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Manifesto of the 343

The Manifesto of the 343 (French: manifeste des 343), also known as the Manifesto of the 343 Sluts, was a declaration that was signed by 343 women advocating for reproductive rights and admitting to having had an abortion when abortions were illegal in France, thereby exposing themselves to criminal prosecution. The manifesto appeared in the French magazine Le Nouvel Observateur on April 5, 1971.[1] It was also known in an alternate English translation of the word "salopes" as the "Manifesto of the 343 Bitches".[2]

The text

The text of the manifesto was written by Simone de Beauvoir.[1] It began (as translated into English):

One million women in France have abortions every year. Condemned to secrecy, they do so in dangerous conditions, while under medical supervision, this is one of the simplest procedures. Society is silencing these millions of women. I declare that I am one of them. I declare that I have had an abortion. Just as we demand free access to contraception, we demand the freedom to have an abortion.[3]

Impact

The week after the manifesto appeared, the front page of the satirical weekly Charlie Hebdo carried a drawing attacking male politicians with the question "Qui a engrossé les 343 salopes du manifeste sur l'avortement?".[4] ("Who got the 343 sluts [bitches] from the abortion manifesto pregnant?") This drawing by Cabu gave the manifesto its nickname.

It was the inspiration for a February 3, 1973, manifesto by 331 doctors declaring their support for abortion rights:

We want freedom of abortion. It is entirely the woman's decision. We reject any entity that forces her to defend herself, perpetuates an atmosphere of guilt, and allows underground abortions to persist ....[5]

It contributed above all to the adoption, in December 1974-January 1975, of the "Veil law", named for Health Minister Simone Veil, that repealed the penalty for voluntarily terminating a pregnancy during the first ten weeks (later extended to twelve weeks).

Notable signers References
  1. Marie Renard (February 11, 2008). "Swans Commentary: The Unfinished Business Of Simone de Beauvoir". Retrieved December 19, 2008.
  2. "Brief history of women's rights". SOS Femmes. Retrieved December 19, 2008.
  3. "Manifesto of the 343 (translated into English), with signatures". Web.archive.org. 1971-04-05. Archived from the original on 2016-06-11. Retrieved 2016-06-11.
  4. Image of cover from Charlie Hebdo
  5. Michelle Zancarini-Fournel, « Histoire(s) du MLAC (1973-1975) », Clio, numéro 18-2003, Mixité et coéducation, [En ligne], mis en ligne le 04 décembre 2006. URL : http://clio.revues.org/index624.html. Consulté le 19 décembre 2008.
  6. Simone de Beauvoir and the women's movement in France: An eye-witness account Archived 2011-07-08 at the Wayback Machine., by Claudine Monteil
  7. In the 2007 film 2 Days in Paris, the mother, played by Marie Pillet, of a character played by Julie Delpy acknowledges herself to have been one of the "343 bitches", reflecting her action in real life.
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Manifesto of the 343

topic

Manifesto of the 343

The Manifesto of the 343 (French: manifeste des 343), also known as the Manifesto of the 343 Sluts, was a declaration that was signed by 343 women advocating for reproductive rights and admitting to having had an abortion when abortions were illegal in France, thereby exposing themselves to criminal prosecution. The manifesto appeared in the French magazine Le Nouvel Observateur on April 5, 1971.[1] It was also known in an alternate English translation of the word "salopes" as the "Manifesto of the 343 Bitches".[2] The text The text of the manifesto was written by Simone de Beauvoir.[1] It began (as translated into English): One million women in France have abortions every year. Condemned to secrecy, they do so in dangerous conditions, while under medical supervision, this is one of the simplest procedures. Society is silencing these millions of women. I declare that I am one of them. I declare that I have had an abortion. Just as we demand free access to contraception, we demand the freedom to have an abo ...more...



Julie Delpy

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Julie Delpy

Julie Delpy (French: ; born 21 December 1969) is a French-American actress, film director, screenwriter, and singer-songwriter. She studied filmmaking at New York University's Tisch School of the Arts and has directed, written, or acted in more than 30 films, including Europa Europa (1990), Voyager (1991), Three Colors: White (1993), Before Sunrise (1995), An American Werewolf in Paris (1997), Before Sunset (2004), 2 Days in Paris (2007), and Before Midnight (2013). She has been nominated for three César Awards, two Online Film Critics Society Awards, and two Academy Awards. After moving to the United States in 1990, she became an American citizen in 2001.[1][2] Family Julie Delpy is an only child, born in Paris to Albert Delpy, a French actor and theater director, and Marie Pillet, a French actress in feature films and the avant-garde theater. Her mother is also known for having signed the Manifesto of the 343 Bitches, which was signed by women advocating for reproductive rights and admitting to having had ...more...



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