Mobile secure gateway

Mobile secure gateway (MSG) is an industry term for the software or hardware appliance that provides secure communication between a mobile application and respective backend resources typically within a corporate network. It addresses challenges in the field of mobile security.

MSG is typically composed of two components - Client library and Gateway. The client is a library that is linked with the mobile application. It establishes secure connectivity to Gateway using cryptographic protocol typically SSL/TLS. This represents a secured channel used for communication between the mobile application and hosts. Gateway separates internal IT infrastructure from the Internet, allowing only an authorized client requests to reach a specific set of hosts inside restricted network.

Client library

The Client library is linked with the corresponding mobile application, and that provides secure access via the Gateway to the set of Hosts. The Client library exposes public API to the mobile application, mimicking platform default HTTP client library. The application uses this API to communicate with the desired hosts in a secure way.

Gateway

Gateway is a server or daemon typically installed onto physical or virtual appliance placed into DMZ. Gateway public interface is exposed to the Internet (or other untrusted network) and accepts TCP/IP connections from mobile applications. It operates on IPv4 and/or IPv6 networks. Incoming client connections typically use SSL/TLS to provide security for the network communication and a mutual trust of communicating peers. Communication protocol is typically based on HTTP.[1]

Host

Gateway forwards requests from connected apps to a collection of configured hosts. These are typically HTTP or HTTPS servers or services within an internal network. The response from a host is sent back to the respective mobile app.

References
  1. "Mobile Security". www.peerlyst.com. Retrieved 6 May 2016.
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Outline of computer security

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Outline of computer security

The following outline is provided as an overview of and topical guide to computer security: Computer security – security applied to computing devices such as computers and smartphones, as well as computer networks such as private and public networks, including the whole Internet. The field covers all the processes and mechanisms by which digital equipment, information and services are protected from unintended or unauthorized access, change or destruction, and is of growing importance in line with the increasing reliance on computer systems of most societies worldwide.[1] Computer security includes measures taken to ensure the integrity of files stored on a computer or server as well as measures taken to prevent unauthorized access to stored data, by securing the physical perimeter of the computer equipment, authentication of users or computer accounts accessing the data, and providing a secure method of data transmission. Essence of computer security Computer security can be described as all of the follow ...more...

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XenMobile

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XenMobile

XenMobile is software that provides mobile device management (MDM) and mobile application management (MAM). It is developed by Citrix Systems. Product overview XenMobile is enterprise mobility management software developed by Citrix.[1] The product allows businesses to manage employee mobile devices and mobile applications.[2][3] The software’s aim is to increase productivity by allowing employees to securely work on both enterprise-owned and personal mobile devices and apps.[4][5] A suite of enterprise applications come with the software called the Worx mobile application suite.[6] It comprises email client WorxMail, that can be used to manage employee email, contacts and calendar,[4] a browser called WorxWeb,[6] WorxDesktop, which allows access to remote files and applications, WorxNotes, an app for creating documents for notes, and WorxEdit for editing documents.[7][1] In May 2015, the company introduced time management tool WorxTasks to the app suite.[8] Users can download additional applications thro ...more...

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Array Networks

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Array Networks

Array Networks is an American networking hardware company. It sells network traffic encryption tools.[1] Array Networks was founded in 2000 by Lawrence Lu and is based in Milpitas, California.[2] Originally called ClickArray Networks, it was renamed Array Networks in 2001 by then-incoming CEO Don Massaro who said the longer name "sounded too dot-commy".[3] It received funding from the venture capital firm U.S. Venture Partners and the private equity firm H&Q Asia Pacific.[4] On May 13, 2009,[1] Array Networks became the first non-Taiwan company to be listed on the Taiwan Stock Exchange.[5] The company sold 54 million shares that had a total value of about $79 million.[1] In 2009, 43% of the company's market share was in China, and its main product type sold there consisted of SSL VPN devices. It also had 200 employees in China, which CEO Michael Zhao said made China a "natural choice" for an IPO,[1] In comparison, the company had 70 employees in Silicon Valley.[4] but because China did not allow non-Ch ...more...

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SIM Application Toolkit

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SIM Application Toolkit

SIM Application Toolkit (commonly referred to as STK) is a standard of the GSM system which enables the Subscriber Identity Module (SIM) to initiate actions which can be used for various value-added services.[1] The SIM Application Toolkit consists of a set of commands programmed into the SIM which define how the SIM should interact directly with the outside world and initiates commands independently of the handset and the network.[2] This enables the SIM to build up an interactive exchange between a network application and the end user and access, or control access to, the network.[1] The SIM also gives commands to the handset such as displaying menus and/or asking for user input.[3] STK has been deployed by many mobile operators around the world for many applications, often where a menu-based approach is required, such as Mobile Banking and content browsing.[1] Designed as a single application environment, the STK can be started during the initial power up of the SIM card [3] and is especially suited to l ...more...

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Mavenir Systems

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Mavenir Systems

Mavenir Systems ( NYSE:MVNR ) was a software-based telecommunications networking provider based in Richardson, Texas.[1][2] The company's software was aimed to deliver internet protocol (IP)-based voice, video, rich communications and enhanced messaging services to clients.[3] Mavenir Systems provided service to approximately 120 mobile networks globally.[4] Rashad Ali founded the company in 2005.[5][6] Pardeep Kohli served as the company's president and CEO.[7] In March 2015, Mitel announced to buy Mavenir Systems for $560 million.[8] Thus the first incarnation of Mavenir came to an end. Two years later, as the result of the merger of established company Xura with the Mavenir Systems part of Mitel and the startup Ranzure, a new company named Mavenir was formed.[9] History Mavenir Systems was founded in 2005.[4] In December 2008, the company completed a funding round for $17.5 million.[10] Another funding round for $13.5 million backed by Alloy Ventures, Austin Ventures and North Bridge Venture Partners ...more...

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Atom Technologies

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Atom Technologies

Atom Technologies is a payment services provider, headquartered in Mumbai, India. Atom was started in 2006 and is a subsidiary of the Financial Technologies Group, founded by Jignesh Shah.[1] The company has historically focused upon the distribution of payment and banking services through the use of mobile technology. Atom Technologies has provides products and services for mobile payments, interactive voice response (IVR) based payments, and mobile based service distribution framework.[1] Products Atom Technologies' products include: Online banking and internet payment gateway (IPG): An internet payments platform Interactive voice response (IVR): helps organizations to accept payments through credit and debit card over a phone call Mobile computing app that enables payment services. The Atom mobile app allows payments through debit and credit cards, IMPS, cash cards, and net banking Point of sale to provide payment services, Atom provides brick and mortar merchant, acquiring and transaction proce ...more...

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Allot Communications

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Allot Communications

Pictorial view of one of Allot's offices Allot Communications Ltd. is a multinational with offices and subsidiaries in many countries across the world. Allot is a provider of security and monetization products. Allot' solutions include Deep Packet Inspection (DPI) technology to change broadband pipes into smart networks offering complete network visibility, application control and subscriber management.[2] In 2016, the company reported $90.4 million in revenue.[1] History Allot Communications was founded in 1996, by Michael Shurman and Yigal Jacoby, who served as chief executive and chairman until 2006.[3] Jacoby previously founded Armon Networking, a manufacturer of RMON-based network management solutions, which was sold to Bay Networks for $33 million in 1996.[4] In November 2003, Deloitte & Touche named Allot the fourth fastest-growing company on its Technology Fast 50 list, citing the company's revenue growth of nearly 1,900% in a year's time.[3] By 2004, Allot raised $38 million in several rou ...more...

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DataCash

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DataCash

DataCash is a payment processing company which offers a global gateway to secure multi-channel payment processing, fraud and risk management services. Founded in 1996, it has been a division of MasterCard since 2010. History Founded by entrepreneurs Gavin Breeze and Dave MacRae in 1996 as a payment gateway intended to serve the needs of the emerging e-commerce channel, a series of early mergers and acquisitions led to expansion within specific markets (notably, the airline and travel sectors) as well as coverage of the cardholder present environment.[1] In 2009, the company significantly expanded its fraud offering with the acquisition of The 3rd Man, a fraud and risk management technology company.[2][3] It has been a wholly owned subsidiary of MasterCard since 2010,[4][5] when it was purchased for £333 million.[6][7] In early 2012, DataCash was announced as a white-label partner to supply Elavon's global e-commerce gateway in Europe, as part of the American bank's expansion plans.[8][9] Similar announce ...more...

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Voice over IP

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Voice over IP

Voice over Internet Protocol (also voice over IP, VoIP or IP telephony) is a methodology and group of technologies for the delivery of voice communications and multimedia sessions over Internet Protocol (IP) networks, such as the Internet. The terms Internet telephony, broadband telephony, and broadband phone service specifically refer to the provisioning of communications services (voice, fax, SMS, voice-messaging) over the public Internet, rather than via the public switched telephone network (PSTN). The steps and principles involved in originating VoIP telephone calls are similar to traditional digital telephony and involve signaling, channel setup, digitization of the analog voice signals, and encoding. Instead of being transmitted over a circuit-switched network, the digital information is packetized, and transmission occurs as IP packets over a packet-switched network. They transport media streams using special media delivery protocols that encode audio and video with audio codecs, and video codecs. Va ...more...

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SMS

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SMS

E.161, the most common mobile keypad alphabet layout SMS (short message service) is a text messaging service component of most telephone, internet, and mobile-device systems.[1] It uses standardized communication protocols to enable mobile devices to exchange short text messages. An intermediary service can facilitate a text-to-voice conversion to be sent to landlines.[2] SMS was the most widely used data application, with an estimated 3.5 billion active users, or about 80% of all mobile subscribers, at the end of 2010.[1] SMS, as used on modern devices, originated from radio telegraphy in radio memo pagers that used standardized phone protocols. These were defined in 1985 as part of the Global System for Mobile Communications (GSM) series of standards.[3] The protocols allowed users to send and receive messages of up to 160 alpha-numeric characters to and from GSM mobiles. Although most SMS messages are mobile-to-mobile text messages, support for the service has expanded to include other mobile technologie ...more...

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Cyber PHA

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Cyber PHA

A cyber PHA (also styled cyber security PHA) is a detailed cybersecurity risk assessment methodology that conforms to ISA 62443-3-2. The name, cyber PHA, was given to this method because it is similar to the Process Hazards Analysis (PHA) or the hazard and operability study (HAZOP) methodology that is popular in process safety management, particularly in industries that operate highly hazardous industrial processes (e.g. oil and gas, chemical, etc.). The method is typically conducted as a workshop that includes a facilitator and a scribe with expertise in the cyber PHA process as well as multiple subject matter experts who are familiar with the industrial process, the industrial automation and control system (IACS) and related IT systems. For example, the workshop team typically includes representatives from operations, engineering, IT and health and safety as well as an independent facilitator and scribe. A multidisciplinary team is important in developing realistic threat scenarios, assessing the impact of ...more...

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E-commerce payment system

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E-commerce payment system

An e-commerce payment system facilitates the acceptance of electronic payment for online transactions. Also known as a sample of Electronic Data Interchange (EDI), e-commerce payment systems have become increasingly popular due to the widespread use of the internet-based shopping and banking. Over the years, credit cards have become one of the most common forms of payment for e-commerce transactions. In North America almost 90% of online retail transactions were made with this payment type.[1] Turban et al. goes on to explain that it would be difficult for an online retailer to operate without supporting credit and debit cards due to their widespread use. Increased security measures include use of the card verification number (CVN) which detects fraud by comparing the verification number printed on the signature strip on the back of the card with the information on file with the cardholder's issuing bank.[2] Also online merchants have to comply with stringent rules stipulated by the credit and debit card iss ...more...

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Mobile IP

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Mobile IP

Mobile IP (or MIP) is an Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF) standard communications protocol that is designed to allow mobile device users to move from one network to another while maintaining a permanent IP address. Mobile IP for IPv4 is described in IETF RFC 5944, and extensions are defined in IETF RFC 4721. Mobile IPv6, the IP mobility implementation for the next generation of the Internet Protocol, IPv6, is described in RFC 6275. Introduction The Mobile IP allows for location-independent routing of IP datagrams on the Internet. Each mobile node is identified by its home address disregarding its current location in the Internet. While away from its home network, a mobile node is associated with a care-of address which identifies its current location and its home address is associated with the local endpoint of a tunnel to its home agent. Mobile IP specifies how a mobile node registers with its home agent and how the home agent routes datagrams to the mobile node through the tunnel. Applications In ...more...

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Contactless payment

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Contactless payment

EMV contactless symbol used on compatible payment terminals A contactless enabled American Express charge card issued in the UK Contactless payment systems are credit cards and debit cards, key fobs, smart cards, or other devices, including smartphones and other mobile devices, that use radio-frequency identification (RFID) or near field communication (NFC, e.g. Samsung Pay, Apple Pay, Google Pay, Fitbit Pay, or any bank mobile application that support Contactless) for making secure payments. The embedded chip and antenna enable consumers to wave their card, fob, or handheld device over a reader at the point of sale terminal. Contactless payments are made in close physical proximity, unlike mobile payments which use broad-area cellular or WiFi networks and do not involve close physical proximity. Some suppliers claim that transactions can be almost twice as fast as a conventional cash, credit, or debit card purchase. Because no signature or PIN verification is typically required, contactless purchases ar ...more...

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Cato Networks

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Cato Networks

Cato Networks, Ltd. is an enterprise networking and security company. The company’s core product is a cloud service that integrates edge SD-WAN, global network backbone, and network security services. The integrated platform is designed to provide secure global connectivity that covers enterprise branch locations, cloud infrastructure and mobile users. History Cato Networks was founded in 2015 by Shlomo Kramer, a former co-founder of Check Point and Imperva and Gur Shatz, a former co-founder of Incapsula. The company launched its first GA service, Cato Cloud in Q1/2016 and SD-WAN focused upgrade in Q1/2017. Cato added an IPS as a service in Q3-2017. Products Cato Cloud is a cloud-based secure SD-WAN service. It connects all branch locations, mobile users, and physical and cloud datacenters, into a global, encrypted and optimized SD-WAN in the cloud. Cato applies a set of security services to protect all regardless of source and destination. Cato Cloud is made of two parts. Cato Cloud Network: A global, ge ...more...

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Session Initiation Protocol

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Session Initiation Protocol

The Session Initiation Protocol (SIP) is a communications protocol for signaling and controlling multimedia communication sessions in applications of Internet telephony for voice and video calls, in private IP telephone systems, in instant messaging over Internet Protocol (IP) networks as well as mobile phone calling over LTE (VoLTE). The protocol defines the specific format of messages exchanged and the sequence of communications for cooperation of the participants. SIP is a text-based protocol, incorporating many elements of the Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP) and the Simple Mail Transfer Protocol (SMTP).[1] A call established with SIP may consist of multiple media streams, but no separate streams are required for applications, such as text messaging, that exchange data as payload in the SIP message. SIP works in conjunction with several other protocols that specify and carry the session media. Media type and parameter negotiation and media setup is performed with the Session Description Protocol (SDP) ...more...

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Mobile payments in India

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Mobile payments in India

Mobile payments is a mode of payment using mobile phones. Instead of using methods like cash, cheque, and credit card, a customer can use a mobile phone to transfer money or to pay for goods and services. A customer can transfer money or pay for goods and services by sending an SMS, using a Java application over GPRS, a WAP service, over IVR or other mobile communication technologies. In India, this service is bank-led.[1] Customers wishing to avail themselves of this service will have to register with banks which provide this service. Currently, this service is being offered by several major banks and is expected to grow further.[2] Mobile Payment Forum of India (MPFI) is the umbrella organisation which is responsible for deploying mobile payments in India.[3] India is the world's largest-growing mobile payments market.[4] Background India has a vast non-banking population,[5] most of whom reside in the rural areas. The traditional banking industry can not cater to the needs of India's large rural populac ...more...

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Digital wallet

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Digital wallet

A digital wallet refers to an electronic device or online service that allows an individual to make electronic transactions. This can include purchasing items on-line with a computer or using a smartphone to purchase something at a store. An individual's bank account can also be linked to the digital wallet. They might also have their driver's license, health card, loyalty card(s) and other ID documents stored on the phone. The credentials can be passed to a merchant's terminal wirelessly via near field communication (NFC). Increasingly, digital wallets are being made not just for basic financial transactions but to also authenticate the holder's credentials. For example, a digital wallet could verify the age of the buyer to the store while purchasing alcohol. The system has already gained popularity in Japan, where digital wallets are known as "wallet mobiles".[1] A cryptocurrency wallet is a digital wallet where private keys are stored for cryptocurrencies like bitcoin. Technology A digital wallet has bot ...more...

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Wireless sensor network

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Wireless sensor network

Typical multi-hop wireless sensor network architecture Wireless sensor network (WSN) refers to a group of spatially dispersed and dedicated sensors for monitoring and recording the physical conditions of the environment and organizing the collected data at a central location. WSNs measure environmental conditions like temperature, sound, pollution levels, humidity, wind, and so on. These are similar to wireless ad hoc networks in the sense that they rely on wireless connectivity and spontaneous formation of networks so that sensor data can be transported wirelessly. WSNs are spatially distributed autonomous sensors to monitor physical or environmental conditions, such as temperature, sound, pressure, etc. and to cooperatively pass their data through the network to a main locations. The more modern networks are bi-directional, also enabling control of sensor activity. The development of wireless sensor networks was motivated by military applications such as battlefield surveillance; today such networks are u ...more...

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IP Multimedia Subsystem

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IP Multimedia Subsystem

The IP Multimedia Subsystem or IP Multimedia Core Network Subsystem (IMS) is an architectural framework for delivering IP multimedia services. Historically, mobile phones have provided voice call services over a circuit-switched-style network, rather than strictly over an IP packet-switched network. Alternative methods of delivering voice (VoIP) or other multimedia services have become available on smartphones, but they have not become standardized across the industry. IMS is an architectural framework to provide such standardization. IMS was originally designed by the wireless standards body 3rd Generation Partnership Project (3GPP), as a part of the vision for evolving mobile networks beyond GSM. Its original formulation (3GPP Rel-5) represented an approach for delivering Internet services over GPRS. This vision was later updated by 3GPP, 3GPP2 and ETSI TISPAN by requiring support of networks other than GPRS, such as Wireless LAN, CDMA2000 and fixed lines. IMS uses IETF protocols wherever possible, e.g., ...more...

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ScanSafe

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ScanSafe

ScanSafe was a privately held company backed by investors Benchmark Capital and Scale Venture Partners,[3] until its 2009 acquisition by Cisco Systems. The company provided Web-based "Software as a service" (SaaS) to organizations. History Co-founded in 1999 by brothers Eldar and Roy Tuvey,[4] its services block malware and secure the use of the Web and messaging. Noted as being the first to successfully deliver a Secure Web Gateway service, the company competes with similar services offered by Blue Coat Systems, MessageLabs, Purewire, Webroot, Websense and Zscaler.[5] ScanSafe has offices in London, England and San Francisco, California and maintains alliance partnerships with Google, AT&T, Sprint, Kaspersky, Telus, NEC, Orange Business Services, Integralis, SoftScan, TopNordic, Viatel, Ancoris, and FVC.[6][7][8] MessageLabs, a major provider of Messaging services ended a strategic partnership between the two companies in 2006. MessageLabs introduced a competing in-house product titled Web Security ...more...

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Portable Document Format security

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Portable Document Format security

Portable Document Format security is concerned with the protection of information and property from theft, corruption, and attack. Its main purpose it to make sure information is productive and accessible to its intended users. History From its early stages of development in the 1990s, PDF started including security features. Over the years, several threats have been clearly identified including the following: In 2000, a conceptual weakness was identified with the ability of Adobe reader to run malicious scripts related to a particular link. This attack used the XSS (Cross Site Scripting) attack technique. In 2001, Outlook PDFWorm (Trend Micro, 2000) was identified and spread through PDF documents as Microsoft Outlook email attachments. It appeared as a game running a malicious code imbedded in the document.[1] In 2003, the W32 Yourde virus that exploited a vulnerability in Acrobat 5.0.5 was discovered . A corrupted PDF document exploited a vulnerability in the JavaScript parsing engine to lead Acrobat ...more...

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VoIP phone

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VoIP phone

Flip VoIP phone A VoIP phone or IP phone uses voice over IP technologies for placing and transmitting telephone calls over an IP network, such as the Internet, instead of the traditional public switched telephone network (PSTN).[1] Digital IP-based telephone service uses control protocols such as the Session Initiation Protocol (SIP), Skinny Client Control Protocol (SCCP) or various other proprietary protocols.[2] Types VoIP phones can be simple software-based softphones or purpose-built hardware devices that appear much like an ordinary telephone or a cordless phone. Traditional PSTN phones are used as VoIP phones with analog telephone adapters (ATA). A VoIP phone or application may have many features an analog phone doesn't support, such as e-mail-like IDs for contacts that may be easier to remember than names or phone numbers, or easy sharing of contact lists among multiple accounts. Generally the features of VoIP phones follow those of Skype and other PC-based phone services, which have richer featur ...more...

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Mimecast

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Mimecast

Mimecast is an international company specializing in cloud-based email management for Microsoft Exchange and Microsoft Office 365,[1] including security, archiving, and continuity services to protect business mail. History Mimecast was founded in 2003 by Peter Bauer and Neil Murray. It has offices in London, Boston, Chicago, San Francisco, Dallas, Cape Town, Johannesburg and Melbourne, Amsterdam and Munich.[2] In January, 2010, the company raised $21 million in Series B financing[3] from Index Ventures and Dawn Capital. In September 2012 Mimecast raised $62m in a Series C funding round, led by New York-based Insight Venture Partners.[4] On October 16, 2015 Mimecast announced that it filed its registration statement for a proposed Initial Public Offering (IPO). Mimecast began trading on the Nasdaq Global Select Market under the ticker symbol “MIME” on November 19, 2015. The offering closed on November 24, 2015. As of February 2018 Mimecast has 29,200 customers globally.[5] Up from 14,500 customers in 201 ...more...

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List of Tor hidden services

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List of Tor hidden services

This is an alphabetized list of notable .onion hidden services accessible through the Tor anonymity network. Most are considered dark web services. Defunct services are marked. Hidden services by category Commerce Agora (defunct) Atlantis (defunct) AlphaBay (defunct) Black Market Reloaded (defunct) Dream Market Evolution (defunct) The Farmer's Market (defunct) Hansa (defunct) Onion Pi Sheep Marketplace (defunct) Silk Road (defunct) TheRealDeal (defunct) Utopia (defunct) Communications Messaging Cryptocat[1] TorChat Ricochet (software) Software Mailpile[2] Email providers Bitmessage.ch ProtonMail[3] Tor Mail (defunct) SIGAINT (defunct) Riseup[4] File storage Free Haven – A distributed anonymous file storage system that places focus on persistent availability of data. The MIT students' work on the project led to collaboration with DARPA to develop Tor.[5][6][7] Freedom Hosting (defunct) – Formerly the largest Tor-specific web host, until t ...more...

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Gemalto

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Gemalto

Gemalto is an international digital security company providing software applications, secure personal devices such as smart cards and tokens, and managed services. It is the world’s largest manufacturer of SIM cards.[3] The company was founded in June 2006 when two companies, Axalto and Gemplus International, merged. Gemalto's 2015 revenue was €3.122 billion.[4] It is listed on both Euronext Amsterdam and Euronext Paris[5] under the symbol GTO. Gemalto N.V. is a public company incorporated in the Netherlands. It is headquartered in Amsterdam, and has subsidiaries and group companies in several countries. Globally, Gemalto has 15,000 employees, 118 offices; 17 production sites, 45 personalization centers, and 27 R&D centers in 49 countries.[2] History In June 2006, smart card providers Gemplus and Axalto merged to become Gemalto (a portmanteau of the original company names.) Axalto was a Schlumberger IPO spin-off in 2004. Between the merger and 2015, Gemalto completed a series of acquisitions: the Lei ...more...

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Oracle Secure Global Desktop

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Oracle Secure Global Desktop

Oracle Secure Global Desktop (SGD) software provides secure access to both published applications and published desktops running on Microsoft Windows, Unix, mainframe and System i systems via a variety of clients ranging from fat PCs to thin clients such as Sun Rays. History In 1993 the Santa Cruz Operation (SCO, later Tarantella, Inc.) acquired IXI Limited, a software company in Cambridge, UK, best known for its X.desktop product. In 1994 it then bought Visionware, of Leeds, UK, developers of XVision. In 1995 the development teams from IXI and Visionware were combined to form IXI Visionware, later the Client Integration Division of SCO. A development team within this division began work in 1996 on a project codenamed Tarantella. The goal of this project was "any application, any client, anywhere": access to applications of any type (hosted on back-end servers) from any client device that supported a Java-enabled web browser. The project codename stuck: it became the final product name. The first public re ...more...

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List of Bluetooth profiles

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List of Bluetooth profiles

A Bluetooth logo. In order to use Bluetooth technology, a device must be compatible with the subset of Bluetooth profiles (often called services) necessary to use the desired services. A Bluetooth profile is a specification regarding an aspect of Bluetooth-based wireless communication between devices. It resides on top of the Bluetooth Core Specification and (optionally) additional protocols. While the profile may use certain features of the core specification, specific versions of profiles are rarely tied to specific versions of the core specification. For example, there are Hands-Free Profile (HFP) 1.5 implementations using both Bluetooth 2.0 and Bluetooth 1.2 core specifications. The way a device uses Bluetooth technology depends on its profile capabilities. The profiles provide standards which manufacturers follow to allow devices to use Bluetooth in the intended manner. For the Bluetooth low energy stack according to Bluetooth 4.0 a special set of profiles applies. At a minimum, each profile specifica ...more...

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BigBasket

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BigBasket

BigBasket (stylized as bigbasket) is an Indian online grocery and food products provider, founded in 2011. Headquartered in Bengaluru, the brand is run by Innovative Retail Concepts Private Limited in 30 Indian towns and cities. It sells fresh fruits and vegetables, meat and dairy, groceries, and personal care and household items via its website and mobile apps.[1][2] As of 2017 it had a customer base of 6 million and was the country's largest online grocer.[3] In 1999, founders of BigBasket, Hari Menon, Abhinay Choudhari, V S Sudhakar, Vipul Parekh and V S Ramesh started Fabmart, one of the first online businesses in India. But it did not succeed because of the low internet penetration in India at the time and lack of secure digital payment gateways which discouraged people from making online payments.[4] After trying other ventures they regrouped in 2011 to try the online grocery market again and started BigBasket.[5][6] Bigbasket acquired Delyver in June 2015 for an undisclosed amount. Delyver was an onl ...more...

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Neustar

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Neustar

Neustar, Inc. is an American technology company that provides real-time information and analytics for the Internet, telecommunications, entertainment, and marketing industries, and also provides clearinghouse and directory services to the global communications and Internet industries. Neustar is the domain name registry for .biz, .us (on behalf of United States Department of Commerce), .co, and .nyc top-level domains. History Neustar was incorporated in Delaware in 1998. Neustar started as a business unit within Lockheed Martin Corporation. It was spun off to keep the neutrality that was essential to its original core contract with the nation's telecommunications providers. In November 2006, Neustar completed the acquisition of Followap, Inc.,[2] a U.K.-based enabler of mobile instant messaging services. In 2010, Neustar named Lisa Hook as President and Chief Operating Officer. In January 2010, The Washington Post reported that under Hook's leadership, Neustar was chosen by a consortium of Hollywood studi ...more...

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Companies based in Mountain View, California

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Networking hardware

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Networking hardware

Networking hardware, also known as network equipment or computer networking devices, are physical devices which are required for communication and interaction between devices on a computer network. Specifically, they mediate data in a computer network.[1] Units which are the last receiver or generate data are called hosts or data terminal equipment. Range Networking devices may include gateways, routers, network bridges, modems, wireless access points, networking cables, line drivers, switches, hubs, and repeaters; and may also include hybrid network devices such as multilayer switches, protocol converters, bridge routers, proxy servers, firewalls, network address translators, multiplexers, network interface controllers, wireless network interface controllers, ISDN terminal adapters and other related hardware. The most common kind of networking hardware today is a copper-based Ethernet adapter which is a standard inclusion on most modern computer systems. Wireless networking has become increasingly popular ...more...

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Hardware

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List of online payment service providers

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List of online payment service providers

The following is a list of notable online payment service providers and payment gateway providing companies, their platform base and the countries they offer services in: Company Platform Location 2C2P Singapore Adyen Alipay[1] Online, POS, Mobile China Amazon Pay[2] United States, France, Germany, Italy, India, Japan, Spain, United Kingdom Apple Pay Mobile, Online United States, United Kingdom, Canada, Australia, China, Singapore, Switzerland, France, Hong Kong, Russia, New Zealand, Japan, Spain, Ireland, Taiwan, Italy, Sweden, Denmark, Finland, United Arab Emirates, Brazil Atos Global: Headquarters in France, Germany Authorize.Net BIPS Online (bitcoin) Denmark BitPay Online (bitcoin) United States BPAY Australia Braintree Online CentUp CM Telecom The Netherlands Creditcall Online, POS, Mobile United Kingdom, United States CyberSource DataCash DigiCash Digital River Minnetonka, Minnesota, United States Dwolla Unite ...more...

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Payment service providers

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NAT traversal

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NAT traversal

Network address translator traversal is a computer networking technique of establishing and maintaining Internet protocol connections across gateways that implement network address translation (NAT). NAT traversal techniques are required for many network applications, such as peer-to-peer file sharing and Voice over IP.[1] Network address translation NAT devices allow the use of private IP addresses on private networks behind routers with a single public IP address facing the Internet. The internal network devices communicate with hosts on the external network by changing the source address of outgoing requests to that of the NAT device and relaying replies back to the originating device. This leaves the internal network ill-suited for hosting servers, as the NAT device has no automatic method of determining the internal host for which incoming packets are destined. This is not a problem for general web access and email. However, applications such as peer-to-peer file sharing, VoIP services, and video gam ...more...

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Network protocols

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Captive portal

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Captive portal

An example of a captive web portal used to log onto a restricted network. A captive portal is a web page which is displayed to newly connected users before they are granted broader access to network resources. Captive portals are commonly used to present a landing or log-in page which may require authentication, payment, acceptance of EULA/accepted use policies, or other valid credentials that both the host and user agree to adhere by. Captive portals are used for a broad range of mobile and pedestrian broadband services - including cable and commercially provided Wi-Fi and home hotspots. A captive portal can also be used to provide access to enterprise or residential wired networks, such as apartment houses, hotel rooms, and business centers. The captive portal is presented to the client and is stored either at the gateway or on a web server hosting that page. Depending on the feature set of the gateway, websites or TCP ports can be white-listed so that the user would not have to interact with the captive ...more...

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Computer network security

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Comparison of antivirus software

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Comparison of antivirus software

This is a non-exhaustive list of notable antivirus and Internet Security software, in the form of comparison tables, according to their platform (e.g. desktop, mobile, server, etc.) and their operating systems (e.g. Windows, OS X, Linux, Solaris, Android, iOS, Ubuntu Touch, Windows Phone, etc.). Legend The term "on-demand scan" refers to the possibility of performing a manual scan (by the user) on the entire computer/device, while "on-access scan" refers to the ability of a product to automatically scan every file at its creation and/or subsequent modification. The term "CloudAV" refers to the ability of a product to automatically perform scans on the cloud. The term "Email Security" refers to the protection of emails from viruses and malware, while "AntiSpam" refers to the protection from spam, scam and phishing attacks. The term "Web protection" usually includes protection from: infected and malicious URLs, phishing websites, online identity protection (privacy) and online banking protection. Many ant ...more...

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Software comparisons

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List of IP protocol numbers

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List of IP protocol numbers

Below are the Assigned Internet Protocol Numbers found in the Protocol field of the IPv4 header and the Next Header field of the IPv6 header.[1] The same values are used in both versions of the field and define the layout of the header that will immediately follow the IPv4 or IPv6 header.[1] Both the Protocol and Next Header fields are eight bits wide.[1] The Protocol Numbers are managed and assigned by the Internet Assigned Numbers Authority (IANA).[1] Hex Protocol Number Keyword Protocol References/RFC 0x00 0 HOPOPT IPv6 Hop-by-Hop Option RFC 8200 0x01 1 ICMP Internet Control Message Protocol RFC 792 0x02 2 IGMP Internet Group Management Protocol RFC 1112 0x03 3 GGP Gateway-to-Gateway Protocol RFC 823 0x04 4 IP-in-IP IP in IP (encapsulation) RFC 2003 0x05 5 ST Internet Stream Protocol RFC 1190, RFC 1819 0x06 6 TCP Transmission Control Protocol RFC 793 0x07 7 CBT Core-based trees RFC 2189 0x08 8 EGP Exterior Gateway Protocol RFC 888 0x09 9 IGP Interior Gateway Protocol (any private ...more...

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Internet Protocol

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Zix Corp

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Zix Corp

Zix Corporation (ZixCorp) (NASDAQ: ZIXI) is a security technology company that provides email encryption services, email data loss prevention (DLP) and mobile applications designed to address bring your own device (BYOD) corporate technology trend.[3] Headquartered in Dallas, Texas,[2] the company serves customers that include divisions of the U.S. Treasury, federal financial regulators, health insurance providers and hospitals,[4] and financial companies.[5] As of December 2011, the company has served over thirty Blue Cross Blue Shield organizations, 1,200 hospitals, 1,600 banks, credit unions and associations. Federal Financial Institutions Examination Council (FFIEC) regulators are also the customers of the company.[6] CIPROMS has signed a three-year renewal for the company in 2014.[7] The company generates money based on a software-as-a-service (SaaS) strategy and charge annual fees from its customers.[6] ZixCorp was founded in 1983. The company operates its service supported by ZixData Center, a data ce ...more...

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Publicly traded companies of the United States

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VoIP VPN

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VoIP VPN

A VoIP VPN combines voice over IP and virtual private network technologies to offer a method for delivering secure voice. Because VoIP transmits digitized voice as a stream of data, the VoIP VPN solution accomplishes voice encryption quite simply, applying standard data-encryption mechanisms inherently available in the collection of protocols used to implement a VPN. The VoIP gateway-router first converts the analog voice signal to digital form, encapsulates the digitized voice within IP packets, then encrypts the digitized voice using IPsec, and finally routes the encrypted voice packets securely through a VPN tunnel. At the remote site, another VoIP router decodes the voice and converts the digital voice to an analog signal for delivery to the phone. A VoIP VPN can also run within an IP in IP tunnel or using SSL-based OpenVPN. There is no encryption in former case, but traffic overhead is significantly lower in comparison with IPsec tunnel. The advantage of OpenVPN tunneling is that it can run on a dynami ...more...

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Voice over IP

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Multipath routing

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Multipath routing

Multipath routing is the routing technique of using multiple alternative paths through a network, which can yield a variety of benefits such as fault tolerance, increased bandwidth, or improved security. The multiple paths computed might be overlapped, edge-disjointed or node-disjointed with each other. Extensive research has been done on multipath routing techniques, but multipath routing is not yet widely deployed in practice. Multipath routing in wireless networks To improve performance or fault tolerance: CMR (Concurrent Multipath Routing) is often taken to mean simultaneous management and utilization of multiple available paths for the transmission of streams of data emanating from an application or multiple applications. In this form, each stream is assigned a separate path, uniquely to the extent supported by the number of paths available. If there are more streams than available paths, some streams will share paths. This provides better utilization of available bandwidth by creating multiple active ...more...

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Computer networking

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Zenprise

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Zenprise

Zenprise provides Mobile Device Management (MDM) solutions to enterprises. The company's solutions are available in both on-premises and cloud-based (SaaS) versions. Zenprise MobileManager and Zencloud allow companies and government agencies to manage and secure mobile devices, including iOS, Android, BlackBerry, Windows Mobile, and Symbian.[1] History Zenprise was co-founded in 2003 by Waheed Qureshi & Jayaram Bhat. Initially the company developed remote support and diagnostics software to help companies manage large-scale BlackBerry deployments.[2] As the market evolved to enterprises supporting a diverse set of smartphones and tablets, Zenprise shifted its product development efforts to support the major mobile platforms, including iPhone and iPad, Android, BlackBerry, Symbian, and Windows Mobile. In 2010, Zenprise acquired French Mobile Device Management vendor, Sparus Software, and integrated Sparus’s software into its core product offering.[3] In July 2011, Zenprise launched Zencloud,[4] the clou ...more...

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Companies based in Redwood City, California

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Amazon S3

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Amazon S3

Amazon S3 (Simple Storage Service) is a cloud computing web service offered by Amazon Web Services (AWS). Amazon S3 provides object storage through web services interfaces (REST, SOAP, and BitTorrent).[1][2] Amazon launched S3 on its fifth publicly-available web service[3] and in November 2007 in Europe.[4] Amazon says that S3 uses the same scalable storage infrastructure that Amazon.com uses to run its own global e-commerce network.[5] Amazon S3 is reported to store more than 2 trillion objects as of April 2013.[6] This is up from 10 billion objects as of October 2007,[7] 14 billion objects in January 2008, 29 billion objects in October 2008,[8] 52 billion objects in March 2009,[9] 64 billion objects in August 2009,[10] and 102 billion objects in March 2010.[11] S3 uses include web hosting, image hosting, and storage for backup systems. S3 guarantees 99.9% monthly up-time service-level agreement (SLA),[12] that is, not more than 43 minutes of downtime per month.[13] Amazon S3 is one of the earliest and ke ...more...

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Web services

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NHS.net

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NHS.net

NHS.net is a Microsoft Outlook Web App email, diary and directory system for National Health Service (NHS) employees in England and Scotland. The system is not for patients of the NHS. Retired NHS staff do not have access. Faxes used to be able to be sent, but this was phased out at the end of March 2015 Background History NHS.net e-mail initially offered 64Mb of storage.[1] In 2006 it was improved and storage space was unlimited.[2] Storage space has since been reduced to 400MB or 1GB depending on account service level.[3] In 2013 the storage was doubled for all users in response to feedback from them. Underlying technology The NHSmail system uses a customised version of Microsoft Exchange (2013). Client-side access Web interface The web interface uses Outlook Web Access. The login URL for the webmail service is https://www.nhs.net. Microsoft exchange NHSmail may be accessed from the internet by Microsoft Outlook on Windows or Microsoft Entourage on Mac OS X. Auto-configuration is available if the u ...more...

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National Health Service

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WebSocket

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WebSocket

WebSocket is a computer communications protocol, providing full-duplex communication channels over a single TCP connection. The WebSocket protocol was standardized by the IETF as RFC 6455 in 2011, and the WebSocket API in Web IDL is being standardized by the W3C. WebSocket is a different TCP protocol from HTTP. Both protocols are located at layer 7 in the OSI model and, as such, depend on TCP at layer 4. Although they are different, RFC 6455 states that WebSocket "is designed to work over HTTP ports 80 and 443 as well as to support HTTP proxies and intermediaries" thus making it compatible with the HTTP protocol. To achieve compatibility, the WebSocket handshake uses the HTTP Upgrade header[1] to change from the HTTP protocol to the WebSocket protocol. The WebSocket protocol enables interaction between a web client (such as a browser) and a web server with lower overheads, facilitating real-time data transfer from and to the server. This is made possible by providing a standardized way for the server to sen ...more...

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Internet terminology

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SMS banking

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SMS banking

Screenshot of a typical SMS Banking message on a mobile screen SMS banking is a form of mobile banking. It is a facility used by some banks or other financial institutions to send messages (also called notifications or alerts) to customers' mobile phones using SMS messaging, or a service provided by them which enables customers to perform some financial transactions using SMS. Push and pull messages SMS banking services may use either push and pull messages. Push messages are those that a bank sends out to a customer's mobile phone, without the customer initiating a request for the information. Typically, a push message could be a mobile marketing message or an alert of an event which happens in the customer's bank account, such as a large withdrawal of funds from an ATM or a large payment involving the customer's credit card, etc. It may also be an alert that some payment is due, or that an e-statement is ready to be downloaded. Another type of push message is one-time password (OTPs). OTPs are the late ...more...

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Banking technology

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Man-in-the-middle attack

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Man-in-the-middle attack

In cryptography and computer security, a man-in-the-middle attack (MITM) is an attack where the attacker secretly relays and possibly alters the communication between two parties who believe they are directly communicating with each other. One example of man-in-the-middle attacks is active eavesdropping, in which the attacker makes independent connections with the victims and relays messages between them to make them believe they are talking directly to each other over a private connection, when in fact the entire conversation is controlled by the attacker. The attacker must be able to intercept all relevant messages passing between the two victims and inject new ones. This is straightforward in many circumstances; for example, an attacker within reception range of an unencrypted wireless access point (Wi-Fi) could insert himself as a man-in-the-middle.[1] As an attack that aims at circumventing mutual authentication, or lack thereof, a man-in-the-middle attack can succeed only when the attacker can imperson ...more...

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Cryptographic attacks

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Gh-link

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Gh-link

gh-link is GhIPSS’ interbank switching and processing system which interconnects financial institutions and systems of third party payment service providers. gh-link is a local electronic payment ecosystem based on the domestic ATM card with channels such as ATM, POS and Web. gh-link provides the following services: Services Interbank Switching and Processing: As a result of its position as the central switch interconnecting financial institutions and third parties, gh-link switches, clears all interbank transactions and facilitates net settlement in Bank of Ghana RTGS Payment Gateway Services: gh-link provides web acquiring services to local online merchants for domestic ATM cards. This package comes with a merchant plug-in for enforcement of 3D secure authentication. 3D Secure Services: gh-link provides gh-secure- its 3D secure platform- for all domestic card issuers as a second layer cardholder security for online payments. Instant Interbank Transfer Service – GhIPSS INSTANT PAY (GIP): GhIPSS Instant ...more...

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Banking in Ghana

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Belgacom ICS

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Belgacom ICS

BICS (previously known as Belgacom ICS or Belgacom International Carrier Services) operates in the telecommunication industry as a subsidiary of Proximus Group (parent group), and provides wholesale carrier services to wireline and wireless operators, and service providers globally. The company was founded in 1997 and is headquartered in Brussels, Belgium with sales offices and Service Operation Centers worldwide including Dubai, Singapore, Bern, San Francisco and New York. BICS provides voice, connectivity, messaging, roaming and mobile connectivity services to over 1,100 fixed and wireless carriers and service providers, including more than 500 mobile operators. In 2012 BICS processed 28 billion international minutes and generated revenues for 1,65 Billion Euro.[1] History 1997, Belgacom created its business unit Belgacom ICS (International Carrier Services). Later, in the early years 2000, the Belgacom Group deliberately separated the financial reporting of its International Carrier Services to increase ...more...

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Proximus Group

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Text messaging

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Text messaging

A text message as it appears on the display screen of an iPhone before iOS 7. Text messaging, or texting, is the act of composing and sending electronic messages, typically consisting of alphabetic and numeric characters, between two or more users of mobile devices, desktops/laptops, or other type of compatible computer. Text messages may be sent over a cellular network, or may also be sent via an Internet connection. The term originally referred to messages sent using the Short Message Service (SMS). It has grown beyond alphanumeric text to include multimedia messages (known as MMS) containing digital images, videos, and sound content, as well as ideograms known as emoji (happy faces, sad faces, and other icons). As of 2017, text messages are used by youth and adults for personal, family and social purposes and in business. Governmental and non-governmental organizations use text messaging for communication between colleagues. As with emailing, in the 2010s, the sending of short informal messages has beco ...more...

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Online chat

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No time for texting

(Simo)

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File Transfer Protocol

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File Transfer Protocol

The File Transfer Protocol (FTP) is a standard network protocol used for the transfer of computer files between a client and server on a computer network. FTP is built on a client-server model architecture and uses separate control and data connections between the client and the server.[1] FTP users may authenticate themselves with a clear-text sign-in protocol, normally in the form of a username and password, but can connect anonymously if the server is configured to allow it. For secure transmission that protects the username and password, and encrypts the content, FTP is often secured with SSL/TLS (FTPS) or replaced with SSH File Transfer Protocol (SFTP). The first FTP client applications were command-line programs developed before operating systems had graphical user interfaces, and are still shipped with most Windows, Unix, and Linux operating systems.[2][3] Many FTP clients and automation utilities have since been developed for desktops, servers, mobile devices, and hardware, and FTP has been incorpor ...more...

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History of the Internet

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Cellport Systems

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Cellport Systems

Cellport Systems, Inc., is an American company specializing in the invention, prototype development, patenting, and licensing of wireless connectivity technologies for Internet-connected vehicles and mobile devices. Cellport also develops vehicle gateways using secure blockchain technology. Cellport licenses its technologies to vehicle and wireless device manufacturers worldwide. History Cellport Systems was founded in 1992 as Cellport Labs by a diverse group of entrepreneurs and inventors. In 2000 the company’s name changed to Cellport Systems. From its inception Cellport has designed innovative connectivity systems for mass adoption.[1] The first product Cellport designed and prototyped was the CellBase™ mobile docking station under contract by licensee Hello Direct in 1993. In 1994 a consortium of six cellular carriers (GTE, AT&T Wireless, PacTel (Pacific Telesis), Bell Atlantic, Ameritech, and Bell Canada) funded a Cellport research project focused on interfacing digital wireless data services to ve ...more...

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Started in 1993 in the United States

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