National Metallurgical Laboratory

National Metallurgical Laboratory is an Indian research center that functions under the aegis of Council of Scientific and Industrial Research.

History

In 1944, the then Government released 10 million (US$149,037) to set up National Physical Laboratory, National Chemical Laboratory and National Metallurgical Laboratory (NML). This was seen as a step by the Government to develop industry in pre-independent India, and also as an incentive to private firms to support industrial research. As a result, the Tata Trust promised to donate 1.17 million (US$17,000) to NML.[1] A year later, Ardeshir Dalal – the then member of planning and development for the government – confirmed the location of NML to be Jamshedpur.[2] In 1946, the governing body approved the final plans for NML. As per that, the laboratory was to be set up with an initial capital expenditure of 4.28 million (US$64,000).[3]

On 21 November 1946, Honorable Mr. C. Rajagopalachari laid the foundation stone of the laboratory in front of representatives from the iron and steel industry.[4] Dr. George Sachs, an American metallurgist was appointed as the first director of the laboratory.[5][6] Since October 1949, the technological block of the laboratory started functioning effectively.[7] On 26 November 1950, the country's first prime minister Pandit Jawaharlal Nehru inaugurated the laboratory.[8] This was followed by a two-day conference that was held in the presence of the directors of National Physical Laboratory, National Chemical Laboratory, Central Road Research Laboratory, Fuel Research Institute, NML and Central Glass and Ceramic Research Laboratory. The conference noted the essential articles that were not produced in the country, but will be required during emergencies.[9]

External links
References
  1. "Civil Estimates". The Indian Express. 1 March 1944. Retrieved 18 August 2012.
  2. "Glass and Ceramic Research Institute – Sir A. R. Dalal lays foundation stone". The Indian Express. 26 December 1945. Retrieved 18 August 2012.
  3. "Atomic Research in Tata Institute". The Indian Express. 19 September 1946. Retrieved 18 August 2012.
  4. Contractor, G P (1946). "National Metallurgical Laboratory: Foundation-Stone Laying Ceremony, 21st November 1946" (PDF). Journal of Scientific and Industrial Research. 5 (6): 256–261.
  5. "American Director for Metallurgical Laboratory". The Indian Express. 9 March 1947. Retrieved 18 August 2012.
  6. "Modernisation of Jari Production : Dr. Sachs' suggestions for Surat and Benaras". The Indian Express. 1 April 1949. Retrieved 18 August 2012.
  7. "Work on other schemes". The Indian Express. 5 May 1950. Retrieved 18 August 2012.
  8. "Nehru to visit Jamshedpur". The Indian Express. 24 November 1950. Retrieved 18 August 2012.
  9. "National Laboratories' Chiefs Corner". The Indian Express. 27 November 1950. Retrieved 18 August 2012.

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Albany Research Center

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Albany Research Center

The Albany Research Center, now part of National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL), is a U.S. Department of Energy laboratory staffed by Federal employees located in Albany, Oregon. Founded in 1943, the laboratory specializes in life cycle research starting with the formulation, characterization, and/or melting of most metals, alloys, and ceramics; casting and fabrication, prototype development; and the recycle and remediation of waste streams associated with these processes. They routinely solve industrial processing problems by investigating melting, casting, fabrication, physical and chemical analysis and wear, corrosion and performance testing of materials through the use of equipment and analytical techniques. The facility rests on 44 acres (18 ha) and occupies 38 buildings.[1] History The United States Bureau of Mines selected a location in Albany to be home to the Northwest Electro-development Laboratory on March 17, 1943.[2] The grounds of the center and some buildings had been the home of Albany ...more...

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University of Chicago Medical Center

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University of Chicago Medical Center

The University of Chicago Medical Center, also known under the umbrella title of University of Chicago Medicine, is an American academic medical center in Hyde Park on the South Side of Chicago that was established in 1899. Affiliated with and operated by the University of Chicago, it serves as the teaching hospital for students of the institution's Pritzker School of Medicine. History The University of Chicago Medicine and Biological Sciences, one of the nation's leading academic medical institutions, has been at the forefront of medical care since 1927, when it first opened to patients. Today, it comprises the University of Chicago Pritzker School of Medicine; the University of Chicago Biological Sciences Division, a section committed to scientific discovery; and the University of Chicago Medical Center. Twelve Nobel Prize winners in physiology or medicine have been affiliated with the University of Chicago Medicine.[3] University of Chicago Medicine physicians are members of the University of Chicago Ph ...more...

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Leo Szilard

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Leo Szilard

Leo Szilard (; Hungarian: Szilárd Leó ; German: Leo Spitz until age 2; February 11, 1898 – May 30, 1964) was a Hungarian-German-American physicist and inventor. He conceived the nuclear chain reaction in 1933, patented the idea of a nuclear reactor with Enrico Fermi in 1934, and in late 1939 wrote the letter for Albert Einstein's signature that resulted in the Manhattan Project that built the atomic bomb. Szilard initially attended Palatine Joseph Technical University in Budapest, but his engineering studies were interrupted by service in the Austro-Hungarian Army during World War I. He left Hungary for Germany in 1919, enrolling at Technische Hochschule (Institute of Technology) in Berlin-Charlottenburg, but became bored with engineering and transferred to Friedrich Wilhelm University, where he studied physics. He wrote his doctoral thesis on Maxwell's demon, a long-standing puzzle in the philosophy of thermal and statistical physics. Szilard was the first to recognize the connection between thermodynamics ...more...

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Edward Creutz

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Edward Creutz

Edward Creutz (January 23, 1913 – June 27, 2009) was an American physicist who worked on the Manhattan Project at the Metallurgical Laboratory and the Los Alamos Laboratory during World War II. After the war he became a professor of physics at the Carnegie Institute of Technology. He was Vice President of Research at General Atomics from 1955 to 1970. He published over 65 papers on botany, physics, mathematics, metallurgy and science policy, and held 18 patents relating to nuclear energy. A graduate of the University of Wisconsin–Madison, Creutz helped Princeton University build its first cyclotron. During World War II he worked on nuclear reactor design under Eugene Wigner at the Metallurgical Laboratory, designing the cooling system for the first water-cooled reactors. He led a group that studied the metallurgy of uranium and other elements used in reactor designs. In October 1944, he moved to the Los Alamos Laboratory, where he became a group leader. After the war ended, Creutz accepted an offer to come ...more...

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List of University of Chicago alumni

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List of University of Chicago alumni

This list of University of Chicago alumni consists of notable people who graduated or attended the University of Chicago. The alumni of the university include graduates and attendees. Graduates are defined as those who hold Bachelor's, Master's, or Ph.D. from the university, while attendees are those who studied at the university but did not complete the program or obtain a degree. The honorary degree holders and auditors of the university are excluded. The summer school attendees are also excluded from the list since summer terms are not part of formal academic years. Nobel laureates Luis Alvarez (A.B. 1932, S.M. 1934, Ph.D. 1936) – Physics, 1968 Emily Green Balch (attended) – Peace, 1946[1] Gary Becker (A.M. 1953, Ph.D. 1955) – Economics, 1992 Saul Bellow (X. 1939) – Literature, 1976 Herbert Brown (S.B. 1936, Ph.D. 1938) – Chemistry, 1979 James M. Buchanan (Ph.D. 1948) – Economics, 1986 Owen Chamberlain (Ph.D. 1949) – Physics, 1959 John Maxwell Coetzee (Professor) – Literature, 2003 Jam ...more...

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Jan D. Miller

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Jan D. Miller

Jan Dean Miller is an American engineer, currently Distinguished Professor of metallurgical engineering and Ivor D. Thomas Endowed Chair at University of Utah.[1] Biography Miller received his B.S. degree from the Pennsylvania State University in 1964, and his M.S. and Ph.D. degrees from the Colorado School of Mines in 1966 and 1969 respectively. He joined the faculty at the University of Utah in 1968, became a full professor in 1978, a distinguished professor in 2008 and served as chair of the Department of Metallurgical Engineering from 2002-2013. In 1993 he was elected to the National Academy of Engineering.[2] He holds more than 30 patents on methods for processing oil sands, resin recovery from Utah coal, and air-sparged hydrocyclone technology, and has received many professional society awards from the American Institute of Mining, Metallurgical, and Petroleum Engineers and The Minerals, Metals and Materials Society.[3] In 2003 he was recognized by Gdansk University of Technology with the Medal za Zas ...more...

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Samuel King Allison

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Samuel King Allison

Samuel King Allison (November 13, 1900 – September 15, 1965) was an American physicist, most notable for his role in the Manhattan Project, for which he was awarded the Medal for Merit. He was director of the Metallurgical Laboratory from 1943 until 1944, and later worked at the Los Alamos Laboratory — where he "rode herd" on the final stages of the project as part of the "Cowpuncher Committee",[1] and read the countdown for the detonation of the Trinity nuclear test. After the war he was involved in the "scientists' movement", lobbying for civilian control of nuclear weapons. Early life Samuel King Allison was born in Chicago, Illinois, on November 13, 1900, the son of Samuel Buell Allison, an elementary school principal. He was educated at John Fiske Grammar School and Hyde Park High School. He entered the University of Chicago in 1917, and participated in varsity swimming and water basketball, while majoring in mathematics and chemistry. He graduated in 1921, and then embarked on his PhD in chemistry und ...more...

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University of Chicago

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University of Chicago

The University of Chicago (UChicago, U of C, or Chicago) is a private, non-profit research university in Chicago, Illinois. It holds top-ten positions in various national and international rankings.[9][10][11][12] The university is composed of the College, various graduate programs and interdisciplinary committees organized into five academic research divisions and seven professional schools. Beyond the arts and sciences, Chicago is also well known for its professional schools, which include the Pritzker School of Medicine, the Booth School of Business, the Law School, the School of Social Service Administration, the Harris School of Public Policy Studies, the Divinity School and the Graham School of Continuing Liberal and Professional Studies. The university currently enrolls 5,971 undergraduate students, and 16,016 students overall.[13] University of Chicago scholars have played a major role in the development of many academic disciplines, including sociology,[14] law,[15] economics,[16] literary criticis ...more...

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Project X Engineers, Inc

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Project X Engineers, Inc

Project X Engineers, Inc. aka Project X Corrosion Engineering is a forensic, engineering, soil testing lab, metallurgy lab, and consulting firm based in Murrieta, California, United States. Project X has worked on projects across the continental United States, ranging from soil testing and corrosion control recommendations for large scale solar farms, university expansions, water testing to find origin of lead contamination, failure and metallurgy analysis of oil refinery and water infrastructure, and unbiased expert witness services. History Founded in 2013 by Eduardo Hernandez, PE, mechanical engineer and materials scientist, as Project X Corrosion Services, Project X got its start writing soil corrosivity (Corrosion Evaluation) reports with corrosion control recommendations for various Architect/Engineering/Construction clients. Located one hour from all southern California metropolitan areas in the small town of Murrieta, Project X Engineers is part of the team turning a once dusty town into a high tech ...more...

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Arthur Compton

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Arthur Compton

Arthur Holly Compton (September 10, 1892 – March 15, 1962) was an American physicist who won the Nobel Prize in Physics in 1927 for his 1923 discovery of the Compton effect, which demonstrated the particle nature of electromagnetic radiation. It was a sensational discovery at the time: the wave nature of light had been well-demonstrated, but the idea that light had both wave and particle properties was not easily accepted. He is also known for his leadership of the Manhattan Project's Metallurgical Laboratory, and served as Chancellor of Washington University in St. Louis from 1945 to 1953. In 1919, Compton was awarded one of the first two National Research Council Fellowships that allowed students to study abroad. He chose to go to Cambridge University's Cavendish Laboratory in England, where he studied the scattering and absorption of gamma rays. Further research along these lines led to the discovery of the Compton effect. He used X-rays to investigate ferromagnetism, concluding that it was a result of th ...more...

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J. Ernest Wilkins Jr.

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J. Ernest Wilkins Jr.

Jesse Ernest Wilkins Jr. (November 27, 1923 – May 12, 2011) was an African American nuclear scientist, mechanical engineer and mathematician. He attended the University of Chicago at the age of 13, becoming its youngest ever student.[2][3][4] His intelligence led to him being referred to as a "negro genius" in the media. As part of a widely varied and notable career, Wilkins contributed to the Manhattan Project during the Second World War. He also gained fame working in and conducting nuclear physics research in both academia and industry. He wrote numerous scientific papers, served in various important posts, earned several significant awards and helped recruit minority students into the sciences.[2][5][6] His career spanned seven decades and included significant contributions to pure and applied mathematics, civil and nuclear engineering, and optics.[7] Despite his stature and fame during his various careers he was not unaffected by the prevalent racism that existed for much of his life.[2] Biography In ...more...

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Cyril Stanley Smith

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Cyril Stanley Smith

Cyril Stanley Smith (4 October 1903 – 25 August 1992) was a British metallurgist and historian of science. He is most famous for his work on the Manhattan Project where he was responsible for the production of fissionable metals. A graduate of the University of Birmingham and Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT), Smith worked for many years as a research metallurgist at the American Brass Company. During World War II he worked in the Chemical-Metallurgical Division of the Los Alamos Laboratory, where he purified, cast and shaped uranium-235 and plutonium, a metal hitherto available only in microgram amounts, and whose properties were largely unknown. After the war he served on the Atomic Energy Commission's influential General Advisory Committee, and the President's Science Advisory Committee. Smith founded the Institute for the Study of Metals at the University of Chicago, the first interdisciplinary academic organization devoted to the study of metals in the United States. He studied the details of ...more...

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Project Y

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Project Y

The Los Alamos Laboratory, also known as Project Y, was a secret laboratory established by the Manhattan Project and operated by the University of California during World War II. Its mission was to design and build the first atomic bombs. Robert Oppenheimer was its first director, from 1943 to December 1945, when he was succeeded by Norris Bradbury. For scientists to freely discuss their work while preserving security, the laboratory was located in a remote part of New Mexico. The wartime laboratory occupied buildings that had once been part of the Los Alamos Ranch School. The development effort initially concentrated on a gun-type fission weapon using plutonium called Thin Man. In April 1944, the Los Alamos Laboratory determined that the rate of spontaneous fission in plutonium bred in a nuclear reactor was too great due to the presence of plutonium-240 and would cause a predetonation, a nuclear chain reaction before the core was fully assembled. Oppenheimer then reorganized the laboratory and orchestrated ...more...

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Dipankar Banerjee (metallurgist)

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Dipankar Banerjee (metallurgist)

Dipankar Banerjee (born 15 February 1952) is an Indian physical metallurgist, materials engineer and a former chief controller of R&D at the Defence Research and Development Organization (DRDO). Known for his studies on titanium alloys, Banerjee is an elected fellow of all the three major Indian science academies namely Indian Academy of Sciences, Indian National Science Academy and National Academy of Sciences, India as well as the Indian National Academy of Engineering. The Council of Scientific and Industrial Research, the apex agency of the Government of India for scientific research, awarded him the Shanti Swarup Bhatnagar Prize for Science and Technology, one of the highest Indian science awards for his contributions to Engineering Sciences in 1993.[1][note 1] He received the fourth highest Indian civilian honour of Padma Shri from the Government of India in 2005.[2] Biography IISc - Main Building Born on 15 February 1952,[3] Dipankar Banerjee graduated in metallurgy from the Indian Institute ...more...

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British Non-Ferrous Metals Research Association

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British Non-Ferrous Metals Research Association

The British Non-Ferrous Metals Research Association was a research group in the United Kingdom during the 20th century, bringing together public and privately funded research into metallurgy. The name was abbreviated officially to B.N.F.M.R.A. (the organisation was normally known as ‘The BNF’ during its life). It was formed in 1920 by members of the British Non-Ferrous Metals Federation which represented the commercial interests of British manufacturers of coppers and copper alloys, lead, zinc and other non-ferrous metals and their alloys, latterly including titanium. Robert Hutton was appointed director in 1921. Membership The 600 or so subscribing members formed Industry Committees representing each of the main metal interests which discussed and agreed the topics for technical work to be done and a Council that controlled overall finances. Initially there was an annual government grant towards the work but this was changed to support funding for individual projects. When topics for research were agreed a ...more...

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University of Chicago Oriental Institute

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University of Chicago Oriental Institute

The Oriental Institute (OI), established in 1919, is the University of Chicago's interdisciplinary research center for ancient Near Eastern ("Orient") studies, and archaeology museum. It was founded for the university by professor James Henry Breasted with funds donated by John D. Rockefeller, Jr. It conducts research on ancient civilizations throughout the Near East, including at its facility, Chicago House, in Luxor, Egypt. The Institute publicly exhibits an extensive collection of artifacts related to ancient civilizations at its on-campus building in the Hyde Park, Chicago community. History In the early 20th century, James Henry Breasted built up the collection of the university's Haskell Oriental Museum, which he oversaw along with his field work, and teaching duties. He dreamed, however, of establishing a research institute, “a laboratory for the study of the rise and development of civilization”, that would trace Western civilization to its roots in the ancient Middle East.[1] As World War I wound d ...more...

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Hong Yong Sohn

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Hong Yong Sohn

Hong Yong Sohn is an American engineer, currently a Distinguished Professor in Metallurgical Engineering at University of Utah.[1][2] Hong Yong Sohn received his B.S. degree from Seoul National University in Korea and his Ph.D. degree in Chemical Engineering in 1970 from the University of California at Berkeley. After working as a Research Engineer at Du Pont’s Engineering Technology Laboratory, he joined the Department of Metallurgical Engineering at the University of Utah in 1974 and currently holds the rank of Distinguished Professor. Professor Sohn’s work has been recognized through various awards, which include the 2014 Educator Award from TMS; the Distinguished Scholarly and Creative Research Award, 2012, University of Utah; Billiton Gold Medal, 2012, The Institute of Materials, Minerals and Mining, U.K.; the TMS 2009 Fellow Award, “in recognition of outstanding contribution to the practice of metallurgical/materials science and technology,” from The Minerals, Metals and Materials Society (TMS); the 200 ...more...

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Pritzker School of Medicine

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Pritzker School of Medicine

One of the many buildings that house offices of the Pritzker school. Although constructed after the main quadrangles, the Pritzker buildings adhere to Gothic architectural norms The Pritzker School of Medicine is the M.D.-granting unit of the Biological Sciences Division of the University of Chicago. It is located on the university's main campus in the historic Hyde Park neighborhood of Chicago and matriculated its first class in 1927. The medical school offers a full-time Doctor of Medicine degree program, joint degree programs, graduate medical education, and continuing medical education. As one of the most selective medical schools in the United States, it is currently ranked 18th among research universities for medical education by the US News & World Report.[1] History Interest in opening a medical school at the University of Chicago began in 1898 when the university became temporarily affiliated with Rush Medical College while Chicago endeavored to establish funds for the construction of a medi ...more...

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Mineral resource classification

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Mineral resource classification

Mineral resource classification is the classification of mineral resources based on an increasing level of geological knowledge and confidence.[1] Reporting codes framework with three main categories - Exploration Results, Mineral Resources, and Mineral Reserves.[2] Mineral deposits can be classified as: Mineral resources that are potentially valuable, and for which reasonable prospects exist for eventual economic extraction. Mineral reserves or Ore reserves that are valuable and legally and economically and technically feasible to extract In common mining terminology, an "ore deposit" by definition must have an 'ore reserve', and may or may not have additional 'resources'. Classification, because it is an economic function, is governed by statutes, regulations and industry best practice norms. There are several classification schemes worldwide, however the Canadian CIM classification (see NI 43-101), the Australasian Joint Ore Reserves Committee Code (JORC Code), the South African Code for the R ...more...

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Albert Wattenberg

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Albert Wattenberg

Albert Wattenberg (April 13, 1917 – June 27, 2007), was an American experimental physicist. During World War II, he was with the Manhattan Project's Metallurgical Laboratory at the University of Chicago. He was a member of the team that built Chicago Pile-1, the world's first artificial nuclear reactor, and was one of those present on December 2, 1942, when it achieved criticality. In July 1945, he was one of the signatories of the Szilard petition. After the war he received his doctorate, and became a researcher at the Argonne National Laboratory from 1947 to 1950, at Massachusetts Institute of Technology from 1951 to 1958, and at University of Illinois at Urbana–Champaign from 1958 to 1986, where he pursued the mysteries of the atomic nucleus. Early life Albert Wattenberg was born in New York City, New York, on April 13, 1917, the son of Louis and Bella Wattenberg. He had a younger brother, Lee, who became a medical researcher. He grew up in New York City, and attended DeWitt Clinton High School, where h ...more...

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Harold Agnew

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Harold Agnew

Harold Melvin Agnew (March 28, 1921 – September 29, 2013) was an American physicist, best known for having flown as a scientific observer on the Hiroshima bombing mission and, later, as the third director of the Los Alamos National Laboratory. Agnew joined the Metallurgical Laboratory at the University of Chicago in 1942, and helped build the Chicago Pile-1, the world's first nuclear reactor. In 1943, he joined the Los Alamos Laboratory, where he worked with the Cockcroft–Walton generator. After the war ended, he returned to the University of Chicago, where he completed his graduate work under Enrico Fermi. Agnew returned to Los Alamos in 1949, and worked on the Castle Bravo nuclear test at Bikini Atoll in 1954. He became head of the Weapon Nuclear Engineering Division in 1964. He also served as a Democratic New Mexico State Senator from 1955 to 1961, and was the Scientific Adviser to the NATO Supreme Allied Commander Europe (SACEUR) from 1961 to 1964. He was director of the Los Alamos National Laboratory f ...more...

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Central South University

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Central South University

Central South University (CSU) (Chinese: 中南大学; pinyin: Zhōngnán dàxué), is a national university of China located in Changsha, Hunan province, central south of People's Republic of China. CSU was established in April 2000 on the basis of the amalgamation of the three former individual universities, and is now a Chinese Ministry of Education Class A Double First Class University.[2] History Situated in the famous historical and cultural city of Changsha, Central South University (CSU) is a comprehensive and national key university under the direct administration of the Ministry of Education of China. The University is among the first group admitted into both Project 211, a project of building national key universities and colleges for the 21st century, and Project 985, a joint constructive project of building world-class universities co-sponsored by the Chinese central government and local governments. Gao Wenbing is the Party Secretary of the CSU Committee and Tian Hongqi is CSU President. Approved by the ...more...

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Rockefeller Chapel

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Rockefeller Chapel

Front view of the Rockefeller Chapel. The carillon tower of the Rockefeller Chapel. Rockefeller Chapel is a Gothic Revival chapel on the campus of the University of Chicago in Chicago, Illinois. A monumental example of Collegiate Gothic architecture, it was meant by patron John D. Rockefeller to be the "central and dominant feature" of the campus; at 200.7 feet[1] it is by covenant the tallest building on campus. Design Designed by architect Bertram Goodhue between 1918 and 1924, and built between 1925 and 1928 without the use of structural steel, it contains about 70 integrated figural sculptures by sculptors Lee Lawrie and Ulric Ellerhusen, and interior work by mosaicist Hildreth Meiere. Today the chapel is used for ecumenical worship services, weddings, university convocations, guest speakers, musical programs, and occasional film screenings. It occupies most of a block and can seat 1700 people. The woodcarvings that adorn the organ and South balcony were created by Alois Lang, a Master Woodcarver a ...more...

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George Herbert Jones Laboratory

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George Herbert Jones Laboratory

The George Herbert Jones Laboratory is an academic building at 5747 S. Ellis Avenue, Chicago, Illinois, on the main campus of the University of Chicago. Room 405 of the building was named a National Historic Landmark in 1967; it was the site where plutonium, the first man-made element, was isolated and measured. Description and history The George Herbert Jones Laboratory is located at the northwest corner of the main quadrangle of the University of Chicago campus, between East 58th and 57th Streets. It is a four-story masonry structure, built in 1928-29 as facility and instructional space for the university's staff of research chemists and graduate students in chemistry. Room 405 is a relatively non-descript chamber on the fourth floor, measuring 6 by 9 feet (1.8 m × 2.7 m), with shelves and counters lining its walls. It is accessed via a wooden door with a glass window in its upper half.[2] As part of the U.S. War Department's Manhattan Project, University of Chicago chemists began to study the newly manu ...more...

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Winslow Chemical Laboratory

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Winslow Chemical Laboratory

The Winslow Chemical Laboratory was a laboratory of the Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute campus in Troy, New York, United States, which finished construction in 1866.[3] It is named in honor of the 5th President of RPI, John F. Winslow, who donated half of the construction cost.[4] The building is brick with stone trimmings and was originally constructed with butternut, chestnut and black walnut. The whole building was fitted for complete courses in general and analytical chemistry. The design and construction was overseen by Professor Henry B. Nason, head of the department of chemistry at the Institute. The lower story contained the metallurgical laboratory and second story contained the chemical laboratory, store rooms and work rooms. The laboratory could accommodate about 40 students. The third story contained a lecture room, a private study, the library and a recitation room. The library of chemical books was established by a donation of several sets of journals and a gift of three hundred dollars from Jo ...more...

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Milton Friedman Institute for Research in Economics

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Milton Friedman Institute for Research in Economics

Between 2008 and 2011, the Milton Friedman Institute for Research in Economics was an academic center established at the University of Chicago as a collaborative, cross-disciplinary site for research in economics. The Institute aimed to advance, refine, and share research that applied the tools of economic analysis to real-world issues. The institute was named in honor of former Chicago economics professor, Milton Friedman, who is widely recognized for his many enduring contributions to economic analysis. The institute was a collaboration of the University of Chicago Booth School of Business, Department of Economics, and Law School and fostered inquiry across a wide range of topics and subfields. The institute aimed to advance and preserve the unique University of Chicago economic tradition of combining theory and data in rigorous analysis--an approach exemplified by Friedman and others. The Institute hosted visiting scholars working in subfields of economics, business, law, and related fields such as public ...more...

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Julius Ashkin

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Julius Ashkin

Julius Ashkin (August 23, 1920 – June 4, 1982) was a leader in experimental and theoretical physics known for furthering the evolution of particle physics from nuclear physics. As a theoretical physicist he made contributions in the fields of statistical mechanics, solid state physics, nuclear physics, and elementary particle physics. As an experimental physicist his main contributions concerned the passage of certain particles (pi-mesons, or pions) through solid matter and their subsequent decay. He was recognized for the quality of his research and teaching. Early life Julius Ashkin was born in Brooklyn, New York,[2] on August 23, 1920. His parents were Isadore and Anna Ashkin. He had two younger siblings, a brother, Arthur, also a physicist, and a sister, Ruth. One older sibling, Gertrude, died while young. The family home was in Brooklyn, New York, at 983 E 27 Street. Isadore had immigrated to the United States from Odessa, Russia at the age of 19. Anna, five years younger, also came from the Ukraine (i ...more...

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Marine Biological Laboratory

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Marine Biological Laboratory

The Marine Biological Laboratory (MBL) is an international center for research and education in biological and environmental science. Founded in Woods Hole, Massachusetts, in 1888, the MBL is a private, nonprofit institution affiliated with the University of Chicago. After being independent for most of its history, it became affiliated with the university on July 1, 2013.[1][2] It also collaborates with numerous other institutions. Introduction The MBL has approximately 250 year-round employees, about half of which are scientists and scientific support staff.[3] They are joined each year by more than 500 visiting scientists, summer staff, and research associates from hundreds of institutions around the world, as well as a large number of faculty and students participating in MBL courses (in 2016, 550 students from 333 institutions and 58 countries).[2] The MBL's resident research centers are the Eugene Bell Center for Regenerative Biology and Tissue Engineering, the Ecosystems Center, and the Bay Paul Cent ...more...

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National Institute of Technology, Warangal

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National Institute of Technology, Warangal

NIT Warangal Entrance Gate The National Institute of Technology, Warangal (NIT Warangal or NITW) is a public engineering institution located in Warangal, India. It is recognised as an Institute of National Importance by the Government of India. The foundation stone for this institute was laid by then Prime Minister Jawaharlal Nehru on 1959, the first in the chain of 31 NITs (formerly known as RECs) in the country. The institute was renamed as the National Institute of Technology, Warangal in 2002. History The Regional Engineering College, Warangal was the first to be established (in 1959) among the chain of 15 Regional Engineering Colleges in the country. The approval of the Government of India to establish one of the RECs meant for the southern region of Warangal was conveyed to the State Government through its letter no .F 11- 5/ 58- T. 5 dated 30 January 1959. The Government of Andhra Pradesh through G. O. Ms. No. 2440 (Education Department) dated 15 July 1959 constituted the first board of Governors of ...more...

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Joseph W. Kennedy

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Joseph W. Kennedy

Joseph William Kennedy (May 30, 1916 – May 5, 1957) was an American chemist who was a co-discoverer of plutonium, along with Glenn T. Seaborg, Edwin McMillan and Arthur Wahl. During World War II he was head of the CM (Chemistry and Metallurgy) Division at the Manhattan Project's Los Alamos laboratory, where he oversaw research onto the chemistry and metallurgy of uranium and plutonium. After the war, he was recruited as a professor at Washington University in St. Louis, where he is credited with transforming a university primarily concerned with undergraduate teaching into one that also boasts strong graduate and research programs. He died of cancer of the stomach at the age of 40. Early life Joseph William Kennedy was born in Nacogdoches, Texas on May 30, 1916, the son of Joseph and Mattie Kennedy. He attended Stephen F. Austin State Teachers College, from which he received a Bachelor of Arts (BA) degree, and the University of Kansas, which awarded him a Master of Arts (MA) degree. He then entered the Univ ...more...

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Manhattan Project

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Manhattan Project

The Manhattan Project was a research and development undertaking during World War II that produced the first nuclear weapons. It was led by the United States with the support of the United Kingdom and Canada. From 1942 to 1946, the project was under the direction of Major General Leslie Groves of the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers. Nuclear physicist Robert Oppenheimer was the director of the Los Alamos Laboratory that designed the actual bombs. The Army component of the project was designated the Manhattan District; Manhattan gradually superseded the official codename, Development of Substitute Materials, for the entire project. Along the way, the project absorbed its earlier British counterpart, Tube Alloys. The Manhattan Project began modestly in 1939, but grew to employ more than 130,000 people and cost nearly US$2 billion (about $22 billion in 2016[1] dollars). Over 90% of the cost was for building factories and to produce fissile material, with less than 10% for development and production of the weapons. R ...more...

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Which Decade #3

(dorbor)

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History

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Shanghai University

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Shanghai University

Shanghai University (上海大学 Shànghǎi Dàxué), abbreviated as SHU or Shangda (上大 Shàngdà), is a public research university located in Shanghai, China. Shanghai University is one of the nation's leading research universities. Its three campuses are in Baoshan, Jing'an and Jiading districts. Founded in 1922, originally a revolutionary school, the university contributed a group of influential people to the cause of Chinese liberation and development.[3] By consolidating four universities, it became a research-intensive comprehensive university and also the biggest higher learning institution run by Shanghai Municipality in 1994.[3][4] The university enrolls 23,036 undergraduate and 12,181 postgraduate students, including 3,896 international students.[5] Shanghai University is amongst the list of Project 211 for top national universities. The university's enterprise scientific research funds stood at CNY¥489.9 million in 2016, ranked 13th in China.[6] In the 2015 QS World University Rankings, it is ranked 411-420 i ...more...

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Jane Hamilton Hall

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Jane Hamilton Hall

Jane Hamilton Hall (23 June 1915–November 1981) was an American physicist. During World War II she worked on the Manhattan Project. After the war she remained at the Los Alamos National Laboratory, where she oversaw the construction and start up of the Clementine nuclear reactor. She became assistant director of the laboratory in 1958. She was secretary of the General Advisory Committee of the Atomic Energy Commission from 1956 until 1959, and was a member of the committee from 1966 to 1972. Biography Jane Hamilton was born in Denver, Colorado, on 23 June 1915.[1] She entered the University of Chicago, where she earned her Bachelor of Science (B.S.) degree in 1937, her Master of Science (M.S.) in 1938, and her doctorate (Ph.D.) in physics in 1942,[2] writing her thesis on "the temperature diffuse scattering of X-rays by potassium chloride and potassium bromide crystals".[3] There, she met and married David Hall, a fellow physics student,[2] in 1939.[1] They had two children, Malcolm and Linda.[4] She was a ...more...

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James Franck Institute

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James Franck Institute

The James Franck Institute of the University of Chicago conducts interdisciplinary research in physics, chemistry and materials science. Scientists at the institute include those interested in condensed matter physics, physical chemistry, materials chemistry, atomic, molecular, and optical (AMO) physics, geophysics, and biophysics.[1] Founded in 1945 by university President Robert Maynard Hutchins as the Institute for the Study of Metals, it was renamed for Nobel Prize winning physicist James Franck in 1967.[2][3] It had its beginnings in the Metallurgical Laboratory, the World War II project that initiated the first self-sustaining nuclear chain reaction, using the metal uranium. The Institute's founding director was Cyril Stanley Smith, former head of metallurgy at Los Alamos and the institute made early advances in pseudopotential theory and study of the Fermi surface.[3] The Institute was an early pioneer in interdisciplinary research in wide-ranging subjects: as it was organized like a "benevolent anarc ...more...

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University of Chicago Contemporary Chamber Players

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University of Chicago Contemporary Chamber Players

The University of Chicago Contemporary Chamber Players (also called Contempo, CCP, or Contemporary Chamber Players of the University of Chicago) is an American ensemble dedicated to the performance of contemporary classical music. It was founded in Chicago in 1964 by the American composer Ralph Shapey. Its artistic director is the composer Shulamit Ran. The ensemble has presented the world premieres of over 80 compositions, by composers including Roger Sessions, John Harbison, Ralph Shapey, George Perle, Shulamit Ran, and John Eaton. In October 2004 the group announced that, in recognition of its 40th anniversary, it would henceforth be known as "Contempo."[1] A similarly named group, the Stony Brook Contemporary Chamber Players, exists at the State University of New York at Stony Brook.[2] External links Contemporary Chamber Players official site ...more...

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Harley A. Wilhelm

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Harley A. Wilhelm

Harley A. Wilhelm (August 5, 1900 – October 7, 1995) was an American chemist who helped to establish the United States Department of Energy's Ames Laboratory at Iowa State University. His uranium extraction process helped make it possible for the Manhattan Project to build the first atomic bombs. Early life Harley A. Wilhelm was born on a farm near Ellston, Iowa, on August 5, 1900, one of seven children of Bert Clement and Annie Bell Wilhelm. He attended Ellston High School, where he was a varsity athlete as a freshman. He earned all-state athletic honors in his senior year. He graduated from Ellston High School in 1919, and entered Drake University in Des Moines, Iowa, on an athletic scholarship. At Drake he played as a forward on the basketball team and a halfback on the American football team. He was also a pitcher on the baseball team. He became interested in chemistry, and was awarded a fellowship to Iowa State College to study it there, but returned to Drake,[1] where he received his Bachelor of Arts ...more...

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Plutonium-238

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Plutonium-238

Plutonium-238 (also known as Pu-238 or 238Pu) is a radioactive isotope of plutonium that has a half-life of 87.7 years. Plutonium-238 is a very powerful alpha emitter. This makes the plutonium-238 isotope suitable for usage in radioisotope thermoelectric generators (RTGs) and radioisotope heater units. The density of plutonium-238 is 19.329 g/cm3.[3] Heat One gram of 238Pu corresponds to 1/238 moles, which is 2.53×1021 plutonium atoms. Considering its half-life t = 87.7 years, its activity is A = λ N = ln ⁡ 2 t 1 / 2 N = 634 GBq {\displaystyle A=\lambda N={\frac {\ln 2}{t_{1/2}}}N=634\,{\mbox{GBq}}} . A is the number of 238Pu decays per second per gram (634 billion). Each of the emitted alpha particles has kinetic energy 5.593 MeV or 8.96×10−13 J which is quickly converted to heat when the particle decelerates in the material. Therefore each gram of 238Pu spontaneously generates 0.568 W of heat. History Initial production Plutonium-238 was the first isotope of plutonium to be dis ...more...

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Ernest O. Wollan

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Ernest O. Wollan

Ernest O. Wollan (left) and Clifford Shull working with a double-crystal neutron spectrometer at the ORNL X-10 graphite reactor in 1949. Ernest Omar Wollan (November 6, 1902 – March 11, 1984) was an American physicist who made major contributions in the fields of neutron scattering and health physics. Biography Wollan was a native of Glenwood, Minnesota. After earning a bachelor's degree at Concordia College in 1923, he undertook graduate study at the University of Chicago, where he investigated X-ray scattering under Arthur Compton and received a Ph.D. in 1929.[1][2][3] Over the next several years, he taught physics at North Dakota State College and Washington University, spent a year in Zurich as a National Research Council fellow conducting research on cosmic rays, and worked with the Chicago Tumor Institute on its medical use of a radium source.[1][2] In January 1942, Wollan joined the University of Chicago Metallurgical Laboratory at the invitation of Compton and Enrico Fermi.[4] As a member of the ...more...

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Myrtle Bachelder

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Myrtle Bachelder

Myrtle Claire Bachelder (March 13, 1908 – May 22, 1997) was an American chemist and Women's Army Corps officer, who is noted for her secret work on the Manhattan Project atomic bomb program, and for the development of techniques in the chemistry of metals. Early life and career Myrtle C. Bachelder was born on March 13, 1908, in Orange, Massachusetts. She earned a bachelor of science degree from Middlebury College in 1930, and became a high school science teacher and athletics coach in South Hadley Falls, Massachusetts. She received her master of education degree from Boston University.[1][2][3] World War II: the atomic bomb During World War II, Bachelder enlisted in the Women's Army Corps (WAC) in November 1942, at the Springfield, Massachusetts headquarters. After spending time in training at military bases in several U.S. states, she received orders assigning her to the Company 'D' WAC Detachment of the Manhattan District, United States Army Corps of Engineers. Her secret assignment was to lead a group ...more...

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Asif Ghafoor

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Asif Ghafoor

Maj Gen Asif Ghafoor is a Director-General of the Inter-Services Public Relations (ISPR), the media wing of the Pakistan Armed Forces. Two-star rank general of the army, he took office as DG ISPR on December 15, 2016. He has also commanded a division in Swat.[1][2][3] Ghafoor was a part of the artillery regiment and also served in the military operations directorate.[1] His brother Tariq Ghafoor also served as a major-general in the army.[4] References "Maj Gen Asif Ghafoor appointed DG ISPR". DAWN.COM. 15 December 2016. Retrieved 15 December 2016. "Maj-Gen Asif Ghafoor named DG ISPR - The Express Tribune". The Express Tribune. 15 December 2016. Retrieved 15 December 2016. "Maj Gen Asif Ghafoor is new DG ISPR". The News. 15 December 2016. Retrieved 15 December 2016. Rehman, Dawood (15 December 2017). "Lesser known facts about new DG ISPR Maj. Gen. Asif Ghafoor". Daily Pakistan. Retrieved 23 August 2017. Military offices Preceded byLt Gen Asim Saleem Bajwa Director General of the ISPR2 ...more...

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Palle Rama Rao

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Palle Rama Rao

Palle Rama Rao FREng[1] is an Indian scientist noted for his contribution to the field of Physical and Mechanical Metallurgy. He has collaborated and conducted research activities for over dozen universities and associations all over India and abroad. He has been honoured with the titles of Padma Vibhushan in 2011 by president of India for his contributions to scientific community.[2] He is acting as the chairman, Governing Council, International Advanced Research Centre for Powder Metallurgy & New Materials (ARCI), Hyderabad. Education Palle Rama Rao did his MA (Physics) from Madras University, MSc (Nuclear Physics) from Andhra University; and PhD (Metallurgy) from the Institute of Technology, Banaras Hindu University (now Indian Institute of Technology (BHU) Varanasi). During 1966–67, he was postdoctoral research associate in the University of Pennsylvania. He joined the Faculty, Department of Metallurgy, Indian Institute of Science (IISc), Bangalore in 1960, moved to Indian Institute of Technology ( ...more...

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Steven Levitt

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Steven Levitt

Steven David "Steve" Levitt (born May 29, 1967) is an American economist known for his work in the field of crime, in particular on the link between legalized abortion and crime rates. Winner of the 2003 John Bates Clark Medal, he is currently the William B. Ogden Distinguished Service Professor of Economics at the University of Chicago, director of the Becker Center on Chicago Price Theory at the University of Chicago Booth School of Business. He was co-editor of the Journal of Political Economy published by the University of Chicago Press until December 2007. With journalist Stephen J. Dubner, he co-authored the best-selling book Freakonomics (2005) and its sequels SuperFreakonomics (2009), Think Like a Freak (2014), and When to Rob a Bank (2015). In 2009, Levitt co-founded TGG Group, a business and philanthropy consulting company.[2] He was chosen as one of Time magazine's "100 People Who Shape Our World" in 2006.[3] A 2011 survey of economics professors named Levitt their fourth favorite living economist ...more...

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Yerkes Observatory

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Yerkes Observatory

1897 photo of the 40 in (100 cm) refractor at the Yerkes Observatory. 2006 photo of the 40 in (100 cm) refractor at the Yerkes Observatory A photo of the Messier 51 galaxy taken on June 3, 1902 at the Yerkes Observatory Yerkes Observatory is an astronomical observatory in Williams Bay, Wisconsin operated by the University of Chicago Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics.[1][2] The observatory, which calls itself "the birthplace of modern astrophysics",[3] was founded in 1897 by astronomer George Ellery Hale and financed by businessman Charles T. Yerkes.[4] It represented a shift in the thinking about observatories, from their being mere housing for telescopes and observers, to the early-20th-century concept of observation equipment integrated with laboratory space for physics and chemistry. The observatory houses a 40-inch (102-cm) diameter doublet lens refracting telescope, the largest ever successfully used for astronomy,[5] and a collection of over 170,000 photographic plates.[6] The dire ...more...

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telescopes

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University of Chicago Institute of Politics

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University of Chicago Institute of Politics

The Institute of Politics is an extracurricular, nonpartisan institute at the University of Chicago designed to inspire students to pursue careers in politics and public service.[1] The Institute accomplishes its goals through four major avenues: A civic engagement program, where students take part in community service projects and gain leadership skills, a fellows program that hosts a group of political and policy professionals to lead seminars for an academic quarter, a speaker series featuring public events with a diverse array of political figures, and a career development program featuring hundreds of internships in government, politics and policy. It was formally established in 2013 with David Axelrod, who was President Barack Obama's chief campaign advisor, as its director.[2] Since its inception, the IOP has hosted prominent speakers including Joe Biden, Mitt Romney, Rand Paul, Al Gore, Rick Santorum, John McCain, Newt Gingrich, Bernie Sanders, John Brennan,[3] Frank Bruni, Edward Snowden (via videoc ...more...

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Prafulla Kumar Jena

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Prafulla Kumar Jena

Prafulla Kumar Jena is an Indian metallurgist and a former director of the National Institute for Interdisciplinary Science and Technology (formerly Regional Research Laboratory) of the Council for Scientific and Industrial Research, Bhubaneshwar.[1] He previously held the TATA Chair for the Distinguished Professor of Metallurgical Engineering at the Indian Institute of Technology, Kharagpur.[1] The Government of India honoured him with a Padma Shri in 1977.[2] Biography Born on 27 December 1931 in the Indian state of Odisha, P. K. Jena completed his graduate degree in chemistry with honours and a master's degree in physical chemistry from Utkal University.[3][4][5] He stayed back at the university for his doctoral research to secure a PhD[3] and shifted his studies to University of British Columbia from where he completed MS in metallurgical engineering.[1][4][5] He started his career as a senior scientist at the metallurgy division of the Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Trombay but moved, later, to Banares ...more...

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Robie House

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Robie House

Interior (1911) The Frederick C. Robie House is a U.S. National Historic Landmark on the campus of the University of Chicago in the South Side neighborhood of Hyde Park in Chicago, Illinois, at 5757 S. Woodlawn Avenue. Built between 1909 and 1910, the building was designed by architect Frank Lloyd Wright and is renowned as the greatest example of the Prairie School style, the first architectural style considered uniquely American. It was designated a National Historic Landmark on November 27, 1963[4] and was on the very first National Register of Historic Places list of October 15, 1966.[1] History Wright designed the Robie House in his studio in Oak Park, Illinois between 1908 and 1909.[5] The design precedent for the Robie House was the Ferdinand F. Tomek House in Riverside, Illinois, designed by Wright in 1907-08.[6] At the time that he commissioned Wright to design his home, Robie was only 28 years old and the assistant manager of the Excelsior Supply Company, a company on the South Side of Chicago ow ...more...

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Walter Rosenhain

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Walter Rosenhain

Dr. Walter Rosenhain ForMemRS[1](24 August 1875 – 17 March 1934) was a German-born Australian metallurgist. Early life Rosenhain was born in Berlin, German Empire, the son of Moritz Rosenhain, a merchant, and his wife Friederike, a daughter of Rabbi Benjamin Yosman Fink. The family migrated to Australia when Walter, was five years old, to avoid him having to do military service.[2] He was educated at Wesley College, Melbourne, and Queen's College, University of Melbourne, where he completed his course in civil engineering and was awarded an 1851 exhibition. Rosenhain then did three years research work with Professor James Alfred Ewing at St John's College, Cambridge.[3] Career On the advice of his professor he took up the microscopic examination of metals, and spent some time at the Royal Mint studying the technique of his new work. This led to the discovery of "slip bands" and later, the phenomenon of spontaneous annealing in lead and other soft metals. In 1900 he became scientific adviser to Chance Brot ...more...

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Battelle Memorial Institute

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Battelle Memorial Institute

Headquarters in Columbus Battelle Memorial Institute (more widely known as simply Battelle) is a private nonprofit applied science and technology development company headquartered in Columbus, Ohio. Battelle is a charitable trust organized as a nonprofit corporation under the laws of the State of Ohio and is exempt from taxation under Section 501(c)(3) of the Internal Revenue Code because it is organized for charitable, scientific and education purposes. The institute opened in 1929 but traces its origins to the 1923 will of Ohio industrialist Gordon Battelle which provided for its creation. Originally focusing on contract research and development work in the areas of metals and material science, Battelle is now an international science and technology enterprise that explores emerging areas of science, develops and commercializes technology, and manages laboratories for customers. Business Battelle serves the following: Consumer & Industrial: Agribusiness, Battelle Manufacturing, BATTELLE Verity, Ba ...more...

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NORC at the University of Chicago

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NORC at the University of Chicago

NORC at the University of Chicago is one of the largest independent social research organizations in the United States, established in 1941. Its corporate headquarters is on the University of Chicago campus, with offices in several other locations throughout the United States. History The organization was founded in 1941 as the National Opinion Research Center. Since its founding, NORC at the University of Chicago has conducted numerous social research projects involving opinion survey and other data collection, for government agencies, nonprofit agencies, and corporations. Data from surveys are also often analyzed in a wide range of social sciences, especially sociology. NORC is best known for its large, national surveys, but has also conducted qualitative and quantitative analyses, and international projects. Clients NORC clients have included: American Bar Association Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation – Gates Millennium Scholars Tracking and Longitudinal Study,[1] Washington State Achievers Progr ...more...

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Chemical Department (Royal Navy)

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Chemical Department (Royal Navy)

The Chemical Department [1] and later known as the Central Dockyard Laboratory [2] was the Admiralty department that was responsible for the testing and trials of lubricants, metals and paints for the Royal Navy it was based at Portsmouth, England from 1870 to 1977. History The Admiralty Chemical Department, Portsmouth, originated in the appointment of an Admiralty Chemist in 1867.[3] In 1870 as the work of the ADMC was expanding led to the creation of a department with supporting researchers and clerical staff being established. In 1956 specific functions of the Central Metallurgical Laboratory transferred to the department when it was re-styled as the Central Dockyard Laboratory.[4] In 1977 it merged with Admiralty Marine Technology Establishment but remained a sub-division of that organisation.[4] It provided Support Services for fleet and shore establishments, including metallurgy, chemistry, biology, paint technology and reactor chemistry research.[4] Admiralty Chemists Post holders included: Dr W. ...more...

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