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May 19 (Eastern Orthodox liturgics)

May 18 - Eastern Orthodox Church calendar - May 20

All fixed commemorations below celebrated on June 1 by Orthodox Churches on the Old Calendar.[note 1]

For May 19th, Orthodox Churches on the Old Calendar commemorate the Saints listed on May 6.

Saints
  • Hieromartyrs Patricius (Patrick), Bishop of Prusa, and with him the Presbyters Acacius, Menander, and Polyenos (c. 100[1] or c. 362[2] )[3] [4] [note 2]
  • Martyrs Calocerus and Parthenius, brothers (250)[6] [7] [8] [note 3]
  • Martyr Philoterus of Nicomedia (303)[7] [10]
  • Martyr Acoluthus of the Thebaid (303)[11] [note 4]
  • Martyr Cyriaca (Kyriake) and the six holy virgin-martyrs in Nicomedia (307)[7] [12]
  • Martyr Theotima of Nicomedia (c. 311)[13] [1]
  • Saint John, Bishop of the Goths in Crimea (787)[1] [2]
Pre-Schism Western Saints
Post-Schism Orthodox Saints
  • Monk-martyrs and Confessors of the Monastery of Panagia of Kantara, on Cyprus, who suffered under the Latins (1231):[1] [21]
  • Right-Believing Great Prince Dmitry Donskoy, Great Prince of Moscow (1389)[1] [2] [22] [23] [note 5]
  • Venerable Sinaites of Serbia (from Ravanica) (14th century):[25] [note 6]
  • Saint Cornelius of Paleostrov, Abbot (1420)[1] [26]
  • Saint John (Ignatius), Prince of Uglich, tonsured as Ignatius in Vologda (1522)[1] [27]
  • Venerable Cornelius of Komel (Vologda), Abbot and Wonderworker (1537)[1] [28]
  • Saint Sergius of Shukhtov (Shukhtom), monk (1609)[1] [29]
New Martyrs and Confessors
  • Hieromartyr Matthew Voznesensky (1919)[22] [30]
  • Hieromartyr Innocent (Letayev), Archbishop of Kharkiv (1937)[9]
  • Hieromartyr Victor Karakulin (1937)[2] [22]
  • Hieromartyr Onuphrius (Gagaliuk), Archbishop of Kursk and Oboyansk (1938),[1] [22] [31] (see also June 1) and:
  • New Hieromartyr Valentine Lukyanov (1940)[2] [22]
  • All New Hieromartyrs of Slobozhanschyna (Slobodskaya) Ukraine (1937,1938,1940,1941)[9] [32] [note 7] [note 8]
Other commemorations
Icon Gallery
Notes
  1. The notation Old Style or (OS) is sometimes used to indicate a date in the Julian Calendar (which is used by churches on the "Old Calendar"). The notation New Style or (NS), indicates a date in the Revised Julian calendar (which is used by churches on the "New Calendar").
  2. The Greek Orthodox Arab-speaking Community of the town Zdeinde in north Israel, at the district of Acre, has a Holy Church in honour of St. Patrick, Bishop of Prusa.[5] Name days celebrated today include:
    • Patrick (Πατρίκιος).
  3. He is the patron of Galicia, and his relics are enshrined at Zhovkva.[9]
  4. The term "Akolouthos" also refers to a Byzantine military office.
  5. The Great Synaxaristes also has an entry for Saint Dmitry Donskoy on May 9th as well.[24]
  6. These are commemorated on May 6 in the Slavonic Menaion.
  7. The Great Synaxaristes also includes a brief entry on May 9 for the New Martyrs of Slobozhanschyna (Slobodskaya) Ukraine.[33]
  8. The Great Synaxaristes for May 19 includes a list of names (in Greek) of 27 Hieromartyrs of Slobozhanschyna (Slobodskaya), Ukraine, as follows:
References
  1. May 19/June 1. Orthodox Calendar (PRAVOSLAVIE.RU).
  2. June 1 / May 19. HOLY TRINITY RUSSIAN ORTHODOX CHURCH (A parish of the Patriarchate of Moscow).
  3. Ὁ Ἅγιος Πατρίκιος ὁ Ἱερομάρτυρας καὶ οἱ σὺν αὐτῷ Ἀκάκιος, Μένανδρος καὶ Πολύαινος οἱ Μάρτυρες. 19 Μαΐου. ΜΕΓΑΣ ΣΥΝΑΞΑΡΙΣΤΗΣ.
  4. Hieromonk Makarios of Simonos Petra (Ed.). THE SYNAXARION: The Lives of the Saints of the Orthodox Church: VOLUME FIVE - May, June. Transl. from the French by Mother Maria (Rule) and Mother Joanna (Burton). Holy Convent of the Annunciation of Our Lady, Ormylia (Chalkidike), 2005. pp. 203-204.
  5. PASTORAL VISIT OF HIS BEATITUDE THE PATRIARCH OF JERUSALEM IN ZDEINDE. Jerusalem Patriarchate: Official News Gate. 10/06/2017. Retrieved: 12 June, 2017.
  6. Οἱ Ἅγιοι Καλοκέριος καὶ Παρθένιος οἱ Μάρτυρες. ΜΕΓΑΣ ΣΥΝΑΞΑΡΙΣΤΗΣ.
  7. May 19. The Roman Martyrology.
  8. May 19. Latin Saints of the Orthodox Patriarchate of Rome.
  9. Dr. Alexander Roman. May. Calendar of Ukrainian Orthodox Saints (Ukrainian Orthodoxy - Українське Православ'я).
  10. Ὁ Ἅγιος Φιλότερος ὁ Μάρτυρας. 19 Μαΐου. ΜΕΓΑΣ ΣΥΝΑΞΑΡΙΣΤΗΣ.
  11. Ὁ Ἅγιος Ἀκόλουθος ὁ Μάρτυρας. 19 Μαΐου. ΜΕΓΑΣ ΣΥΝΑΞΑΡΙΣΤΗΣ.
  12. Ἡ Ἁγία Κυριακὴ ἡ Μάρτυς καὶ οἱ σὺν αὐτῇ. 19 Μαΐου. ΜΕΓΑΣ ΣΥΝΑΞΑΡΙΣΤΗΣ.
  13. Ἡ Ἁγία Θεοτίμη ἡ Μάρτυς. 19 Μαΐου. ΜΕΓΑΣ ΣΥΝΑΞΑΡΙΣΤΗΣ.
  14. Ὁ Ἅγιος Πούδης ὁ Μάρτυρας. 19 Μαΐου. ΜΕΓΑΣ ΣΥΝΑΞΑΡΙΣΤΗΣ.
  15. Ἡ Ἁγία Πουδενδιάνα ἡ Μάρτυς. 19 Μαΐου. ΜΕΓΑΣ ΣΥΝΑΞΑΡΙΣΤΗΣ.
  16. Rev. Alban Butler (1711–73). St. Pudentiana, Virgin. The Lives of the Saints, Volume V: May. 1866. (Bartleby.com)
  17. Ὁ Ἅγιος Κύριλλος Ἐπίσκοπος Τρεβήρων. 19 Μαΐου. ΜΕΓΑΣ ΣΥΝΑΞΑΡΙΣΤΗΣ.
  18. Ὁ Ἅγιος Ἀδοῦλφος. 19 Μαΐου. ΜΕΓΑΣ ΣΥΝΑΞΑΡΙΣΤΗΣ.
  19. Ὁ Ἅγιος Δουνστάνος Ἀρχιεπίσκοπος Καντουαρίας. 19 Μαΐου. ΜΕΓΑΣ ΣΥΝΑΞΑΡΙΣΤΗΣ.
  20. Rev. Alban Butler (1711–73). May 19 - St. Dunstan, Archbishop of Canterbury, Confessor. The Lives of the Saints, Volume V: May. 1866. (Bartleby.com)
  21. Οἱ Ἅγιοι Βαρνάβας, Γεννάδιος, Γεράσιμος, Γερμανός, Θεόγνωστος, Θεόκτιστος, Ἱερεμίας, Ἰωάννης, Ἰωσήφ, Κόνων, Κύριλλος, Μάξιμος καὶ Μάρκος οἱ Ὁσιομάρτυρες. 19 Μαΐου. ΜΕΓΑΣ ΣΥΝΑΞΑΡΙΣΤΗΣ.
  22. (in Russian) 19 мая (ст.ст.) 1 июня 2013 (нов. ст.). Русская Православная Церковь Отдел внешних церковных связей. (DECR).
  23. Ὁ Ἅγιος Δημήτριος ὁ μεγάλος Πρίγκιπας. 19 Μαΐου. ΜΕΓΑΣ ΣΥΝΑΞΑΡΙΣΤΗΣ.
  24. Ὁ Ἅγιος Δημήτριος ὁ μεγάλος πρίγκιπας τῆς Μόσχας. 9 Μαΐου. ΜΕΓΑΣ ΣΥΝΑΞΑΡΙΣΤΗΣ.
  25. Οἱ Ὅσιοι Ρωμύλος, Ρωμανός, Νέστωρ, Σισώης, Γρηγόριος, Νικόδημος καὶ Κύριλλος οἱ Σιναΐτες. 19 Μαΐου. ΜΕΓΑΣ ΣΥΝΑΞΑΡΙΣΤΗΣ.
  26. Ὁ Ὅσιος Κορνήλιος. 19 Μαΐου. ΜΕΓΑΣ ΣΥΝΑΞΑΡΙΣΤΗΣ.
  27. Ὁ Ὅσιος Ἰγνάτιος. 19 Μαΐου. ΜΕΓΑΣ ΣΥΝΑΞΑΡΙΣΤΗΣ.
  28. Ὁ Ὅσιος Κορνήλιος ὁ Θαυματουργός. 19 Μαΐου. ΜΕΓΑΣ ΣΥΝΑΞΑΡΙΣΤΗΣ.
  29. Ὁ Ὅσιος Σέργιος τῆς Σουχτόμα. 19 Μαΐου. ΜΕΓΑΣ ΣΥΝΑΞΑΡΙΣΤΗΣ.
  30. The Autonomous Orthodox Metropolia of Western Europe and the Americas (ROCOR). St. Hilarion Calendar of Saints for the year of our Lord 2004. St. Hilarion Press (Austin, TX). p.37.
  31. Ὁ Ἅγιος Ὀνούφριος ὁ Ἱερομάρτυρας. 19 Μαΐου. ΜΕΓΑΣ ΣΥΝΑΞΑΡΙΣΤΗΣ.
  32. Οἱ Ἅγιοι Νεομάρτυρες ἐν Σλομπόντσκαγια Οὐκρανίας. 19 Μαΐου. ΜΕΓΑΣ ΣΥΝΑΞΑΡΙΣΤΗΣ.
  33. Οἱ Ἅγιοι Νεομάρτυρες τῆς Σλομπόντσκαγια Οὐκρανίας. 9 Μαΐου. ΜΕΓΑΣ ΣΥΝΑΞΑΡΙΣΤΗΣ.
  34. Μνήμη Εἰσόδου τῆς Ἁγίας Νίνας τῆς Ἰσαποστόλου στὴν Γεωργία. 19 Μαΐου. ΜΕΓΑΣ ΣΥΝΑΞΑΡΙΣΤΗΣ.
  35. Ἀνακομιδὴ Τιμίων Λειψάνων Ἁγίων Ἰουλίου Πρεσβυτέρου καὶ Ἰουλιανοῦ Διακόνου. 19 Μαΐου. ΜΕΓΑΣ ΣΥΝΑΞΑΡΙΣΤΗΣ.
  36. May 6/19. Orthodox Calendar (PRAVOSLAVIE.RU).
Sources
  • May 19/June 1. Orthodox Calendar (PRAVOSLAVIE.RU).
  • June 1 / May 19. HOLY TRINITY RUSSIAN ORTHODOX CHURCH (A parish of the Patriarchate of Moscow).
  • Dr. Alexander Roman. May. Calendar of Ukrainian Orthodox Saints (Ukrainian Orthodoxy - Українське Православ'я).
  • May 19. Latin Saints of the Orthodox Patriarchate of Rome.
  • May 19. The Roman Martyrology.

Greek Sources

  • Great Synaxaristes: (in Greek) 19 ΜΑΪΟΥ. ΜΕΓΑΣ ΣΥΝΑΞΑΡΙΣΤΗΣ.
  • (in Greek) Συναξαριστής. 19 Μαΐου. ECCLESIA.GR. (H ΕΚΚΛΗΣΙΑ ΤΗΣ ΕΛΛΑΔΟΣ).

Russian Sources

  • (in Russian) 1 июня (19 мая). Православная Энциклопедия под редакцией Патриарха Московского и всея Руси Кирилла (электронная версия). (Orthodox Encyclopedia - Pravenc.ru).
  • (in Russian) 19 мая (ст.ст.) 1 июня 2013 (нов. ст.). Русская Православная Церковь Отдел внешних церковных связей. (DECR).
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Easter

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Easter, also called Pascha (Greek, Latin) or Resurrection Sunday, is a festival and holiday celebrating the resurrection of Jesus from the dead, described in the New Testament as having occurred on the third day of his burial after his crucifixion by the Romans at Calvary c. 30 AD. It is the culmination of the Passion of Jesus, preceded by Lent (or Great Lent), a forty-day period of fasting, prayer, and penance. Most Christians refer to the week before Easter as "Holy Week"—it contains the days of the Easter Triduum, including Maundy Thursday, commemorating the Maundy and Last Supper, as well as Good Friday, commemorating the crucifixion and death of Jesus. In Western Christianity, Eastertide, or the Easter Season, begins on Easter Sunday and lasts seven weeks, ending with the coming of the fiftieth day, Pentecost Sunday. In Eastern Christianity, the season of Pascha begins on Pascha and ends with the coming of the fortieth day, the Feast of the Ascension. Easter and the holidays that are related to it ar ...more...



Romanian Orthodox Church

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The Romanian Orthodox Church (Romanian: Biserica Ortodoxă Română) is an autocephalous Orthodox Church in full communion with other Eastern Orthodox Christian Churches and ranked seventh in order of precedence. Since 1925, the Church's Primate bears the title of Patriarch. Its jurisdiction covers the territories of Romania and Moldova, with additional dioceses for Romanians living in nearby Serbia and Hungary, as well as for diaspora communities in Central and Western Europe, North America and Oceania. Currently it is the only self-governing Church within Orthodoxy to have a Romance language for its principal and native tongue. The majority of Romania's population (16,367,267, or 85.9% of those for whom data were available, according to the 2011 census data ), as well as some 720,000 Moldovans, belong to the Romanian Orthodox Church. The Romanian Orthodox Church is the second-largest in size behind the Russian Orthodox Church. Members of the Romanian Orthodox Church sometimes refer to Orthodox Christian doc ...more...



Serbian Orthodox Church

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The Serbian Orthodox Church ( Serbian : Српска православна црква / Srpska pravoslavna crkva ) is one of the autocephalous Eastern Orthodox Christian Churches . It is the second oldest Slavic Orthodox Church in the world (after the Bulgarian Orthodox Church ). The Serbian Orthodox Church comprises the majority of the population in Serbia , Montenegro , and the Republika Srpska entity of Bosnia and Herzegovina . It is organized into metropolises and eparchies located primarily in Serbia, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Montenegro and Croatia , but also all over the world where Serb diaspora lives. The Serbian Orthodox Church is an autocephalous , or ecclesiastically independent, member of the Eastern Orthodox communion . Serbian Patriarch serves as first among equals in his church; the current patriarch is Irinej . The Church achieved autocephalous status in 1219 under the leadership of St. Sava , becoming independent Archbishopric of Žiča . Its status was elevated to that of a patriarchate in 1346, and was known after ...more...



Vestment

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Clergy of various ranks in vestments celebrating Mass according to the Neo-Gallican Rite of Versailles Elevation of the chalice . Vestments are liturgical garments and articles associated primarily with the Christian religion, especially among the Eastern Orthodox , Catholics ( Latin Church and others), Anglicans , and Lutherans . Many other groups also make use of liturgical garments; this was a point of controversy in the Protestant Reformation and sometimes since, in particular during the Ritualist controversies in England in the 19th century. For other garments worn by clergy, see also clerical clothing . Rubrics for vesting The rubrics (regulations) for the type of vestments to be worn vary between the various communions and denominations. In some, clergy are directed to wear special clerical clothing in public at all, most, or some times. This generally consists of a clerical collar , clergy shirt, and (on certain occasions) a cassock . In the case of members of religious orders , non-liturgical wear in ...more...



Liturgy

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Liturgy is the customary public worship performed by a religious group, according to its beliefs, customs and traditions. As a religious phenomenon, liturgy is a communal response to and participation in, the sacred through activity reflecting praise, thanksgiving, supplication or repentance. Ritualization may be associated with life events such as birth, coming of age , marriage, sex and death. It thus forms the basis for establishing a relationship with a divine agency, as well as with other participants in the liturgy. Methods of dress, preparation of food, application of cosmetics or other hygienic practices are all considered liturgical activities. Technically speaking, liturgy is a subset of ritual. When ritual is undertaken to participate in a divine act or assist a divine action, it is liturgy. If the ritual does not have this purpose it is not liturgy but only ritual. Thus, the word, sometimes rendered by its English translation "Service or Divine Service", refers to a formal ritual, which may or may ...more...



Gospel Book

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The Gospel Book , Evangelion , or Book of the Gospels ( Greek : Εὐαγγέλιον , Evangélion) is a codex or bound volume containing one or more of the four Gospels of the Christian New Testament — normally all four. The term is also used of the liturgical book , also called the Evangeliary , from which are read the portions of the Gospels used in the Mass and other services, arranged according to the order of the liturgical calendar . Liturgical use in churches of a distinct Gospel book remains normal, often compulsory, in Eastern Christianity , and very common in Roman Catholicism and some parts of Anglicanism and Lutheranism . Other Protestant churches normally just use a complete Bible . History Folio 72 verso of the Codex Aureus of Lorsch . Christ in Majesty In the early Middle Ages , the production of copies of the Bible in its entirety was rare, if only because of the huge expense of the parchment required. Individual books or collections of books were produced for specific purposes. From the 4th century Gos ...more...



Nicene Creed

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The Nicene Creed ( Greek : Σύμβολον τῆς Νικαίας or, τῆς πίστεως , Latin : Symbolum Nicaenum ) is a Symbol of faith widely used in Christian liturgy . It is called Nicene because it was originally adopted in the city of Nicaea (present day İznik , Turkey) by the First Council of Nicaea in 325. In 381, it was amended at the First Council of Constantinople , and the amended form is referred to as the Nicene or the Niceno-Constantinopolitan Creed . The Oriental Orthodox and Assyrian churches use this profession of faith with the verbs in the original plural ("we believe") form, but the Eastern Orthodox and Catholic churches convert those verbs to the singular ("I believe"). The Anglican and many Protestant denominations generally use the singular form, but sometimes use the plural. The Apostles' Creed is also used in the Latin West , but not in the Eastern liturgies . On Sundays and some other days, one or other of these two creeds is recited in the Roman Rite Mass after the homily . The Nicene Creed is also ...more...



History of Eastern Orthodox Christian theology

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The history of Eastern Orthodox Christian theology begins with the life of Jesus and the forming of the Christian Church . Major events include the Chalcedonian schism with the Oriental Orthodox miaphysites , the Iconoclast controversy , the Photian schism , the Great Schism between East and West , and the Hesychast controversy . The period after the Second World War saw a re-engagement with the Greek, and more recently Syriac, Fathers that included a rediscovery of the theological works of St. Gregory Palamas , which has resulted in a renewal of Orthodox theology in the 20th and 21st centuries. Tradition Icon depicting the Emperor Constantine (centre) and the bishops of the First Council of Nicaea (325) holding the Niceno–Constantinopolitan Creed of 381 . The Orthodox Church considers itself to be the original church started by Christ and his apostles. For the early years of the church, much of what was conveyed to its members was in the form of oral teachings. Within a very short period of time traditions w ...more...



Malankara Orthodox Syrian Church

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schism in malankara The Malankara Orthodox Syrian Church, also known as the Indian Orthodox Church, is an autocephalous Oriental Orthodox church centered in the Indian state of Kerala. It is one of the churches of India's Saint Thomas Christian community, which has its origin in the evangelical activity of Thomas the Apostle in the 1st century. The church is headed by the autocephalous Catholicos of the East and the Malankara Metropolitan, presently Baselios Mar Thoma Paulose II. It is believed that Saint Thomas Christians of Malabar were in communion with the Church of the East from 496 to 1599. They got episcopal support from Persian bishops, who traveled to Kerala in merchant ships through the spice route, while the local leader of the Saint Thomas Christians held the rank of Archdeacon and was a hereditary office held by the Pakalomattam family. In the 16th century, the overtures of the Portuguese padroado to bring the Saint Thomas Christians into Latin Rite Catholicism led to the first of several ...more...



Ecumenical Patriarchate of Constantinople

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The Ecumenical Patriarchate of Constantinople ( Greek : Οἰκουμενικόν Πατριαρχεῖον Κωνσταντινουπόλεως , Oikoumenikón Patriarkhíon Konstantinoupóleos, IPA:  ; Latin : Patriarchatus Oecumenicus Constantinopolitanus ; Turkish : Rum Ortodoks Patrikhanesi , "Roman Orthodox Patriarchate") is one of the fourteen autocephalous churches (or "jurisdictions") that together compose the Eastern Orthodox Church . It is headed by the Ecumenical Patriarch of Constantinople , currently Bartholomew I , Archbishop of Constantinople. Because of its historical location at the capital of the former Eastern Roman (Byzantine) Empire and its role as the Mother Church of most modern Orthodox churches, the Ecumenical Patriarchate holds a special place of honor within Orthodoxy and serves as the seat for the Ecumenical Patriarch, who enjoys the status of Primus inter pares (first among equals) among the world's Eastern Orthodox prelates and is widely regarded as the representative and spiritual leader of the world's 300 million Orthodo ...more...



St. Cornelius

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Saint Cornelius is the name of the following saints and persons in the previous stages of liturgical veneration: Pope Cornelius (in office: 251-253) Cornelius of Armagh (died 1175) May 19 (Eastern Orthodox liturgics) Venerable Cornelius of Komel (Vologda), abbot (1537) Saint Cornelius of Paleostrov , abbot (15th century) July 22 (Eastern Orthodox liturgics) Saint Cornelius of Pereyaslavl , monk (1693) September 13 (Eastern Orthodox liturgics) Hieromartyr Cornelius the Centurion (1st century) Saint Cornelius of Padan-Olonets and with him Saints Dionysius and Misail List of Patriarchs of Antioch St. Ignatius the Illuminator (68–107) Saint Cornelius (127–154) Dhanya Kumarasiri (1990-2012) Saint Cornelius is the name of the following saints and persons in the previous stages of liturgical veneration: Pope Cornelius (in office: 251-253) Cornelius of Armagh (died 1175) May 19 (Eastern Orthodox liturgics) Venerable Cornelius of Komel (Vologda), abbot (1537) Saint Cornelius of Paleostrov , abbot (15th century) July 2 ...more...



Syriac Christianity

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Syriac Christianity ( Syriac : ܡܫܝܚܝܘܬܐ ܣܘܪܝܝܬܐ ‎ / mšiḥāiūṯā suryāiṯā) refers to Eastern Christian traditions that employs Syriac in their liturgical rites . The Syriac language is a dialect of Middle Aramaic that emerged in Edessa , Assyria - Upper Mesopotamia , in the early 1st century AD, and is considered to be closely related to the Aramaic of Jesus . Tracing back their historical heritage to the 1st century, Syriac Christianity is today represented in the Middle East by the Maronite Church , Syriac Catholic Church , the Chaldean Catholic Church , the Syrian Orthodox Church , the Assyrian Church of the East , and the Ancient Church of the East , as well as by the Saint Thomas Christians of respective communions centered in Kerala , India . Christianity began in the Middle East in Jerusalem among Jewish Aramaic -speaking Semitic peoples of the Kingdom of Judah (modern Israel , Palestinian Territories and Jordan ). It quickly spread, initially to other Semitic peoples , in Parthian -ruled Assyria and Mes ...more...



Praxis (Byzantine Rite)

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Praxis , a transliteration of the Greek word πρᾶξις (derived from the stem of the verb πράσσειν, prassein "to do, to act"), means "practice, action, doing". More particularly, it means either: practice, as distinguished from theory, of an art, science, etc.; or practical application or exercise of a branch of learning; habitual or established practice; custom. Orthodoxy and orthopraxis Eastern Christian writers, especially those in the Byzantine tradition , use the term "praxis" to refer to what others, using an English rather than a Greek word, call practice of the faith, especially with regard to ascetic and liturgical life. Praxis is a key to understanding the Byzantine tradition, which is observed by the Eastern Orthodox Church and some Eastern Catholic Churches . This is because praxis is the basis of the understanding of faith and works as conjoint, without separating the two. The importance of praxis, in the sense of action, is indicated in the dictum of Saint Maximus the Confessor : "Theology without ...more...



Epiphany (holiday)

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Epiphany ( i-PIFF-ə-nee), also Theophany, Little Christmas, or Three Kings' Day, is a Christian feast day that celebrates the revelation of God incarnate as Jesus Christ. In Western Christianity, the feast commemorates principally (but not solely) the visit of the Magi to the Christ Child, and thus Jesus' physical manifestation to the Gentiles. Moreover, the feast of the Epiphany, in some Western Christian denominations, also initiates the liturgical season of Epiphanytide. Eastern Christians, on the other hand, commemorate the baptism of Jesus on both sides of the Jordan River, seen as his manifestation to the world as the Son of God. Qasr el Yahud in the West Bank, and Al-Maghtas in Jordan on the east bank, Al-Maghtas is considered to be the original site of the baptism of Jesus and the ministry of John the Baptist. The traditional date for the feast is January 6. However, since 1970, the celebration is held in some countries on the Sunday after January 1. Eastern Churches following the Julian calendar o ...more...



Coptic Orthodox Church of Alexandria

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The Coptic Orthodox Church of Alexandria (الكنيسة القبطية الارثوذكسية) is an Oriental Orthodox Christian church based in Egypt, Northeast Africa and the Middle East. The head of the Church and the See of Alexandria is the Patriarch of Alexandria on the Holy See of Saint Mark, who also carries the title of Coptic Pope. The See of Alexandria is titular, and today the Coptic Pope presides from Saint Mark's Coptic Orthodox Cathedral in the Abbassia District in Cairo. With 18–22 million members worldwide, whereof about 10 to 15 million are in Egypt (see Demographics section below), it is the country's largest Christian church. The Coptic Orthodox Church belongs to the Oriental Orthodox family of Churches, which has been a distinct Christian body since the schism following the Council of Chalcedon in AD 451, when it took a different position over Christology from that of the rest of the Christian Church (which would split 600 years later into the Eastern Orthodox Church and the Roman Catholic Church). The precis ...more...



Octoechos (liturgy)

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The liturgical book called Octoechos (from the Greek : ἡ Ὀκτώηχος Greek pronunciation:  ; from ὀκτώ "eight" and ἦχος "sound, mode" called echos ; Slavonic : Осмѡгласникъ, Osmoglasnik from о́смь "eight" and гласъ "voice, sound") contains a repertoire of hymns ordered in eight parts according to the eight echoi ( tones or modes ). Originally created as a hymn book with musical notation in the Stoudios monastery during the 9th century, it is still used in many rites of Eastern Christianity . The hymn book has something in common with the book tonary of the Western Church . Both contained the melodic models of the octoechos system , but the tonary served simply for a modal classification, while the book octoechos is as well organized as a certain temporal of several eight week periods and the word itself means the repertoire of hymns sung during the celebrations of the Sunday Office . Performing an avtomelon over a kontakion by Romanos The Hesperinos psalm (Ps. 140) in Romanian printed in Cyrillic types is often ...more...



Russian Old-Orthodox Church

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The Russian Old Orthodox Church ( Russian : Русская Древлеправославная Церковь ) is an Eastern Orthodox Church of the Old Believers tradition, born of a schism within the Russian Orthodox Church ( raskol ) during the 17th century (Old Believers). This jurisdiction incorporated those Old Believer groups which refused to accept the authority of Belokrinitskaya Hierarchy , est. 1846 (see Russian Orthodox Old-Rite Church ). It was also known as Novozybkov Hierarchy (by the name of the city where its chief hierarch resided in 1963–2000). It is considered to be independent of the Eastern Orthodox Communion i.e. it is not recognised by the Patriarch of Constantinople , nor by any of the Orthodox churches in communion with the Patriarch. From 1963 until 2002, the official title of its chief hierarch was Archbishop of Novozybkov, Moscow and all Russia. In 2000, with the move of the Archbishop's residence to Moscow , the toponym Novozybkov was dropped from the title. Since March 2003, the official title of the church l ...more...



Orthodox Church in America

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The Orthodox Church in America ( OCA ) is an Eastern Orthodox Church , partly recognized as autocephalous , in North America . The OCA consists of more than 700 parishes , missions, communities, monasteries and institutions in the United States and Canada . In 2011, it had an estimated 84,900 members in the United States. The OCA has its origins in a mission established by eight Russian Orthodox monks in Alaska , then part of Russian America , in 1794. This grew into a full diocese of the Russian Orthodox Church after the United States purchased Alaska from Russia in 1867. By the late 19th century, the Russian Orthodox Church had grown in other areas of the United States due to the arrival of immigrants from areas of Eastern and Central Europe , many of them formerly of the Eastern Catholic Churches ("Greek Catholics"), and from the Middle East . These immigrants, regardless of nationality or ethnic background, were united under a single North American diocese of the Russian Orthodox Church. After the Bolshe ...more...



Russian Orthodox Church

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The Russian Orthodox Church (ROC; Russian: Ру́сская правосла́вная це́рковь, tr. Rússkaya pravoslávnaya tsérkov), alternatively legally known as the Moscow Patriarchate (Russian: Моско́вский патриарха́т, tr. Moskóvskiy patriarkhát), is one of the autocephalous Eastern Orthodox churches, in full communion with other Eastern Orthodox patriarchates. The Primate of the ROC is the Patriarch of Moscow and all Rus'. The ROC, as well as the primate thereof, officially ranks fifth in the Orthodox order of precedence, immediately below the four ancient Patriarchates of the Greek Orthodox Church, those of Constantinople, Alexandria, Antioch, and Jerusalem. The official Christianization of Kievan Rus' widely seen as the birth of the ROC is believed to have occurred in 988 through the baptism of the Kievan prince Vladimir and his people by the clergy of the Ecumenical Patriarchate whose constituent part the ROC remained for the next six centuries, while the Kievan see remained in the jurisdiction of the Ecumenical Patri ...more...



East–West Schism

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The East–West Schism , also called the Great Schism and the Schism of 1054 , was the break of communion between what are now the Catholic Church and Eastern Orthodox churches , which has lasted since the 11th century. It is not to be confused with the Western Schism which lasted from 1378 to 1417 (which is also sometimes called the "Great" Schism). A succession of ecclesiastical differences and theological disputes between the Greek East and Latin West pre-dated the formal rupture that occurred in 1054. Prominent among these were the issues of the source of the Holy Spirit , whether leavened or unleavened bread should be used in the Eucharist , the Bishop of Rome 's claim to universal jurisdiction , and the place of the See of Constantinople in relation to the Pentarchy . In 1053, the first step was taken in the process which led to formal schism : the Greek churches in southern Italy were forced either to close or to conform to Latin practices. In retaliation, the Ecumenical Patriarch of Constantinop ...more...



Synaxarium

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Synaxarion or Synexarion (plurals Synaxaria, Synexaria; Greek: Συναξάριον, from συνάγειν, synagein, "to bring together"; cf. etymology of synaxis and synagogue; Latin: Synaxarium, Synexarium; Coptic: ⲥϫⲛⲁⲝⲁⲣⲓⲟⲛ) is the name given in the Eastern Orthodox, Oriental Orthodox and Eastern Catholic Churches to a compilation of hagiographies corresponding roughly to the martyrology of the Roman Church. There are two kinds of synaxaria: Simple synaxaria: lists of the saints arranged in the order of their anniversaries, e.g. the calendar of Morcelli Historical synaxaria: including biographical notices, e.g. the Menologion of Basil II and the synaxarium of Sirmond. The notices given in the historical synaxaria are summaries of those in the great menologies, or collections of lives of saints, for the twelve months of the year. As the lessons in the Byzantine Divine Office are mostly the lives of saints, the Synaxarion became the collection of short lives of saints and martyrs, but also of accounts of events, of ...more...



Psalm 51

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Psalm 51:7 inscribed on a Holy water font Psalm 51 ( Septuagint numbering: Psalm 50 ), traditionally referred to as the Miserere , its Latin incipit , is one of the Penitential Psalms . It begins: Have mercy on me, O God. The psalm's opening words in Latin, Miserere mei, Deus, have led to its being called the Miserere mei or just Miserere. It is often known by this name in musical settings. The psalm is frequently used in various liturgical traditions because of its spirit of humility and repentance. Commentary Introduction Many psalms include introductory text (" superscription ") in the manuscript attributing it to a particular author and sometimes to an occasion. The New King James Version of the Bible introduces it: "To the choirmaster. A Psalm of David, when Nathan the prophet came to him, after he had gone in to Bathsheba." The Hebrew linguist and scholar Robert Alter translates it less literally, making explicit what is only implicit in the words used: "...a David psalm, upon Nathan the prophet's comin ...more...



Russian Orthodox cross

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Russian (Orthodox) cross Byzantine cross Greek (Orthodox) cross Russian (Orthodox) cross , also known as Byzantine or Suppedaneum cross , is a variation of the Christian cross , a symbol of the Russian Orthodox Church . The cross has three horizontal crossbeams — the top one represents the plate which in the older Greek tradition is inscribed with a phrase based on John's Gospel "The King of Glory", but in later images it represents INRI , and the bottom one, a footrest. In many depictions, the side to Christ's right is higher. This is because the footrest slants upward toward the penitent thief St. Dismas , who was (according to tradition) crucified on Jesus' right, and downward toward impenitent thief Gestas . It is also a common perception that the foot-rest points up, toward Heaven, on Christ’s right hand-side, and downward, to Hades, on Christ’s left. One of the Orthodox Church’s Friday prayers clearly explains the meaning: "In the midst, between two thieves, was Your Cross found as the balance-beam of ...more...



Lent

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Lent (Latin: Quadragesima: Fortieth) is a solemn religious observance in the Christian liturgical calendar that begins on Ash Wednesday and ends approximately six weeks later, before Easter Sunday. The purpose of Lent is the preparation of the believer for Easter through prayer, doing penance, mortifying the flesh, repentance of sins, almsgiving, and self-denial. This event is observed in the Anglican, Eastern Orthodox, Oriental Orthodox, Lutheran, Methodist, and Catholic Churches. Some Anabaptist and evangelical churches also observe the Lenten season. Its institutional purpose is heightened in the annual commemoration of Holy Week, marking the death, burial, and resurrection of Jesus, which recalls the tradition and events of the New Testament beginning on Palm Sunday, further climaxing on Jesus' crucifixion on Good Friday, which ultimately culminates in the joyful celebration on Easter Sunday of the Resurrection of Jesus Christ. In Lent, many Christians commit to fasting, as well as giving up certain lu ...more...



Latin liturgical rites

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Roman Catholic church in Stupava ( Slovakia ). Latin liturgical rites , or Western liturgical rites, are the Catholic liturgical rites used within the Latin Church , that part of Catholic Church originating in the area where the Latin language once dominated. The Latin rites were for many centuries no less numerous than the liturgical rites of the Eastern autonomous particular Churches . Their number is now much reduced. In the aftermath of the Council of Trent , in 1568 and 1570 Pope Pius V suppressed the Breviaries and Missals that could not be shown to have an antiquity of at least two centuries (see Tridentine Mass and Roman Missal ). Many local rites that remained legitimate even after this decree were abandoned voluntarily, especially in the 19th century. In the second half of the 20th century, most of the religious orders that had a distinct liturgical rite chose to adopt in its place the Roman Rite as revised in accordance with the decrees of the Second Vatican Council (see Mass of Paul VI ). A few su ...more...



Clerical clothing

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Clerical clothing is non- liturgical clothing worn exclusively by clergy . It is distinct from vestments in that it is not reserved specifically for services. Practices vary: is sometimes worn under vestments, and sometimes as the everyday clothing or street wear of a priest , minister , or other clergy member. In some cases, it can be similar or identical to the habit of a monk or nun . In modern times, many Christian clergy have adopted the use of a shirt with a clerical collar . Catholicism (Latin Rite) In 1215, a church council made it mandatory for all the Christian clergy to wear distinctive dress. Its purpose was not necessarily to elevate the status of the Christian clerics; it was intended that they would catch the public eye if any member of the clergy is seen on the street. On the right, an example of the full collar shirt and cassock ; on the left, a clerical shirt that could have a tab collar inserted. The Rabat, worn until the early 20th century. Cassock : A long-sleeved, hoodless garment. Depen ...more...



Essence–energies distinction (Eastern Orthodox theology)

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The essence–energies distinction is an Eastern Orthodox theological concept which states that there is a distinction between the essence ( ousia ) and the energies ( energeia ) of God . It was formulated by Gregory Palamas of Thessaloniki (1296-1359), as part of his defense of the Athonite monastic practice of hesychasmos against the charge of heresy brought by the humanist scholar and theologian Barlaam of Calabria . Orthodox theologians generally regard this distinction as a real distinction, and not just a conceptual distinction. Historically, Western Christian thought has tended to reject the essence-energies distinction as real in the case of God, characterizing the view as a heretical introduction of an unacceptable division in the Trinity and suggestive of polytheism . Historical background The Essence-Energy distinction was formulated by Gregory Palamas of Thessaloniki (1296-1359), as part of his defense of the Athonite monastic practice of hesychasmos , the mystical exercise of "stillness" to facili ...more...



Maslenitsa

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Maslenitsa ( Russian : Мaсленица , Ukrainian : Масниця , Belarusian : Масленіца ; also known as Butter Week , Crepe week , or Cheesefare Week ) is an Eastern Slavic religious and folk holiday, celebrated during the last week before Great Lent , that is, the eighth week before Eastern Orthodox Pascha (Easter). Maslenitsa corresponds to the Western Christian Carnival , except that Orthodox Lent begins on a Monday instead of a Wednesday , and the Orthodox date of Easter can differ greatly from the Western Christian date. Traditions Vasily Surikov . Taking a Snow Town, 1891. Leonid Solomatkin . Maslenitsa, 1878. K. Kryzhanovsky. Sunday of Forgiveness, 19th century. According to archeological evidence from 2nd century A.D. Maslenitsa may be the oldest surviving Slavic holiday. Maslenitsa has its origins in the pagan tradition. In Slavic mythology , Maslenitsa is a sun-festival, personified by the ancient god Volos , and a celebration of the imminent end of the winter. In the Christian tradition, Maslenitsa is th ...more...



Ethiopian Orthodox Tewahedo Church

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The Ethiopian Orthodox Tewahedo Church (Amharic: የኢትዮጵያ:ኦርቶዶክስ:ተዋሕዶ:ቤተ:ክርስቲያን; Yäityop'ya ortodoks täwahedo bétäkrestyan) is the largest of the Oriental Orthodox Christian Churches. One of the few pre-colonial Christian Churches in Sub-Saharan Africa, the Ethiopian Orthodox Tewahedo Church has a membership of between 45 and 50 million people, the majority of whom live in Ethiopia. It is a founding member of the World Council of Churches. The Ethiopian Orthodox Tewahedo Church is in communion with the Coptic Orthodox Church of Alexandria having gained autocephaly in 1959. The Ethiopian Orthodox Tewahedo Church was administratively part of the Coptic Orthodox Church of Alexandria from the first half of the 4th century until 1959, when it was granted its own Patriarch by the Coptic Orthodox Pope of Alexandria and Patriarch of All Africa, Cyril VI. As one of the oldest Christian churches and a non-Chalcedonian Church, it is not in communion with the Ethiopian Catholic Church. Ethiopia is the second country only ...more...



Nativity Fast

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The Nativity Fast is a period of abstinence and penance practiced by the Eastern Orthodox , Oriental Orthodox , and Eastern Catholic Churches , in preparation for the Nativity of Jesus (December 25). The corresponding Western season of preparation for Christmas , which also has been called the Nativity Fast and St. Martin's Lent , has taken the name of Advent . The Eastern fast runs for 40 days instead of four ( Roman rite ) or six weeks ( Ambrosian rite ) and thematically focuses on proclamation and glorification of the Incarnation of God , whereas the Western Advent focuses on the two comings (or advents) of Jesus Christ : his birth and his Second Coming or Parousia . The Byzantine fast is observed from November 15 to December 24, inclusively. These dates apply to those Orthodox Churches which use the Revised Julian calendar , which currently matches the Gregorian calendar . For those Eastern Orthodox Churches which still follow the Julian calendar ( Greek Orthodox Patriarchate of Jerusalem , Russian Orth ...more...



Feast of the Cross

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Russian icon of Feast of the Exaltation of the Cross ( icon from Yaroslavl by Gury Nikitin, 1680. Tretyakov Gallery , Moscow ). In the Christian liturgical calendar , there are several different Feasts of the Cross , all of which commemorate the cross used in the crucifixion of Jesus . While Good Friday is dedicated to the Passion of Christ and the Crucifixion, these days celebrate the cross itself, as the instrument of salvation . In English , it is called The Exaltation of the Holy Cross in the official translation of the Roman Missal , while the 1973 translation called it The Triumph of the Cross . In some parts of the Anglican Communion the feast is called Holy Cross Day , a name also used by Lutherans . The celebration is also sometimes called Holy Rood Day . As per some Christian tradition the True Cross was discovered in 326 by Saint Helena , the mother of the Roman Emperor Constantine the Great , during a pilgrimage she made to Jerusalem . The Church of the Holy Sepulchre was then built at the site of ...more...



Finnish Orthodox Church

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The Finnish Orthodox Church ( Finnish : Suomen ortodoksinen kirkko ; Swedish : Finska Ortodoxa Kyrkan ), or Orthodox Church of Finland , is an autonomous Eastern Orthodox archdiocese of the Ecumenical Patriarchate of Constantinople . The Church has a legal position as a national church in the country, along with the Evangelical Lutheran Church of Finland . With its roots in the medieval Novgorodian missionary work in Karelia , the Finnish Orthodox Church was a part of the Russian Orthodox Church until 1923. Today the church has three dioceses and 58,000 members that account for 1.1 percent of the native population of Finland . The parish of Helsinki has the most adherents. Structure and organization 19th century Uspenski Cathedral in Helsinki. The St. Nicholas Church in Vaasa (1862). Along with the Evangelical Lutheran Church of Finland, the Orthodox Church of Finland has a special position in Finnish law. The church is considered to be a Finnish entity of public nature. The external form of the church is re ...more...



Byzantine Rite

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The Byzantine Rite , also known as the Greek Rite or Constantinopolitan Rite , is the liturgical rite used by the Eastern Orthodox Church and certain Eastern Catholic Churches . It has also been employed, although less frequently, in the Anglican Communion and Lutheran denominations. (e.g., it is utilized by the Society for Eastern Rite Anglicanism, and the Ukrainian Lutheran Church ). Its development began during the fourth century in Constantinople and it is now the second most-used rite in Christendom after the Roman Rite . Byzantine Rite was originally developed and used in Greek language and later, with introduction of Eastern Orthodoxy to other ethnic groups it was translated into local languages and continued further development. Historically, most important non-Greek variants of Byzantine Rite are: Byzantine- Slavonic and Byzantine- Georgian . The rite consists of the divine liturgies , canonical hours , forms for the administration of sacred mysteries ( sacraments ) and the numerous prayers , bles ...more...



Syriac language

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Syriac Aramaic alphabet Syriac ( ܠܫܢܐ ܣܘܪܝܝܐ Leššānā Suryāyā), also known as Syriac Aramaic or Classical Syriac , is a dialect of Middle Aramaic that is the minority language of indigenous ethnic Assyrians/Syriacs in south eastern Turkey , northern Iraq , northeastern Syria and North western Iran . It is also the liturgical language of several churches, in particular the Assyrian Church of the East , Syriac Orthodox Church , Chaldean Catholic Church and Maronite Church . Emerging in 5th century BC Assyria, it was once spoken across much of the Near East as well as Asia Minor and Eastern Arabia . Having first appeared in the early first century AD in Edessa , classical Syriac became a major literary language throughout the Middle East from the 4th to the 8th centuries, , preserved in a large body of Syriac literature . Indeed, Syriac literature comprises roughly 90% of the extant Aramaic literature. The Old Aramaic language was adopted by the Neo-Assyrian Empire (911–605 BC) when the Assyrians conquered ...more...



Melkite

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The term " Melkite " ( ), also written " Melchite ", refers to various Byzantine Rite Christian churches and their members originating in the Middle East . The term comes from the Northwestern Semitic root-word M-L-K found in Syriac malkoyo ( ܡܠܟܝܐ ‬), Hebrew : 'מלך' ‬ Melk-i or Melech-i, and Arabic : ملكي ‎ Malak-ī, meaning "royal", and by extension, "imperial". When used in an ecclesiastical sense, it refers specifically to the Melkite Greek Catholic Church as an ethnoreligious group. Overview Melkites view themselves as the first Christian community , dating the Melkite Church back to the time of the Apostles . This first community is said to have been a mixed one made up of individuals who were originally Greek , Greco- Macedonian , Roman , Syriac , and Jewish . Hellenistic Judaism and the Judeo-Greek "wisdom" literature popular in the late Second Temple era amongst both Hellenized Jews (known as Mityavnim) and gentile Greek proselyte converts to Judaism played an important part in the formation of the ...more...




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