿ ġ f q k g ñ ğ g ñ l m n v h y
See also
References
  1. "Turkey - Language Reform: From Ottoman To Turkish". Countrystudies.us. Retrieved 24 May 2016.
  2. Bertold Spuler. Persian Historiography & Geography Pustaka Nasional Pte Ltd ISBN 9971774887 p 69
  3. [1] Ottomans
  4. Glenny, Misha. The Balkans - Nationalism, War, and the Great Powers, 1804-1999, Penguin, New York 2001. p. 99.
  5. Some words in Ottoman Turkish were spelled with the Arabic ك, normally pronounced as , were pronounced as .
  6. Percy Ellen Algernon Frederick William Smythe Strangford, Percy Clinton Sydney Smythe Strangford, Emily Anne Beaufort Smythe Strangford, “Original Letters and Papers of the late Viscount Strangford upon Philological and Kindred Subjects”, Published by Trübner, 1878. pg 46: “The Arabic words in Turkish have all decidedly come through a Persian channel. I can hardly think of an exception, except in quite late days, when Arabic words have been used in Turkish in a different sense from that borne by them in Persian.”
  7. M. Sukru Hanioglu, “A Brief History of the Late Ottoman Empire”, Published by Princeton University Press, 2008. p. 34: “It employed a predominant Turkish syntax, but was heavily influenced by Persian and (initially through Persian) Arabic.
  8. Pierre A. MacKay, "The Fountain at Hadji Mustapha," Hesperia, Vol. 36, No. 2 (Apr. - Jun., 1967), pp. 193-195: "The immense Arabic contribution to the lexicon of Ottoman Turkish came rather through Persian than directly, and the sound of Arabic words in Persian syntax would be far more familiar to a Turkish ear than correct Arabic".
  9. Korkut Bugday. An Introduction to Literary Ottoman Routledge, 5 dec. 2014 ISBN 978-1134006557 p XV.
  10. https://archive.org/stream/ottomanturkishco00hago#page/34/mode/2up/search/numerals
  11. Korkut Buğday Osmanisch, p. 2
  12. Korkut Buğday Osmanisch, p. 13
  13. Transkriptionskommission der DMG Die Transliteration der arabischen Schrift in ihrer Anwendung auf die Hauptliteratursprachen der islamischen Welt, p. 9
  14. Korkut Buğday Osmanisch, p. 2f.
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Ottoman Turkish language

topic

Ottoman Turkish , or the Ottoman language ( لسان عثمانى‎ ‎, Lisân-ı Osmânî , also known as تركجه ‎, Türkçe or تركی ‎, Türkî , "Turkish"), is the variety of the Turkish language that was used in the Ottoman Empire . It borrows, in all aspects, extensively from Arabic and Persian , and it was written in the Ottoman Turkish alphabet . During the peak of Ottoman power, Persian and Arabic vocabulary accounted for up to 88% of its vocabulary, while words of Arabic origins heavily outnumbered native Turkish words. Consequently, Ottoman Turkish was largely unintelligible to the less-educated lower-class and rural Turks, who continued to use kaba Türkçe ("raw/vulgar Turkish", as in Vulgar Latin ), which used far fewer foreign loanwords and is the basis of the modern Turkish language. The Tanzimât era saw the application of the term "Ottoman" when referring to the language ( لسان عثمانی ‎ lisân-ı Osmânî or عثمانليجه ‎ Osmanlıca ) and the same distinction is made in Modern Turkish ( Osmanlıca and Osmanlı Türkçesi ). G ...more...



Ottoman Turkish alphabet

topic

The Ottoman Turkish alphabet ( Ottoman Turkish : الفبا ‎ elifbâ ) is a version of the Perso-Arabic alphabet used to write Ottoman Turkish until 1928, when it was replaced by the Latin-based modern Turkish alphabet . Though Ottoman Turkish was primarily written in this script, non-Muslim Ottoman subjects sometimes wrote it in other scripts, including the Armenian , Greek , Latin and Hebrew alphabets . History Origins The earliest known Turkic alphabet is the Orkhon script . The various Turkic languages have been written in a number of different alphabets, including Cyrillic , Arabic , Greek , Latin , and some other Asiatic writing systems. The Ottoman Turkish alphabet is a Turkish form of the Perso-Arabic script. Well suited to writing Arabic and Persian borrowings, it was poorly suited to native Turkish words. When it came to consonants, Arabic has several consonants that do not exist in Turkish (or Persian ), making several Arabic letters superfluous except for Arabic loanwords; conversely, a few letters had ...more...



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Turkish alphabet

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The Turkish alphabet ( Turkish : Türk alfabesi ) is a Latin-script alphabet used for writing the Turkish language , consisting of 29 letters, seven of which ( Ç , Ş , Ğ , I, İ , Ö , Ü ) have been modified from their Latin originals for the phonetic requirements of the language. This alphabet represents modern Turkish pronunciation with a high degree of accuracy and specificity. It is the current official alphabet and the latest in a series of distinct alphabets used in different eras. Letters The letters of the Turkish alphabet are: Of these 29 letters, eight are vowels ( A , E , I, İ , O , Ö , U , Ü ); the other 21 are consonants. The letters Q , W , and X of the ISO basic Latin alphabet do not occur in the Turkish alphabet (replacements for these letters are K , V and KS ), while dotted and dotless I are distinct letters in Turkish so that "i" does not become "I" when capitalized. Turkish also adds a circumflex over the back vowels ⟨â⟩ and ⟨û⟩ following ⟨k⟩, ⟨g⟩, or ⟨l⟩ when these consonants represent , , a ...more...



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The history of the military of the Ottoman Empire can be divided in five main periods. The foundation era covers the years between 1300 (Byzantine expedition) and 1453 ( Fall of Constantinople ), the classical period covers the years between 1451 (enthronement of Sultan Mehmed II ) and 1606 ( Peace of Zsitvatorok ), the reformation period covers the years between 1606 and 1826 ( Vaka-i Hayriye ), the modernisation period covers the years between 1826 and 1858 and decline period covers the years between 1861 (enthronement of Sultan Abdülaziz ) and 1918 ( Armistice of Mudros ). Foundation period (1300–1453) The earliest form of the Ottoman military was a steppe-nomadic cavalry force. This was centralized by Osman I from Turkoman tribesmen inhabiting western Anatolia in the late 13th century. These horsemen became an irregular force of raiders used as shock troops , armed with weapons like bows and spears. They were given fiefs called timars in the conquered lands, and were later called timariots . In addition ...more...



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The language of the court and government of the Ottoman Empire was Ottoman Turkish , but many other languages were in contemporary use in parts of the empire. Although the minorities of the Ottoman Empire were free to use their language amongst themselves, if they needed to communicate with the government they had to use Ottoman Turkish. The Ottomans had three influential languages: Turkish, spoken by the majority of the people in Anatolia and by the majority of Muslims of the Balkans except in Albania , Bosnia , and various Aegean Sea islands; Persian , only spoken by the educated; and Arabic, spoken mainly in Arabia , North Africa , Mesopotamia and the Levant . Throughout the vast Ottoman bureaucracy Ottoman Turkish language was the official language, a version of Turkish, albeit with a vast mixture of both Arabic and Persian grammar and vocabulary. Because of a low literacy rate among the public (about 2–3% until the early 19th century and just about 15% at the end of 19th century), ordinary people had t ...more...



Ottoman–Habsburg wars

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The Ottoman–Habsburg wars were fought from the 16th through the 18th centuries between the Ottoman Empire and the Habsburg (later Austrian) Empire, which was at times supported by the Holy Roman Empire , Kingdom of Hungary and Habsburg Spain . The wars were dominated by land campaigns in Hungary (including Transylvania and Vojvodina ), Croatia and Central Serbia . By the 16th century, the Ottomans had become a serious threat to the European powers, with Ottoman ships sweeping away Venetian possessions in the Aegean and Ionian seas and Ottoman-supported Barbary pirates seizing Spanish possessions in the Maghreb . The Protestant Reformation , the France–Habsburg rivalry and the numerous civil conflicts of the Holy Roman Empire served as distractions to the Christians from their conflict with the Ottomans. Meanwhile, the Ottomans had to contend with the Persian Safavid Empire and to a lesser extent the Mamluk Sultanate , which was defeated and fully incorporated into the empire. Initially, Ottoman conquests in E ...more...

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Ottoman Turkish

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Ottoman Turkish may refer to: Ottoman Turkish language Ottoman Turkish alphabet Ottoman Empire Ottoman Turkish may refer to: Ottoman Turkish language Ottoman Turkish alphabet Ottoman Empire ...more...



Russo-Turkish War (1877–1878)

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The Russo-Turkish War of 1877–78 ( Turkish : 93 Harbi ('93 War) ) was a conflict between the Ottoman Empire and the Eastern Orthodox coalition led by the Russian Empire and composed of Bulgaria , Romania , Serbia , and Montenegro . Fought in the Balkans and in the Caucasus , it originated in emerging 19th-century Balkan nationalism . Additional factors included Russian hopes of recovering territorial losses suffered during the Crimean War , re-establishing itself in the Black Sea and supporting the political movement attempting to free Balkan nations from the Ottoman Empire. The Russian-led coalition won the war. As a result, Russia succeeded in claiming several provinces in the Caucasus, namely Kars and Batum , and also annexed the Budjak region. The principalities of Romania , Serbia , and Montenegro , each of whom had had de facto sovereignty for some time, formally proclaimed independence from the Ottoman Empire . After almost five centuries of Ottoman domination (1396–1878), the Bulgarian state was re-es ...more...



Ottoman architecture

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Ottoman architecture is the architecture of the Ottoman Empire which emerged in Bursa and Edirne in 14th and 15th centuries. The architecture of the empire developed from the earlier Seljuk architecture and was influenced by the Byzantine architecture , Armenian architecture , Iranian as well as Islamic Mamluk traditions after the conquest of Constantinople by the Ottomans. For almost 400 years Byzantine architectural artifacts such as the church of Hagia Sophia served as models for many of the Ottoman mosques . Overall, Ottoman architecture has been described as Byzantine influenced architecture synthesized with architectural traditions of Central Asia and the Middle East. The Ottomans achieved the highest level architecture in their lands hence or since. They mastered the technique of building vast inner spaces confined by seemingly weightless yet massive domes, and achieving perfect harmony between inner and outer spaces, as well as articulated light and shadow. Islamic religious architecture which unt ...more...



Turkish people

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Turkish people ( Turkish : Türk ulusu ), or the Turks ( Turkish : Türkler ), also known as Anatolian Turks ( Turkish : Anadolu Türkleri ), are a Turkic ethnic group and nation living mainly in Turkey and speaking Turkish , the most widely spoken Turkic language . They are the largest ethnic group in Turkey, as well as by far the largest ethnic group among the speakers of Turkic languages. Ethnic Turkish minorities exist in the former lands of the Ottoman Empire . In addition, a Turkish diaspora has been established with modern migration, particularly in Western Europe . Etymology and ethnic identity The ethnonym "Turk" may be first discerned in Herodotus ' (c. 484–425 BC) reference to Targitas, first king of the Scythians; furthermore, during the first century AD., Pomponius Mela refers to the "Turcae" in the forests north of the Sea of Azov , and Pliny the Elder lists the "Tyrcae" among the people of the same area. The first definite references to the "Turks" come mainly from Chinese sources in the sixth c ...more...



Bey

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Bey ( Ottoman Turkish : بك ‎ / Bey, Albanian : bej , Bosnian : beg , Arabic : بيه ‎ / Beye, Persian : بگ ‎‎ / Beg or Beyg) is a Turkish title for chieftain , traditionally applied to the leaders or rulers of various sized areas in the Ottoman Empire . The feminine equivalent title was Begum . The regions or provinces where "beys" ruled or which they administered were called beylik, roughly meaning " khanate ", " emirate " or " principality " in the first case and "province" or "governorate" in the second (the equivalent of duchy in other parts of Europe). Today, the word is still used formally as a social title for men. It follows the name and is used generally with first names and not with last names. Etymology The word entered English from Turkish bey, itself derived from Old Turkic beg, which - in the form bäg - has been mentioned as early as in the Orkhon inscriptions (8th century AD) and is usually translated as "tribal leader". The dialect variations bäk, bek, bey, biy, bi, and pig all derive from th ...more...



Turkish literature

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Turkish literature ( Turkish : Türk edebiyatı ) comprises oral compositions and written texts in the Turkish language , either in its Ottoman and Azerbaijani or in less exclusively literary forms, such as that spoken in Turkey today. The Ottoman and Azeri forms of Turkish, which forms the basis of much of the written corpus, were highly influenced by Persian and Arabic literature, and used the Ottoman Turkish alphabet . The history of the broader Turkic literature spans a period of nearly 1,300 years. The oldest extant records of written Turkic are the Orhon inscriptions , found in the Orhon River valley in central Mongolia and dating to the 7th century. Subsequent to this period, between the 9th and 11th centuries, there arose among the nomadic Turkic peoples of Central Asia a tradition of oral epics , such as the Book of Dede Korkut of the Oghuz Turks —the linguistic and cultural ancestors of the modern Turkish people —and the Manas epic of the Kyrgyz people . Beginning with the victory of the Seljuks at ...more...



Ottoman classical music

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Music band from Ottoman Aleppo, mid 18th century Classical Turkish music ( Turkish : Türk sanat müziği , "Turkish art music"; or Klasik Türk müziği, "Classical Turkish music"), sometimes known as Ottoman classical music , developed in Istanbul and other major Ottoman cities and towns through the palaces and Sufi lodges of the Ottoman Empire . Above all a vocal music, Ottoman music traditionally accompanies a solo singer with a small instrumental ensemble. In recent times, instruments might include tambur (lute), ney (flute), kemençe (fiddle), keman (Western violin), kanun (zither), or other instruments. Sometimes described as monophonic music, the variety of ornamentation and variation in the ensemble requires the more accurate term heterophonic . Overview Ottoman music has a large and varied system of modes or scales known as makams , and other rules of composition. There are more than 600 makams that have been used so far. Out of these, at least 119 makams are formally defined, but today only around 20 mak ...more...



Turkish delight

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Turkish delight , lokum or rahat lokum and many other transliterations ( Ottoman Turkish : رَاحَة الْحُلْقُوم ‎ rāḥat al-ḥulqūm, Turkish : Lokum or rahat lokum , from colloquial Arabic : راحه الحلقوم ‎ rāḥat al-ḥalqūm, Azerbaijani: ) is a family of confections based on a gel of starch and sugar . Premium varieties consist largely of chopped dates, pistachios, and hazelnuts or walnuts bound by the gel; traditional varieties are mostly flavored with rosewater , mastic , Bergamot orange , or lemon . The confection is often packaged and eaten in small cubes dusted with icing sugar , copra , or powdered cream of tartar , to prevent clinging. Other common flavors include cinnamon and mint . In the production process, soapwort may be used as an emulsifying additive . The origin of the confection is not well established, but it is known to have been produced in Turkey as early as the late 1700s. History Rosewater-flavored Turkish delight Several Turkish Delight variants prominently featuring dried coconut A variati ...more...



Ottoman–Hungarian wars

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The Ottoman–Hungarian Wars were a series of battles between the Ottoman Empire and the medieval Kingdom of Hungary . Following the Byzantine Civil War , the Ottoman capture of Gallipoli and the decisive Battle of Kosovo , the Ottoman Empire seemed poised to conquer the whole of the Balkans. However, the Ottoman invasion of Serbia drove Hungary to war against the Ottomans, competing for the vassalship of the states of Serbia , Wallachia and Moldavia . Initial Hungarian success culminated in the Crusade of Varna , though without significant outside support the Hungarians were defeated. Nonetheless the Ottomans suffered more defeats at Belgrade , even after the conquest of Constantinople . In particular, the infamous Vlad the Impaler who, with limited Hungarian help, resisted Ottoman rule until the Ottomans placed his brother, a man less feared and less hated by the populace, on the throne of Wallachia . Ottoman success was once again halted at Moldavia due to Hungarian intervention, but the Turks finally succee ...more...

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Great Turkish War

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The Great Turkish War ( German : Der Große Türkenkrieg ) or the War of the Holy League ( Turkish : Kutsal İttifak Savaşları ) was a series of conflicts between the Ottoman Empire and the Holy League consisting of the Habsburg Empire , Poland-Lithuania , Venice and Russia . Intensive fighting began in 1683 and ended with the signing of the Treaty of Karlowitz in 1699. The war was a defeat for the Ottoman Empire, which for the first time lost large amounts of territory. It lost lands in Hungary and Poland , as well as part of the western Balkans . The war was also significant in that it marked the first time Russia was involved in a western European alliance. Background (1667–1683) After Bohdan Khmelnytsky 's rebellion , when the Tsardom of Russia acquired parts of Eastern Ukraine from the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth , some Cossacks stayed in the southeast of the Commonwealth. Their leader, Petro Doroshenko , wanted to connect the rest of Ukraine with the Ottoman Empire , starting a rebellion against Hetman ...more...



Ottoman

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Look up Ottoman  or ottoman in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. Ottoman may refer to: Ottoman Empire , in existence from 1299 to 1923 Ottoman Caliphate , claimant to an Islamic caliphate from 1362 to 1924 Ottoman dynasty , ruling family of the Ottoman Empire Osmanoğlu family , modern members of the family Ottoman Turks , the Turkic ethnic group in the Ottoman Empire Ottoman Turkish language Ottoman (furniture) , padded stool or footstool Ottoman (textile) , fabric with a pronounced ribbed or corded effect, often made of silk or a mixture See also Otto Mann , character in The Simpsons Look up Ottoman  or ottoman in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. Ottoman may refer to: Ottoman Empire , in existence from 1299 to 1923 Ottoman Caliphate , claimant to an Islamic caliphate from 1362 to 1924 Ottoman dynasty , ruling family of the Ottoman Empire Osmanoğlu family , modern members of the family Ottoman Turks , the Turkic ethnic group in the Ottoman Empire Ottoman Turkish language Ottoman (furniture) , padded stool or f ...more...



History of Turkey

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The history of Turkey , understood as the history of the region now forming the territory of the Republic of Turkey , includes the history of both Anatolia (the Asian part of Turkey) and Eastern Thrace (the European part of Turkey). For times predating the Ottoman period, a distinction must be made between the history of the Turkish peoples , and the history of the territories now forming the Republic of Turkey, essentially the histories of ancient Anatolia and Thrace . The name Turkey is derived from Middle Latin Turchia, i.e. the "land of the Turks ", historically referring to an entirely different territory of Eastern Europe and Central Asia, which fell under the control of Turkic peoples in the early medieval period. From the time when parts of what is now Turkey was conquered by Turks , the history of Turkey spans the medieval history of the Seljuk Empire , the medieval to modern history of the Ottoman Empire , and the history of the Republic of Turkey since the 1920s. Anatolia and Thrace in antiquity An ...more...



Culture of Turkey

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The culture of Turkey combines a heavily diverse and heterogeneous set of elements that have been derived from the various cultures of the Eastern Mediterranean ( West Asian ) and Central Asian region and to a lesser degree, Eastern European, and Caucasian traditions. Many of these traditions were initially brought together by the Ottoman Empire , a multi-ethnic and multi-religious state. During the early years of the republic , the government invested a large amount of resources into fine arts such as paintings, sculpture and architecture. This was done as both a process of modernization and of creating a cultural identity. Because of the different historical factors defining the Turkish identity, the culture of Turkey combines clear efforts of modernization and Westernization undertaken in varying degrees since the 1800s, with a simultaneous desire to maintain traditional religious and historical values. People Wearing western style hats was an important aspect of the modernization process. Members of the B ...more...



Turkish

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Look up Turkish in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. Turkish usually refers to: Something of, from, or related to Turkey , a country in Eurasia. Turkish may also refer to: Historical Turkish empires Seljuk Empire (1037–1194) Seljuk Turks Seljuks of Rum Ottoman Empire ( c. 1299–1922/1923) Ottoman Turks People Turkish people , people of Turkish descent with or without Turkish citizenship, frequently referred to as Turks Turkish minorities , people of Turkish descent who have been living outside Turkey prior to its independence Turkish citizen , citizens of Turkey regardless of ethnicity In a historical context, Turkic peoples , which includes Turkish people (Turks) Turkish diaspora Languages Turkish language (modern) Old Anatolian Turkish (historical) Ottoman Turkish language (historical) Cypriot Turkish (modern) Turkish alphabet Other uses Culture of Turkey Turkish Airlines See also All pages beginning with "Turkish" Turk (disambiguation) Turkey (disambiguation) Turkic (disambiguation) Look up Turkish in Wiktio ...more...



List of Serbian–Turkish conflicts

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These Serbian–Turkish conflicts include those of medieval Serbia against the Ottoman Empire, until World War I (modern Turkey). Middle Ages Early encounters Battle of Demotika in October 1352 Battle of Sırp Sındığı in 1364 Fall of the Serbian Empire Battle of Maritsa on 26 September 1371 Battle of Dubravnica in 1381 Battle of Pločnik in 1386 Battle of Savra in 1385 Battle of Kosovo in 1389 Serbian Despotate and Ottoman rule Battle of Tripolje in 1402 Siege of Novo Brdo in 1412 Ottoman invasion of Serbia in 1425 Ottoman invasion of Serbia in 1427 Ottoman invasion of Serbia in 1437 Ottoman invasion of Serbia in 1438 Ottoman invasion of Serbia (1439–44) Crusade of Varna Battle of Nish (1443) Battle of Zlatitsa in 1443 Battle of Kunovica in1444 Ottoman invasion of Serbia (1454–55) Battle of Kruševac in 1454 Battle of Leskovac in 1454 Ottoman invasion of Serbia in 1456 Siege of Belgrade in 1456 Siege of Smederevo in 1456 Ottoman invasion and conquest of Serbia in 1459 Ottoman invasion and conquest of Bosnia in 146 ...more...



Ottoman dynasty

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The Ottoman dynasty ( Turkish : Osmanlı Hanedanı ) was made up of the members of the imperial House of Osman ( Ottoman Turkish : خاندان آل عثمان ‎ Ḫānedān-ı Āl-ı ʿO s mān). Also known as the Ottomans ( Turkish : Osmanlılar ). According to Ottoman tradition, the family originated from the Kayı tribe branch of the Oghuz Turks , under Osman I in northwestern Anatolia in the district of Bilecik Söğüt . The Ottoman dynasty, named after Osman I, ruled the Ottoman Empire from c. 1299 to 1922. During much of the Empire's history, the sultan was the absolute regent, head of state, and head of government, though much of the power often shifted to other officials such as the Grand Vizier . During the First (1876–78) and Second Constitutional Eras (1908–20) of the late Empire, a shift to constitutional monarchy was enacted, with the Grand Vizier taking on a prime ministerial role as head of government and heading an elected General Assembly . The imperial family was deposed from power and the sultanate was abolished on ...more...



Culture of the Ottoman Empire

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Ottoman culture evolved over several centuries as the ruling administration of the Turks absorbed, adapted and modified the cultures of conquered lands and their peoples. There was a strong influence from the customs and languages of Islamic societies, Turkish "the official language for the Empire, notably Arabic because of the origins of Islam, while Persian culture had a significant contribution through the heavily Persianized Seljuq Turks , the Ottomans' predecessors. Despite newer added amalgamations, the Ottoman dynasty, like their predecessors in the Sultanate of Rum and the Seljuk Empire , were thoroughly Persianised in their culture, language, habits and customs, and therefore, the empire has been described as a Persianate empire." Throughout its history, the Ottoman Empire had substantial subject populations of Orthodox subjects , Armenians , Jews and Assyrians , who were allowed a certain amount of autonomy under the confessional millet system of Ottoman government, and whose distinctive culture ...more...



Kuruş

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The kuruş ( pl .   kuruşlar ) is a Turkish currency subunit. Since 2005 , one Turkish lira is equal to 100 kuruş. The kuruş, better known as the piastre , was also the standard unit of currency in the Ottoman Empire up to 1844 and the subdivision of the former lira from then until the 1970s. It was subdivided into 40 para or 120 akçe . Name The Turkish word kuruş ( Ottoman Turkish : قروش ‎, kurûş; Greek : γρόσι , grosi or grosha) is derived from the French gros ("heavy"). It is cognate with the German groschen and Hungarian garas. The name piastre or piaster derives from the Italian piastra . History Current Turkish 50 kuruş coin The kuruş was introduced in 1688. It was initially a large, silver coin, approximately equal to the French écu , or, from other sources, to the Spanish dollar . However, during the 18th and early 19th centuries, debasement reduced the kuruş to a billon coin weighing less than 3 grams. At the beginning of the 19th century, silver coins were in circulation for 1 akçe, 1, 5, 10 and 20 ...more...



Old Anatolian Turkish

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Old Anatolian Turkish (Modern Turkish : Eski Anadolu Türkçesi ) is the stage in the history of the Turkish language spoken in Anatolia from the 11th to 15th centuries. It developed into Early Ottoman Turkish . It was written in the Arabic script . Unlike in later Ottoman Turkish, short-vowel diacritics were used. Despite this, it had no official status until in 1277, Mehmet I of Karaman declared a firman: Orthography Old Anatolian Turkish Ottoman Turkish (Kamus-ı Türkî spelling) Modern Turkish English گُزلٔر‎ گوزلر‎ Közler (Gözler) "Eyes" دَدَ‎ دده‎ Dede "Grandfather" كُچُك‎ كوچك‎ Küçük "Little" Alphabet Letter Modern Turkish Letter Modern Turkish ا ‎ a, e, i ص ‎ s ب ‎ b ض ‎ d پ‎ p ط ‎ t ت‎ t ظ‎ z ث ‎ s ع ‎ a ج ‎ c غ‎ ğ, g چ‎ ç ف ‎ f ح ‎ h ق ‎ k خ ‎ h ك ‎ k د ‎ d ل ‎ l ذ ‎ d, z م ‎ m ر ‎ r ن ‎ n ز ‎ z و ‎ o, ö, u, ü, v ژ ‎ j ه ‎ h س ‎ s لا ‎ la, le ش ‎ ş ى ‎ i, y, ı See also Ottoman Turkish language Turkish language Mehmet I of Karaman Karamanids References Old Anatolian Turkish at MultiTree on the Linguist L ...more...



Rumelia

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Map of Rumelia in 1801 Rumelia ( Ottoman Turkish : روم ايلى ‎, Rūm-ėli; Turkish : Rumeli ; in Latin Genoese documents Romania, Bosnian : Rumelija , Greek : Ρωμυλία , Romylía, or Ρούμελη, Roúmeli; Albanian : Rumelia ; Macedonian and Serbian : Румелија , Rumelija and Bulgarian : Румелия , Rumeliya), also known as Turkey in Europe , was a historical term describing the area now referred to as the Balkans (Balkan Peninsula) when it was administered by the Ottoman Empire . Etymology The term Rûm means "Roman", while Rumelia ( Turkish : Rumeli) means "Land of the Romans" in Turkish , referring to the lands conquered by the Ottoman Turks from the Byzantine Empire , at the time still known as the Roman Empire ; the neologism "Byzantine Empire" was coined only in 1557 by a German historian, Hieronymus Wolf , in his work Corpus Historiæ Byzantinæ. As such, it was long used in Greek, Turkish, Albanian and the Slavic languages to describe the lands of that empire. Originally, the Seljuk Turks used the name "Land of the ...more...



Ottoman Greeks

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Ottoman Greeks ( Greek : Οθωμανοί Έλληνες, Turkish : Osmanlı Rumları ) were ethnic Greeks who lived in the Ottoman Empire (1453–1921), the Republic of Turkey 's predecessor. Ottoman Greeks, who were Greek Orthodox Christians , belonged to the Rum Millet (Millet-i Rum). They were concentrated in what is today modern Greece, eastern Thrace (especially in and around Constantinople ), western Asia Minor (especially in and around Smyrna ), central Anatolia (especially Cappadocia ), northeastern Anatolia (especially in Erzurum vilayet , in and around Trebizond and in the Pontic Mountains , roughly corresponding to the medieval Greek kingdom of Pontus ). There were also sizeable Greek communities elsewhere in the Ottoman Balkans, Ottoman Armenia, and the Ottoman Caucasus, including in what, between 1878 and 1917, made up the Russian Caucasus province of Kars Oblast , in which Pontic Greeks , northeastern Anatolian Greeks, and Caucasus Greeks who had collaborated with the Russian Imperial Army in the Russo-Turkish Wa ...more...



Turkic languages

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The Turkic languages are a language family of at least thirty-five languages, spoken by Turkic peoples from Eastern Europe and the Mediterranean to Siberia and Western China . The Turkic languages originated in a region of East Asia spanning Western China to Mongolia, where Proto-Turkic is thought to have been spoken, according to one estimate, around 2,500 years ago, from where they expanded to Central Asia and farther west during the first millennium. Turkic languages are spoken as a native language by some 170 million people, and the total number of Turkic speakers, including second-language speakers, is over 200 million. The Turkic language with the greatest number of speakers is Turkish , spoken mainly in Anatolia and the Balkans , the native speakers of which account for about 40% of all Turkic speakers. Characteristic features of Turkish, such as vowel harmony , agglutination , and lack of grammatical gender , are universal within the Turkic family. There is also a high degree of mutual intelligi ...more...



Turkish War of Independence

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The Turkish War of Independence ( Turkish : Kurtuluş Savaşı "War of Liberation", also known figuratively as İstiklâl Harbi "Independence War" or Millî Mücadele "National Campaign"; May 19, 1919 – July 24, 1923) was fought between the Turkish National Movement and the proxies of the Allies – namely Greece on the Western front , Armenia on the Eastern , France on the Southern and with them, the United Kingdom and Italy in Constantinople (now Istanbul) – after parts of the Ottoman Empire were occupied and partitioned following the Ottomans' defeat in World War I . Few of the occupying British, French, and Italian troops had been deployed or engaged in combat. The Turkish National Movement ( Kuva-yi Milliye ) in Anatolia culminated in the formation of a new Grand National Assembly (GNA; Turkish : BMM ) by Mustafa Kemal Atatürk and his colleagues. After the end of the Turkish-Armenian , Franco-Turkish , Greco-Turkish fronts (often referred to as the Eastern Front, the Southern Front, and the Western Front of th ...more...



Demographics of Turkey

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This article is about the demographic features of the population of Turkey , including population density , ethnicity , education level, health of the populace, economic status, religious affiliations and other aspects of the population. In 2010, the population of Turkey was estimated to be 73.7 million with a growth rate of 1.21% per annum (2009 figure). The population is relatively young with 25.9% falling in the 0–14 age bracket. According to the OECD/World Bank population statistics, from 1990 to 2008 the population growth in Turkey was 16 million or 29%. Population Vital statistics UN estimates The figures from the UN Department of Economic and Social Affairs: Period Live births per year Deaths per year Natural change per year CBR CDR NC TFR IMR 1950–1955 1,108,000 431,000 677,000 48.4 18.8 29.6 6.30 167.4 1955–1960 1,237,000 485,000 752,000 46.9 18.4 28.5 6.15 163.9 1960–1965 1,328,000 529,000 799,000 44.3 17.6 26.7 6.05 160.5 1965–1970 1,355,000 562,000 792,000 40.3 16.7 23.6 5.70 156.9 1970–1975 1, ...more...



Ottoman Caliphate

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The Ottoman Caliphate , under the Ottoman dynasty of the Ottoman Empire , was the last Sunni Islamic caliphate of the late medieval and the early modern era. During the period of Ottoman growth, Ottoman rulers claimed caliphal authority since Murad I 's conquest of Edirne in 1362. Later Selim I , through conquering and unification of Muslim lands, became the defender of the Holy Cities of Mecca and Medina which further strengthened the Ottoman claim to caliphate in the Muslim world . The demise of the Ottoman Caliphate took place because of a slow erosion of power in relation to Western Europe , and because of the end of the Ottoman state in consequence of the partitioning of the Ottoman Empire by the League of Nations mandate . Abdülmecid II , the last Ottoman caliph, held his caliphal position for a couple of years after the partitioning, but with Mustafa Kemal's secular reforms and the subsequent exile of the royal Osmanoğlu family from the Republic of Turkey in 1924, the caliphal position was abolished. ...more...



Serbian–Ottoman War (1876–1878)

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The Serbian–Ottoman War or Serbo-Turkish War ( Serbian : српско-турски рат ), also known as the Wars for Independence ( ратови за независност ), was fought between the Principality of Serbia and the Ottoman Empire between 30 June 1876 and 3 March 1878. It consisted of two phases. In conjunction with the Principality of Montenegro , Serbia proclaimed its independence and declared war on the Ottoman Empire on 30 June 1876. The Serbian army was poorly trained and ill-equipped, unlike the troops of the Ottoman Empire. The offensive objectives the Serbian army sought to accomplish were overly ambitious for such a force, and they suffered a number of defeats that resulted from poor planning and chronically being spread too thin. This allowed Ottoman forces to repel the initial attacks of the Serbian army and drive them back. During the autumn of 1876, the Ottoman Empire continued their successful offensive which culminated in a victory on the heights above Đunis. In the second phase, between 13 December 1877 and 5 ...more...



Oghuz languages

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The Oghuz languages are a sub-branch of the Turkic language family , spoken by approximately 150 million people. Terminology The term "Oghuz" is applied to the southwestern branch of the Common Turkic languages , in reference to the Oghuz Turks who migrated from the Altai Mountains to Central Asia in the 8th century, and further expanded to the Middle East and to the Balkans as separate tribes. Languages Knowledge of either of the two major western Oghuz languages, Turkish or Azerbaijani, in Europe The Oghuz languages currently spoken have been classified into three groups, based on their features: a western group, comprising Istanbul Turkish , Azerbaijani , Gagauz , Balkan Gagauz Turkish , and Ottoman Turkish an eastern group, comprising Turkmen and Khorasani Turkish a southern group, comprising Qashqai , Sonqori , Aynallu , and Afshar . An outlying language, Salar , is spoken by about 70,000 people in China. Two further languages, Crimean Tatar and Urum , are Kypchak languages , but have been heavily influe ...more...



Turkish Cypriots

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Turkish Cypriots or Cypriot Turks ( Turkish : Kıbrıs Türkleri or Kıbrıslı Türkler ; Greek : Τουρκοκύπριοι ) are ethnic Turks originating from Cyprus . Following the Ottoman conquest of the island in 1571, about 30,000 Turkish settlers were given land once they arrived in Cyprus. Additionally, many of the islanders converted to Islam during the early years of Ottoman rule. Nonetheless, the influx of mainly Muslim settlers to Cyprus continued intermittently until the end of the Ottoman period. The fact that Turkish was the main language spoken by the Muslims of the island is a significant indicator that the majority of them were either Anatolian Turks or otherwise from a Turkic background which bequeathed a significant Turkish community, today's Turkish Cypriots. Today, while Northern Cyprus is home to a significant part of the Turkish Cypriot population, the majority of Turkish Cypriots live abroad, forming the Turkish Cypriot diaspora . This diaspora came into existence after the Ottoman Empire transferr ...more...



Ottoman miniature

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Ottoman miniature or Turkish miniature was an art form in the Ottoman Empire , which can be linked to the Persian miniature tradition, as well as strong Chinese artistic influences. It was a part of the Ottoman book arts, together with illumination (tezhip), calligraphy (hat), marbling paper (ebru), and bookbinding (cilt). The words taswir or nakish were used to define the art of miniature painting in Ottoman Turkish . The studios the artists worked in were called Nakkashanes. The miniatures were usually not signed, perhaps because of the rejection of individualism, but also because the works were not created entirely by one person; the head painter designed the composition of the scene, and his apprentices drew the contours (which were called tahrir) with black or colored ink and then painted the miniature without creating an illusion of third dimension. The head painter, and much more often the scribe of the text, were indeed named and depicted in some of the manuscripts. The understanding of perspective w ...more...



Turkish art

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Turkish art refers to all works of visual art originating from the geographical area of what is present day Turkey since the arrival of the Turks in the Middle Ages. Turkey also was the home of much significant art produced by earlier cultures, including the Hittites , Ancient Greeks , and Byzantines . Ottoman art is therefore to the dominant element of Turkish art before the 20th century, although the Seljuks and other earlier Turks also contributed. The 16th and 17th centuries are generally recognized as the finest period for art in the Ottoman Empire , much of it associated with the huge Imperial court. In particular the long reign of Suleiman the Magnificent from 1520–1566 brought a combination, rare in any ruling dynasty, of political and military success with strong encouragement of the arts. The nakkashane, as the palace workshops are now generally known, were evidently very important and productive, but though there is a fair amount of surviving documentation, much remains unclear about how they opera ...more...



Ottoman Cyprus

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The Eyalet of Cyprus ( Ottoman Turkish : ایالت قبرص, Eyālet-i Ḳıbrıṣ ‎) was an eyalet (province) of the Ottoman Empire made up of the island of Cyprus , which was annexed into the Empire in 1571. The Ottomans changed the way they administered Cyprus multiple times. It was a sanjak (sub-province) of the Eyalet of the Archipelago from 1670 to 1703, and again from 1784 onwards; a fief of the Grand Vizier (1703–1745 and 1748–1784); and again an eyalet for the short period from 1745 to 1748. Ottoman raids and conquest During Venetian rule, the Ottomans at times raided Cyprus. In 1489, the first year of Venetian control, Turks attacked the Karpass Peninsula , pillaging and taking captives to be sold into slavery . In 1539 the Turkish fleet attacked and destroyed Limassol . Fearing the ever-expanding Ottoman Empire , the Venetians had fortified Famagusta , Nicosia , and Kyrenia , but most other cities were easy prey. In the summer of 1570, the Turks struck again, but this time with a full-scale invasion rather t ...more...



The Ottoman Lieutenant

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The Ottoman Lieutenant is a Turkish-American World War I drama film directed by Joseph Ruben and written by Jeff Stockwell. The film stars Michiel Huisman , Hera Hilmar , Josh Hartnett and Ben Kingsley . The film was released for an Oscar -qualifying run in December 2016, and was released widely on March 10, 2017. Plot The Ottoman Lieutenant is a love story between an idealistic American nurse ( Hera Hilmar ) and a Turkish officer ( Michiel Huisman ) during World War I. Cast Michiel Huisman as Ismail Veli, a lieutenant in the Ottoman Imperial Army Hera Hilmar as Lillie Rowe, an idealistic American nurse Josh Hartnett as Jude, an American doctor Ben Kingsley as Dr. Garrett Woodruff Haluk Bilginer as Halil Bey Production The motion picture commenced principal photography in Prague , Czech Republic in April 2015, and also filmed in Cappadocia and Istanbul , Turkey and completed filming in July 2015. The film's music score was composed by Geoff Zanelli. Reception Critical response The Ottoman Lieutenant was large ...more...



Turkey

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Turkey (  (   listen ) ; Turkish : Türkiye ), officially the Republic of Turkey (Turkish:   Türkiye Cumhuriyeti   ; pronounced  ), is a transcontinental country in Eurasia , mainly in Anatolia in Western Asia , with a smaller portion on the Balkan peninsula in Southeast Europe . Turkey is bordered by eight countries with Greece and Bulgaria to the northwest; Georgia to the northeast; Armenia , the Azerbaijani exclave of Nakhchivan and Iran to the east; and Iraq and Syria to the south. The country is encircled by seas on three sides with the Aegean Sea to the west, the Black Sea to the north, and the Mediterranean Sea to the south. The Bosphorus , the Sea of Marmara , and the Dardanelles , which together form the Turkish Straits , divide Thrace and Anatolia and separate Europe and Asia. Ankara is the capital while Istanbul is the country's largest city and main cultural and commercial centre. Approximately 70-80% of the country's citizens identify themselves as ethnic Turks . Kurds are the largest minority ...more...



Flag of Turkey

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The flag of Turkey ( Turkish : Türk bayrağı ) is a red flag featuring a white star and crescent . The flag is often called al bayrak (the red flag), and is referred to as al sancak (the red banner) in the Turkish national anthem . The current design of the Turkish flag is directly derived from the late Ottoman flag , which had been adopted in the late 18th century and acquired its final form in 1844. The measures, geometric proportions, and exact tone of red of the flag of Turkey were legally standardized with the Turkish Flag Law on May 29, 1936. Early history The pre-modern Ottoman armies used the horse-tail standard or tugh rather than flags. Such standards remained in use alongside flags until the 19th century. A depiction of a tugh is found in the Relation d'un voyage du Levant by Joseph Pitton de Tournefort (1718). War flags came into use by the 16th century. During the 16th and 17th centuries, Ottoman war flags often depicted the bifurcated Zulfiqar sword, often misinterpreted in Western literature as ...more...



Ottoman Greece

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Most of the areas which today are within modern Greece 's borders were at some point in the past a part of the Ottoman Empire . This period of Ottoman rule in Greece, lasting from the mid-15th century until the successful Greek War of Independence that broke out in 1821 and the proclamation of the First Hellenic Republic in 1822 (preceded by the creation of the autonomous Septinsular Republic in 1800), is known in Greek as Tourkokratia ( Greek : Τουρκοκρατία , "Turkish rule"; English: "Turkocracy"). Some regions, however, like the Ionian islands , various temporary Venetian possessions of the Stato da Mar , or Mani peninsula in Peloponnese did not become part of the Ottoman administration, although the latter was under Ottoman suzerainty . The Byzantine Empire , the remnant of the ancient Roman Empire which ruled most of the Greek-speaking world for over 1100 years, had been fatally weakened since the sacking of Constantinople by the Latin Crusaders in 1204. The Ottoman advance into Greece was preceded by vi ...more...



Defeat and dissolution of the Ottoman Empire

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The period of defeat and dissolution of the Ottoman Empire (1908–1922) began with the Second Constitutional Era with the Young Turk Revolution . It restored the Ottoman constitution of 1876 and brought in multi-party politics with a two stage electoral system ( electoral law ) under the Ottoman parliament . The constitution offered hope by freeing the empire’s citizens to modernize the state’s institutions and dissolve inter-communal tensions. Instead, this period became the story of the twilight struggle of the Empire. Ottoman military reforms resulted in the Ottoman Army engaging in the Italo-Turkish War (1911), the Balkan Wars (1912–1913), and the continuous unrest caused by the Ottoman countercoup of 1909 , which preceded the 31 March Incident (Restoration, 1909) and 1912 Ottoman coup d'état (Saviours) and the 1913 Ottoman coup d'état in the Empire up to World War I . The Ottoman entry into World War I in the Middle Eastern theatre ended with the partition of the Ottoman Empire under the terms of the Trea ...more...



Armenians in Turkey

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Armenians in Turkey ( Turkish : Türkiye Ermenileri ; Armenian : Թուրքահայեր, also Թրքահայեր , "Turkish Armenians"), one of the indigenous peoples of Turkey , have an estimated population of 50,000 to 70,000, down from more than 2 million in 1914. Today, the overwhelming majority of Turkish Armenians are concentrated in Istanbul . They support their own newspapers and schools, and the majority belong to the Armenian Apostolic faith. Until the Armenian Genocide of 1915, most of the Armenian population of Turkey (then the Ottoman Empire ) lived in the eastern parts of the country that Armenians call Western Armenia (roughly corresponding to the modern Eastern Anatolia Region ). History Armenians living in Turkey today are a remnant of what was once a much larger community that existed for thousands of years, long before the establishment of the Sultanate of Rum . Estimates for the number of Armenian citizens of the Ottoman Empire in the decade before World War I range between 1.3 (official Ottoman data) and 3 ...more...



Women in Turkey

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The role of women in contemporary Turkey is defined by an ongoing gender equality struggle, contributing elements of which include predicate conditions for EU membership candidacy, prevalent political tides that favour restrictive patriarchal models, and woman's rights activism. Women in Turkey continue to be the victims of rape and honor killings ; furthermore research by scholars and government agencies indicate widespread domestic violence in Turkish population. Women in Turkey also face significant disparities in employment, and, in some regions, education. The participation of Turkish women in the labor force is less than half of that of the European Union average and while several campaigns have been successfully undertaken to promote female literacy, there is still a gender gap in secondary education and an increasing gender gap in higher education. There is also widespread occurrence of childhood marriages in Turkey , the practice being especially widespread in the eastern and central parts of the ...more...



Greco-Turkish War (1897)

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The Greco-Turkish War of 1897 , also called the Thirty Days' War and known in Greece as the Black '97 ( Greek : Μαύρο '97 , Mauro '97) or the Unfortunate War (Ατυχής πόλεμος, Atychis polemos) ( Turkish : 1897 Osmanlı-Yunan Savaşı or 1897 Türk-Yunan Savaşı), was a war fought between the Kingdom of Greece and the Ottoman Empire . Its immediate cause was the question over the status of the Ottoman province of Crete , whose Greek majority long desired union with Greece. Despite the Ottoman victory at the field, an autonomous Cretan State under Ottoman suzerainty was established the following year (as a result of the intervention of the Great Powers after the war), with Prince George of Greece and Denmark as its first High Commissioner . This was the first war effort in which the military and political personnel of Greece were put to test since the Greek War of Independence in 1821. For the Ottoman Empire, this was also the first war effort in which the reorganized military personnel were put to test. The Ottoman ...more...



Italo-Turkish War

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The Italo-Turkish or Turco-Italian War ( Turkish : Trablusgarp Savaşı , " Tripolitanian War"; also known in Italy as Guerra di Libia, " Libyan War") was fought between the Kingdom of Italy and the Ottoman Empire from September 29, 1911, to October 18, 1912. As a result of this conflict, Italy captured the Ottoman Tripolitania Vilayet (province), of which the main sub-provinces (sanjaks) were Fezzan , Cyrenaica , and Tripoli itself. These territories together formed what became known as Italian Libya . During the conflict, Italian forces also occupied the Dodecanese islands in the Aegean Sea . Italy had agreed to return the Dodecanese to the Ottoman Empire in the Treaty of Ouchy in 1912 (also known as the First (1912) Treaty of Lausanne). However, the vagueness of the text allowed a provisional Italian administration of the islands, and Turkey eventually renounced all claims on these islands in Article 15 of the 1923 Treaty of Lausanne . Although minor, the war was a significant precursor of the First World W ...more...




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