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May 19 (Eastern Orthodox liturgics)

May 18 - Eastern Orthodox Church calendar - May 20

All fixed commemorations below celebrated on June 1 by Orthodox Churches on the Old Calendar.[note 1]

For May 19th, Orthodox Churches on the Old Calendar commemorate the Saints listed on May 6.

Saints
  • Hieromartyrs Patricius (Patrick), Bishop of Prusa, and with him the Presbyters Acacius, Menander, and Polyenos (c. 100[1] or c. 362[2] )[3] [4] [note 2]
  • Martyrs Calocerus and Parthenius, brothers (250)[6] [7] [8] [note 3]
  • Martyr Philoterus of Nicomedia (303)[7] [10]
  • Martyr Acoluthus of the Thebaid (303)[11] [note 4]
  • Martyr Cyriaca (Kyriake) and the six holy virgin-martyrs in Nicomedia (307)[7] [12]
  • Martyr Theotima of Nicomedia (c. 311)[13] [1]
  • Saint John, Bishop of the Goths in Crimea (787)[1] [2]
Pre-Schism Western Saints
Post-Schism Orthodox Saints
  • Monk-martyrs and Confessors of the Monastery of Panagia of Kantara, on Cyprus, who suffered under the Latins (1231):[1] [21]
  • Right-Believing Great Prince Dmitry Donskoy, Great Prince of Moscow (1389)[1] [2] [22] [23] [note 5]
  • Venerable Sinaites of Serbia (from Ravanica) (14th century):[25] [note 6]
  • Saint Cornelius of Paleostrov, Abbot (1420)[1] [26]
  • Saint John (Ignatius), Prince of Uglich, tonsured as Ignatius in Vologda (1522)[1] [27]
  • Venerable Cornelius of Komel (Vologda), Abbot and Wonderworker (1537)[1] [28]
  • Saint Sergius of Shukhtov (Shukhtom), monk (1609)[1] [29]
New Martyrs and Confessors
  • Hieromartyr Matthew Voznesensky (1919)[22] [30]
  • Hieromartyr Innocent (Letayev), Archbishop of Kharkiv (1937)[9]
  • Hieromartyr Victor Karakulin (1937)[2] [22]
  • Hieromartyr Onuphrius (Gagaliuk), Archbishop of Kursk and Oboyansk (1938),[1] [22] [31] (see also June 1) and:
  • New Hieromartyr Valentine Lukyanov (1940)[2] [22]
  • All New Hieromartyrs of Slobozhanschyna (Slobodskaya) Ukraine (1937,1938,1940,1941)[9] [32] [note 7] [note 8]
Other commemorations
Icon Gallery
Notes
  1. The notation Old Style or (OS) is sometimes used to indicate a date in the Julian Calendar (which is used by churches on the "Old Calendar"). The notation New Style or (NS), indicates a date in the Revised Julian calendar (which is used by churches on the "New Calendar").
  2. The Greek Orthodox Arab-speaking Community of the town Zdeinde in north Israel, at the district of Acre, has a Holy Church in honour of St. Patrick, Bishop of Prusa.[5] Name days celebrated today include:
    • Patrick (Πατρίκιος).
  3. He is the patron of Galicia, and his relics are enshrined at Zhovkva.[9]
  4. The term "Akolouthos" also refers to a Byzantine military office.
  5. The Great Synaxaristes also has an entry for Saint Dmitry Donskoy on May 9th as well.[24]
  6. These are commemorated on May 6 in the Slavonic Menaion.
  7. The Great Synaxaristes also includes a brief entry on May 9 for the New Martyrs of Slobozhanschyna (Slobodskaya) Ukraine.[33]
  8. The Great Synaxaristes for May 19 includes a list of names (in Greek) of 27 Hieromartyrs of Slobozhanschyna (Slobodskaya), Ukraine, as follows:
References
  1. May 19/June 1. Orthodox Calendar (PRAVOSLAVIE.RU).
  2. June 1 / May 19. HOLY TRINITY RUSSIAN ORTHODOX CHURCH (A parish of the Patriarchate of Moscow).
  3. Ὁ Ἅγιος Πατρίκιος ὁ Ἱερομάρτυρας καὶ οἱ σὺν αὐτῷ Ἀκάκιος, Μένανδρος καὶ Πολύαινος οἱ Μάρτυρες. 19 Μαΐου. ΜΕΓΑΣ ΣΥΝΑΞΑΡΙΣΤΗΣ.
  4. Hieromonk Makarios of Simonos Petra (Ed.). THE SYNAXARION: The Lives of the Saints of the Orthodox Church: VOLUME FIVE - May, June. Transl. from the French by Mother Maria (Rule) and Mother Joanna (Burton). Holy Convent of the Annunciation of Our Lady, Ormylia (Chalkidike), 2005. pp. 203-204.
  5. PASTORAL VISIT OF HIS BEATITUDE THE PATRIARCH OF JERUSALEM IN ZDEINDE. Jerusalem Patriarchate: Official News Gate. 10/06/2017. Retrieved: 12 June, 2017.
  6. Οἱ Ἅγιοι Καλοκέριος καὶ Παρθένιος οἱ Μάρτυρες. ΜΕΓΑΣ ΣΥΝΑΞΑΡΙΣΤΗΣ.
  7. May 19. The Roman Martyrology.
  8. May 19. Latin Saints of the Orthodox Patriarchate of Rome.
  9. Dr. Alexander Roman. May. Calendar of Ukrainian Orthodox Saints (Ukrainian Orthodoxy - Українське Православ'я).
  10. Ὁ Ἅγιος Φιλότερος ὁ Μάρτυρας. 19 Μαΐου. ΜΕΓΑΣ ΣΥΝΑΞΑΡΙΣΤΗΣ.
  11. Ὁ Ἅγιος Ἀκόλουθος ὁ Μάρτυρας. 19 Μαΐου. ΜΕΓΑΣ ΣΥΝΑΞΑΡΙΣΤΗΣ.
  12. Ἡ Ἁγία Κυριακὴ ἡ Μάρτυς καὶ οἱ σὺν αὐτῇ. 19 Μαΐου. ΜΕΓΑΣ ΣΥΝΑΞΑΡΙΣΤΗΣ.
  13. Ἡ Ἁγία Θεοτίμη ἡ Μάρτυς. 19 Μαΐου. ΜΕΓΑΣ ΣΥΝΑΞΑΡΙΣΤΗΣ.
  14. Ὁ Ἅγιος Πούδης ὁ Μάρτυρας. 19 Μαΐου. ΜΕΓΑΣ ΣΥΝΑΞΑΡΙΣΤΗΣ.
  15. Ἡ Ἁγία Πουδενδιάνα ἡ Μάρτυς. 19 Μαΐου. ΜΕΓΑΣ ΣΥΝΑΞΑΡΙΣΤΗΣ.
  16. Rev. Alban Butler (1711–73). St. Pudentiana, Virgin. The Lives of the Saints, Volume V: May. 1866. (Bartleby.com)
  17. Ὁ Ἅγιος Κύριλλος Ἐπίσκοπος Τρεβήρων. 19 Μαΐου. ΜΕΓΑΣ ΣΥΝΑΞΑΡΙΣΤΗΣ.
  18. Ὁ Ἅγιος Ἀδοῦλφος. 19 Μαΐου. ΜΕΓΑΣ ΣΥΝΑΞΑΡΙΣΤΗΣ.
  19. Ὁ Ἅγιος Δουνστάνος Ἀρχιεπίσκοπος Καντουαρίας. 19 Μαΐου. ΜΕΓΑΣ ΣΥΝΑΞΑΡΙΣΤΗΣ.
  20. Rev. Alban Butler (1711–73). May 19 - St. Dunstan, Archbishop of Canterbury, Confessor. The Lives of the Saints, Volume V: May. 1866. (Bartleby.com)
  21. Οἱ Ἅγιοι Βαρνάβας, Γεννάδιος, Γεράσιμος, Γερμανός, Θεόγνωστος, Θεόκτιστος, Ἱερεμίας, Ἰωάννης, Ἰωσήφ, Κόνων, Κύριλλος, Μάξιμος καὶ Μάρκος οἱ Ὁσιομάρτυρες. 19 Μαΐου. ΜΕΓΑΣ ΣΥΝΑΞΑΡΙΣΤΗΣ.
  22. (in Russian) 19 мая (ст.ст.) 1 июня 2013 (нов. ст.). Русская Православная Церковь Отдел внешних церковных связей. (DECR).
  23. Ὁ Ἅγιος Δημήτριος ὁ μεγάλος Πρίγκιπας. 19 Μαΐου. ΜΕΓΑΣ ΣΥΝΑΞΑΡΙΣΤΗΣ.
  24. Ὁ Ἅγιος Δημήτριος ὁ μεγάλος πρίγκιπας τῆς Μόσχας. 9 Μαΐου. ΜΕΓΑΣ ΣΥΝΑΞΑΡΙΣΤΗΣ.
  25. Οἱ Ὅσιοι Ρωμύλος, Ρωμανός, Νέστωρ, Σισώης, Γρηγόριος, Νικόδημος καὶ Κύριλλος οἱ Σιναΐτες. 19 Μαΐου. ΜΕΓΑΣ ΣΥΝΑΞΑΡΙΣΤΗΣ.
  26. Ὁ Ὅσιος Κορνήλιος. 19 Μαΐου. ΜΕΓΑΣ ΣΥΝΑΞΑΡΙΣΤΗΣ.
  27. Ὁ Ὅσιος Ἰγνάτιος. 19 Μαΐου. ΜΕΓΑΣ ΣΥΝΑΞΑΡΙΣΤΗΣ.
  28. Ὁ Ὅσιος Κορνήλιος ὁ Θαυματουργός. 19 Μαΐου. ΜΕΓΑΣ ΣΥΝΑΞΑΡΙΣΤΗΣ.
  29. Ὁ Ὅσιος Σέργιος τῆς Σουχτόμα. 19 Μαΐου. ΜΕΓΑΣ ΣΥΝΑΞΑΡΙΣΤΗΣ.
  30. The Autonomous Orthodox Metropolia of Western Europe and the Americas (ROCOR). St. Hilarion Calendar of Saints for the year of our Lord 2004. St. Hilarion Press (Austin, TX). p.37.
  31. Ὁ Ἅγιος Ὀνούφριος ὁ Ἱερομάρτυρας. 19 Μαΐου. ΜΕΓΑΣ ΣΥΝΑΞΑΡΙΣΤΗΣ.
  32. Οἱ Ἅγιοι Νεομάρτυρες ἐν Σλομπόντσκαγια Οὐκρανίας. 19 Μαΐου. ΜΕΓΑΣ ΣΥΝΑΞΑΡΙΣΤΗΣ.
  33. Οἱ Ἅγιοι Νεομάρτυρες τῆς Σλομπόντσκαγια Οὐκρανίας. 9 Μαΐου. ΜΕΓΑΣ ΣΥΝΑΞΑΡΙΣΤΗΣ.
  34. Μνήμη Εἰσόδου τῆς Ἁγίας Νίνας τῆς Ἰσαποστόλου στὴν Γεωργία. 19 Μαΐου. ΜΕΓΑΣ ΣΥΝΑΞΑΡΙΣΤΗΣ.
  35. Ἀνακομιδὴ Τιμίων Λειψάνων Ἁγίων Ἰουλίου Πρεσβυτέρου καὶ Ἰουλιανοῦ Διακόνου. 19 Μαΐου. ΜΕΓΑΣ ΣΥΝΑΞΑΡΙΣΤΗΣ.
  36. May 6/19. Orthodox Calendar (PRAVOSLAVIE.RU).
Sources
  • May 19/June 1. Orthodox Calendar (PRAVOSLAVIE.RU).
  • June 1 / May 19. HOLY TRINITY RUSSIAN ORTHODOX CHURCH (A parish of the Patriarchate of Moscow).
  • Dr. Alexander Roman. May. Calendar of Ukrainian Orthodox Saints (Ukrainian Orthodoxy - Українське Православ'я).
  • May 19. Latin Saints of the Orthodox Patriarchate of Rome.
  • May 19. The Roman Martyrology.

Greek Sources

  • Great Synaxaristes: (in Greek) 19 ΜΑΪΟΥ. ΜΕΓΑΣ ΣΥΝΑΞΑΡΙΣΤΗΣ.
  • (in Greek) Συναξαριστής. 19 Μαΐου. ECCLESIA.GR. (H ΕΚΚΛΗΣΙΑ ΤΗΣ ΕΛΛΑΔΟΣ).

Russian Sources

  • (in Russian) 1 июня (19 мая). Православная Энциклопедия под редакцией Патриарха Московского и всея Руси Кирилла (электронная версия). (Orthodox Encyclopedia - Pravenc.ru).
  • (in Russian) 19 мая (ст.ст.) 1 июня 2013 (нов. ст.). Русская Православная Церковь Отдел внешних церковных связей. (DECR).
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Vestment

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Clergy of various ranks in vestments celebrating Mass according to the Neo-Gallican Rite of Versailles Elevation of the chalice . Vestments are liturgical garments and articles associated primarily with the Christian religion, especially among the Eastern Orthodox , Catholics ( Latin Church and others), Anglicans , and Lutherans . Many other groups also make use of liturgical garments; this was a point of controversy in the Protestant Reformation and sometimes since, in particular during the Ritualist controversies in England in the 19th century. For other garments worn by clergy, see also clerical clothing . Rubrics for vesting The rubrics (regulations) for the type of vestments to be worn vary between the various communions and denominations. In some, clergy are directed to wear special clerical clothing in public at all, most, or some times. This generally consists of a clerical collar , clergy shirt, and (on certain occasions) a cassock . In the case of members of religious orders , non-liturgical wear in



Old Believers

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In Russian Orthodox church history , the Old Believers , or Old Ritualists ( Russian : старове́ры or старообря́дцы , starovyery or staroobryadtsy) are Russian Orthodox Christians who maintain the liturgical and ritual practices of the Russian Orthodox Church as they existed prior to the reforms of Patriarch Nikon of Moscow between 1652 and 1666. Resisting the accommodation of Russian piety to the contemporary forms of Greek Orthodox worship, these Christians were anathematized, together with their ritual, in a Synod of 1666-1667, producing a division in Russia between the Old Believers and those who followed the state church in its condemnation of the Old Rite. Russian speakers refer to the schism itself as raskol ( Russian : раскол ), etymologically indicating a "cleaving-apart." Introductory summary of origins In 1652, Patriarch Nikon (1605–81; Patriarch of the Russian Orthodox Church from 1652 to 1658) introduced a number of ritual and textual revisions with the aim of achieving uniformity between the prac



Nicene Creed

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The Nicene Creed ( Greek : Σύμβολον τῆς Νικαίας or, τῆς πίστεως , Latin : Symbolum Nicaenum ) is a Symbol of faith widely used in Christian liturgy . It is called Nicene because it was originally adopted in the city of Nicaea (present day İznik , Turkey) by the First Council of Nicaea in 325. In 381, it was amended at the First Council of Constantinople , and the amended form is referred to as the Nicene or the Niceno-Constantinopolitan Creed . The Oriental Orthodox and Assyrian churches use this profession of faith with the verbs in the original plural ("we believe") form, but the Eastern Orthodox and Roman Catholic churches convert those verbs to the singular ("I believe"). The Anglican and many Protestant denominations generally use the singular form, but sometimes use the plural. The Apostles' Creed is also used in the Latin West , but not in the Eastern liturgies . On Sundays and some other days, one or other of these two creeds is recited in the Roman Rite Mass after the homily . The Nicene Creed is



Western Rite Orthodoxy

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Western Rite Orthodoxy or Western Orthodoxy or Orthodox Western Rite are terms used to describe congregations that are within Churches of Orthodox tradition but which use liturgies of Western or Latin origin rather than adopting Eastern liturgies such as the Divine Liturgy of St. John Chrysostom . While there are some ancient examples of Western Rite communities in areas predominantly using the Byzantine Rite before the Great Schism was fully consolidated (the Monastery of Saint Mary of the Latins, often referred to as Amalfi, is a common example), the history of the movement is often considered to begin in the nineteenth century with the life and work of Julian Joseph Overbeck . Western Rite parishes and monasteries exist within certain jurisdictions of the Eastern Orthodox Church , predominantly within the Russian and Antiochian jurisdictions in North America, with the latter having created an Antiochian Western Rite Vicariate (AWRV). In addition, the Communion of Western Orthodox Churches and the Orthodox



Episcopal see

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An episcopal see is, in the usual meaning of the phrase, the area of a bishop 's ecclesiastical jurisdiction . Phrases concerning actions occurring within or outside an episcopal see are indicative of the geographical significance of the term, making it synonymous with " diocese ". The word "see" is derived from Latin sedes, which in its original or proper sense denotes the seat or chair that, in the case of a bishop, is the earliest symbol of the bishop's authority. This symbolic chair is also known as the bishop's cathedra , and is placed in the diocese principal church, which for that reason is called the bishop's cathedral , from Latin ecclesia cathedralis, meaning the church of the cathedra. The word "throne" is also used, especially in the Eastern Orthodox Church , both for the seat and for the area of ecclesiastical jurisdiction. The term "see" is also used of the town where the cathedral or the bishop's residence is located. Catholic Church Within Roman Catholicism, each diocese is considered to be a



Romanian Orthodox Church

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The Romanian Orthodox Church ( Romanian : Biserica Ortodoxă Română ) is an autocephalous Orthodox Church in full communion with other Eastern Orthodox Christian Churches and ranked seventh in order of precedence. Since 1925, the Church's Primate bears the title of Patriarch . Its jurisdiction covers the territories of Romania and Moldova , with additional dioceses for Romanians living in nearby Serbia and Hungary , as well as for diaspora communities in Central and Western Europe , North America and Oceania . Currently it is the only self-governing Church within Orthodoxy to have a Romance language for its principal and native tongue. The majority of Romania 's population (16,307,004, or 86.5% of those for whom data were available, according to the 2011 census data ), as well as some 720,000 Moldovans , belong to the Romanian Orthodox Church. The Romanian Orthodox Church is the second-largest in size behind the Russian Orthodox Church . Members of the Romanian Orthodox Church sometimes refer to Orthodox Chri



August 26 (Eastern Orthodox liturgics)

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Aug. 25 - Eastern Orthodox Church calendar - Aug. 27 All fixed commemorations below are observed on September 8 by Orthodox Churches on the Old Calendar . For August 26, Orthodox Churches on the Old Calendar commemorate the Saints listed on August 13 . Saints Martyrs Adrian and Natalia of Nicomedia , and 23 companions (306) Martyrs Atticus and Sissinius, by the sword. Martyr Adrian, son of Roman Emperor Probus , at Nicomedia (320) Saint Gelasius. Saint Maximus, Archbishop of Jerusalem (347) Venerable Tithoes of the Thebaid (4th century), disciple of St. Pachomius the Great. Monk Ioasaph , Prince of India (4th century) (see also: November 19 ) Venerable Ibestion the Confessor , Egyptian ascetic (c. 450) Pre-Schism Western saints Saint Zephyrinus , Pope of Rome from 199 to 217, who defended Orthodox Christology against heresies (217) Martyrs Irenaeus and Abundius (258) (see also: August 13 ) Saint Secundus, a soldier of the Theban Legion martyred near Ventimiglia in Italy (3rd century) Saint Alexander of Bergam



Orthodox cross

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The Orthodox , Byzantine or Russian (Orthodox) cross , also known as the Suppedaneum cross , is a variation of the Christian cross , could be found in every Eastern Orthodox Church , as well as the Eastern Catholic Churches of the Byzantine Rite , and used widely by groups to connote the Byzantine Rite. The cross has three horizontal crossbeams—the top one represents the plate which in the older Greek tradition is inscribed with a phrase based on John's Gospel "The King of Glory", but in later images it represents INRI , and the bottom one, a footrest. In many depictions, the side to Christ's right is higher. This is because the footrest slants upward toward the penitent thief St. Dismas , who was (according to tradition) crucified on Jesus' right, and downward toward impenitent thief Gestas . It is also a common perception that the foot-rest points up, toward Heaven, on Christ’s right hand-side, and downward, to Hades, on Christ’s left. One of the Orthodox Church’s Friday prayers clearly explains the mean



Gospel Book

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The Gospel Book , Evangelion , or Book of the Gospels ( Greek : Εὐαγγέλιον , Evangélion) is a codex or bound volume containing one or more of the four Gospels of the Christian New Testament — normally all four. The term is also used of the liturgical book , also called the Evangeliary , from which are read the portions of the Gospels used in the Mass and other services, arranged according to the order of the liturgical calendar . Liturgical use in churches of a distinct Gospel book remains normal, often compulsory, in Eastern Christianity , and very common in Roman Catholicism and some parts of Anglicanism . Protestant churches normally just use a complete Bible . History Folio 72 verso of the Codex Aureus of Lorsch . Christ in Majesty In the early Middle Ages , the production of copies of the Bible in its entirety was rare, if only because of the huge expense of the parchment required. Individual books or collections of books were produced for specific purposes. From the 4th century Gospel Books were produce



History of Eastern Orthodox Christian theology

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The history of Eastern Orthodox Christian theology begins with the life of Jesus and the forming of the Christian Church . Major events include the Chalcedonian schism with the Oriental Orthodox miaphysites , the Iconoclast controversy , the Photian schism , the Great Schism between East and West , and the Hesychast controversy . The period after the Second World War saw a re-engagement with the Greek, and more recently Syriac, Fathers that included a rediscovery of the theological works of St. Gregory Palamas , which has resulted in a renewal of Orthodox theology in the 20th and 21st centuries. Tradition Icon depicting the Emperor Constantine (centre) and the bishops of the First Council of Nicaea (325) holding the Niceno–Constantinopolitan Creed of 381 . The Orthodox Church considers itself to be the original church started by Christ and his apostles. For the early years of the church, much of what was conveyed to its members was in the form of oral teachings. Within a very short period of time traditions w



Serbian Orthodox Church

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The Serbian Orthodox Church ( Serbian : Српска православна црква/Srpska pravoslavna crkva ) is one of the autocephalous Eastern Orthodox Christian Churches . It is the second oldest Slavic Orthodox Church in the world (after the Bulgarian Orthodox Church ). The Serbian Orthodox Church comprises the majority of population in Serbia , Montenegro , and the Republika Srpska entity of Bosnia and Herzegovina . It is organized into metropolises and eparchies located primarily in Serbia, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Montenegro and Croatia , but also all over the world where Serb diaspora lives. The Serbian Orthodox Church is an autocephalous , or ecclesiastically independent, member of the Eastern Orthodox communion . Serbian Patriarch serves as first among equals in his church; the current patriarch is Irinej . The Church achieved autocephalous status in 1219 under the leadership of St. Sava , becoming independent Archbishopric of Žiča . Its status was elevated to that of a patriarchate in 1346, and was known afterwards



Russian Orthodox Church

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The Russian Orthodox Church ( ROC ; Russian : Ру́сская правосла́вная це́рковь , tr. Rússkaya pravoslávnaya tsérkov), alternatively legally known as the Moscow Patriarchate ( Russian : Моско́вский патриарха́т , tr. Moskóvskiy patriarkhát), is one of the autocephalous Eastern Orthodox churches, in full communion with other Eastern Orthodox patriarchates. The Primate of the ROC is the Patriarch of Moscow and all Rus' . The ROC, as well as the primate thereof, officially ranks fifth in the Orthodox order of precedence, immediately below the four ancient Patriarchates of the Greek Orthodox Church , those of Constantinople , Alexandria , Antioch , and Jerusalem . The official Christianization of Kievan Rus' widely seen as the birth of the ROC is believed to have occurred in 988 through the baptism of the Kievan prince Vladimir and his people by the clergy of the Ecumenical Patriarchate whose constituent part the ROC remained for the next six centuries, while the Kievan see remained in the jurisdiction of the Ecum



Ecumenical Patriarchate of Constantinople

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The Ecumenical Patriarchate of Constantinople ( Greek : Οικουμενικόν Πατριαρχείον Κωνσταντινουπόλεως , Oikoumenikón Patriarkhíon Konstantinoupóleos, IPA:  ; Latin : Patriarchatus Oecumenicus Constantinopolitanus ; Turkish : Rum Ortodoks Patrikhanesi , "Roman Orthodox Patriarchate") is one of the fourteen autocephalous churches (or "jurisdictions") that together compose the Eastern Orthodox Church . It is headed by the Ecumenical Patriarch of Constantinople , currently Bartholomew I , Archbishop of Constantinople. Because of its historical location at the capital of the former Eastern Roman (Byzantine) Empire and its role as the Mother Church of most modern Orthodox churches, the Ecumenical Patriarchate holds a special place of honor within Orthodoxy and serves as the seat for the Ecumenical Patriarch, who enjoys the status of Primus inter pares (first among equals) among the world's Eastern Orthodox prelates and is widely regarded as the representative and spiritual leader of the world's 300 million Orthodo



Eastern Orthodoxy by country

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Based on the numbers of adherents, the Eastern Orthodox Church (also known as Eastern Orthodoxy) is the second largest Christian communion in the world after the Roman Catholic Church . The most common estimates of the number of Eastern Orthodox Christians worldwide is approximately 225–300 million. The numerous Protestant groups in the world, if taken all together, outnumber the Eastern Orthodox, but they differ theologically and do not form a single communion. Eastern Orthodoxy is the largest single religious faith in the world's largest country by area - Russia (41% -77% ), where roughly half of the Eastern Orthodox Christians live. It is the majority religion in Ukraine (65.4% - 77% ), Romania (82%), Belarus (48% -73% ) Greece (95%-98%), Serbia (85%), Bulgaria (88%), Moldova (93%), Georgia (84%), Macedonia (65%), Cyprus (89%), Montenegro (72%), Estonia (14%), and it is also predominant in the disputed territories of Abkhazia , South Ossetia and Transnistria . Significant minorities, making up betwee



Russian Old-Orthodox Church

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The Russian Old Orthodox Church ( Russian : Русская Древлеправославная Церковь ) is an Eastern Orthodox Church of the Old Believers tradition, born of a schism within the Russian Orthodox Church ( raskol ) during the 17th century (Old Believers). This jurisdiction incorporated those Old Believer groups which refused to accept the authority of Belokrinitskaya Hierarchy , est. 1846 (see Russian Orthodox Old-Rite Church ). It was also known as Novozybkov Hierarchy (by the name of the city where its chief hierarch resided in 1963–2000). It is considered to be independent of the Eastern Orthodox Communion i.e. it is not recognised by the Patriarch of Constantinople , nor by any of the Orthodox churches in communion with the Patriarch. From 1963 until 2002, the official title of its chief hierarch was Archbishop of Novozybkov, Moscow and all Russia. In 2000, with the move of the Archbishop's residence to Moscow , the toponym Novozybkov was dropped from the title. Since March 2003, the official title of the church l



Syriac Christianity

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Syriac Christianity ( Syriac : ܡܫܝܚܝܘܬܐ ܣܘܪܝܝܬܐ ‎ / mšiḥāiūṯā suryāiṯā) refers to Eastern Christian traditions that employs Syriac in their liturgical rites . The Syriac language is a dialect of Middle Aramaic that emerged in Edessa , Assyria - Upper Mesopotamia , in the early 1st century AD, and is considered to be closely related to the Aramaic of Jesus . Tracing back their historical heritage to the 1st century, Syriac Christianity is today represented in the Middle East by the Maronite Church , Syriac Catholic Church , the Chaldean Catholic Church , the Syrian Orthodox Church , the Assyrian Church of the East , and the Ancient Church of the East , as well as by the Saint Thomas Christians of respective communions centered in Kerala , India . Christianity began in the Middle East in Jerusalem among Jewish Aramaic -speaking Semitic peoples of the Kingdom of Judah (modern Israel , Palestinian Territories and Jordan ). It quickly spread, initially to other Semitic peoples , in Parthian -ruled Assyria and Mes



Latin Church

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The Latin Church , sometimes called the Western Church, is the largest particular church sui iuris in full communion with the Pope and the rest of the Catholic Church , tracing its history to the earliest days of Christianity . Employing the Latin liturgical rites , with 1.197 billion members (2011), the Latin Church is the original and still major part of Western Christianity . It is headquartered in the Vatican City , enclaved in Rome , Italy . Historically, the Latin Church has been viewed as one of the five patriarchates – the Pentarchy – of early Christianity , along with the Patriarchs of Constantinople , Alexandria , Antioch , and Jerusalem . Due to geographic and cultural considerations, the latter patriarchates developed into churches with distinct Eastern Christian traditions. The majority of Eastern Christian churches broke full communion with the bishop of Rome and the Latin Church, following various theological and leadership disputes, notably in the centuries following the Council of Chalcedon i



Coptic Orthodox Church of Alexandria

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The Coptic Orthodox Church of Alexandria is an Oriental Orthodox Christian church based in Egypt , Northeast Africa and the Middle East . The head of the Church and the See of Alexandria is the Patriarch of Alexandria on the Holy See of Saint Mark , who also carries the title of Coptic Pope. The See of Alexandria is titular, and today the Coptic Pope presides from Saint Mark's Coptic Orthodox Cathedral in the Abbassia District in Cairo . With 18–22 million members worldwide, whereof about 20 million are in Egypt (see Demographics section below), it is the country's largest Christian church. The Coptic Orthodox Church belongs to the Oriental Orthodox family of Churches, which has been a distinct Christian body since the schism following the Council of Chalcedon in AD 451, when it took a different position over Christology from that of the rest of the Christian Church ( which would split 600 years later into the Eastern Orthodox Church and the Roman Catholic Church ). The precise Christological differences tha



Orthodox Church in America

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The Orthodox Church in America ( OCA ) is an autocephalous Eastern Orthodox Church in North America . The OCA consists of more than 700 parishes , missions, communities, monasteries and institutions in the United States and Canada . In 2011, it had an estimated 84,900 members in the United States. The OCA began when eight Russian Orthodox monks established a mission in Alaska , then part of Russian America , in 1794. This became a diocese of the Russian Orthodox Church after the United States purchased Alaska from Russia in 1867. By the late 19th century, the Russian Orthodox Church had grown in other areas of the United States due to the arrival of immigrants from areas of Eastern and Central Europe , many of them formerly of the Eastern Catholic Churches ("Greek Catholics"), and from the Middle East . These immigrants, regardless of nationality or ethnic background, were united under a single North American diocese of the Russian Orthodox Church. After the Bolshevik Revolution , Patriarch Tikhon of Moscow



Easter

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Easter , also called Pascha ( Greek , Latin ) or Resurrection Sunday , is a festival and holiday celebrating the resurrection of Jesus from the dead, described in the New Testament as having occurred on the third day of his burial after his crucifixion by the Romans at Calvary c. 30 AD. It is the culmination of the Passion of Jesus , preceded by Lent (or Great Lent ), a forty-day period of fasting , prayer, and penance . Most Christians refer to the week before Easter as " Holy Week "—it contains the days of the Easter Triduum , including Maundy Thursday , commemorating the Maundy and Last Supper , as well as Good Friday , commemorating the crucifixion and death of Jesus . In Western Christianity , Eastertide , or the Easter Season, begins on Easter Sunday and lasts seven weeks, ending with the coming of the fiftieth day, Pentecost Sunday . In Eastern Christianity , the season of Pascha begins on Pascha and ends with the coming of the fortieth day, the Feast of the Ascension . Easter and the holidays



Orthodox-Catholic Church of America

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The Seal of the OCCA The Orthodox-Catholic Church of America (OCCA) is an independent and self-governing Oriental Orthodox jurisdiction based in the United States, with clergy also in Mexico. As of July 2010, the denomination's online directory listed 27 affiliated parishes or missions, and two religious communities. The Church celebrates predominantly a version of the Western Liturgy ( Roman Rite ) though some priests also celebrate the Divine Liturgy of St. John Chrysostom ( Byzantine Rite ) or the Liturgy of Addai and Mari ( East Syrian Rite ). The OCCA is not associated with any mainstream Orthodox church. The denomination is governed by a synod of diocesan bishops (currently seven) and a Metropolitan Archbishop. The current Metropolitan is Robert Zahrt, known as Archbishop Peter. The ecclesial purpose of the OCCA is the worship of God in the Holy Trinity and the proclamation and continuing of the Orthodox faith as taught in Holy Scripture, the Apostolic Tradition, and the first three Ecumenical Counci



Nativity of Mary

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The Nativity of the Blessed Virgin Mary , the Nativity of Mary , or the Birth of the Virgin Mary , refers to a Christian feast day celebrating the birth of the Blessed Virgin Mary . The modern canon of scripture does not record Mary's birth. The earliest known account of Mary's birth is found in the Protoevangelium of James (5:2), an apocryphal text from the late second century, with her parents known as Saint Anne and Saint Joachim . In the case of saints, the Church commemorates their date of death, with Saint John the Baptist and the Virgin Mary as the few whose birth dates are commemorated. The reason for this is found in the singular mission each had in salvation history , but traditionally also because these alone (besides the prophet Jeremiah , Jer 1:5 ) were holy in their very birth (for Mary, see Immaculate Conception ; John was sanctified in Saint Elizabeth 's womb according to the traditional interpretation of Lk 1:15 ). Devotion to the innocence of Mary under this Marian title is widely celebrate



East–West Schism

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The East–West Schism , also called the Great Schism and the Schism of 1054 , was the break of communion between what are now the Eastern Orthodox and Roman Catholic churches, which has lasted since the 11th century. It is not to be confused with the Western Schism (which is also sometimes called the "Great" Schism). The ecclesiastical differences and theological disputes between the Greek East and Latin West pre-dated the formal rupture that occurred in 1054. Prominent among these were the issues of the source of the Holy Spirit , whether leavened or unleavened bread should be used in the Eucharist , the Bishop of Rome 's claim to universal jurisdiction , and the place of the See of Constantinople in relation to the Pentarchy . In 1053, the first step was taken in the process which led to formal schism : the Greek churches in southern Italy have been forced either to close or to conform to Latin practices. In retaliation the Ecumenical Patriarch of Constantinople Michael I Cerularius ordered the closu



Theosis (Eastern Christian theology)

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Theosis or deification is a transformative process whose aim is likeness to or union with God , as taught by the Eastern Orthodox Church and Eastern Catholic Churches . As a process of transformation, theosis is brought about by the effects of catharsis (purification of mind and body) and theoria ('illumination' with the 'vision' of God). According to Eastern Christian teaching, theosis is very much the purpose of human life. It is considered achievable only through a synergy (or cooperation) between human activity and God's uncreated energies (or operations). According to Metropolitan Hierotheos Vlachos , the primacy of theosis in Eastern Christian theology is directly related to the fact that Eastern Christian theology (as historically conceived by its principal exponents) is based to a greater extent than Latin Catholic theology on the direct spiritual insights of the saints or mystics of the church rather than the apparently more rational thought tradition of the West. Eastern Christians consider that "n



Greek Orthodox Church of Jerusalem

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The Eastern Orthodox Patriarchate of Jerusalem ( Greek : Πατριαρχεῖον Ἱεροσολύμων , Patriarcheîon Hierosolýmōn) or Greek Orthodox Patriarchate of Jerusalem ( Arabic : كنيسة الروم الأرثوذكس في القدس ‎‎ Kanisatt Ar-rum al-Urtudoks fi al-Quds, literally Rûm /Roman Orthodox Church of Jerusalem ), and officially called simply the Patriarchate of Jerusalem , is an autocephalous Church within the wider communion of Eastern Orthodox Christianity . Headed by the Patriarch of Jerusalem , it is regarded by Eastern Orthodox Christians as the mother church of all of Christendom . Christians believe that it was in Jerusalem that the Church was established on the day of Pentecost with the descent of the Holy Spirit on the disciples of Jesus Christ ( Acts 2:1-41 ) and that the Gospel of Christ spread from Jerusalem. The Church celebrates its liturgy in the Byzantine Rite , whose original language is Koine Greek , the original language of the New Testament , and follows its own calendar of feasts, preserving the Julian calend



Synaxarium

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Synaxarion or Synexarion (plurals Synaxaria , Synexaria ; Greek : Συναξάριον , from συνάγειν, synagein, "to bring together"; cf. etymology of synaxis and synagogue ; Latin: Synaxarium, Synexarium) is the name given in the Eastern Orthodox , Oriental Orthodox and Eastern Catholic Churches to a compilation of hagiographies corresponding roughly to the martyrology of the Roman Church . There are two kinds of synaxaria: Simple synaxaria : lists of the saints arranged in the order of their anniversaries, e.g. the calendar of Morcelli Historical synaxaria : including biographical notices, e.g. the Menologion of Basil II and the synaxarium of Sirmond . The notices given in the historical synaxaria are summaries of those in the great menologies, or collections of lives of saints, for the twelve months of the year. As the lessons in the Byzantine Divine Office are always lives of saints, the Synaxarion became the collection of short lives of saints and accounts of events whose memory is kept. Definitions The exact m



Clerical clothing

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Clerical clothing is non- liturgical clothing worn exclusively by clergy . It is distinct from vestments in that it is not reserved specifically for services. Practices vary: is sometimes worn under vestments, and sometimes as the everyday clothing or street wear of a priest , minister , or other clergy member. In some cases, it can be similar or identical to the habit of a monk or nun . In modern times, many Christian clergy have adopted the use of a shirt with a clerical collar . Eastern Christianity In Eastern Orthodoxy and Eastern Catholicism , a useful distinction between liturgical vestments and clerical clothing is that vestments are required to be blessed before being worn. Conversely, clerical clothing is not, and is regarded as daily wear. Inner cassock : The inner cassock (more commonly, simply cassock) is a floor length garment, usually black, worn by all clergy members, monastics, and seminarians. Outer cassock : Called a ryasa ( Russian : ряса ) or exorason, the outer cassock is a large flowing



Praxis (Byzantine Rite)

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Praxis , a transliteration of the Greek word πρᾶξις (derived from the stem of the verb πράσσειν, prassein "to do, to act"), means "practice, action, doing". More particularly, it means either: practice, as distinguished from theory, of an art, science, etc.; or practical application or exercise of a branch of learning; habitual or established practice; custom. Orthodoxy and orthopraxis Eastern Christian writers, especially those in the Byzantine tradition , use the term "praxis" to refer to what others, using an English rather than a Greek word, call practice of the faith, especially with regard to ascetic and liturgical life. Praxis is a key to understanding the Byzantine tradition, which is observed by the Eastern Orthodox Church and some Eastern Catholic Churches . This is because praxis is the basis of the understanding of faith and works as conjoint, without separating the two. The importance of praxis, in the sense of action, is indicated in the dictum of Saint Maximus the Confessor : "Theology without



Marriage in the Eastern Orthodox Church

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The Sacrament or, more properly, Sacred Mystery of Marriage does not unite a man and a woman. Rather, it is the Church's recognition of a union that God has already begun to work in their lives. As long as the union remains within the reality of this world, it will be subject to sin, pain, and death. But, through the Sacred Mystery, the union enters at the same time into a new reality: that of God's Kingdom. In Christ, marriage is restored to its initial perfection and in the sacrament, this union is made open to the possibility of what God intended marriage to be from the beginning: an eternal life of joy in union with Him. Thus, marriage goes beyond a legal contract. There is no exchange of vows - the two have freely and coequally committed to one another and consented to God's presence in their union. There is no phrase "'til death do us part". If marriage is brought into the Kingdom of God, death, as a separation, is powerless over it. Christ has destroyed death by His Cross and Resurrection; therefore,



Essence–energies distinction (Eastern Orthodox theology)

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The Essence–energies distinction is an Eastern Orthodox theological concept which states that there is a distinction between the essence ( ousia ) and the energies ( energeia ) of God . It was formulated by Gregory Palamas of Thessaloniki (1296-1359), as part of his defense of the Athonite monastic practice of hesychasmos against the charge of heresy brought by the humanist scholar and theologian Barlaam of Calabria . Orthodox theologians generally regard this distinction as a real distinction, and not just a conceptual distinction. Historically, Western Christian thought has tended to reject the essence-energies distinction as real in the case of God, characterizing the view as a heretical introduction of an unacceptable division in the Trinity and suggestive of polytheism . Historical background The Essence-Energy distinction was formulated by Gregory Palamas of Thessaloniki (1296-1359), as part of his defense of the Athonite monastic practice of hesychasmos , the mystical exercise of "stillness" to facili



History of Eastern Christianity

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Christianity has been, historically a Middle Eastern religion with its origin in Judaism . Eastern Christianity refers collectively to the Christian traditions and churches which developed in the Middle East, Egypt, Asia Minor, the Far East, Balkans, Eastern Europe, Northeastern Africa and southern India over several centuries of religious antiquity. It is contrasted with Western Christianity which developed in Western Europe . As a historical definition the term relates to the earliest Christian communities and their long standing traditions that still exist. Christianity as a religion was founded by Jesus Christ (8–2 BC/BCE to 29–36 AD / CE ) and his Twelve Apostles . Christianity was an underground movement having been in conflict with Judaism and then also with the Pagan Roman Empire (see Persecution of early Christians by the Romans ). Much of early Christianity as an underground movement had no above ground or established churches as many of the Early Christians attended Synagogue and prayer meetings



First seven Ecumenical Councils

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Icon depicting the Emperor Constantine (centre), accompanied by the bishops of the First Council of Nicaea (325), holding the Niceno–Constantinopolitan Creed of 381 In the history of Christianity , the first seven ecumenical councils , from the First Council of Nicaea (325) to the Second Council of Nicaea (787), represented an attempt by Church leaders to reach an orthodox consensus, restore peace and develop a unified Christendom . Eastern Orthodox Christians , Oriental Orthodox Christians , Nestorians , and Roman Catholics , all trace the legitimacy of their clergy by apostolic succession back to this period and beyond, to the earlier period referred to as Early Christianity . This era begins with the First Council of Nicaea, which enunciated the Nicene Creed that in its original form and as modified by the First Council of Constantinople of 381 was seen by all later councils as the touchstone of orthodoxy on the doctrine of the Trinity . The Eastern Orthodox Church and the Catholic Church accept all seven



Octoechos (liturgy)

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The liturgical book called Octoechos (from the Greek : ἡ Ὀκτώηχος Greek pronunciation:  ; from ὀκτώ "eight" and ἦχος "sound, mode" called echos ; Slavonic : Осмѡгласникъ, Osmoglasnik from о́смь "eight" and гласъ "voice, sound") contains a repertoire of hymns ordered in eight parts according to the eight echoi ( tones or modes ). Originally created as a hymn book with musical notation in the Stoudios monastery during the 9th century, it is still used in many rites of Eastern Christianity . The hymn book has something in common with the book tonary of the Western Church . Both contained the melodic models of the octoechos system , but the tonary served simply for a modal classification, while the book octoechos is as well organized as a certain temporal of several eight week periods and the word itself means the repertoire of hymns sung during the celebrations of the Sunday Office . Performing an avtomelon over a kontakion by Romanos The Hesperinos psalm (Ps. 140) in Romanian printed in Cyrillic types is often



Syriac language

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Syriac Aramaic alphabet Syriac ( ܠܫܢܐ ܣܘܪܝܝܐ Leššānā Suryāyā ), also known as Syriac Aramaic or Classical Syriac , is a dialect of Middle Aramaic that is the minority language of Syrian Christians in eastern Turkey , northern Iraq , and northeastern Syria . It is also the liturgical language of several churches. It was once spoken across much of the Fertile Crescent and Eastern Arabia . Having first appeared in the early first century AD in Edessa , classical Syriac became a major literary language throughout the Middle East from the 4th to the 8th centuries, the classical language of Edessa , preserved in a large body of Syriac literature . Indeed, Syriac literature comprises roughly 90% of the extant Aramaic literature. The Old Aramaic language was adopted by the Neo-Assyrian Empire (911–605 BC) when they conquered the various Syro-Hittite states to its west. The Achaemenid Empire , which rose after the fall of the Assyrian Empire, also adopted Old Aramaic as its official language and Old Aramaic qu



Religion in Ukraine

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Religion in Ukraine is diverse, with a majority of the population adhering to Christianity . A 2016 survey conducted by the Razumkov Centre found that 70% of the population declared themselves believers. About 65.4% of the population declared to be adherents of various types of Orthodoxy (25% Orthodoxy of the Kievan Patriarchate , 21.2% just Orthodox, 15% Orthodoxy of the Moscovian Patriarchate , 1.8% Ukrainian Autocephalous Orthodox Church , and 2% other types of Orthodoxy), 7.1% just Christians , 6.5% Greek Rite Catholics , 1.9% Protestants , 1.1% Muslims and 1.0% Latin Rite Catholics . Judaism and Hinduism were the religions of 0.2% of the population each. A further 16.3% declared to be non-religious or did not identify in those religions listed hitherto. According to the surveys conducted by Razumkov in the 2000s and early 2010s, such proportions have remained relatively constant throughout the last decade, while the proportion of believers overall has decreased from 76% in 2014 to 70% in 2016. (p. 22).




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