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Order of Infante Dom Henrique

The Order of Prince Henry the Navigator (Portuguese: Ordem do Infante Dom Henrique) is a Portuguese National Order of Knighthood created on 2 June 1960, to commemorate the quincentenary of the death of the Infante Henry the Navigator (known in Portuguese as Henrique), fifth son of King John I of Portugal and his queen, Philippa of Lancaster. Minor reforms of the constitution of the Order occurred in 1962 and 1980.[1]

It is a five-tier order, whose titles are awarded for relevant services to Portugal and for services in the expansion of the Portuguese culture, its history and its values (with a particular focus on its maritime history). The number of members in each grade is restricted by its constitution, and titles are attributed by special decree by the Grand Master of the Order, i.e., the President of the Republic of Portugal.

Grades

The order includes several classes; in decreasing order of seniority, these are:

  • PRT Order of Prince Henry - Grand Collar BAR.png Grand Collar (Grande-Colar - GColIH)
  • PRT Order of Prince Henry - Grand Cross BAR.png Grand Cross (Grã-Cruz - GCIH)
  • PRT Order of Prince Henry - Grand Officer BAR.png Grand Officer (Grande-Oficial - GOIH)
  • PRT Order of Prince Henry - Commander BAR.png Commander (Comendador - ComIH)
  • PRT Order of Prince Henry - Officer BAR.png Officer (Oficial - OIH)
  • PRT Order of Prince Henry - Knight BAR.png Knight/Dame (Cavaleiro - CvIH / Dama - DmIH)

There is also a Silver Medal (Medalha de Prata - MedPIH) and a Gold Medal (Medalha de Ouro - MedOIH).

The special distinction of Grand Collar can be awarded only to heads of state.

Ribbons and medals are characterized by equal stripes of blue, white and black (either horizontal or vertical) and a ruby-enameled golden cross pattée. The stars of Grand Officer and Grand Cross bear the inscription "Talant de bien faire".

Membership to the Order is conferred by the President, either on his own initiative, upon the recommendation of his Ministers or following nomination by the Council of the Order.

Grand Crosses with Collar of the Order as of January 2017
Name Occupation or title Date
Juscelino Kubitschek President of Brazil 20 October 1960
Humberto de Alencar Castelo Branco 21 July 1965
Mohammad Reza Pahlavi Shah of Iran 27 July 1967
Anastasio Somoza Debayle President of Nicaragua 19 February 1968
António de Oliveira Salazar Prime Minister of Portugal 10 April 1968
Prince Philip Duke of Edinburgh 31 May 1973
Elena Ceaușescu First Lady of Socialist Republic of Romania 12 June 1975
Edward Gierek First Secretary of the Polish United Workers' Party 13 March 1976
Henryk Jabłoński Chairman of the Council of State of the People's Republic of Poland 13 March 1976
Piotr Jaroszewicz Prime Minister of the People's Republic of Poland 13 March 1976
Josip Broz Tito President of Yugoslavia 2 April 1978
Juan Carlos I King of Spain 17 April 1978
Valéry Giscard d'Estaing President of the French Republic 21 October 1978
Ernesto Geisel President of Brazil 13 February 1979
Pál Losonczi Chairman of the Hungarian Presidential Council 14 August 1979
Todor Zhivkov Chairman of the State Council of Bulgaria 21 August 1979
Baudouin King of the Belgians 24 August 1982
Samora Moisés Machel President of Mozambique 30 August 1982
Hosni Mubarak President of the Arab Republic of Egypt 19 August 1983
Angelo de Mojana di Cologna Grand Master of the Knights Hospitaller 2 September 1983
François Mitterrand President of the French Republic 29 September 1983
Rudolf Kirchschläger President of Austria 18 April 1984
Margarethe II Queen of Denmark 20 June 1984
Denis Sassou Nguesso President of the Republic of the Congo 24 November 1984
Mobutu Sese Seko President of Zaire 12 December 1984
Jean Grand Duke of Luxembourg 29 January 1985
Aristides Pereira President of the Republic of Cape Verde 31 January 1986
Manuel Pinto da Costa President of São Tomé and Príncipe 31 January 1986
Carl XVI Gustaf King of Sweden 13 January 1987
Jaime Lusinchi President of Venezuela 21 January 1987
José Eduardo dos Santos President of Angola 25 January 1988
Virgilio Barco Vargas President of Colombia 4 February 1989
Richard von Weizsäcker President of Germany 19 June 1989
Rodrigo Borja Cevallos President of Ecuador 22 March 1990
Andrew Bertie Grand Master of the Knights Hospitaller 22 March 1990
Francesco Cossiga President of Italy 22 March 1990
Joaquim Alberto Chissano President of Mozambique 9 April 1990
Christos Sartzetakis Ex-President of Greece 12 November 1990
Brunó Ferenc Straub President of Hungary 12 November 1990
Beatrix Queen of the Netherlands 14 May 1991
Mauno Henrik Koivisto President of Finland 22 April 1992
Hassan II King of Morocco 26 March 1993
Dawda Jawara President of the Gambia 4 October 1993
Lech Wałęsa President of the Republic of Poland 18 October 1994
Nelson Mandela President of South Africa 20 November 1995
Juan Carlos Wasmosy President of Paraguay 17 December 1995
Aleksander Kwaśniewski President of Poland 2 September 1997
Rafael Caldera President of Venezuela 17 October 1997
Leonid Kuchma President of Ukraine 16 April 1998
Akihito Emperor of Japan 12 May 1998
Roman Herzog President of Germany 13 August 1998
Ernesto Zedillo President of Mexico 30 September 1998
Jacques Chirac President of the Republic of France 4 February 1999
Constantinos Stephanopoulos President of Greece 13 December 1999
Albert II King of the Belgians 14 December 1999
Fernando Henrique Cardoso President of Brazil 14 March 2000
Emil Constantinescu President of Romania 15 March 2000
Milan Kučan President of Slovenia 29 March 2000
António Mascarenhas Monteiro President of Cape Verde 8 June 2000
Ricardo Lagos President of Chile 26 September 2001
Hugo Chávez President of Venezuela 8 November 2001
Fernando de la Rúa President of Argentina 14 November 2001
Omar Bongo President of Gabon 17 December 2001
Carlo Azeglio Ciampi President of Italy 3 January 2002
Alpha Oumar Konaré President of Mali 27 February 2002
Pedro Pires President of Cape Verde 22 April 2002
Thomas Klestil President of Austria 19 August 2002
Georgi Parvanov President of Bulgaria 7 October 2002
Ferenc Mádl President of Hungary 7 October 2002
Tarja Halonen President of Finland 24 October 2002
Abdelaziz Bouteflika President of Algeria 14 January 2003
Rolandas Paksas President of Lithuania 29 May 2003
Arnold Rüütel President of Estonia 29 May 2003
Vaira Vīķe-Freiberga President of Latvia 29 May 2003
Harald V King of Norway 13 February 2004
Heinz Fischer President of Austria 31 January 2005
Henri Grand Duke of Luxembourg 6 May 2005
Nicanor Duarte President of Paraguay 22 September 2005
Xanana Gusmão President of East Timor 14 February 2006
Valdas Adamkus President of Lithuania 31 May 2007
Michelle Bachelet President of Chile 7 November 2007
José Ramos-Horta President of East Timor 13 November 2007
Abdullah II ibn al-Hussein King of Jordan 5 March 2008
Lech Kaczyński President of Poland 1 September 2008
Edward Fenech Adami President of Malta 11 December 2008
Horst Köhler President of Germany 2 March 2009
Khalifa bin Hamad Al Thani Emir of Qatar 20 April 2009
Abdullah Gül President of the Republic of Turkey 10 May 2009
Bronisław Komorowski President of Poland 19 April 2012
Taur Matan Ruak elected President of East Timor 10 May 2012
Jorge Carlos Fonseca President of Cape Verde 11 June 2012
Juan Manuel Santos President of Colombia 14 November 2012
Ollanta Humala President of Peru 19 November 2012
Ricardo Martinelli President of Panama 29 July 2013
Enrique Peña Nieto President of Mexico 5 June 2014
Tomislav Nikolić President of Serbia 25 January 2017
Willem-Alexander King of the Netherlands 2017
Queen Máxima Consort of the Netherlands 2017
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Order of Prince Henry

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The Order of Prince Henry the Navigator ( Portuguese : Ordem do Infante Dom Henrique ) is a Portuguese National Order of Knighthood created on 2 June 1960, to commemorate the quincentenary of the death of the Infante Henry the Navigator (known in Portuguese as Henrique), fifth son of King John I of Portugal and his queen, Philippa of Lancaster . Minor reforms of the constitution of the Order occurred in 1962 and 1980. It is a five-tier order, whose titles are awarded for relevant services to Portugal and for services in the expansion of the Portuguese culture , its history and its values (with a particular focus on its maritime history). The number of members in each grade is restricted by its constitution, and titles are attributed by special decree by the Grand Master of the Order, i.e., the President of the Republic of Portugal . Grades The order includes several classes; in decreasing order of seniority, these are: Grand Collar (Grande-Colar - GColIH) Grand Cross (Grã-Cruz - GCIH) Grand Officer (Grande-Of ...more...



Prince Henry the Navigator

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Infante D. Henrique of Portugal, Duke of Viseu (4 March 1394 – 13 November 1460), better known as Prince Henry the Navigator ( Portuguese : Infante Dom Henrique, o Navegador ), was an important figure in 15th-century Portuguese politics and in the early days of the Portuguese Empire . Through his administrative direction, he is regarded as the main initiator of what would be known as the Age of Discoveries . Henry was the third child of the Portuguese king John I and responsible for the early development of Portuguese exploration and maritime trade with other continents through the systematic exploration of Western Africa, the islands of the Atlantic Ocean, and the search for new routes. King John I founded the House of Aviz . Henry encouraged his father to conquer Ceuta (1415), the Muslim port on the North African coast across the Straits of Gibraltar from the Iberian Peninsula . He learned of the opportunities offered by the Saharan trade routes that terminated there, and became fascinated with Africa in g ...more...



Infante Miguel, Duke of Viseu

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D. Infante Miguel, Duke of Viseu (born 3 December 1946) is a member of the Portuguese royal family , as the second child of Duarte Nuno, Duke of Braganza , and Princess Maria Francisca of Orléans-Braganza . The Duke of Viseu is fourth in the Line of succession to the former Portuguese throne, behind his elder brother, Duarte Pio, Duke of Braganza , and his three children. The Duke of Viseu is a noted patron of the arts and painter, and the founder and sponsor of the annual Luso-Brazilian Week of Aldravist Art, held interchangeably between Portugal and Brazil. He is also an active member in various orders of chivalry , notably the Sovereign Military Order of Malta and the Sacred Military Constantinian Order of Saint George . Early life Miguel Gabriel Rafael Xavier Teresa Maria Felix was born on 3 December 1946, in Bern, Switzerland , to Duarte Nuno, Duke of Braganza , the pretender to the defunct throne of Portugal, and Maria Francisca of Orléans-Braganza . Since birth, Miguel has held the honorific styling of ...more...



Afonso, Duke of Porto

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Infante D. Afonso, Duke of Porto ( Portuguese pronunciation:  ; 31 July 1865 in Palace of Ajuda , Lisbon – 21 February 1920 in Naples , Italy) was a Portuguese Infante of the House of Braganza , the son of King Dom Luis I of Portugal and his wife, Dona Maria Pia of Savoy . Early life Dom Afonso had a military career. In fact, he was a general of some considerable competence in the Portuguese Army, where, previously, he had been the inspector-general of artillery. His exemplary military background allowed him to be chosen to command military forces at Goa , at the end of the nineteenth century, when he was, concurrently, Viceroy of India. His performance in India motivated his nomination to be Constable of Portugal . In the early months of 1890, his engagement to Archduchess Marie Valerie of Austria was publicised, but later she refused to marry him, under the influence of her aunt by marriage, Archduchess Maria Theresa of Austria , of the Miguelist branch of the Braganza Dynasty. When threats on the life of ...more...



Henrique O'Neill, 1st Viscount of Santa Mónica

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Henrique O'Neill, 1st Viscount of Santa Mónica ( Lisbon , 3 August 1823 – Lisbon, 6 November 1889) was a Portuguese writer, jurist and politician. Background Henrique O'Neill was a son of José Maria O'Neill , the titular head of the Clanaboy O'Neill dynasty, whose family has been in Portugal since the 18th century, and wife Ludovina de Jesus Alves Solano. He descended from a most noble Irish family that had fled to France in the 17th century due to religious persecution and which then passed to Portugal . Career A Bachelor in Law from the University of Coimbra , he left to go to Germany soon after his graduation and there he lectured on Portuguese language at the University of Göttingen . Invited by the Minister Martins Ferrão , then Minister of Justice , to come and lead one of the branches of his Ministry, he returned to Portugal, where he initiated his career as functionary which rapidly took him to Director-General of Justice , Honorary Director-General of Justice Affairs , Honorary Veador ( Overseer ) of ...more...



Duarte Pio, Duke of Braganza

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Dom Duarte Pio, Duke of Braganza (born 15 May 1945) is a claimant to the Portuguese throne, as the head of the House of Braganza . The Miguelist Braganzas, to whom Duarte Pio belongs as great-grandson of King Miguel I , is a cadet branch of the House of Braganza. With the extinction of male-line dynasts descended from Queen Maria II in 1932, King Miguel's descendants became the only male-line Braganzas left and the closest male-line heirs to the Portuguese throne (the Brazilian branch having gone extinct in 1921). Duarte Pio is a figure within the European network of royal houses, often being invited to various foreign royal events. Despite his support for a monarchical government and widespread recognition as heir to the throne, there are no serious movements or parties that support restoration of the monarchy. In 1995, the Duke married Isabel Inês de Castro Curvelo de Herédia , a Portuguese businesswoman and descendant of Portuguese nobility . Their marriage was the first marriage of a Portuguese royal to h ...more...



Afonso I of Portugal

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Afonso I ( European Portuguese:  ; 1106 / 25 July 1109 / August 1109 / 1111 – 6 December 1185), nicknamed "the Conqueror" ( Portuguese : O Conquistador ), "the Founder" ( O Fundador ) or "the Great" ( O Grande ) by the Portuguese , and El-Bortukali [in Arabic البرتقالي] ("the Portuguese") and Ibn-Arrink [in Arabic ابن الرَّنك or ابن الرَنْق] ("son of Henry", "Henriques") by the Moors whom he fought, was the first King of Portugal . He achieved the independence of the southern part of the Kingdom of Galicia , the County of Portugal, from Galicia's overlord, the King of León , in 1139, establishing a new kingdom and doubling its area with the Reconquista , an objective that he pursued until his death in 1185, after forty-six years of wars against the Moors. From birth to rebellion: Afonso's youth Afonso was the son of Henry of Burgundy and Theresa , the natural daughter of King Alfonso VI of León and Castile . According to Fernão Lopes ' Crónica de Portugal de 1419, the future Portuguese king was born in Guimar ...more...



Afonso, Prince of Beira

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Dom Afonso de Santa Maria, Prince of Beira, Duke of Barcelos (born 25 March 1996) is the eldest son and heir of Duarte Pio, Duke of Braganza , the current pretender to the defunct throne of Portugal. The first child of the Duke and Isabel Castro Curvelo de Herédia , Afonso is first in the line of succession to the former Portuguese throne , behind his father. Life Afonso de Santa Maria Miguel Gabriel Rafael was born in Lisbon , the eldest child of Duarte Pio, Duke of Braganza , and Isabel Inês Castro Curvelo de Herédia . As heir to his father, he bears the style Royal Highness , and title of Prince of Portugal. He is not however styled as an Infante of Portugal , as this title is traditionally reserved for the younger royal children, the result of a royal warrant issued in 1455 by Afonso V of Portugal , to celebrate the birth of the future John II . On 1 June 1996, in the Cathedral of Braga , Afonso was baptised by Eurico Dias Nogueira , Archbishop of Braga, Primate of all the Spains . Since his birth he has ...more...



Order of the Immaculate Conception of Vila Viçosa

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The Order of the Immaculate Conception of Vila Viçosa (also known as The Order of Our Lady of Conception of Vila Vicosa) (in Portuguese : Ordem de Nossa Senhora da Conceição de Vila Viçosa ) is an dynastic order of knighthood of the House of Braganza , the former Portuguese Royal Family. The current Grand Master of the Order is Duarte Pio, Duke of Braganza , the Head of the House of Braganza. History The order was created by King John VI of Portugal in Rio de Janeiro on 6 February 1818, the date of his acclamation, in recognition for the efficient protection of the Kingdom's Spiritual Sovereign (Portugal is known as the Land of Santa Maria since its foundation). The Blessed Virgin Mother under the invocation of the Immmaculate Conception (venerated in the Ducal Chapel of the Palace of Vila Viçosa) had earlier been acclaimed "Queen" and Patroness of the kingdom by King John IV on March 25, 1646 following a referendum of the Empire that lasted 6 years and asked subjects: 1. If they believed the Blessed Virgi ...more...



List of honours of Portugal awarded to heads of state and royalty

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Awards Monarchies European monarchies United Kingdom Queen Elizabeth II  : Grand Sash and Cross of the Three Orders of Christ Aviz and Santiago (1955) Grand Collar of the Order of Saint James of the Sword (GColSE, 14 August 1979) Knight Grand Collar of the Military Order of the Tower and of the Sword, of Valour, Loyalty and Merit (GCTE, 27 April 1993) Prince Philip, Duke of Edinburgh  : Grand Cross of the Military Order of the Tower and of the Sword, of Valour, Loyalty and Merit (GCTE, 1955) Grand Collar of the Order of Infante Dom Henrique (GColIH, 31 May 1973) Grand Cross of the Order of Aviz (GCA, 14 August 1979) Grand Cross of the Order of Christ (GCC, 27 April 1993) The Prince of Wales  : Grand Cross of the Order of Aviz (GCA, 27 April 1993) Norway See also decorations pages (mark °) : Harald , Sonja , Haakon , Mette-Marit , Mârtha Louise , Astrid & Ragnhild Olav V's state visits : Olav V to Portugal (02/1978), Portugal to Norway (06/1980) Harald V's state visits : Jorge Sampaio to Norway (02/20004) ...more...



Denis of Portugal

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Denis ( Portuguese : Dinis or Diniz , IPA:  ; 9 October 1261 – 7 January 1325 in Santarém ), called the Farmer King (Rei Lavrador) and the Poet King (Rei Poeta), was King of Portugal and the Algarve . The eldest son of Afonso III of Portugal by his second wife, Beatrice of Castile , and grandson of king Alfonso X of Castile (known as the Wise), Denis succeeded his father in 1279. His marriage to Elizabeth of Aragon , who was later canonised as a saint of the Roman Catholic Church, was arranged in 1281 when she was 10 years old. Denis ruled the Kingdom of Portugal and the Algarves for over 46 years and is remembered as a major contributor to the formation of a sense of national identity and an awareness of Portugal as a nation-state. He worked to reorganise his country's economy and gave an impetus to Portuguese agriculture. He ordered the planting of a large pine forest (that still exists today) near Leiria to prevent the soil degradation that threatened the region and as a source of raw materials for the c ...more...



John VI of Portugal

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John VI ( Portuguese : João VI; 13 May 1767 – 10 March 1826), nicknamed " the Clement ", was King of the United Kingdom of Portugal, Brazil and the Algarves from 1816 to 1825. Although the United Kingdom over which he ruled ceased to exist de facto beginning in 1822, he remained its monarch de jure between 1822 and 1825. After the recognition of Brazilian independence under the Treaty of Rio de Janeiro of 1825 , he continued as King of Portugal and the Algarves until his death in 1826. Under the same treaty, he also became titular Emperor of Brazil for life, while his son, Pedro I of Brazil , was both de facto and de jure the monarch of the newly-independent country. Born in Lisbon in 1767, the son of Maria I and Peter III of Portugal , he was originally an infante (prince, but not heir to the throne) of Portugal. He only became heir to the throne when his older brother José, Prince of Brazil , died of smallpox in 1788 at the age of 27. Before his accession to the Portuguese throne, John VI bore the titles ...more...



Premier Cruises

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Premier Cruises was a cruise line holding company formed in the early 1990s that focused on the family cruise market as well as on developing cruise operations in new geographic markets. The company's business focus was to acquire older cruise vessels, refurbish these vessels in order to offer "traditional cruise experiences", operate the vessels in geographic areas, such as Europe and south/Central America, which the major operators such as Carnival Cruise Line , Norwegian Cruise Line and Royal Caribbean International were not focusing at the time, and to market their cruises largely to European and South American customers through strategic marketing partnerships with some of the major tour and travel groups in the world such as Thomson Holidays in the U.K, TUI in Germany, Fritidsresor in Scandinavia, Alpitour in Italy and Pullmantur in Spain (subsequently acquired by Royal Caribbean International for $800 million ,) as well as through more than a dozen operators in south / Central America such as CVC in B ...more...



Alexandre Soares dos Santos

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Alexandre Soares dos Santos (born 23 September 1935) is a Portuguese businessman. He led the Portuguese retailer Jerónimo Martins until November 2013, 45 years after taking over the company from his father. Biography After he graduated from the Colégio Almeida Garrett in his hometown of Porto , he studied law at the University of Lisbon , which he broke off. Soares dos Santos then worked for the Unilever Group where he came to Ireland and Germany . After he became marketing director in Brasil in 1968. In 1969 his father died, founder of the Jerónimo Martins Group . As a member of the Board of Director of his father's company he returned to Portugal. The group came largely intact through the economic turmoil after the Carnation Revolution in 1974. The business operates the Pingo Doce and Recheio chains in Portugal. It traces its roots to 1792, and the dos Santos family has controlled it since 1921. The late 1980s, he brought the company to the stock exchange, acquired several other companies in the food indus ...more...



List of cardinals from Portugal

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Henry of Portugal , both cardinal and King of Portugal The following is a list of Portuguese cardinals in the Roman Catholic Church , order by year of consistory , with year of birth and death. 1273 – Dom Pedro Julião or Dom Pedro Hispano (future Pope John XXI ) 1409 (by Antipope Benedict XIII ); 1419 (confirmed by Pope Martin V ) – Dom Pedro Cardeal da Fonseca 1411 – Dom João Cardeal Afonso de Azambuja 1439 – Dom Antão Cardeal Martins de Chaves 1456 – Dom Jaime de Portugal 1476 – Dom Jorge Cardeal da Costa (Cardeal de Alpedrinha) 1517 – Dom Afonso de Portugal (1509–1540) 1539 ( in pectore ); 1541 – Dom Miguel Cardeal da Silva 1545 – Dom Henrique de Portugal (1512–1580) 1686 – Dom Veríssimo Cardeal de Lencastre (1615–1692) 1697 – Dom Luís Cardeal de Sousa (1630–1702) 1712 – Dom Nuno Cardeal da Cunha e Ataíde 1719 – Dom José Cardeal Pereira de Lacerda 1727 – Dom João Cardeal da Mota e Silva 1737 – Dom Tomás Cardeal de Almeida , 1st Cardinal Patriarch of Lisbon (1670–1754) 1747 – Dom José Cardeal Manoel da Câma ...more...



Adelino Amaro da Costa

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Adelino Manuel Lopes Amaro da Costa , GCIH (18 April 1943 – 4 December 1980) was a Portuguese Politician . Background Costa was a son of Civil Engineer from the Instituto Superior Técnico of the Technical University of Lisbon (Universidade Técnica de Lisboa) Manuel Rafael Amaro da Costa (b. Odemira , São Martinho das Amoreiras, January 10, 1910 -), of some rural Nobility descent, and wife (m. Lisbon , 1937) Joaquina da Conceição Duarte Lopes Nunes ( Odemira , Relíquias, January 22, 1914 - Lisbon , Alvalade , June 19, 1991). Career Like his father he was also a civil engineer by training from the Instituto Superior Técnico of the University of Lisbon . After the Carnation Revolution , he founded, together with Diogo Freitas do Amaral , the Democratic and Social Centre (CDS), in which he became Deputy to the Assembly of the Republic and Minister . After the victory of the Democratic Alliance , a coalition between the Social Democrats , the Popular Monarchists and his own party, in the Portuguese legislative ele ...more...



Luís Filipe, Prince Royal of Portugal

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D. Luís Filipe, Prince Royal of Portugal, Duke of Braganza, ( Portuguese pronunciation:  ; 21 March 1887 – 1 February 1908) was the eldest son and heir-apparent of King Carlos I of Portugal . He was born in 1887 when his father was still Prince Royal of Portugal and received the usual style of the heirs to the heir of the Portuguese crown: 4th Prince of Beira at birth, with the subsidiary title 14th Duke of Barcelos . After his grandfather King Luís I of Portugal died, he became Prince Royal of Portugal with the subsidiary titles 21st Duke of Braganza , 20th Marquis of Vila Viçosa, 28th count of Barcelos, 25th count of Ourém, 23rd count of Arraiolos and 22nd count of Neiva. Early life Luís Filipe Maria Carlos Amélio Francisco Víctor Manuel António Lourenço Miguel Rafael Gabriel Gonzaga Xavier Francisco de Assis Bento was born in Lisbon , the elder son of Carlos , Prince Royal of Portugal (later King Carlos I of Portugal), and Princess Amélie d'Orléans , a member of the House of Braganza . Two years after his ...more...



José, Prince of Brazil

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D. José, Prince of Brazil, Duke of Braganza ( Portuguese pronunciation:  ; 20 August 1761 – 11 September 1788) was the heir apparent to the Kingdom of Portugal until his death in 1788, as the eldest child of Queen Maria I of Portugal and King Pedro III of Portugal , members of the House of Braganza José died of smallpox at the age of 27, causing his younger and ill-prepared brother, Infante João , to become heir-apparent and eventually King. João's reign would be a turbulent one, seeing Napoleonic invasion of Portugal and the loss of the Portuguese Empire 's largest and wealthiest colony, Brazil . Early life José age of 13; (1774) José was born at the Real Barraca where the Palace of Ajuda in Lisbon stands today. He was named after his grandfather who was the ruling King of Portugal at the time of his birth. His grandfather created him Prince of Beira , this being the first time when the title was given to a male. At the time of his birth, his parents were the Prince and Princess of Brazil, his mother the He ...more...



House of Braganza

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The Most Serene House of Braganza ( Portuguese : Sereníssima Casa de Bragança ), or the Brigantine Dynasty (Dinastia Brigantina), also known in the Empire of Brazil as the Most August House of Braganza ( Portuguese : Augustíssima Casa de Bragança ), is a dynasty of emperors, kings, princes, and dukes of Portuguese origin, a branch of the House of Aviz . Founded by Afonso I, 1st Duke of Braganza , illegitimate son of King John I of Portugal , the Braganzas were one of the wealthiest and most powerful noble houses of the Iberian Peninsula of the Renaissance period. The house came to rule the Kingdom of Portugal and the Algarves following the successful deposition of the Philippine Dynasty by John IV of Portugal , in 1640. With the creation of the United Kingdom of Portugal, Brazil and the Algarves , in 1815, and the subsequent independence of the Empire of Brazil , in 1822, the Braganzas came to rule as the monarchs of Brazil . The House of Braganza produced 15 Portuguese monarchs and 4 Brazilian monarchs , num ...more...



Sancho I of Portugal

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Sancho I ( Portuguese pronunciation:  ), nicknamed " the Populator " ( Portuguese : "o Povoador" ), King of Portugal ( Coimbra , 11 November 1154 – 26 March 1211 ) was the second but only surviving legitimate son and fifth child of Afonso I of Portugal by his wife, Maud of Savoy . Sancho succeeded his father and was crowned in Coimbra when he was 31 years old on 9 December 1185. He used the title King of Silves from 1189 until he lost the territory to Almohad control in 1191. Early life Golden coin with the effigy of Sancho I Sancho was baptized with the name Martin (Martinho) since he was born on the feast day of Saint Martin of Tours . On 15 August 1170, he was knighted by his father, King Afonso I, and from then on he became his second in command, both administratively and militarily. At this time, the independence of Portugal (declared in 1139) was not firmly established. The kings of León and Castile were trying to re-annex the country and the Roman Catholic Church was late in giving its blessing a ...more...



Miguel, Duke of Braganza

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Miguel of Braganza ( Portuguese pronunciation:  ; full name Miguel Maria Carlos Egídio Constantino Gabriel Rafael Gonzaga Francisco de Paula e de Assis Januário de Bragança) (September 19, 1853 – October 11, 1927) was the Miguelist claimant to the throne of Portugal from 1866 to 1920. He used the title Duke of Braganza . Life Miguel was born in Kleinheubach Castle near Miltenberg , Kingdom of Bavaria , during the exile in Germany of his father, former King Miguel I of Portugal . His mother was Princess Adelaide of Löwenstein-Wertheim-Rosenberg . He was a grandson of the Portuguese Queen Carlota Joaquina as well as John VI of Portugal . By the Portuguese law of banishment of 1834 and the constitution of 1838 Miguel was forbidden to enter Portugal . Therefore, he was educated in Germany and Austria . He was a member of the staff of Emperor Franz Joseph of Austria and took part in the occupation of Bosnia . It is said that the emperor Franz Joseph liked Miguel immensely and granted him the privilege of extraterr ...more...



Sebastian of Portugal

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Dom Sebastian I ( Portuguese : Sebastião I Portuguese pronunciation:  ; 20 January 1554 – 4 August 1578) was King of Portugal and the Algarves from 11 June 1557 to 4 August 1578 and the penultimate Portuguese monarch of the House of Aviz . He was the son of John Manuel, Prince of Portugal , and his wife, Joanna of Austria . He was the grandson of King John III of Portugal and Holy Roman Emperor Charles V . He disappeared (presumably killed in action) in the battle of Alcácer Quibir . Sebastian I is often referred to as The Desired ( Portuguese : o Desejado), as the Portuguese people longed for his return to end the decline of Portugal that began after his death. Early life Sebastian as a new-born in Sentenças para a Ensinança e Doutrina do Príncipe, 1554. Sebastian was born shortly after eight in the morning of 20 January 1554 (the feast of Saint Sebastian ), and he was given the saint's name in commemoration. The name Sebastian was highly unusual for members of any European royal family at the time. Shortly ...more...



List of honours of the Norwegian Royal Family by country

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Norwegian honours See also decorations pages (mark °): Harald , Sonja , Haakon , Mette-Marit , Mârtha Louise , Astrid & Ragnhild Decoration Harald V Sonja Haakon Mette-Marit Astrid Ragnhild Märtha Ari Norwegian orders Grand Cross with Collar of the Royal Norwegian Order of St. Olav ° V V V V V V V . Grand Cross of the Royal Norwegian Order of Merit ° V V V . . . . . Royal Family Order of King Haakon VII of Norway ° . . . . V V . . Royal Family Order of King Olav V of Norway ° . V . . V V V . Royal Family Order of King Harald V of Norway ° . V . V V V V . Norwegian awards The Royal House Centenary Medal ° V V V V V V V V Haakon VIIs Commemorative Medal 1. October 1957 ° V . . . . . . . Haakon VIIs Jubilee Medal 1905–1955 ° V . . . V . . Haakon VIIs Centenary Medal ° V V . . V . V . Olav Vs Commemorative Medal of 30. January 1991 ° V V V . V V V . Olav Vs Jubilee Medal 1957-1982 ° V V V . V . V . Olav Vs Centenary Medal ° V V V V V V V V Defence Service Medal with three stars ° V . . . . . . . Defence Serv ...more...



Order of Saint Michael of the Wing

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The Royal Equestrian and Military Order of Saint Michael of the Wing ( Latin : Ordo equitum Sancte Michaelis sive de Ala , Portuguese : Real Ordem Equestre e Militar de São Miguel da Ala ), also called the Order of Saint Michael of the Wing , is a Portuguese Roman Catholic dynastic order that is believed to have been founded in 1147 in the Alcobaça Monastery in Alcobaça, Portugal , by King Afonso I of Portugal , in commemoration of the Conquest of Santarém from the Moors in 1147. The name was chosen in honour of the military saint archangel Michael , who assisted in the victory in the shape of a wing in the sky. Its medieval history including claims of recognition in 1171 by Pope Alexander III , relies heavily on documentation from the 16th to the 18th century, it is classified by the privately operated and funded International Commission on Orders of Chivalry as an "Institution of chivalric character" that was founded as a chivalric order subsequently "revived by the dynastic successor of the founding author ...more...



Vasco da Gama

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Vasco da Gama , 1st Count of Vidigueira ( Portuguese pronunciation:  ; c. 1460s – 24 December 1524), was a Portuguese explorer and the first European to reach India by sea. His initial voyage to India (1497–1499) was the first to link Europe and Asia by an ocean route, connecting the Atlantic and the Indian oceans and therefore, the West and the Orient . Da Gama's discovery of the sea route to India was significant and opened the way for an age of global imperialism and for the Portuguese to establish a long-lasting colonial empire in Asia. Traveling the ocean route allowed the Portuguese to avoid sailing across the highly disputed Mediterranean and traversing the dangerous Arabian Peninsula . The sum of the distances covered in the outward and return voyages made this expedition the longest ocean voyage ever made until then, far longer than a full voyage around the world by way of the Equator . After decades of sailors trying to reach the Indies, with thousands of lives and dozens of vessels lost in shipwrec ...more...



Joseph I of Portugal

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Joseph I ( Portuguese : José I , Portuguese pronunciation:  , 6 June 1714 – 24 February 1777), " The Reformer " ( Portuguese : "o Reformador" ), was the King of Portugal and the Algarves from 31 July 1750 until his death. Among other activities, Joseph was devoted to hunting and the opera. Indeed, he assembled one of the greatest collections of operatic scores in Europe. Early life Portrait of Joseph, Prince of Brazil; Domenico Duprà , 1725. Joseph was the third child of King John V of Portugal and his wife Maria Anna of Austria . Joseph had an older brother Pedro , an older sister Barbara and three younger brothers. At the death of his elder brother, who died at the age of two in 1714, Joseph became Prince of Brazil as the heir apparent of the king, and Duke of Braganza . Marriage On 19 January 1729, Joseph married the Spanish Infanta Mariana Victoria of Spain , daughter of Philip V of Spain and Elisabeth Farnese , and his elder sister Barbara of Portugal married the future Ferdinand VI of Spain . Mariana V ...more...



John V of Portugal

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Dom John V ( Portuguese : João V ; 22 October 1689 – 31 July 1750), known as the Magnanimous ( Portuguese : o Magnânimo) and the Portuguese Sun King ( Portuguese : o Rei-Sol Português), was a monarch of the House of Braganza who ruled as King of Portugal and the Algarves during the first half of the 18th century. John V's reign saw the rise of the prestige of Portugal and its monarchy, which had been in decline among European courts, to a new level of prosperity and wealth. John V's reign saw an enormous influx of gold into the coffers of the royal treasury, supplied largely by the royal fifth (a tax on precious metals) that was received from the Portuguese colonies of Brazil and Maranhão . John nearly depleted his country's tax revenues on ambitious architectural works, most notably Mafra Palace , and on commissions and additions for his sizable art and literary collections. Owing to his craving for international diplomatic recognition, John also spent large sums on the embassies he sent to the courts of Eu ...more...



Duarte Nuno, Duke of Braganza

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Dom Duarte Nuno, Duke of Braganza (23 September 1907 – 24 December 1976) was the claimant to the defunct Portuguese throne , as both the Miguelist successor of his father, Miguel, Duke of Braganza , and later as the head of the only Brigantine house , after the death of the last Legitimist Braganza, King Manuel II of Portugal . In 1952, when the Portuguese Laws of Banishment were repealed, the Duke moved his family to Portugal, thus returning the Miguelist Braganzas to their homeland and becoming the first of the former Portuguese royal dynasty to live in Portugal since the deposition of the monarchy, in 1910. Once established in Portugal, the Duke was granted a pension and residence by the Fundação da Casa de Bragança, the organization has owned and managed all the private assets of the House of Braganza, since the death of King Manuel II, in 1932. Duarte Nuno spent the rest of his life attempting, without success, the restoration of all Brigantine assets to his family and recreating the image of the Migueli ...more...



Milan Kučan

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Milan Kučan ( pronounced  ; born 14 January 1941) is a Slovenian politician who was the first President of Slovenia from 1991 to 2002. Early life and political beginnings Milan Kučan, one of five children, was born in a Lutheran teachers' family. He was raised in the village of Križevci , located in the largely agrarian border region of Prekmurje in the Drava Banovina of the Kingdom of Yugoslavia (present-day Slovenia ). His father Koloman died during World War II . Kučan's family spent World War II in occupied Serbia , where over 58,000 other Slovenes were resettled from Slovenia by the Nazis. Milan Kučan later studied law at the University of Ljubljana and soon became involved in the Communist political organizations of the time. In 1968, he became the president of the Slovene Youth Association, then secretary of the Socialist Alliance of the Working People of Slovenia (a central organization, created to unite all civil society associations under one roof) between 1974 and 1978. He rose to speaker of the ...more...



Miguel I of Portugal

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Dom Miguel I ( European Portuguese:  ; English : Michael I; 26 October 1802 – 14 November 1866), "the Absolutist" ( Portuguese : "o Absolutista" ) or "the Traditionalist" ( Portuguese : "o Tradicionalista" ), was the King of Portugal between 1828 and 1834, the seventh child and third son of King João VI (John VI) and his queen, Carlota Joaquina of Spain . Following his exile as a result of his actions in support of absolutism in the April Revolt (Abrilada), Miguel returned to Portugal as regent and fiancé of his niece Queen Maria II . As regent, he claimed the Portuguese throne in his own right, since according to the so-called Fundamental Laws of the Kingdom his older brother Pedro IV and therefore the latter's daughter had lost their rights from the moment that Pedro had made war on Portugal and become the sovereign of a foreign state ( Brazilian Empire ). This led to a difficult political situation, during which many people were killed, imprisoned, persecuted or sent into exile, and which culminated in the ...more...



Pedro I of Brazil

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Dom Pedro I (English: Peter I; 12 October 1798 – 24 September 1834), nicknamed "the Liberator", was the founder and first ruler of the Empire of Brazil . As King Dom Pedro IV , he reigned briefly over Portugal , where he also became known as "the Liberator" as well as "the Soldier King". Born in Lisbon , Pedro I was the fourth child of King Dom João VI of Portugal and Queen Carlota Joaquina , and thus a member of the House of Braganza . When their country was invaded by French troops in 1807, he and his family fled to Portugal's largest and wealthiest colony, Brazil. The outbreak of the Liberal Revolution of 1820 in Lisbon compelled Pedro I's father to return to Portugal in April 1821, leaving him to rule Brazil as regent. He had to deal with threats from revolutionaries and insubordination by Portuguese troops, all of which he subdued. The Portuguese government's threat to revoke the political autonomy that Brazil had enjoyed since 1808 was met with widespread discontent in Brazil. Pedro I chose the Brazili ...more...



Pedro V of Portugal

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Dom Pedro V ( Portuguese pronunciation:  ; English: Peter V; 16 September 1837 – 11 November 1861), nicknamed "the Hopeful" ( Portuguese : o Esperançoso ), was King of Portugal from 1853 to 1861. Early life and reign Pedro and his younger brother, Luís I of Portugal ; William Barclay , 1843. As the eldest son of Queen Maria II and her de jure uxoris co-monarch Ferdinand II , Pedro was a member of the House of Braganza . As heir apparent to the throne he was styled Prince Royal ( Portuguese : Príncipe Real), and was also the 19th Duke of Braganza (Duque de Bragança). Pedro was a conscientious and hard-working monarch who, under the guidance of his father, sought radical modernisation of the Portuguese state and infrastructure. Under his reign, roads, telegraphs , and railways were constructed and improvements in public health advanced. His popularity increased when, during the cholera outbreak of 1853–1856, he visited hospitals handing out gifts and comforting the sick. Pedro V, along with his brothers Fernan ...more...



Luís I of Portugal

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Dom Luís I (31 October 1838 in Lisbon  – 19 October 1889 in Cascais ) was a member of the House of Braganza , and King of Portugal and the Algarves from 1861 to 1889. The second son of Maria II and Ferdinand II , he acceded to the throne upon the death of his brother Pedro . Reign King Luís I and Queen Maria Pia of Savoy at a masquerade ball, 1865. Luís was a cultured man who wrote vernacular poetry, but had no distinguishing gifts in the political field into which he was thrust by the deaths of his brothers Pedro V and Fernando in 1861. Luís's domestic reign was a tedious and ineffective series of transitional governments called Rotativism formed at various times by the Progressistas (Liberals) and the Regeneradores (Conservatives – the party generally favoured by King Luís, who secured their long term in office after 1881). Despite a flirtation with the Spanish succession prior to the Franco-Prussian War of 1870–71, Luís's reign was otherwise one of domestic stagnation as Portugal fell ever further behind ...more...



Fernando de Castro

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Fernando de Castro ( c. 1380 – April 1440 or 1441, off Cape St. Vincent ) was a 15th-century Portuguese nobleman, diplomat and military figure. Fernando de Castro was the 1st Lord of Paúl de Boquilobo. He was a member of the royal council of John I of Portugal , and governor of the household of Prince Henry the Navigator . Background Dom Fernando de Castro was a member of the powerful House of Castro . He was a younger son of Pedro de Castro, Lord of Cadaval (son of Álvaro Pires de Castro ) and Leonor Telo de Meneses (daughter of D. João Afonso Telo , 1st Count of Ourém ). Fernando de Castro is described by chronicler Rui de Pina as a man of "noble blood, prudent, of good counsel and good estates". Early years Fernando de Castro was a member of the royal council of John I of Portugal , and was appointed by him as governor of the household of Prince Henry the Navigator . He is sometimes designated as Fernando de Castro o Velho ('the old'), to distinguish him from his younger cousin and namesake, Fernando de C ...more...



Horacio Ramiro González

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Horacio Ramiro González (b. Buenos Aires Province , 1956) is an Argentine politician, currently president of the Chamber of Deputies of the Buenos Aires Province . Biography He enrolled at the University of Morón and graduated as Certified Public Accountant . Political career In 1995 he was elected councilman at Ituzaingó district of the Province of Buenos Aires. By choice of his peers he was elected president of the Deliberative Council, a position he held from 1995 to 1999. In 1999 he was elected deputy for the Province of Buenos Aires, representing the first electoral section, a position he held for four years. In 2003 he was elected provincial deputy again for a further period of four years, being appointed by his peers as vice president of the Chamber of Deputies of the Province of Buenos Aires. In the year 2007 is elected provincial deputy again for another four years and elected by his peers as president of the Chamber of Deputies of Buenos Aires Province, the highest authority of the institution. In D ...more...



José Maria O'Neill

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José Maria O'Neill ( Setúbal , São Sebastião or Santa Maria da Graça, 14 April 1788 - ?), was the titular head of a branch of the Clanaboy O'Neill dynasty , whose family has been in Portugal since the 18th century. Life He was the first-born son of the previous head Carlos O'Neill and wife Ana João Torlades. José Maria O'Neill was the Main Manager of the Casa Comercial Torlades, Consul-General of Denmark , Belgium and Greece in Lisbon , a Capitalist , a Commander of the Order of Christ and a Commander of the Royal Order of Our Lady of Concepcion of Vila Viçosa, etc., who also received Queen Maria II of Portugal and King Ferdinand II of Portugal in his House in his Farm (Quinta) of as Machadas, at the term of Setúbal , etc. Marriage and issue He married in Lisbon , São Paulo, 11 December 1824, thus legitimizing their already born children, to Ludovina de Jesus Alves Solano ( Évora , São Mamede, 1790 - 22 December 1856), daughter of António Alves Miguéis and wife Inácia Solano , of Spanish descent, and had ten ...more...



Ferdinand the Holy Prince

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Ferdinand the Holy Prince ( Portuguese pronunciation:  ; Portuguese : Fernando o Infante Santo ; 29 September 1402 – 5 June 1443), sometimes called the "Saint Prince" or the "Constant Prince", was an infante of the Kingdom of Portugal . He was the youngest of the " Illustrious Generation " of 15th-century Portuguese princes of the House of Aviz and lay administrator of the Knightly Order of Aviz . In 1437, Ferdinand participated in the disastrous Siege of Tangier led by his older brother Henry the Navigator . In the aftermath, Ferdinand was handed over to the Marinid rulers of Morocco as a hostage for the surrender of Ceuta in accordance with the terms of a treaty negotiated between the rulers of Portugal and Morocco by Henry. At first, Ferdinand was held in relative comfort as a noble hostage in Asilah , but when it became apparent that the Portuguese authorities had no intention of giving up Ceuta, Ferdinand's status was downgraded, and he was transferred to a prison in Fez , where he was subjected to much ...more...



Manuel I of Portugal

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Manuel I ( European Portuguese:  ; 31 May 1469 – 13 December 1521), the Fortunate ( Port. o Afortunado ), King of Portugal and the Algarves , was the son of Ferdinand, Duke of Viseu , by his wife, the Infanta Beatrice of Portugal . His name is associated with a period of Portuguese civilization that was distinguished by significant achievements both in political affairs and the arts. In spite of its small size and population in comparison to the great land powers of Europe, Portugal, during Manuel's reign, was able to acquire an overseas empire of vast proportions, the first in world history to reach global dimensions. Early life Manuel's mother was the granddaughter of King John I of Portugal , whereas his father was the second surviving son of King Edward of Portugal and the younger brother of King Afonso V of Portugal . In 1495, Manuel succeeded his first cousin, King John II of Portugal , who was also his brother-in-law, as husband to Manuel's sister, Eleanor of Viseu . Manuel grew up amidst conspiracies ...more...



Carlos Pinto Coelho

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Carlos Pinto Coelho (18 April 1944 – 15 December 2010) was a Portuguese journalist, writer, photographer and media personality. Life and career Carlos Pinto Coelho was born in Lisbon and lived until he was 19 in Portuguese Mozambique , African Portuguese colony . In 1963 he returned to Portugal to study law at Faculty of Law of the University of Lisbon . He made his debut in journalism in January 1968 as a reporter in the Lisbon daily newspaper Diário de Notícias . He was drafted as a second lieutenant of the Portuguese Army and served in the Portuguese Colonial War in the war in Mozambique (1970/1973). After the Carnation Revolution in 1975 he was one of the founders of the daily newspaper Jornal Novo as head of international news desk. Until 1977 he also worked on the editorial staff of the ANI news agency,on the editorial staff of the weekly news magazine Vida Mundial and was one of the Portuguese correspondents for Radio Deutsche Welle . In 1982 he became executive director of Mais news magazine. At RTP – ...more...



Theotonius

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Theotonius (1082 - 1162) was an Augustinian canon and royal advisor. He is noted in Portugal , for being the first prior of the Monastery of the Holy Cross in Coimbra , Portugal. He is celebrated as the reformer of religious life in Portugal, and is the first Portuguese saint . Early life Theotonius was born in the village of Ganfei, in northern Portugal around 1082. His parents, Oveco (James) and Eugenia were both wealthy and pious. He was called "Theotonius", a Greek name meaning 'godly'. His uncle Dom Crescónio, abbot of the Benedictine monastery near Tuy, was his first teacher. When Dom Crescónio became bishop of Coimbra in 1092, he brought the ten-year-old Theotonius with him and entrusted his further education to the care of a young seminarian, Tello. After the death of Bishop Crescónio in 1098, Theotonius went to Viseu, where his uncle named Teodorico was prior of the Cathedral Chapter of Sancta Maria. During his time of preparation for the priesthood, Theotonius progressed through the minor ecclesias ...more...



Orders, decorations, and medals of Macau

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The Macau government confers honours every year, which are classified into: Grand Lotus, Golden Lotus, and Silver Lotus as well as medals of achievements for professional elite organizations or government departments. Categories The Macau honours system of civil decorations awarded by the government of the Macau Special Administrative Region of China (MSAR) includes: Grand Medal of Lotus Flower (GML) ( Medalhas de honra de Grande Lótus ), the highest award under the MSAR honours and awards system, recognises lifelong and highly significant contribution to the well-being of Macau. The first two persons given this honour in 2001 were: Ma Man-kei (1919-2014) - late business tycoon, former Chairman of the Macao Chamber of Commerce, former member of the Legislative Assembly of Macau , former Vice-Chairman of Chinese People's Political Consultative Conference . Tong Seng Chiu , former president of the Macao Federation of Workers' Union Honourable Medal of Golden Lotus Flower (GLM) ( Medalhas de honra de Lótus de Ou ...more...



John III of Portugal

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John III ( Portuguese : João III Portuguese pronunciation:  ; 7 June 1502 – 11 June 1557) was the King of Portugal and the Algarves from 13 December 1521 to 11 June 1557. He was the son of King Manuel I and Maria of Aragon , the third daughter of King Ferdinand II of Aragon and Queen Isabella I of Castile . John succeeded his father in 1521, at the age of nineteen. During his rule, Portuguese possessions were extended in Asia and in the New World through the Portuguese colonization of Brazil . John III's policy of reinforcing Portugal's bases in India (such as Goa ) secured Portugal's monopoly over the spice trade of cloves and nutmeg from the Maluku Islands , as a result of which John III has been called the "Grocer King". On the eve of his death in 1557, the Portuguese empire had a global dimension and spanned almost 1 billion acres (about 4 million square kilometers). During his reign, the Portuguese became the first Europeans to make contact with both China, under the Ming Dynasty , and Japan, during the ...more...



Topasses

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A Topas or Mardick with his wife (J. Nieuhof, 17th century) Topasses ( Tupasses, Topas, Topaz ) were a group of people led by the two power families – Da Costa and Hornay – that resided in Oecussi and Flores . The Da Costa families were descendants of Portuguese Jewish merchants and Hornay were Dutch. Topasses were found in the various places of South Asia and Southeast Asia which were frequented by the Portuguese, such as Goa , Malacca and Batavia . In particular they are associated with the ethnically mixed Portuguese group that dominated politics on Timor in the 17th and 18th centuries. Topasses ( Topaze Indo-Portuguese ) was a term applied in India by the British East India Company in the eighteenth century to describe Luso-Asians - usually from the Portuguese territories in the Indian subcontinent, or formally Portuguese territories such as Bombay . One of the first references to them is in the British Anti-piracy campaign of 1756 when 300 Topaze Indo-Portuguese on the British ships Kent, Kingfisher and ...more...



Ferdinand I of Portugal

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Dom Ferdinand I (Portuguese: Fernando; 31 October 1345 – 22 October 1383), sometimes called the Handsome (o Formoso or o Belo ) or occasionally the Inconstant (o Inconstante), was the King of the Kingdom of Portugal from 1367 until his death in 1383. His death led to the 1383–85 crisis , also known as the Portuguese interregnum. Life Ferdinand was born in Coimbra, the second but eldest surviving son of Peter I and his wife, Constanza Manuel. On the death of Peter of Castile in 1369, Ferdinand, as great-grandson of Sancho IV by the female line, laid claim to the vacant Castilian throne. The kings of Aragon and Navarre , and later John of Gaunt, Duke of Lancaster , who had married Peter of Castile's eldest daughter, Constance, also claimed the throne. The throne was held by his second cousin Henry of Trastámara (Henry II of Castile), Peter of Castile's illegitimate brother, who had defeated him in the Castilian Civil War in 1366 and assumed the crown. After one or two indecisive campaigns, all parties were re ...more...



António Lagarto

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António Lagarto GOIH is a Portuguese set and costume designer and artist. He lived in London through the seventies and eighties, having graduated at St. Martin’s School of Art ( Sculpture ) and the Royal College of Art ( Environmental Media ). He developed his activity between London , Lisbon and Paris . He was Director of Teatro Nacional D. Maria II (Lisbon’s National Theatre) in 2005 and 2006 and Deputy Director (1989–1993). He was Director of Festival Internacional de Teatro – FIT ( Lisbon's International Theatre Festival ) (1991–1995). Since 2007 he is in charge of the Department of Set and Costume Design at Lisbon 's Escola Superior de Teatro e Cinema (Theatre and Cinema School). Lagarto started his career in performance art and environment / installations . His work has spanned from installations to photography , film , illustration , graphics and interior design . In 1978 he initiated his professional activity in set and costume design. Between 1975 and 1981 he collaborated in several art and design pr ...more...



Kaúlza de Arriaga

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Kaúlza de Oliveira de Arriaga , OA , GCC , OC , OIH (18 January 1915 – 2 February 2004) was a Portuguese General , writer , professor and politician . He was Secretary of State (junior minister) of the Air Force between 1953 and 1955 and commander of the Terrestrial Forces in Mozambique from 1969 until 1974 during the Mozambican War of Independence . Ancestry He was a son of Manuel dos Santos Lima de Arriaga Nunes ( Lisbon , Santa Isabel, 11 October 1885 - Vila Nova de Gaia , Arcozelo , 19 September 1940), a sculptor and son of a medical doctor from Pico Island , Azores , and his Portuguese Brazilian wife, Felicidade Eugénia Martins de Oliveira ( Porto , Sé , 11 August 1895 - Lisbon , São Julião, 16 July 1987), daughter and granddaughter of goldsmiths . The couple married in Porto on 20 June 1914. Career Arriaga completed a degree in mathematics and engineering at the University of Porto and then volunteered for the Portuguese Army on 1 November 1935. Taking a military and civil engineering course in the Mili ...more...



Manuel II of Portugal

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Dom Manuel II (15 November 1889 – 2 July 1932) "the Patriot" ( Portuguese : "o Patriota" ) or "the Unfortunate" ( Portuguese : "o Desventurado" ) was the last King of Portugal , ascending the throne after the assassination of his father, King Carlos I , and his elder brother, Luís Filipe, the Prince Royal . Before ascending the throne he was Duke of Beja . His reign ended with the dissolution of the monarchy in the 5 October 1910 revolution , and Manuel lived the rest of his life in exile in Twickenham, south of London. Early life Infante D. Manuel, Duke of Beja, c. 1901, around age 12. Manuel Maria Filipe Carlos Amélio Luís Miguel Rafael Gabriel Gonzaga Francisco de Assis Eugénio de Orleães Sabóia e Saxe-Coburgo-Gotha Bragança was born in the first year of the reign of his father, King Carlos I ; he was the third child, and last son, born to Carlos I of Portugal and Amélie of Orleans in the Palace of Belém, Lisbon, less than a month after his father ascended the Portuguese throne. A member of the House of B ...more...



Jorge Maria O'Neill

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Jorge Maria O'Neill ( Lisbon , Encarnação, 7 November 1908 - Lisbon, 15 December 1988) was the head of a branch of one of the principal Irish Royal Families , the Clanaboy O'Neill dynasty , which has resided in Portugal since the 18th century. Recognition He was officially recognized by the heraldic societies throughout Europe as titular Prince and Count of Clanaboy , but has refused to use the title, preferring instead the style O'Neill of Clannaboy . He was the first son of the previous head Hugo José Jorge O'Neill and wife Dona Júlia Margarida Catarina de Serpa Pimentel de Sousa Coutinho. He was also Viscount of Santa Mónica, in Portugal. Life Jorge O'Neill was an Electronic Engineer graduating from the University of Lausanne , Switzerland . He was recognized by the Chief Herald of Ireland as Chief of the Name for the O'Neill of Clannaboy . Marriage and issue Jorge Maria O'Neill married in Cascais , on 23 December 1937 Josefina Luísa Roquette Ricciardi (Lisbon, Camões, 5 April 1917 - Lisbon, Alcântara, 11 ...more...



Prince Pedro Gastão of Orléans-Braganza

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Prince Pedro Gastão of Orléans-Braganza (born Pierre-d'Alcantara Gaston Jean Marie Philippe Laurent Hubert d'Orléans et Bragance ; in Portuguese , Pedro de Alcântara Gastão João Maria Filipe Lourenço Humberto Miguel Gabriel Rafael Gonzaga de Orléans e Bragança e Dobrzensky de Dobrzenicz) (19 February 1913 – 27 December 2007) was one of two claimants to the Brazilian throne and head of the Petrópolis branch of the Brazilian Imperial House . Biography Pedro Gastão with his paternal grandfather, Gaston of Orléans during First World War. Prince Pedro Gastão was the son of Prince Pedro de Alcântara of Orléans-Braganza and his wife Countess Elisabeth Dobržensky de Dobrženicz . He was born in Eu , France. He spent his youth in Europe and at his family's Parisian home in the Boulogne sur Seine suburb: "I have very good memories of my grandparents...In exile in France I was always brought up thinking of Brazil not France or Portugal." A few years before his death Pedro Gastão's father Prince Pedro de Alcântara told a ...more...



Hervé Pinoteau

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Baron Hervé Pinoteau (born 19 July 1927) is a French historian and royalist apologist . He is the author of more than 900 articles and 22 books primarily on history and heraldry. Biography Pinoteau was born in Paris. From 1950 to 1951, he served in the French army as a lieutenant. He served as the private secretary of the late Prince Alfonso, Duke of Anjou , for 26 years. Pinoteau is a member of the Académie Internationale d'Héraldique (International Academy of Heraldry) of which he was general secretary from 1964 to 1988. He was president of the Société nationale des Antiquaires de France in 2010. He was recognized as an expert in French heraldry and vexology . He was commissioned to create the coat of arms of the Pays de la Loire region of France, and to do the final design for the coat of arms of the Republic of Chad . Pinoteau is a monarchist who believed in the restoration of the House of Bourbon to the French throne. He was the founder of the Secretariat-du Prince Alphonse, Duc de Bourbon (1962) an ...more...




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