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Ottoman Turkish language

Ottoman Turkish , or the Ottoman language (لسان عثمانى‎‎, Lisân-ı Osmânî, also known as تركجه‎, Türkçe or تركی‎, Türkî, "Turkish"), is the variety of the Turkish language that was used in the Ottoman Empire. It borrows, in all aspects, extensively from Arabic and Persian, and it was written in the Ottoman Turkish alphabet. During the peak of Ottoman power, Persian and Arabic vocabulary accounted for up to 88% of its vocabulary,[2] while words of Arabic origins heavily outnumbered native Turkish words.[3]

Consequently, Ottoman Turkish was largely unintelligible to the less-educated lower-class and rural Turks, who continued to use kaba Türkçe ("raw/vulgar Turkish", as in Vulgar Latin), which used far fewer foreign loanwords and is the basis of the modern Turkish language.[4] The Tanzimât era saw the application of the term "Ottoman" when referring to the language (لسان عثمانیlisân-ı Osmânî or عثمانليجهOsmanlıca) and the same distinction is made in Modern Turkish (Osmanlıca and Osmanlı Türkçesi).

Grammar
A poem about Rumi in Ottoman Turkish.
Cases
  • Nominative case: كولgöl ("the lake", "a lake"), چوربهçorba ("Chorba"), گجهgece ("night").[5]
  • Accusative case (indefinite): طاوشان گترمشṭavşan getirmiş ("he brought a rabbit"). No suffix.
  • Genitive case: answers the question كمڭkimiñ ("whose?"), formed with the suffix ڭ–ıñ, –iñ, –uñ, –üñ. E.g. پاشانڭpaşanıñ ("the pasha's") from پاشاpaşa ("pasha").
  • Accusative case (definite): answers the question كمىkimi ("whom?") and نه يىneyi ("what?"), formed with the suffix ى–ı, -i: طاوشانى گترمشṭavşanı getürmiş ("he brought the rabbit"). The variant suffix –u, –ü does not occur in Ottoman Turkish unlike in Modern Turkish because of the lack of labial vowel harmony. Thus, كولىgöli ("the lake".ACC), but Modern Turkish has gölü.
  • Dative case:
  • Locative case: answers the question نره دهnerede ("where?"), formed with the suffix ده–de, –da: مكتبدهmektebde ("at school"), قفصدهḳafeṣde ("in a cage"), باشدهbaşda ("at the start"), شهردهşehirde ("in town"). As with the indefinite accusative case, the variant suffix –te, –ta does not occur unlike in Modern Turkish.
  • Ablative case: answers the questions نره دنnereden ("from where?") and ندنneden ("why?").
  • Instrumental case: answers the question نه ايلهne ile ("with what?").
Verbs

The conjugation for the aorist tense is as follows:

Person Singular Plural
1 -irim -iriz
2 -irsiŋ -irsiŋiz
3 -ir -irler
Structure

Ottoman Turkish was highly influenced by Arabic and Persian. Arabic and Persian words in the language amounted for up to 88% of its vocabulary.[2] As in most other Turkic and other foreign languages of Islamic communities, the Arabic borrowings were not originally the result of a direct exposure of Ottoman Turkish to Arabic, a fact that is evidenced by the typically Persian phonological mutation of the words of Arabic origin.[6] [7] [8]

The conservation of archaic phonological features of the Arabic borrowings furthermore suggests that Arabic-incorporated Persian was absorbed into pre-Ottoman Turkic at an early stage, when the speakers were still located to the northeast of Persia, prior to the westward migration of the Islamic Turkic tribes. An additional argument for this is that Ottoman Turkish shares the Persian character of its Arabic borrowings with other Turkic languages that had even less interaction with Arabic, such as Tatar and Uyghur. From the early ages of the Ottoman Empire, borrowings from Arabic and Persian were so abundant that original Turkish words were hard to find.[9] In Ottoman, one may find whole passages in Arabic and Persian incorporated into the text.[9] It was however not only extensive loaning of words, but along with them much of the grammatical systems of Persian and Arabic.[9]

In a social and pragmatic sense, there were (at least) three variants of Ottoman Turkish:

  • Fasih Türkçe (Eloquent Turkish): the language of poetry and administration, Ottoman Turkish in its strict sense;
  • Orta Türkçe (Middle Turkish): the language of higher classes and trade;
  • Kaba Türkçe (Rough Turkish): the language of lower classes.

A person would use each of the varieties above for different purposes, with the fasih variant being the most heavily suffused with Arabic and Persian words and kaba the least. For example, a scribe would use the Arabic asel (عسل) to refer to honey when writing a document but would use the native Turkish word bal when buying it.

History

Historically, Ottoman Turkish was transformed in three eras:

  • Eski Osmanlı Türkçesi (Old Ottoman Turkish): the version of Ottoman Turkish used until the 16th century. It was almost identical with the Turkish used by Seljuks and Anatolian beyliks and was often regarded as part of Eski Anadolu Türkçesi (Old Anatolian Turkish).
  • Orta Osmanlı Türkçesi (Middle Ottoman Turkish) or Klasik Osmanlıca (Classical Ottoman Turkish): the language of poetry and administration from the 16th century until Tanzimat. It is the version of Ottoman Turkish that comes to most people's minds.
  • Yeni Osmanlı Türkçesi (New Ottoman Turkish): the version shaped from the 1850s to the 20th century under the influence of journalism and Western-oriented literature.
Language reform

In 1928, following the fall of the Ottoman Empire after World War I and the establishment of Republic of Turkey, widespread language reforms (a part in the greater framework of Atatürk's Reforms) instituted by Mustafa Kemal Atatürk saw the replacement of many Persian and Arabic origin loanwords in the language with their Turkish equivalents. It also saw the replacement of the Perso-Arabic script with the extended Latin alphabet. The changes were meant to encourage the growth of a new variety of written Turkish that more closely reflected the spoken vernacular and to foster a new variety of spoken Turkish that reinforced Turkey's new national identity as being a post-Ottoman state.

See the list of replaced loanwords in Turkish for more examples on Ottoman Turkish words and their modern Turkish counterparts. Two examples of Arabic and two of Persian loanwords are found below.

English Ottoman Modern Turkish
obligatory واجب vâcib zorunlu
hardship مشكل müşkül güçlük
city شهر şehir kent (also şehir)
war حرب harb savaş
Legacy

Historically speaking, Ottoman Turkish is not the predecessor of modern Turkish. Rather, the standard Turkish of today is essentially Türkiye Türkçesi (Turkish of Turkey) as written in the Latin alphabet and with an abundance of neologisms added, which means there are now far fewer loan words from other languages. However, Ottoman was not instantly transformed into the Turkish of today. At first, it was only the script that was changed, and while some households continued to use the Arabic system in private, most of the Turkish population was illiterate at the time, making the switch to the Latin alphabet much easier. Then, loan words were taken out, and new words fitting the growing amount of technology were introduced. Until the 1960s, Ottoman Turkish was at least partially intelligible with the Turkish of that day. One major difference between modern Turkish and Ottoman Turkish is the former's abandonment of compound word formation according to Arabic and Persian grammar rules. The usage of such phrases still exists in modern Turkish but only to a very limited extent and usually in specialist contexts; for example, the Persian genitive construction takdîr-i ilâhî (which reads literally as "the preordaining of the divine" and translates as "divine dispensation" or "destiny") is used, as opposed to the normative modern Turkish construction, ilâhî takdîr (literally, "divine preordaining").

Writing system
Calendar in Thessaloniki 1896, a cosmopolitan city; the first three lines in Ottoman script

Most Ottoman Turkish was written in the Ottoman Turkish alphabet (elifbâ الفبا), a variant of the Perso-Arabic script. The Armenian, Greek and Rashi script of Hebrew were sometimes used by Armenians, Greeks and Jews.

Numbers
1
بر
bir
2
ایكی
iki
3
اوچ
üç
4
درت
dört
5
بش
beş
6
آلتی
altı
7
یدی
yedi
8
سكز
sekiz
9
طقوز
dokuz
10
اون
on
11
اون بر
on bir
12
اون ایکی
on iki

[10]

Transliterations

The transliteration system of the İslâm Ansiklopedisi has become a de facto standard in Oriental studies for the transliteration of Ottoman Turkish texts.[11] Concerning transcription the New Redhouse, Karl Steuerwald and Ferit Develioğlu dictionaries have become standard.[12] Another transliteration system is the Deutsche Morgenländische Gesellschaft (DMG), which provides a transliteration system for any Turkic language written in Arabic script.[13] There are not many differences between the İA and the DMG transliteration systems.

İA-Transliteration[14]
ا‎
ب‎ پ‎ ت‎ ث‎ ج‎ چ‎ ح‎ خ‎ د‎ ذ‎ ر‎ ز‎ ژ‎ س‎ ش‎ ص‎ ض‎ ط‎ ظ‎ ع‎ غ‎ ف‎ ق‎
ك‎
گ‎ ڭ‎ ل‎ م‎ ن‎ و‎ ه‎ ی‎
ʾ a b p t c ç d r z j s ş ż ʿ ġ f q k g ñ ğ g ñ l m n v h y
See also
References
  1. "Turkey - Language Reform: From Ottoman To Turkish". Countrystudies.us. Retrieved 24 May 2016.
  2. Bertold Spuler. Persian Historiography & Geography Pustaka Nasional Pte Ltd ISBN 9971774887 p 69
  3. [1] Ottomans
  4. Glenny, Misha. The Balkans - Nationalism, War, and the Great Powers, 1804-1999, Penguin, New York 2001. p. 99.
  5. Some words in Ottoman Turkish were spelled with the Arabic ك, normally pronounced as , were pronounced as .
  6. Percy Ellen Algernon Frederick William Smythe Strangford, Percy Clinton Sydney Smythe Strangford, Emily Anne Beaufort Smythe Strangford, “Original Letters and Papers of the late Viscount Strangford upon Philological and Kindred Subjects”, Published by Trübner, 1878. pg 46: “The Arabic words in Turkish have all decidedly come through a Persian channel. I can hardly think of an exception, except in quite late days, when Arabic words have been used in Turkish in a different sense from that borne by them in Persian.”
  7. M. Sukru Hanioglu, “A Brief History of the Late Ottoman Empire”, Published by Princeton University Press, 2008. p. 34: “It employed a predominant Turkish syntax, but was heavily influenced by Persian and (initially through Persian) Arabic.
  8. Pierre A. MacKay, "The Fountain at Hadji Mustapha," Hesperia, Vol. 36, No. 2 (Apr. - Jun., 1967), pp. 193-195: "The immense Arabic contribution to the lexicon of Ottoman Turkish came rather through Persian than directly, and the sound of Arabic words in Persian syntax would be far more familiar to a Turkish ear than correct Arabic".
  9. Korkut Bugday. An Introduction to Literary Ottoman Routledge, 5 dec. 2014 ISBN 978-1134006557 p XV.
  10. https://archive.org/stream/ottomanturkishco00hago#page/34/mode/2up/search/numerals
  11. Korkut Buğday Osmanisch, p. 2
  12. Korkut Buğday Osmanisch, p. 13
  13. Transkriptionskommission der DMG Die Transliteration der arabischen Schrift in ihrer Anwendung auf die Hauptliteratursprachen der islamischen Welt, p. 9
  14. Korkut Buğday Osmanisch, p. 2f.
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Ottoman Turkish language

topic

Ottoman Turkish , or the Ottoman language ( لسان عثمانى‎ ‎, Lisân-ı Osmânî , also known as تركجه ‎, Türkçe or تركی ‎, Türkî , "Turkish"), is the variety of the Turkish language that was used in the Ottoman Empire . It borrows, in all aspects, extensively from Arabic and Persian , and it was written in the Ottoman Turkish alphabet . During the peak of Ottoman power, Persian and Arabic vocabulary accounted for up to 88% of its vocabulary, while words of Arabic origins heavily outnumbered native Turkish words. Consequently, Ottoman Turkish was largely unintelligible to the less-educated lower-class and rural Turks, who continued to use kaba Türkçe ("raw/vulgar Turkish", as in Vulgar Latin ), which used far fewer foreign loanwords and is the basis of the modern Turkish language. The Tanzimât era saw the application of the term "Ottoman" when referring to the language ( لسان عثمانی ‎ lisân-ı Osmânî or عثمانليجه ‎ Osmanlıca ) and the same distinction is made in Modern Turkish ( Osmanlıca and Osmanlı Türkçesi ). G



Ottoman Turkish alphabet

topic

The Ottoman Turkish alphabet ( Ottoman Turkish : الفبا ‎ elifbâ ) is a version of the Perso-Arabic alphabet used to write Ottoman Turkish until 1928, when it was replaced by the Latin-based modern Turkish alphabet . Though Ottoman Turkish was primarily written in this script, non-Muslim Ottoman subjects sometimes wrote it in other scripts, including the Armenian , Greek , Latin and Hebrew alphabets . History Origins The earliest known Turkic alphabet is the Orkhon script . The various Turkic languages have been written in a number of different alphabets, including Cyrillic , Arabic , Greek , Latin , and some other Asiatic writing systems. The Ottoman Turkish alphabet is a Turkish form of the Perso-Arabic script. Well suited to writing Arabic and Persian borrowings, it was poorly suited to native Turkish words. When it came to consonants, Arabic has several consonants that do not exist in Turkish (or Persian ), making several Arabic letters superfluous except for Arabic loanwords; conversely, a few letters had



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Rumelia

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Map of Rumelia in 1801 Rumelia ( Ottoman Turkish : روم ايلى ‎, Rūm-ėli; Turkish : Rumeli ; in Latin Genoese documents Romania, Bosnian : Rumelija , Greek : Ρωμυλία , Romylía, or Ρούμελη, Roúmeli; Albanian : Rumelia ; Macedonian and Serbian : Румелија , Rumelija and Bulgarian : Румелия , Rumeliya), also known as Turkey in Europe , was a historical term describing the area now referred to as the Balkans (Balkan Peninsula) when it was administered by the Ottoman Empire . Etymology The term Rûm means "Roman", while Rumelia ( Turkish : Rumeli) means "Land of the Romans" in Turkish , referring to the lands conquered by the Ottoman Turks from the Byzantine Empire , at the time still known as the Roman Empire ; the neologism "Byzantine Empire" was coined only in 1557 by a German historian, Hieronymus Wolf , in his work Corpus Historiæ Byzantinæ. As such, it was long used in Greek, Turkish, Albanian and the Slavic languages to describe the lands of that empire. Originally, the Seljuk Turks used the name "Land of the



Ottoman Crete

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Veli Pasha mosque in Rethymno The island of Crete ( Ottoman Turkish : گریت ‎ Girīt) was declared an Ottoman province ( eyalet ) in 1646, after the Ottomans managed to conquer the western part of the island as part of the Cretan War , but the Venetians maintained their hold on the capital Candia until 1669, when Francesco Morosini surrendered the keys of the town. The offshore island fortresses of Souda , Granbousa , and Spinalonga would remain under Venetian rule until in 1715, when they too were captured by the Ottomans . Crete took part in the Greek War of Independence , but the local uprising was suppressed with the aid of Muhammad Ali of Egypt . The island remained under Egyptian control until 1840, when it was restored to full Ottoman authority. Following the Cretan Revolt of 1866–69 and especially the Pact of Halepa in 1878, the island received significant autonomy, but Ottoman violations of the autonomy statutes and Cretan aspirations for eventual union with the Kingdom of Greece led to the Cretan R



Ottoman Bank

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The Ottoman Bank ( Turkish : Osmanlı Bankası ) (formerly Imperial Ottoman Bank, Ottoman Turkish : Bank-ı Osmanî-i Şahane ‎) was founded in 1856 in the Galata business section of İstanbul , the capital of the Ottoman Empire , as a joint venture between British interests, the Banque de Paris et des Pays-Bas of France , and the Ottoman government. The opening capital of the Bank consisted of 135,000 shares, 80,000 of which were bought by the English group, and 50,000 of which by the French group, whereas 5,000 shares were allocated to the Ottomans. It operated as the Imperial Ottoman Bank from 1863 to 1924. Privileged as a state bank, it carried out the functions of a central bank . In June 1996, the Ottoman Bank was sold to the Doguş Group , from which point on its banking activities were centred primarily in Turkey . In 2001, the Ottoman Bank became part of the Garanti Bank . History The Ottoman Bank Archives and Research Centre, former head office of the Ottoman Bank, Istanbul . On February 4, 1863, seven yea



Bey

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Bey ( Ottoman Turkish : بك ‎ / Bey, Albanian : bej , Bosnian : beg , Arabic : بيه ‎‎ / Beye, Persian : بگ ‎‎ / Beg or Beyg) is a Turkish title for chieftain , traditionally applied to the leaders or rulers of various sized areas in the Ottoman empire. The feminine equivalent title was Begum . The regions or provinces where "beys" ruled or which they administered were called beylik, roughly meaning "khanate", "emirate" or "principality" in the first case, "province" or "governorate" in the second (the equivalent of duchy in other parts of Europe). Today, the word is still used informally as a social title for men (somewhat like the English word " mister " and the French word monsieur , which literally means "my lord"). Unlike "mister" however, it follows the name and is used generally with first names and not with last names. Etymology The word entered English from Turkish bey, itself derived from Old Turkic beg, which - in the form bäg - has been mentioned as early as in the Orkhon inscriptions (8th century



Ottoman Sign Language

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Ottoman Sign Language , also known as Seraglio Sign Language or Harem Sign Language , was a deaf sign language of the Ottoman court in Istanbul. Nothing is known of it directly, but it is reported that it could communicate ideas of any complexity, and that it was passed on to the young through fables, histories, and scripture. In 16th and 17th centuries, deaf pages, doormen, executioners, and companions of the sultan were valued for their ability to communicate silently, for their inability to overhear sensitive information at secret negotiations, and for the difficulty outsiders had in communicating with them or bribing them. At court, silence was at a premium, and several sultans preferred that sign language be used in their presence; they were able to jest with them in a way that would be inappropriately familiar in Turkish. Osman II (r. 1618–1622) was perhaps the first sultan to learn to sign, and ordered many of the hearing of his court to follow his lead. At their height, there may have been over a hund



Chamber of Deputies (Ottoman Empire)

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March of the Deputies Turkish: Mebusan Marşı The anthem of the Chamber of Deputies, performed at its reopening in 1909. The lyrics reference the contemporary 1908 Young Turk Revolution leaders Ahmed Niyazi Bey and Enver Pasha , as well as republicans of the previous generation, Namık Kemal and Midhat Pasha . ( Hendecasyllable ). Problems playing this file? See media help . The Chamber of Deputies ( Ottoman Turkish : مجلس مبعوثان ‎; Turkish : Meclis-i Mebusân or Mebuslar Meclisi) of the Ottoman Empire was the lower house of the General Assembly , the Ottoman parliament. Unlike to the upper house, the Senate , the members of the Chamber of Deputies were elected by the general Ottoman populace, although suffrage was limited to males of a certain financial standing, among other restrictions that varied over the Chamber's lifetime. First Constitutional Era (1876–1878) In the First Constitutional Era , which only lasted for two years from 1876 to 1878, the initial selection of Deputies was made by the directly ele



Turkish lira

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The Turkish lira ( Turkish : Türk lirası ; sign : ₺ ; code : TRY ; usually abbreviated as TL ) is the currency of Turkey and the Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus . The Turkish lira is subdivided into 100 kuruş . History Ottoman lira (1844–1923) The lira, along with the related currencies of Europe and the Middle East, has its roots in the ancient Roman unit of weight known as the libra which referred to the Troy pound of silver. The Roman libra adoption of the currency spread it throughout Europe and the Near East, where it continued to be used into medieval times. The Turkish lira, the French livre (until 1794), the Italian lira (until 2002), and the British pound (a translated version of the Roman libra; the word "pound" as a unit of weight is still abbreviated as "lb.") are the modern descendants of the ancient currency. The Ottoman lira was introduced as the main unit of currency in 1844, with the former currency, kuruş , remaining as a   ⁄ subdivision. The Ottoman lira remained in circulation until t



Naval Academy (Turkey)

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The Turkish Naval Academy ( Turkish : Deniz Harp Okulu ) is a four-year co-educational military academy located in the district of Tuzla in Istanbul. Its mission is to develop cadets mentally and physically for service as commissioned officers in the Turkish Navy . It must not be confused with Naval War College (Deniz Harp Akademisi) For the education and training at the Turkish Naval Academy, graduates from the Turkish Naval High School (Deniz Lisesi) are admitted without an examination, whereas civilian high school graduates majored in mathematics and science may also be admitted if needed. History Foundation The roots of the Naval Academy goes back to 1773, when a naval school under the name of "Naval Engineering at Golden Horn Naval Shipyard" was founded during the reign of Sultan Mustafa III on the command of Grand Vizier and Admiral Cezayirli Gazi Hasan Pasha . François Baron de Tott , a French officer and advisor to the Ottoman military, was appointed for the establishment of a course to provide educat



State organisation of the Ottoman Empire

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The Ottoman Empire developed over the centuries a complex organization of government with the Sultan as the supreme ruler of a centralized government that had an effective control of its provinces, officials and inhabitants. Wealth and rank could be inherited but were just as often earned. Positions were perceived as titles such as viziers and aghas . Military service was a key to advancement in the hierarchy . The expansion of the Empire called for a systematic administrative organization that developed into a dual system of military ("Central Government") and civil administration ("Provincial System") developed a kind of separation of powers with most higher executive functions carried out by the military authorities and judicial and basic administration carried out by civil authorities. Outside this system were various types of vassal and tributary states. Most of the areas ruled by the Ottomans were explicitly mentioned in the official full style of the sultan, including various lofty titles adopted to em



List of admirals in the Ottoman Empire

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These Admirals of the Ottoman Empire are senior naval officers ( Ottoman Turkish : reis ‎ or reis pasha) of the Ottoman Empire other than the Kapudan Pashas who were the Grand Admirals of the Ottoman fleet. Aydın Reis (died 1535) Ebubekir Pasha (1670 – 1757/1758) Hasan Rami Pasha (1842–1923) Kemal Reis (c. 1451 – 1511) Kurtoğlu Hızır Reis (16th century) Murat Reis (c. 1534–1609) Oruç Reis (c. 1474–1518) Piri Reis (1465/70–1553) Seydi Ali Reis (1498–1563) Turgut Reis (1485 – 23 June 1565) See also Kapudan Pasha List of Kapudan Pashas References The Ottoman rank reis could refer either to captains or admirals . These Admirals of the Ottoman Empire are senior naval officers ( Ottoman Turkish : reis ‎ or reis pasha) of the Ottoman Empire other than the Kapudan Pashas who were the Grand Admirals of the Ottoman fleet. Aydın Reis (died 1535) Ebubekir Pasha (1670 – 1757/1758) Hasan Rami Pasha (1842–1923) Kemal Reis (c. 1451 – 1511) Kurtoğlu Hızır Reis (16th century) Murat Reis (c. 1534–1609) Oruç Reis (c. 1474–1518



Territorial evolution of the Ottoman Empire

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This is the territorial evolution of the Ottoman Empire during a timespan of seven centuries. 1300 Territorial changes of the Ottoman Empire 1300 The origins of the Ottomans can be traced back to the late 11th century when a few small Muslim emirates of Turkic origins and nomadic nature—called Beyliks —started to be found in different parts of Anatolia . Their main role was to defend Seljuk border areas with the Byzantine Empire —a role reinforced by the migration of many Turks to Asia Minor. However, in 1073 and following the victory of the Seljuk Sultanate of Rûm over the Byzantines at the Battle of Manzikert , Beyliks sought an opportunity to override the Seljuk authority and declare their own sovereignty openly. While the Byzantine Empire was to continue for nearly another four centuries, and the Crusades would contest the issue for some time, the victory at Manzikert signalled the beginning of Turkic ascendancy in Anatolia. The subsequent weakening of the Byzantine Empire and the political rivalry betwe



Short-lived Ottoman provinces

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Among the many Ottoman provinces ( eyalets or vilayets ) that were created during the centuries-long history of the Ottoman Empire, some existed for relatively short amounts of time, either because they were ceded to foreign powers, obtained independence, or were simply merged with other provinces. Eyalets The Eyalet of Tiflis was taken from Kartli in 1578/9, but the country proved difficult to subdue: Tiflis was lost in 1583, the Ottomans then lost the whole land except for Lori and Gori , and both were made eyalets in place of Tiflis, but were later lost in 1590 and 1599 respectively. The Eyalet of Kakheti was nominally an eyalet in 1578, when King Alexander was made a beylerbeyi of his own kingdom . The Eyalet of Shirvan existed from 1578 to 1604, it had previously been an Ottoman vassal for some years after 1533. The Eyalet of Dagestan was conquered in 1578 and remained an eyalet until the beginning of the next century. The Eyalet of Saruhan was an eyalet of the Ottoman Empire from 1845 to 1847. The Eyale



Ottoman Old Regime

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The Ottoman Empire in 1699, following the Treaty of Karlowitz at the end of the War of the Holy League . The history of the Ottoman Empire in the 18th century has classically been described as one of stagnation and reform . In analogy with 18th-century France , it is also known as the Ancien Régime or "Old Regime", contrasting with the "New Regime" of the Nizam-i Cedid and Tanzimat in the 19th century. The period characterized as one of decentralization in the Ottoman political system. Political and economic reforms enacted during the preceding War of the Holy League (1683-1699), particularly the sale of life-term tax farms ( Ottoman Turkish : malikāne ‎) instituted in 1695, enabled provincial figures to achieve an unprecedented degree of influence in Ottoman politics. This decentralization had once led historians to believe that the Ottoman Empire was in decline during this period, part of the larger and now-debunked Ottoman Decline Thesis , but it is now recognized that the Ottomans were successfully able



Ottoman classical music

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Music band from Ottoman Aleppo, mid 18th century Classical Turkish music ( Turkish : Türk sanat müziği , "Turkish art music"; or Klasik Türk müziği, "Classical Turkish music"), sometimes known as Ottoman classical music , developed in Istanbul and other major Ottoman cities and towns through the palaces and Sufi lodges of the Ottoman Empire . Above all a vocal music, Ottoman music traditionally accompanies a solo singer with a small instrumental ensemble. In recent times, instruments might include tambur (lute), ney (flute), kemençe (fiddle), keman (Western violin), kanun (zither), or other instruments. Sometimes described as monophonic music, the variety of ornamentation and variation in the ensemble requires the more accurate term heterophonic . Overview Ottoman music has a large and varied system of modes or scales known as makams , and other rules of composition. There are more than 600 makams that have been used so far. Out of these, at least 119 makams are formally defined, but today only around 20 mak



List of replaced loanwords in Turkish

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Contemporary Turkish includes Ottoman Turkish loanwords —mostly of Arabic and French , but also Persian , Greek , and Italian origin—which were officially replaced with their Turkish counterparts suggested by the Turkish Language Association ( Turkish : Türk Dil Kurumu , TDK) as a part of the cultural reforms—in the broader framework of Atatürk's Reforms —following the foundation of Republic of Turkey . The TDK, established by Atatürk in 1932 in order to conduct research on the Turkish language, also undertook the initiative to replace Arabic and Persian loanwords with their Turkish counterparts. The Association succeeded in removing several hundred Arabic words from the language. While most of the words introduced into the language in this process were newly derived from existing Turkish verbal roots, TDK also suggested using old Turkish words which had not been used in the language for centuries; like yanıt, birey, gözgü. Some words were used before language reform too but they were used much less than the



Turkish alphabet

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The Turkish alphabet ( Turkish : Türk Alfabesi ) is a Latin-script alphabet used for writing the Turkish language , consisting of 29 letters, seven of which ( Ç , Ş , Ğ , I, İ , Ö , Ü ) have been modified from their Latin originals for the phonetic requirements of the language. This alphabet represents modern Turkish pronunciation with a high degree of accuracy and specificity. It is the current official alphabet and the latest in a series of distinct alphabets used in different eras. Letters The letters of the Turkish alphabet are: Of these 29 letters, eight are vowels ( A , E , I, İ , O , Ö , U , Ü ); the other 21 are consonants. The letters Q , W , and X of the ISO basic Latin alphabet do not occur in the Turkish alphabet (replacements for these letters are K , V and KS ), while dotted and dotless I are distinct letters in Turkish so that "i" does not become "I" when capitalized. Turkish also adds a circumflex over the back vowels ⟨â⟩ and ⟨û⟩ following ⟨k⟩, ⟨g⟩, or ⟨l⟩ when these consonants represent , , a



Culture of the Ottoman Empire

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Ottoman culture evolved over several centuries as the ruling administration of the Turks absorbed, adapted and modified the cultures of conquered lands and their peoples. There was a strong influence from the customs and languages of Islamic societies, Turkish "the official language for the Empire, notably Arabic because of the origins of Islam, while Persian culture had a significant contribution through the heavily Persianized Seljuq Turks , the Ottomans' predecessors. Despite newer added amalgamations, the Ottoman dynasty, like their predecessors in the Sultanate of Rum and the Seljuk Empire , were thoroughly Persianised in their culture, language, habits and customs, and therefore, the empire has been described as a Persianate empire." Throughout its history, the Ottoman Empire had substantial subject populations of Orthodox subjects , Armenians , Jews and Assyrians , who were allowed a certain amount of autonomy under the confessional millet system of Ottoman government, and whose distinctive culture



Ottoman Tunisia

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Ottoman Tunis refers to the episode of the Turkish presence in Ifriqiya during the course of three centuries from the 16th century until the 18th century, when Tunis was officially integrated into the Ottoman Empire as the Eyalet of Tunis (province). Eventually including all of the Maghrib except Morocco , the Ottoman Empire began with the takeover of Algiers in 1516 by the Ottoman Turkish corsair and beylerbey Oruç Reis . The first Ottoman conquest of Tunis took place in 1534 under the command of Barbarossa Hayreddin Pasha , the younger brother of Oruç Reis, who was the Kapudan Pasha of the Ottoman Fleet during the reign of Suleiman the Magnificent . However, it wasn't until the final Ottoman reconquest of Tunis from Spain in 1574 under Kapudan Pasha Uluç Ali Reis that the Turks permanently acquired the former Hafsid Tunisia , retaining it until the French occupation of Tunisia in 1881. Initially under Turkish rule from Algiers, soon the Ottoman Porte appointed directly for Tunis a governor called the Pasha



Ottoman Gendarmerie

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The Ottoman Gendarmerie ( Turkish : Jandarma ), also known as zaptı , was a security and public order organization (a precursor to law enforcement) in the 19th-century Ottoman Empire . The first official gendarmerie organization was founded in 1869. History After the abolition of the Janissary corps of the Ottoman Empire in 1826, military organizations called Asâkir-i Muntazâma-i Mansûre, Asâkir-i Muntazâma-i Hâssa, and, in 1834, Asâkir-i Redîfe were established to deliver security and public order services in Anatolia and in some provinces of Rumelia . Since the term Gendarmerie was noticed only in the Assignment Decrees published in the years following the declaration of Tanzimat in 1839, it is assumed that the Gendarmerie organization was founded after that year, but the exact date of foundation has not yet been determined. Therefore, taking the June 14 of "June 14, 1869", on which Asâkir-i Zaptiye Nizâmnâmesi was adopted, June 14, 1839 was accepted as the foundation date of the Turkish Gendarmerie. After



Ottoman wars in Europe

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The Ottoman wars in Europe were a series of military conflicts between the Ottoman Empire and various European states dating from the Late Middle Ages up through the early 20th century. The earliest conflicts began during the Byzantine–Ottoman wars in the 13th century, followed by the Bulgarian–Ottoman wars and the Serbian–Ottoman Wars in the 14th century. Much of this period was characterized by Ottoman expansion into the Balkans . The Ottoman Empire made further inroads into Central Europe in the 15th and 16th centuries, culminating in the peak of Ottoman territorial claims in Europe. The Ottoman–Venetian Wars spanned four centuries, starting in 1423 and lasting until 1718. This period witnessed the fall of Negroponte in 1470, the fall of Famagusta ( Cyprus ) in 1571, the defeat of the Ottoman fleet at the Battle of Lepanto in 1571 (at that time the largest naval battle in history ), the fall of Candia ( Crete ) in 1669, the Venetian reconquest of Morea ( Peloponnese ) in the 1680s and its loss again in 171



First Constitutional Era

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The First Constitutional Era ( Ottoman Turkish : مشروطيت ‎; Turkish : Birinci Meşrutiyet Devri ) of the Ottoman Empire was the period of constitutional monarchy from the promulgation of the Kanûn-ı Esâsî (meaning " Basic Law " or "Fundamental Law" in Ottoman Turkish), written by members of the Young Ottomans , on 23 November 1876 until 13 February 1878. These Young Ottomans were dissatisfied by the Tanzimat and instead pushed for a constitutional government similar to that in Europe. The constitutional period started with the dethroning of Sultan Abdülaziz. Abdulhamid II took his place as Sultan. The era ended with the suspension of the Ottoman parliament and the constitution by sultan Abdülhamid II , with which he restored his own absolute monarchy . The first constitutional era did not include any party system . At the time, the Ottoman parliament (known as the General Assembly of the Ottoman Empire ) was seen as the voice of the people but not as a venue for the formation of political parties and organiz



Rumi calendar

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The Rumi calendar ( Turkish : Rumi takvim , "Roman calendar"), a specific calendar based on the Julian calendar but starting with the year of Muhammad 's emigration ( Hijra ) in 622 AD , was officially used by the Ottoman Empire after Tanzimat (1839) and by its successor, the Republic of Turkey until 1926. It was adopted for civic matters and is a solar based calendar , assigning a date to each solar day. History 1911 multilingual Ottoman calendar page: *The upper left shows the Rumi date in Ottoman Turkish : year 1327, 7 Nisan ( ٧ نیسان ١٣٢٧ ) *The same Julian date (7 April, ΑΠΡΙΛΙΟΣ 7 ) and day (Thursday, Πέμπτη ) appears below in Greek with the AD year 1911 *Next to that is the Gregorian date (20 April, AVRIL 20 ) and day ( Jeudi ) in French *Above these two is the date (30 April, 30 Априлий ) and day (Thursday, Четвъртъкъ ) in Serbian *Under the Greek is Armenian , reading April ( ԱՊՐԻԼ ) and Thursday ( ՀԻՆԳՇԱԲԹԻ ) *The upper right shows the Islamic date 21 Rebiülahir 1329 ( ١٣٢٩ ربيع الآخر أو ١٢ ) *The H



Outline of the Ottoman Empire

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The following outline is provided as an overview of and topical guide to the Ottoman Empire: The Ottoman Empire was a Muslim empire that lasted from c. 1299 to 1922. It was also known by its European contemporaries as the Turkish Empire or Turkey after the principal ethnic group. At its zenith from the sixteenth to eighteenth centuries it controlled Southeast Europe, Southwest Asia and North Africa. General history Main periods Rise of the Ottoman Empire Classical Age of the Ottoman Empire Transformation of the Ottoman Empire Ottoman ancien régime Decline and modernization of the Ottoman Empire Defeat and dissolution of the Ottoman Empire Partition Subperiods Ottoman Interregnum Sultanate of Women Köprülü era Tulip period Tanzimat era 1st Constitutional Era 2nd Constitutional Era Historiography Ottoman Decline Thesis Gaza Thesis Historiography of the fall of the Ottoman Empire Structure of the Ottoman Empire Economic history of the Ottoman Empire State organization of the Ottoman Empire Social structure in t



1912 Ottoman coup d'état

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1912 Ottoman coup d'état (17 July 1912) was a military coup in the Ottoman Empire against the Committee of Union and Progress (CUP) government (elected during the 1912 general elections ) by a group of military officers calling themselves the Saviour Officers ( Ottoman Turkish : Halâskâr Zâbitân ‎; Modern Turkish : Kurtarıcı Subaylar ) during the dissolution era of the Ottoman Empire . The Saviour Officers are often referred to as the military wing of the Freedom and Accord Party (Liberal Union or Liberal Entente), which became the main opposition party after the 1912 election, which became notorious for electioneering and voter fraud by the CUP. Freedom and Accord members recruited elements such as the officers to their cause in protest. The coup was one of the central events of the politically volatile 1912–13 years, which saw political instability due to the power struggle between the CUP and Freedom and Accord, as well as the newly sparked Balkan Wars . Background The Young Turks were a revolutionary move



Ottoman architecture

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Ottoman architecture is the architecture of the Ottoman Empire which emerged in Bursa and Edirne in 14th and 15th centuries. The architecture of the empire developed from the earlier Seljuk architecture and was influenced by the Byzantine architecture , Armenian architecture , Iranian as well as Islamic Mamluk traditions after the conquest of Constantinople by the Ottomans. For almost 400 years Byzantine architectural artifacts such as the church of Hagia Sophia served as models for many of the Ottoman mosques . Overall, Ottoman architecture has been described as Byzantine architecture synthesized with architectural traditions of the Mediterranean and the Middle East. The Ottomans achieved the highest level architecture in their lands hence or since. They mastered the technique of building vast inner spaces confined by seemingly weightless yet massive domes, and achieving perfect harmony between inner and outer spaces, as well as articulated light and shadow. Islamic religious architecture which until the



Ottoman–Habsburg wars

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The Ottoman–Habsburg wars were fought from the 16th through the 18th centuries between the Ottoman Empire and the Habsburg (later Austrian) Empire, which was at times supported by the Holy Roman Empire , Kingdom of Hungary and Habsburg Spain . The wars were dominated by land campaigns in Hungary (including Transylvania and Vojvodina ), Croatia and Central Serbia . By the 16th century, the Ottomans had become a serious threat to the European powers, with Ottoman ships sweeping away Venetian possessions in the Aegean and Ionian seas and Ottoman-supported Barbary pirates seizing Spanish possessions in the Maghreb . The Protestant Reformation , the France–Habsburg rivalry and the numerous civil conflicts of the Holy Roman Empire served as distractions to the Christians from their conflict with the Ottomans. Meanwhile, the Ottomans had to contend with the Persian Safavid Empire and to a lesser extent the Mamluk Sultanate , which was defeated and fully incorporated into the empire. Initially, Ottoman conquests in E

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Ottoman Imperial Harem

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Cariye or Imperial Concubine The Imperial Harem ( Ottoman Turkish : حرم همايون ‎, Harem-i Hümâyûn) of the Ottoman Empire was the Ottoman sultan 's harem composed of the wives, servants (both female slaves and eunuchs ), female relatives, and the sultan's concubines , occupying a secluded portion of the Ottoman imperial household. This institution played an important social function within the Ottoman court , and demonstrated considerable political authority in Ottoman affairs, especially during the long period known as the Sultanate of Women . The utmost authority in the Imperial Harem was the Valide Sultan , who ruled over the other women in the household and was often of slave origin herself. The Kizlar Agha (Kızlarağası, also known as the "Chief Black Eunuch" because of the Nilotic origin of most aghas) was the head of the eunuchs responsible for guarding the Imperial Harem. Etymology The word harem is derived from the Arabic harim or haram which give connotations of the sacred and forbidden. The female



Senate of the Ottoman Empire

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The Senate of the Ottoman Empire ( Ottoman Turkish : Heyet-i Âyân ,مجلس أعيان ‎ or Meclis-i Âyân; Turkish : Ayan Meclisi ; lit. "Assembly of Notables") was the upper house of the parliament of the Ottoman Empire, the General Assembly . Its members were appointed notables in the Ottoman government who, along with the elected lower house Chamber of Deputies ( Turkish : Meclis-i Mebusan ), made up the General Assembly. It was created in its first incarnation according to the Ottoman constitution of 1876 , which sought to reform the Ottoman Empire into a constitutional monarchy . Members of the Senate were selected by the Sultan and their numbers were limited to one-third (1/3) of the membership of the representative Chamber of Deputies. Members and the president of the Senate were designated to be reliable and reputable leaders of the country, required to be at least 40 years old. Furthermore, according to the 62nd clause of the 1876 constitution , government ministers, provincial governors , military commanders



Ottoman decline thesis

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The Ottoman decline thesis or Ottoman decline paradigm ( Turkish : Osmanlı Gerileme Tezi ) refers to a now-obsolete historical narrative which had once been used to explain the history of the Ottoman Empire . According to the Decline Thesis, following a golden age associated with the reign of Sultan Suleiman the Magnificent (r. 1520–1566), the empire gradually entered into a period of all-encompassing stagnation and decline from which it was never able to recover, lasting until the empire's dissolution in 1923. This thesis was used throughout most of the twentieth century as the basis of both Western and Republican Turkish understanding of Ottoman history. However, by 1978, historians had begun to reexamine the fundamental assumptions of the Decline Thesis. After the publication of numerous new studies throughout the 1980s, 1990s, and 2000s, and the reexamination of Ottoman history through the use of previously untapped sources and methodologies, academic historians of the Ottoman Empire achieved a consens



Cypriot Turkish

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Cypriot Turkish ( Turkish : Kıbrıs Türkçesi ) is a dialect of the Turkish language spoken by Turkish Cypriots both in Cyprus and among its diaspora . History Emanating from Anatolia and evolved for four centuries, Cypriot Turkish is the vernacular spoken by Cypriots with Ottoman ancestry, as well as by Cypriots who converted to Islam during Ottoman rule. It is understood by expatriate Cypriots living in the UK, United States, Australia and other parts of the world. Cypriot Turkish consists of a blend of Ottoman Turkish and the Yörük dialect that is spoken in the Taurus Mountains of southern Turkey . In addition it has absorbed influences from Greek , Italian and English . Cypriot Turkish is mutually intelligible with Standard Turkish . Sounds Differences between standard Turkish and Cypriot Turkish Cypriot Turkish is distinguished by a number of sound alternations not found in standard Turkish, but some of which are also quite common in other Turkish vernaculars: Voicing of some unvoiced stops t↔d, k↔g Preser



Ottoman Army (1861–1922)

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The Ottoman Army was reorganized along modern Western European lines during the Tanzimat modernization period and functioned during the decline and dissolution period that is roughly between 1861 (though as a unit First Army dates 1843) and 1918 end of World War I for Ottomans . The last reorganization occurred during the Second Constitutional Era . Establishment of Modern Army The shift from Classical Army (1451–1606) took more than a century beginning from failed attempts of Selim III (1789) to a period of Ottoman military reforms (1826–1858) and finally Abdulhamid II period. Abdulhamid II, as early as 1880 sought, and two years later secured, German assistance, which culminated in the appointment of Lt. Col. Kohlcr. However. Although the consensus that Abdulhamid favored the modernization of the Ottoman army and the professionalization of the officer was fairly general, it seems that he neglected the military during the last fifteen years of his reign, and he also cut down the military budget. The formatio




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