The Manifesto of the 343 (French: manifeste des 343), also known as the Manifesto of the 343 Sluts, was a declaration that was signed by 343 women advocating for reproductive rights and admitting to having had an abortion when abortions were illegal in France, thereby exposing themselves to criminal prosecution. The manifesto appeared in the French magazine Le Nouvel Observateur on April 5, 1971. It was also known in a poor English translation of the word "salopes" as the "Manifesto of the 343 Bitches".
One million women in France have abortions every year. Condemned to secrecy they do so in dangerous conditions, while under medical supervision this is one of the simplest procedures. We are silencing these millions of women. I declare that I am one of them. I declare that I have had an abortion. Just as we demand free access to contraception, we demand the freedom to have an abortion.
The week after the manifesto appeared, the front page of the satirical weekly Charlie Hebdo carried a drawing attacking male politicians with the question "Qui a engrossé les 343 salopes du manifeste sur l'avortement?" ("Who got the 343 sluts [bitches] from the abortion manifesto pregnant?") This drawing by Cabu gave the manifesto its nickname.
It was the inspiration for a February 3, 1973, manifesto by 331 doctors declaring their support for abortion rights:
We want freedom of abortion. It is entirely the woman's decision. We reject any entity that forces her to defend herself, perpetuates an atmosphere of guilt, and allows underground abortions to persist ....
It contributed above all to the adoption, in December 1974–January 1975, of the "Veil law", named for Health Minister Simone Veil, that repealed the penalty for voluntarily terminating a pregnancy during the first ten weeks (later extended to twelve weeks).
The Manifesto of the 343 ( French : manifeste des 343), also known as the Manifesto of the 343 Sluts , was a declaration that was signed by 343 women advocating for reproductive rights and admitting to having had an abortion when abortions were illegal in France, thereby exposing themselves to criminal prosecution. The manifesto appeared in the French magazine Le Nouvel Observateur on April 5, 1971. It was also known in a poor English translation of the word "salopes" as the "Manifesto of the 343 Bitches". The text The text of the manifesto was written by Simone de Beauvoir . It began (as translated into English): One million women in France have abortions every year. Condemned to secrecy they do so in dangerous conditions, while under medical supervision this is one of the simplest procedures. We are silencing these millions of women. I declare that I am one of them. I declare that I have had an abortion. Just as we demand free access to contraception, we demand the freedom to have an abortion. Impact The
Montage showing the morphological variation of the dog. The domestic dog (Canis lupus familiaris or Canis familiaris) is a member of genus Canis (canines) that forms part of the wolf-like canids , and is the most widely abundant carnivore . The dog and the extant gray wolf are sister taxa , with modern wolves not closely related to the wolves that were first domesticated, which implies that the direct ancestor of the dog is extinct. The dog was the first domesticated species and has been selectively bred over millennia for various behaviors, sensory capabilities, and physical attributes. New research seems to show that the dog's high sociability may be affected by "the same genes as in humans." Their long association with humans has led dogs to be uniquely attuned to human behavior and they are able to thrive on a starch -rich diet that would be inadequate for other canid species. Dogs vary widely in shape, size and colours. Dogs perform many roles for people, such as hunting , herding , pul
Julie Delpy ( French: ; born 21 December 1969) is a French-American actress, film director, screenwriter, and singer-songwriter. She studied filmmaking at New York University 's Tisch School of the Arts and has directed, written, or acted in more than 30 films, including Europa Europa (1990), Voyager (1991), Three Colors: White (1993), Before Sunrise (1995), An American Werewolf in Paris (1997), Before Sunset (2004), 2 Days in Paris (2007), and Before Midnight (2013). She has been nominated for three César Awards , two Online Film Critics Society Awards , and two Academy Awards . After moving to the United States in 1990, she became an American citizen in 2001. Early life Julie Delpy was born in Paris to Albert Delpy , a french actor and theater director, and Marie Pillet, an actress in feature films and the avant-garde theater. She is an only child. On the stages of Paris, Delpy's parents were involved in underground theatre. At an early age, Julie was exposed to the arts. “ I couldn't hope for better paren
Ayn Rand ( ; born Alisa Zinov'yevna Rosenbaum , Russian : Али́са Зино́вьевна Розенба́ум ; February 2 [ O.S. January 20] 1905 – March 6, 1982) was a Russian-American novelist , philosopher, playwright, and screenwriter. She is known for her two best-selling novels, The Fountainhead and Atlas Shrugged , and for developing a philosophical system she called Objectivism . Educated in Russia, she moved to the United States in 1926. She had a play produced on Broadway in 1935–1936. After two early novels that were initially unsuccessful in America, she achieved fame with her 1943 novel, The Fountainhead. In 1957, Rand published her best-known work, the novel Atlas Shrugged. Afterward, she turned to non-fiction to promote her philosophy, publishing her own magazines and releasing several collections of essays until her death in 1982. Rand advocated reason as the only means of acquiring knowledge , and rejected faith and religion. She supported rational and ethical egoism , and rejected altruism . In politics, she c
Feminist literature is fiction or nonfiction which supports the feminist goals of defining, establishing and defending equal civil, political, economic and social rights for women. It often identifies women's roles as unequal to those of men – particularly as regards status, privilege and power – and generally portrays the consequences to women, men, families, communities and societies as undesirable. The following is a list of feminist literature, listed by year of first publication, then within the year alphabetically by title (using the English title rather than the foreign language title if available/applicable). Books and magazines are in italics, all other types of literature are not and are in quotation marks. References lead when possible to a link to the full text of the literature. 15th century The Book of the City of Ladies , Christine de Pisan ( ca. 1405) Le tresor de la cité des dames, meaning The Treasure of the City of Ladies , Christine de Pisan (ca. 1405) The Tale of Joan of Arc , Christine d
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Herbert Henry Asquith, 1st Earl of Oxford and Asquith , KG , PC , KC , FRS (12 September 1852 – 15 February 1928), generally known as H. H. Asquith , served as the Liberal Prime Minister of the United Kingdom from 1908 to 1916, and was the last Liberal leader to lead that party in government without forming a coalition. He had a central role in the design and passage of major liberal legislation . In August 1914, Asquith took the United Kingdom into the First World War , but resigned amid political conflict in December 1916 and was succeeded by his War Secretary David Lloyd George . Asquith's father owned a small business but died when Asquith was seven. Asquith was educated at City of London School and Balliol College , Oxford. He trained as a barrister and after a slow start to his career achieved great success. In 1886, he was adopted as Liberal candidate for East Fife , a seat he held for over thirty years. In 1892, he was appointed as Home Secretary in Gladstone's fourth ministry , remaining in the post
Grunge (sometimes referred to as the Seattle sound ) is a subgenre of alternative rock and a subculture that emerged during the mid-1980s in the Pacific Northwest U.S. state of Washington , particularly in Seattle and nearby towns. The early grunge movement revolved around Seattle's independent record label Sub Pop and that region's underground music scene. By the early 1990s its popularity had spread, with grunge acts appearing in California, then surfacing towards other parts of the United States and in Australia, building strong followings and signing major record deals. Grunge became commercially successful in the early 1990s, due to releases such as Nirvana 's Nevermind , Pearl Jam 's Ten , Soundgarden 's Superunknown , Alice in Chains ' Dirt and Stone Temple Pilots ' Core . The success of these bands boosted the popularity of alternative rock and made grunge the most popular form of rock music at the time. Although most grunge bands had disbanded or faded from view by the late 1990s, they influenced mo