Manfred Clynes

Manfred Clynes (born August 14, 1925) is a scientist, inventor, and musician. He is best known for his innovations and discoveries in the interpretation of music, and for his contributions to the study of biological systems and neurophysiology.

Overview

Manfred Clynes' work combines music and science, more particularly, neurophysiology and neuroscience. Clynes' musical achievements embrace performance and interpretation, exploring and clarifying the function of time forms in the expression of music—and of emotions generally—in connection with brain function in its electrical manifestations. As a concert pianist, he has recorded versions of Bach’s Goldberg Variations and of Beethoven’s Diabelli Variations. As an inventor, his inventions (about 40 patents) include, besides the CAT computer for electrical brain research, the online auto- and cross-correlator, and inventions in the field of ultrasound (Clynes invented color ultrasound.) as well as telemetering, data recording, and wind energy. The creative process of computer realizations of classical music with SuperConductor is based on his discoveries of fundamental principles of musicality. Clynes was the subject of a front page article in the Wall Street Journal, Sept. 21 1991.

Emotion shapes, biologic primacy laws

Clynes concentrated on what he saw as the natural and unalterable interlocking of the central nervous system with basic expressive time forms, and on the innate power of those forms to generate specific basic emotions. He recognized that we are all familiar with this interlocking in our experiences of laughter and of yawning, although its scientific importance had been largely swept under the carpet by a Skinnerian bias and still largely is. According to Clynes’s experimental research[1][2][3] these time forms (“sentic forms”), as embodied in the central nervous system, are primary to the varied modes in which they find expression, such as sound, touch, and gesture. Clynes was able to prove this by systematically deriving sounds from subjects’ expressions of emotions through touch, and then playing those sounds to hearers culturally remote from the original subjects. In one trial, for example, Aborigines in Central Australia were able to correctly identify the specific emotional qualities of sounds derived from the touch of white urban Americans. (This experiment was featured on Nova, What Is Music? in 1988). Clynes found in this a confirmation of the existence of biologically fixed, universal, primary dynamic forms that determine expressions of emotion that give rise to much of the experience within human societies.[2][3]

Some of these dynamic forms appear to be shared by those animals that have time consciousnesses at a similar rate to humans; hence the intuition of pet owners that their dog or cat understands tone of voice and the emotional form of touch. Anger, love, and grief, for example, according to Clynes, have clearly different dynamic expressive forms. Importantly, a cardinal property of this inherent biologic communication language, in Clynes’ findings, is that the more closely an expression follows the precise dynamic form, the more powerful is the generation of the corresponding emotion, in both the person expressing and in the perceiver of the expression.[2] Hence, presumably, such phenomena as charisma (in persons whose performance of emotional expressions closely follows the universal form). His experience with Pablo Casals confirmed for Clynes the importance of this faithfulness to the natural dynamic form in generating emotionally significant meaning in musical performance.

Sentic cycles

Drawing on these findings, Clynes also developed an application—a simple touch art form—in which, without music, subjects expressed, through repeated finger pressure, a sequence of emotions timed according to the natural requirements of the sentic forms. The 25-minute sequence, called the Sentic Cycle, comprises: no-emotion, anger, hate, grief, love, sexual desire, joy, and reverence. Subjects reported experiencing calmness and energy. Many also evidenced progress in the alleviation of depression, and, to some degree, tobacco and alcohol addictions, as a result of repeated application of this process.[2][3][4] Thousands of people have by now experienced sentic cycles, some for years, some even decades. In the 1980s especially, Clynes taught various groups to conduct Sentic Cycles on their own. Nowadays, the Sentic Cycle kit is available on the Internet.

Early work developing sentic cycles in the 1970s had convinced Clynes also that it is easy with it for most people to proceed from experiencing one emotion to another quite rapidly. After three or four minutes of one emotion, a person tended to be being satiated with the current emotion. The ready switching to the next emotion with quite fresh experience pointed to the existence of specific receptors in the brain, he suggested, that become satiated with particular neurohormones; this was later confirmed by the identification of a number of such receptors.[3] This finding links well with the historic tendency of composers to vary emotions every 4 minutes or so in their compositions. The human need for variety is based on brain receptor properties. As anyone who has seen more than three Charlie Chaplin movies in a row can testify, laughter, too, palls after prolonged exposure, and it seems to be for the same reason. Clynes also studied laughter, "nature's arrow from appearance to reality".[2] In (nonderisive) laughter, according to Clynes, a small element of disorder is suddenly understood to be only apparently disordered, within an actual, larger, order. He then predicted the existence of soundless laughter,[2] in which the sound production is replaced by tactile pressure at the same temporal pattern. In studies at UCSD the mean repetitions of the “ha's” was found to be approximately 5.18 per second.[5] Clynes further hypothesized that couples with unmatched speeds of laughter might not be as readily compatible as those whose laughter was harmoniously coordinated.[5]

Clynes enthusiastically published his realization that love, joy, and reverence were always there to be experienced, capable of being generated through precise expression and accessible by simple means, due to the connection to their biologic roots. Music had always been a special means for this, but now, with this touch artform, it was universally accessible. By this means, even negative emotions, such as grief anger, could be enjoyed in a compassionate non-destructive framework.

In the 1970s and in the 1980s Clynes had started to write poems, a few of which had found their way into his book Sentics. Later, Marvin Minsky quoted from them in his book The Society of Mind. In the late 1980s and in the 1990s he wrote his 12 Animal Poems.[6] Boundaries of Compassion is a substantial set of poems growing out of his experience in Germany while doing experimental work at the Luedenscheid hospital in the summer of 1985, poems in regard to what Germans call “the Jewish Question.”[7]

Cyborg (cybernetic organism)

Clynes is credited with developing and coining the term cyborg, which refers to beings with both biological and artificial parts. In other words, cyborgs are beings whose abilities have been enhanced due to the presence and advancement of technology. The term cyborg has become an important concept to technoself studies; an interdisciplinary domain of scholarly research dealing with all aspects of human identity in a technological society focusing on the changing nature of relationships between the human and technology.

Biography and career
Education and influences
Early invention of inertial guidance at age 15

Manfred Clynes was born on August 14, 1925, in Vienna Austria. His family emigrated to Melbourne, Australia, in September 1938 to escape Nazism. In Australia, at fifteen, in his last year at high school, having newly learned calculus, he invented the inertial guidance method for aircraft using piezoelectric crystals and repeated electronic integration, but Australian authorities denied that it would work. In fact, the same system Clynes had invented was later used with great success, during the last part of the Second World War. The detailed descriptions of this invention as written by the fifteen-year-old Clynes are rigorous; it was the first of his many inventions to come that worked. (Clynes' earlier attempt, at the age of thirteen, to create a perpetual motion device was naturally a failure). In 1946 Clynes graduated from the University of Melbourne having studied both engineering science and music.

Around this time he also had lessons with the Polish virtuoso Ignaz Friedman, then resident in Sydney. Having seen Friedman play in concert several times, Clynes approached him by letter and was accepted sight unseen. He hitchhiked from Melbourne as he could not afford the train fare, let alone the fee charged by Friedman.[8] His musical talent was recognized by a series of awards, concerto performances and prizes, one of which provided a three-year graduate fellowship to the Juilliard School. At Juilliard, he was a piano student of Olga Samaroff and Sascha Gorodnitzki.

He received his MS degree from Juilliard in 1949, after having performed Beethoven's Piano Concerto No. 1 at the Tanglewood Music Festival (in 1948) then under the direction of Serge Koussevitzky in a performance of which the pianist Gerson Yessin, who was present, recently recalled as "monumental." [Yessin: "Manfred played beautifully, outstandingly."] After graduating from Juilliard (It gave no doctorates then), Clynes retreated to a small log cabin at six thousand feet altitude in the solitude of Wrightwood, California. There he learned Bach's Goldberg Variations and other works. He performed them for the first time in October 1949, in Ojai, at Jiddu Krishnamurti's school, and, in 1950, along with other works, in all the capital cities of Australia, to great acclaim. He soon became regarded as one of Australia's outstanding pianists.

In 1952 he was invited to Princeton University as a graduate student in the Music Department, and issued a green card, to pursue his studies in the Psychology of Music, with a Fulbright and Smith-Mundt Award. There he became aware of the work of G. Becking, who in 1928 had published a sensitive, if nonscientific, study of distinctive motor patterns associated in following the music of individual composers. It was this work that led, in the late 1960s, to Clynes' scientific sentographic studies of what he termed composers' pulses, as their motor manifestation, in which Pablo Casals and Rudolf Serkin were to be his first subjects.[9]

Young Clynes had a personal letter of introduction to Albert Einstein from an elderly lady in Australia, with whom, in her youth, Einstein had exchanged poems. Soon Einstein invited him repeatedly to dinner at his home, and a friendship sprang up between the two men. Clynes played for Einstein on his fine Bechstein piano, especially Beethoven, Mozart and Schubert. He loved Clynes' playing of Mozart and Schubert, calling Clynes "a blessed artist" ("Ein begnadeter Künstler") In May 1953 Einstein wrote Clynes a personal letter by hand to help him in his forthcoming European tour.

Letter from Einstein

(Translation of Einstein's letter, dated Princeton, 18 May 1953: "Dear Mr. Clynes, I am truly grateful to you for the great enjoyment that your piano playing has given me. Your performance combines a clear insight into the inner structure of the work of art with a rare spontaneity and freshness of conception. With all the secure mastery of your instrument, your technique never supplants the artistic content, as unfortunately so often is the case in our time. I am convinced that you will find the appreciation to which your achievement entitles you. With friendly greetings yours, A. Einstein.")

Concert tours in 1953 Goldberg Variations

In 1953, helped by the letter from Einstein, Clynes toured Europe with great critical success, playing the Goldberg Variations. The tour ended with a solo concert before an audience of 2500 at London's Royal Festival Hall, which had just been built.[10]

Inventions and scientific discoveries

In 1954, in order to provide for his parents and to raise funds necessary to underwrite his musical career, Clynes, on the basis of his scientific training, took a job working with a new analog computer, a device about which, at the time, both he and his interviewer were ignorant. In short order, however, Clynes mastered that computer, and then within a year created a new analytic method of stabilizing dynamical systems, which he published as a paper in the IEEE Transactions.[11] Bogue, the company he was working for, doubled his salary, after a year, unasked. "Only in America!" was Clynes' reaction. (He became a citizen in 1960.)

In 1955, at Clynes' suggestion, Bogue employed his father, then aged 72, from Australia, as a naval architect; the elder Clynes had not been permitted to work in his profession in Australia, because he was not British-born. For a time Clynes father and son went to work together every morning (to Clynes’ rejoicing).

As the result of a chance meeting, in 1956, Dr Nathan S. Kline, Director of the Research Center of Rockland State Hospital, a large mental hospital, offered Clynes a substantial research job at the Center, where he in 1956 became ‘Chief Research Scientist’. Kline was to become the recipient of two Lasker Awards, and had built up that research center to formidable renown. (It is now called the Nathan S. Kline Psychiatric Center.)

CAT computer

An autodidact in physiology, Clynes applied dynamic systems analysis to the homeostatic and other control processes of the body so successfully in the next three years, that he received a series of awards, including, for the best paper published in 1960 - Clynes' annus mirabilis (miracle year), the IRE W.R.G. Baker Award (1961).[12] In 1960 he invented the CAT computer (Computer of Average Transients) a $10,000 portable computer permitting the extraction of responses from ongoing electric activity—the needle in the haystack. The CAT quickly came into use in research labs all over the world, marketed by Technical Measurements Corp., advancing the study of the electric activity of the brain (enabling, for example, the clinical detection of deafness in newborns). In this way, Clynes made his fortune by age 37.

URS law

Also in 1960, he discovered a biologic law, "Unidirectional Rate Sensitivity," the subject, in 1967, of a two-day symposium held by the New York Academy of Science. This law, related to biologic communication channels of control and information, is basically the consequence of the fact, realized by Clynes, that molecules can only arrive in positive numbers, unlike engineering electric signals, which can be positive or negative. This fact imposes radical limitations on the methods of control that biology can use. It cannot, for example, simply cancel a signal by sending a signal of opposite polarity, since there is no simple opposite polarity. To cancel, a second channel involving other, different molecules (chemicals) is required. This law explains, among other things, why the sensations of hot and cold need to operate through two separate sensing channels in the body, why we do not actively sense the disappearance of a smell, and why we continue to feel shocked after a near-miss accident.

1967 NY Times article on Clynes

Also in 1960, in collaboration with Nathan S. Kline, Clynes published the cyborg concept, and its corollary, participant evolution. "Cyborg" became a household word and was misapplied, much to the dismay of Clynes, in films such as Terminator. Cyborgology is now a field taught at numerous universities. In 1964 the University of Melbourne awarded Clynes the degree of D.Sc, a degree superior to Ph. D and rarely given by British universities.

Towards synthesis of scientific and musical work
1960 NY Times article on Clynes

Already in 1960 The New York Times had noted Clynes' remarkable double-stranded gifts. In 1965 he began to give concerts in his newly acquired large mansion on the Hudson, which had a real pipe organ in the living room, and 5 acres (20,000 m2) of park-like grounds. Now, with the financial success consequent to his scientific innovations, it became possible for Clynes to return to music. An ardent admirer of the great master musician Pablo Casals since early childhood, Clynes now attended all Casals' master classes, many with his family.

In 1966, Clynes played both the Diabelli Variations of Beethoven and Bach's Goldberg Variations for Casals, and was invited to join Casals in Puerto Rico for several months to take part in his music and to accompany some of the master classes at the Casals home in Santurce. Clynes considered this contact with Casals to be a fulfilment of his most cherished lifelong dream. Casals exceeded his expectations in every way, and Clynes considered his friendship with Casals to have been the highpoint of his life. As no one else, Casals had, by Clynes' estimation an immediate contact with the profound in music. After his return to New York City, Clynes performed Beethoven's Fourth Piano Concerto and also gave several concerts at his mansion for invited audiences that included Erich Fromm.

Color and the brain

With his new CAT computer, Clynes studied the relation of color processing in the brain and the dynamics to sound, and, jointly with M.Kohn, to color of the pupil of the eye. He showed that brain electrical responses to the color red from previous black produced similar patterns from several distinct brain sites, for all subjects. Other colors produced their own distinct patterns. These results from 1965 went a long way to help dispel the Skinnerian notion of tabula rasa. By 1968 he was able to show that it was possible to distinguish which of 100 different objects a person was looking at from his electrical brain responses alone, with repeated presentations. In other experiments in 1969 he described what he called the R-M function (from Rest to Motion) detectable at the apex of the brain for various modalities of stimulation, showing how two sets of unidirectionally rate sensitive (URS) channels in series could produce an effect corresponding to the mental concepts Rest and Motion. What could three URS channel sets do in combination? He never found out. But here were the beginnings of the embodiments of mental concepts in a wordless manner—a way of representing intuitive concepts to the brain wordlessly.

The brain as an output device

His work until around 1967 had been concerned with the brain as an input device i.e. for perception; now he began to study it as an output device. He turned first to the question of the characteristic pulse in the music of various composers, which had been on his mind since his Princeton years. In 1967 Clynes designed an instrument he called the sentograph to measure the motoric pulse. The experiments required outstanding musicians to "conduct" music on a pressure-sensitive finger rest, as they were thinking the music without sound. Rudolf Serkin and Pablo Casals were his first subjects. Soon it became apparent that the ‘pulse shapes’ for Beethoven, Mozart, Schubert, and Mendelssohn were consistently different from each another, but similar across their different pieces (when normalized according to selection of similar tempo). Encouraged by these positive findings relating outputs to specific inner states of the brain, first presented at a Smithsonian Conference in 1968 at Santa Inez, Clynes then proceeded to measure the expressive form of specific emotions in a similar way, by having subjects generate them by repeatedly expressing them on the finger rest, thus finding specific signatures for the emotions, which he called sentic forms. As in the case of composers' pulses, the form associated with each emotion consistently appeared for that emotion and was distinct from the forms of other emotions.

In 1972 Clynes, whose work had long been supported by NIH Grants, received a grant from the Wenner Gren Foundation in Sweden, allowing him to collect data in Central Mexico, Japan, and Bali, using the sentograph to investigate emotional expression cross-culturally. Though considerably more limited in scope than the nature of that inquiry would demand, the data were largely confirmatory of Clynes' theories of universal biologically determined time forms for each emotion. At the invitation of the NY Academy of Sciences, Clynes wrote an extensive monograph on his findings and theories to date, which the Academy published in 1973.[13]

That same year he accepted a visiting professorship in the music department of the University of California at San Diego, where he completed his book Sentics, the Touch of Emotion, which he had begun in 1972. In it he summarized the theories and findings on sentics, and outlined hopes for the future that his work contained. In 1970 and 1971, the American Association for the Advancement of Science held two symposia on Sentics.

Since the sentic cycles suddenly helped individuals feel better without drugs, Clynes' work was now deemed contrary to the line of research sponsored at the Rockland State Research Center, headed by Nathan Kline, whose supporters were the major drug companies. As a result, Clynes was unable to continue the work at that facility. In his new environment, there was no laboratory in which to amass new data. Although dismissed by the NY Times, Sentics was lauded extravagantly in other publications. (The book is considered a classic today). It was read in manuscript with great approval and excitement by several authorities: Yehudi Menuhin volunteered a foreword, itself a remarkable document, welcoming Clynes "as a brother." Rex Hobcroft, the director of the New South Wales State Conservatory in Sydney, the foremost musical institution in Australia, compared it to Beethoven's Opus 111, the last of Beethoven's sonatas and held to be his most profound work. (Hobcroft's endorsement appears on the jacket.) Maharishi Mahesh Yogi's resident psychiatrist, Dr. H. Bloomfield joined in.

During his three years at UCSD, in La Jolla, Clynes gave a concert at Brubecker Hall, playing the Beethoven Diabelli Variations, as well as a first performance of a group of 5 songs he composed, called "Sentone Songs," employing the remarkable vocal range of Linda Vickerman who performed them. The songs, in his own avant garde style, contained many varied syllables but no known words of any language.

He did studies of laughter at the brain Institute of UCLA at that time, unsuccessfully attempting to measure the electric counterpart in the brain of the moment that initiates laughter. He was the first to discover, in studying voice recognition in 1975 that a speaker’s identity, though unimpeded by changes in speed (tempo), was masked by transposition of as little as a semitone in pitch.[14] This seemed to indicate that perfect pitch was involved far more universally than thought possible. He began work on a book on laughter, which, however, was only two thirds completed.

In 1977 Rex Hobcroft, director of Sydney's New South Wales State Conservatory, who had praised Clynes' Sentics, offered Clynes a substantial position at the Conservatory initially connected with the International Piano Competition held at the time in Sydney. Accordingly, Clynes moved to Sydney in what proved to be the beginning of ten fruitful years of research and music making. In 1978 Clynes gave performances of both the Goldberg Variations and the Diabelli, as well as works of Mozart, at the Verbruggen Hall in Sydney. These performances were recorded live and are today regarded as unsurpassed. From a concertizing point of view, there were unusual difficulties: Clynes' two big-city performances had not been preceded by the usual shake-down cruise of smaller venues: Clynes had only one chance to get it right—and did.

Hobcroft and the government of New South Wales provided Clynes with a Music Research Center and staff at the Conservatory for his work, supplied be the state of NSW Ministry of Education. The staff were mostly enthusiasts of Clynes' work from the United States.

Predictive amplitude shaping in music

The following year 1980, at the occasion of the 10th International Congress on Acoustics in Sydney, Clynes and his staff presented no fewer than four papers. With the aid of his new DEC PDP 23 computer and associated oscillator gear, he discovered the principle of Predictive Amplitude Shaping (a precise rule for how the shaping of each note is influenced by what note is next and when it will occur) applicable to music in general, a result he presented at an international conference in Stockholm at their invitation.[15]

Encouraged by the enthusiastic reception of this work in Stockholm, Clynes, on his return to Sydney, now made the major leap to discern how a composer's unique pulse is manifest in each note. It had been known (Leopold Mozart, C.P.E. Bach) that in the work of many composers of the "classic" period, a group of, say, four notes, when notated equally, were not meant to be played equally. The leap was in treating the four durations and loudnesses not as separate entities, but as a group, an interconnected organism, a ‘face’ in which each component played a unique role, but all combined together to form a gestalt. To find this gestalt, and how it worked organically in the music, he intuited a specific combined amplitude and timing "warp," so that each such group has a configuration—a gestalt—that is characteristic of the particular composer. (Now there was also a link to the motoric pulse, previously identified, which had contained no information about single notes but gave a motoric identity to the output of the brain in conducting music of a particular composer).

The identification of composers' pulse, and its use in interpreting classical works via computer, was later extended by Clynes, according to his knowledge and experience with dynamic forms, to comprise several levels of time structure.

Shortly after this, in 1983-84 Clynes, with the programming help of N. Nettheim, found a method of allowing computers to design vibrato suitable for each note, depending on the musical structure, also sometimes anticipating next events.

Further, all these principles could be easily generically adjusted for the requirements of each musical piece. Of course, a work’s interpretation was not robotically created: the computer needed to get adjustments to correspond to the concept of the interpreter. The computer did not replace the human sensitivity, it empowered it instead

When Clynes' longtime close friend and supporter Hephzibah Menuhin had launched his book Sentics in 1978 in Australia, small symptoms of her developing throat cancer had made their first appearance. Ms. Menuhin died in 1981, and Clynes gave a memorial concert for her in the Verbruggen Hall, of the last three sonatas of Beethoven, Op 109, 110, and 111. He had learned Beethoven's Opus 110 especially for that occasion, never having performed it before. Intensive practice resulted in his losing an exquisite living place in Vaucluse and his subsequent relocation to an apartment in Point Piper, an adjacent suburb in Sydney.

In 1982, Clynes undertook further extensive studies on the nature of the expression of emotions through touch. Subjects were touched on the palm of the hand, from behind a screen, with specific emotional expressions, in order to discover whether they could identify the emotion. In fact, they could. Clynes and Walker extended this work in a research trip to central Australia, to the Yuendumu Reservation, to test if Aborigines would recognize emotions expressed by touch of white urban dwellers when transformed into sounds that conserved the dynamic shape of the touch.

The test was highly positive: the Aborigines did in fact successfully identify the emotions expressed by the touch, of white urban subjects, from which were produced (through a simple transformation, preserving the dynamic shape) the sounds they heard. The American television program Nova reenacted this experiment in 1986, effectively linking the expression of emotions through touch to musical expression, using Beethoven's Eroica Funeral March to exemplify grief, and a Haydn sonata for joy.

In 1986, Clynes gave his (or anyone’s) first classical concert played entirely by computer, according to the three principles he had discovered, to a full house in a free concert at the Joseph Post Hall of the Sydney Conservatory. As a result of the application of those principles, the music, ranging from Bach to Beethoven to Robert Schumann and Felix Mendelssohn was musically expressive and meaningful, even though all sounds, except for the piano, were produced by computer-controlled oscillators, and so did not represent familiar instruments—the real time expressive modification of the canonical orchestral sounds remained elusive until 1993.

In 1986, the Fairlight Company, a maker of top-of-the-line synthesizers in the hundred thousand dollar range, immediately opted to license what they called "the best sequencer in the world." Clynes, at that time, did not even know what a sequencer was. Fairlight started paying royalties on the patent; however, not long afterwards, the company went bankrupt, having lost government subsidies through a change of government, before bringing the product to market.

Reaching retirement age in Sydney, Clynes left to be professorial associate in the Psychology Department at Melbourne University and became Sugden Fellow at Queen's College, which he had attended as an undergraduate.

He stayed for three years. During that time he found an analytic equation for an egg, incorporating fractals, which also provided, with some modification of the equation, beautiful shapes of flowers and of vases. He also performed as pianist, in a Sunday series at Queens College, twelve of the Beethoven sonatas, lecturing to the Physics Department on Time, (starting with a poem beginning, "What time is it?") and to the Medical Faculty on the biologic nature of dynamic expressive forms.

Composers' pulses

Also during this period, Clynes undertook a large statistical study with various groups of the perception of composer's pulse. In the study, Clynes played four different pieces by computer, by each of four different composers (sixteen in all), with what his studies had determined to be the composer's own pulse and three times the same with a ‘wrong’ composer’s pulse, to see which one subjects actually preferred. There were four groups of subjects: internationally well-known pianists, Juilliard graduate students, students at the Manhattan School of Music, and college students at the University of Melbourne, altogether some 150 subjects. The results, published in the journal Cognition,[16] showed that the "correct" pulse was preferred in all groups; more pronouncedly so the higher the musical standing of the subjects. (Among the ‘famous pianist subjects’ were friends of Clynes, Vladimir Ashkenazy and Paul Badura-Skoda.)

Clynes returned to the United States in 1991 and settled in Sonoma, California. Not long after his return he was featured in a large front page article of The Wall Street Journal, an outgrowth of his invitation to a Canadian meeting on music. This highly favorable article opened many doors. Two vice presidents from Hewlett Packard flew separately to Clynes' home to learn about his findings. When they arrived, Clynes played versions of the same Mozart sonata K 330 by six famous artists, including Vladimir Horowitz, Alicia de Larrocha, Claudio Arrau, and Mitsuko Uchida, and included the computer performance at a random position among them. The visitors from HP not only could not identify the computer version, but they rated it second best of the seven. (MIDI versions were considered too musically crude to be included).

As a result, Clynes received a development contract that would for the first time enable the expressive implementation of real instrumental sounds other than the piano, using a workstation made available to him by HP, a $40,000 computer, which was, at 150 MHz, barely fast enough to do this. Clynes enlisted his gifted son Darius as software engineer on the HP team to help make it possible. Nine months later, a critical demonstration took place to show that the principles Clynes had discovered would work well with real instruments, not just with oscillators, to enable music played with meaningful phrasing and expression.[17] Clynes and the assembled HP researchers first heard the sound of flute, violin, and cello from the HP workstation performing a Haydn trio expressively in real time over the loudspeakers of the vast halls of the HP Research Building. The inanities of MIDI had been conquered.

Once Clynes had successfully developed a real-time implementation of his principles for musical interpretation via computer, using UNIX, HP gave Clynes' company, Microsound, Intl, a second development contract to bring this capacity into the burgeoning world of personal computers (PCs), which, in 1994, functioned at 60 MHz. A French division of HP, then in charge of PC development, supported this enthusiastically. Clynes was fortunate to obtain the help of Steve Sweet, a programmer, to carry out the conversion. However, soon thereafter, HP transferred the PC work to a new division in the United States whose director favored popular music.

SuperConductor

Henceforth, with the help of Steve Sweet, Clynes developed the software program, called SuperConductor himself. By 1996 they had a fully working version, incorporating all the new principles, with which they interpreted, first, all the Brandenburg Concertos of Bach, and then all of Bach's solo violin and cello works and the last six quartets of Beethoven. All these works were recorded on CDs.[9]

Clynes further expanded SuperConductor's capacity for real life expressive interpretation of music with a fourth principle he called "Self-tuning Expressive Intonation," which unfixes the equal temperament tuning and permits the sharpening of the leading tone and other modifications of the sort executed by fine players of stringed instruments and other instruments whose intonation is actively controlled in the playing; now even a piano could exhibit this technique—by means of a laptop computer and synthesizer. Since it is a melodic tuning, depending on intervals, no transposition was required. The same interval going up received a different small pitch increment from that interval going down. Moreover, similarly to known use in tones like the leading tone, Clynes found it appropriate to provide quite small, specific increments to all melodic intervals, 24 in all (twelve up and twelve different ones down). A new patent [US 6,924,426] was granted in 2006. This now made it possible for all computers and synthesizers to benefit from expressive intonation, a non-static, dynamic tuning, in which the same note has a slightly different pitch depending on the melodic structure (the demise of equal temperament).

After a four-year absence in Thailand, Steve Sweet returned to Sonoma and resumed his development work with Clynes, incorporating the new functionality into SuperConductor II. (ref to mp3s on the webpage of SuperConductor)

With SuperConductor, Clynes performed Beethoven's Emperor Concerto at MIT's Kresge Auditorium in 1999 to the astonishment and wonder and thunderous applause of over two thousand people.[18] In 2006, using Self-tuning Expressive Intonation, he performed the Schubert Unfinished Symphony and Beethoven's Eroica Symphony at the University of Vienna in the Kleine Konzertsaal.

It became Clynes' aim gradually to make music better than had ever been possible before: to empower the computer in an enterprise of historic proportions to incrementally improve, and increase in profundity, the musical interpretations of great works of our music heritage. With computers, this work of increasing musical perfection could span years, decades, and even centuries.

Clynes has also kept up his own playing of the piano. In 2002, he gave a very substantial concert program (of which a videotape exists) as a memorial for a prominent resident of Sonoma. The program included including Liszt’s Sixth Hungarian Rhapsody, Campanella and Beethoven’s Waldstein Sonata as well as several major works of Chopin. In 2007, at the age of 82, Clynes has developed new exercises for piano playing away from the piano, which may permit the improvement of piano technique even for octogenarians. In 2007 he applied for three new patents related to SuperConductor, to enhance computer interpretation of music, through: (1) increased mathematical subtlety of note shaping and resulting timbre variations, as earlier, dependent on musical structure, resulting in (2) ‘instant rehearseless conducting’, and (3) importation of note-specific vibrato and shaping from SuperConductor into MIDI files. [patent numbers when available]

Clynes married in 1951, divorced in 1972 and has three children Darius, Neville, and Raphael, and eight grandchildren.

References
  1. Clynes, M., Sentics: biocybernetics of emotion communication, Annals of the New York Academy of Science, Vol. 220, Art, 3: 55-131, 1973.
  2. Clynes, M., Sentics: The Touch of Emotions, 250 pp, Doubleday/Anchor, New York, 1977.
  3. Clynes, M., Generalised emotion, its production, and sentic cycle therapy, in Emotions and Psychopathology, M.Clynes and J. Panksepp, eds., pp. 107–170, Plenum Press, New York, 1988.
  4. Clynes, M., Essentic form-aspects of control, function and measurement Proceedings of the 21st annual Conference of Engineering in Medicine and Biology. Houston, Texas. November 1968.
  5. Clynes, M., The communication of emotion: theory of sentics, in Emotion: Theory, Research and Experience, Vol. 1 Theories of Emotion, R. Plutchik, H. Kellerman (eds.), pp. 271–300, Academic Press, New York, 1980.
  6. Dr. Manfred Clynes Archived November 13, 2007, at the Wayback Machine.
  7. Farewell to Australia
  8. Allan Evans, Ignaz Friedman: Romantic Master Pianist, p. 322
  9. Tedeschi, Bob. "How Would Great Composers Play It? Some Clues", The New York Times, February 22, 2000. Accessed January 2, 2008.
  10. CLYNES, Manfred (1955-10-02). "Simple analytic method for linear feedback system dynamics". Transactions of the American Institute for Electrical Engineers, Part 2: 377–383
  11. "IEEE-Level Awards, see under section IEEE Prize Paper Awards" (PDF). IEEE. July 2010. Archived from the original (PDF) on June 29, 2011. Retrieved November 19, 2010.
  12. Clynes, M., Sentography: dynamic forms of communication of emotion and qualities, computers in Biology & Medicine, Vol, 3: 119–130, 1973.
  13. Clynes, M., Speaker recognition by the central nervous system, Society for Neuroscience, Abstract, New Orleans, November 1975.
  14. Clynes, M., Expressive Microstructure in Music, linked to Living Qualities in Studies of Music Performance, J. Sundberg (ed.), Publication of Royal Swedish Academy of Music No. 39, pp, 76–181. Stockholm.
  15. Clynes, M., Microstructural Musical Linguistics: composer's pulses are liked best by the best musicians, COGNITION, International Journal of Cognitive Science, 1995, vol. 55, pp. 269–310.
  16. Riordan, Teresa. "Patents", The New York Times, April 18, 1994. Accessed January 2, 2008. "Dr. Clynes, whose algorithms are being developed commercially in cooperation with Hewlett-Packard, said his technology would allow a musician to instruct a computer to play a given score with certain phrasings as well as changes in volume, tempo, timbre and rhythm."
  17. Wright, Sarah H. "Pair of Media Lab events showcase toys and inventions", Massachusetts Institute of Technology press release, dated October 27, 1999. Accessed January 2, 2008.
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Manfred Clynes

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Manfred Clynes

Manfred Clynes (born August 14, 1925) is a scientist, inventor, and musician. He is best known for his innovations and discoveries in the interpretation of music, and for his contributions to the study of biological systems and neurophysiology. Overview Manfred Clynes' work combines music and science, more particularly, neurophysiology and neuroscience. Clynes' musical achievements embrace performance and interpretation, exploring and clarifying the function of time forms in the expression of music—and of emotions generally—in connection with brain function in its electrical manifestations. As a concert pianist, he has recorded versions of Bach’s Goldberg Variations and of Beethoven’s Diabelli Variations. As an inventor, his inventions (about 40 patents) include, besides the CAT computer for electrical brain research, the online auto- and cross-correlator, and inventions in the field of ultrasound (Clynes invented color ultrasound.) as well as telemetering, data recording, and wind energy. The creative proc ...more...

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Cyborg

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Cyborg

A cyborg () short for "cybernetic organism") is a being with both organic and biomechatronic body parts. The term was coined in 1960 by Manfred Clynes and Nathan S. Kline.[1] The term cyborg is not the same thing as bionic, biorobot or android; it applies to an organism that has restored function or enhanced abilities due to the integration of some artificial component or technology that relies on some sort of feedback.[2] While cyborgs are commonly thought of as mammals, including humans, they might also conceivably be any kind of organism. D. S. Halacy's Cyborg: Evolution of the Superman in 1965 featured an introduction which spoke of a "new frontier" that was "not merely space, but more profoundly the relationship between 'inner space' to 'outer space' – a bridge...between mind and matter."[3] In popular culture, some cyborgs may be represented as visibly mechanical (e.g., Cyborg from DC Comics, the Cybermen in the Doctor Who franchise or The Borg from Star Trek or Darth Vader from Star Wars) or as almo ...more...

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Clyne (surname)

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Clyne (surname)

Clyne or Clynes is a surname which may refer to: Clyne Alan Clyne, (b. 1986), Scottish squash player Anna Clyne (b. 1980), British-born composer Cameron Clyne (b.1968), Australian businessman Daniel Clyne (1879–1965), Australian politician Daniela Clynes, British vocalist, jazz and cabaret singer David Clyne (1916–1944), Scottish footballer Densey Clyne (b. 1922), Australian naturalist Jeff Clyne (1937–2009), British jazz bassist John Clyne (1902–1989), Canadian lawyer Meghan Clyne, American writer Michael Clyne (1939–2010), Australian linguist Nathaniel Clyne (b. 1991), English footballer Nicki Clyne (b. 1983), Canadian actress Paul Clyne, District Attorney, Albany County, New York Peter Clyne (1927–1987), Australian lawyer and tax consultant Roger Clyne (b. 1968), American rock singer. Also in Roger Clyne and the Peacemakers Ronald Clyne (1925–2006), American designer and graphic artist Sam Hidalgo-Clyne (b. 1993), Scottish rugby union player. Clynes John Robert C ...more...



Directed evolution (transhumanism)

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Directed evolution (transhumanism)

The term directed evolution is used within the transhumanist community to refer to the idea of applying the principles of directed evolution and experimental evolution to the control of human evolution.[1] In this sense, it is distinct from the use of the term in biochemistry, which refers only to the evolution of proteins and RNA. Maxwell J. Melhmanh has described directed evolution of humans as the Holy Grail of transhumanism.[1] Oxford philosopher Julian Savulescu wrote that: Humanity until this point has been a story of evolution for the survival genes - survival and reproduction ... we are entering a new phase of human evolution—evolution under reason—where human beings are masters of their destiny. Power has been transferred from nature to science. — Julian Savulescu [2] According to UCLA biophysicist Gregory Stock: Humanity is leaving its childhood and moving into its adolescence as its powers infuse into realms hitherto beyond our reach. — Gregory Stock [3] Riccardo Campa, from the Institute ...more...

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Nathan S. Kline

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Nathan S. Kline

Nathan Schellenberg Kline, M.D. (22 March 1916 – 11 February 1983) was an American scientist, researcher in the field of psychology and psychiatrist best known for his work with psychopharmacologic drugs.[1] A graduate of the New York University School of Medicine, he and Robert Edward Gross are the only two-time winners of the Albert Lasker Award for Clinical Medical Research, an award sometimes referred to as "America's Nobel Prize". Kline was best known for his pioneering work with psychopharmacologic drugs. In 1952, he started a research unit at Rockland State Hospital, NY (later the Rockland Psychiatric Center). At that time, the national inpatient population in public hospitals was approaching the half-million mark. Traditional therapies seemed inadequate to treat the growing number of mentally ill patients. Kline and his colleagues took the unusual step of investigating reserpine, a derivative of Rauwolfia serpentina. Rauwolfia was commonly used in India to treat many physical complaints, and reserpi ...more...

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Political system

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Political system

A political system is a system of politics and government. It is usually compared to the legal system, economic system, cultural system, and other social systems. However, this is a very simplified view of a much more complex system of categories involving the questions of who should have authority and what the government's influence on its people and economy should be. Anthropological forms Anthropologists generally recognize four kinds of political systems, two of which are uncentralized and two of which are centralized.[1] Uncentralized systems Band society Small family group, no larger than an extended family or clan; it has been defined as consisting of no more than 30 to 50 individuals. A band can cease to exist if only a small group walks out. Tribe Generally larger, consisting of many families. Tribes have more social institutions, such as a chief or elders. More permanent than bands. Many tribes are sub-divided into bands. Centralized governments Chiefdom More complex than a ...more...

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Social system

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Social system

In sociology, a social system is the patterned network of relationships constituting a coherent whole that exist between individuals, groups, and institutions.[1] The term refers to the formal structure of role and status that can form in a small, stable group.[1] An individual may belong to multiple social systems at once;[2] examples of social systems include nuclear family units, communities, cities, nations, college campuses, corporations, and industries. The organization and definition of groups within a social system depend on various shared characteristics such as location, socioeconomic status, race, religion, societal function, or other distinguishable features.[3] Notable theorists The study of social systems is integral to the fields of sociology and public policy. Social systems have been studied for as long as sociology has existed. Talcott Parsons Talcott Parsons was the first to formulate a systematic theory of social systems, which he did as a part of his AGIL paradigm. He defined a social ...more...

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Earth system science

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Earth system science

An ecological analysis of CO in an ecosystem. As systems biology, systems ecology seeks a holistic view of the interactions and transactions within and between biological and ecological systems. Earth system science (ESS) is the application of systems science to the Earth sciences.[1][2][3][4] In particular, it considers interactions between the Earth's "spheres"—atmosphere, hydrosphere, cryosphere,[5] geosphere, pedosphere, biosphere,[6] and, even, the magnetosphere[7]—as well as the impact of human societies on these components.[8] At its broadest scale, Earth system science brings together researchers across both the natural and social sciences, from fields including ecology, economics, geology, glaciology, meteorology, oceanography, paleontology, sociology, and space science.[9] Like the broader subject of systems science, Earth system science assumes a holistic view of the dynamic interaction between the Earth's spheres and their many constituent subsystems, the resulting organization and time evolution ...more...

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Nonlinear system

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Nonlinear system

In mathematics and science, a nonlinear system is a system in which the change of the output is not proportional to the change of the input.[1][2][3] Nonlinear problems are of interest to engineers, biologists,[4][5][6] physicists,[7][8] mathematicians, and many other scientists because most systems are inherently nonlinear in nature.[9] Nonlinear dynamical systems, describing changes in variables over time, may appear chaotic, unpredictable, or counterintuitive, contrasting with much simpler linear systems. Typically, the behavior of a nonlinear system is described in mathematics by a nonlinear system of equations, which is a set of simultaneous equations in which the unknowns (or the unknown functions in the case of differential equations) appear as variables of a polynomial of degree higher than one or in the argument of a function which is not a polynomial of degree one. In other words, in a nonlinear system of equations, the equation(s) to be solved cannot be written as a linear combination of the unkno ...more...

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Biological system

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Biological system

A biological system is a complex network of biologically relevant entities. As biological organization spans several scales, examples of biological systems are populations of organisms, or on the organ- and tissue scale in mammals and other animals, the circulatory system, the respiratory system, the nervous system, etc. On the micro to the nanoscopic scale, examples of biological systems are cells, organelles, macromolecular complexes and regulatory pathways. A biological system is not to be confused with a living system, which is commonly referred to as life. For further information see e.g. definition of life or synthetic biology. Organ and tissue systems An example of a system: The brain, the cerebellum, the spinal cord, and the nerves are the four basic components of the nervous system. These specific systems are widely studied in human anatomy. "Human" systems are also present in many other animals. Respiratory system: the organs used for breathing, the pharynx, larynx, bronchi, lungs and diap ...more...

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System

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System

A system is a regularly interacting or interdependent group of units forming an integrated whole.[1] Every system is delineated by its spatial and temporal boundaries, surrounded and influenced by its environment, described by its structure and purpose and expressed in its functioning. Etymology The term "system" comes from the Latin word systēma, in turn from Greek σύστημα systēma: "whole concept made of several parts or members, system", literary "composition".[2] History According to Marshall McLuhan, "System" means "something to look at". You must have a very high visual gradient to have systematization. But in philosophy, prior to Descartes, there was no "system". Plato had no "system". Aristotle had no "system".[3][4] In the 19th century the French physicist Nicolas Léonard Sadi Carnot, who studied thermodynamics, pioneered the development of the concept of a "system" in the natural sciences. In 1824 he studied the system which he called the working substance (typically a body of water vapor) in ...more...

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Dynamical system

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Dynamical system

The Lorenz attractor arises in the study of the Lorenz Oscillator, a dynamical system. In mathematics, a dynamical system is a system in which a function describes the time dependence of a point in a geometrical space. Examples include the mathematical models that describe the swinging of a clock pendulum, the flow of water in a pipe, and the number of fish each springtime in a lake. At any given time, a dynamical system has a state given by a tuple of real numbers (a vector) that can be represented by a point in an appropriate state space (a geometrical manifold). The evolution rule of the dynamical system is a function that describes what future states follow from the current state. Often the function is deterministic, that is, for a given time interval only one future state follows from the current state.[1][2] However, some systems are stochastic, in that random events also affect the evolution of the state variables. In physics, a dynamical system is described as a "particle or ensemble of particles w ...more...

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Control theory

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Control theory

Control theory in control systems engineering deals with the control of continuously operating dynamical systems in engineered processes and machines. The objective is to develop a control model for controlling such systems using a control action in an optimum manner without delay or overshoot and ensuring control stability. To do this, a controller with the requisite corrective behaviour is required. This controller monitors the controlled process variable (PV), and compares it with the reference or set point (SP). The difference between actual and desired value of the process variable, called the error signal, or SP-PV error, is applied as feedback to generate a control action to bring the controlled process variable to the same value as the set point. Other aspects which are also studied are controllability and observability. On this is based the advanced type of automation that revolutionized manufacturing, aircraft, communications and other industries. This is feedback control, which is usually continuo ...more...

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System of measurement

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System of measurement

A system of measurement is a collection of units of measurement and rules relating them to each other. Systems of measurement have historically been important, regulated and defined for the purposes of science and commerce. Systems of measurement in modern use include the metric system, the imperial system, and United States customary units. History The French Revolution gave rise to the metric system, and this has spread around the world, replacing most customary units of measure. In most systems, length (distance), mass, and time are base quantities. Later science developments showed that either electric charge or electric current could be added to extend the set of base quantities by which many other metrological units could be easily defined. (However, electrical units are not necessary for such a set. Gaussian units, for example, have only length, mass, and time as base quantities, and the ampere is defined in terms of other units.) Other quantities, such as power and speed, are derived from the base ...more...

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Social structure

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Social structure

In the social sciences, social structure is the patterned social arrangements in society that are both emergent from and determinant of the actions of the individuals. On the macro scale, social structure is the system of socioeconomic stratification (e.g., the class structure), social institutions, or, other patterned relations between large social groups. On the meso scale, it is the structure of social network ties between individuals or organizations. On the micro scale, it can be the way norms shape the behavior of individuals within the social system. Social norms influence social structure through relations between the majority and the minority. Because those who align with the majority are considered normal while those who align with the minority are considered abnormal, majority-minority relations create a hierarchical stratification within social structures that favors the majority in all aspects of society. These scales are not always kept separate. For example, recent scholarship by John Levi Ma ...more...

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Sociocultural system

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Sociocultural system

A sociocultural system is a "human population viewed (1) in its ecological context and (2) as one of the many subsystems of a larger ecological system".[1] Conceptual Model of a Sociocultural System. The term "sociocultural system" embraces three concepts: society, culture, and system. A society is a number of interdependent organisms of the same species. A culture is the learned behaviors that are shared by the members of a society, together with the material products of such behaviors. The words "society" and "culture" are fused together to form the word "sociocultural". A system is "a collection of parts which interact with each other to function as a whole".[2] The term sociocultural system is most likely to be found in the writings of anthropologists who specialize in ecological anthropology. In 1979, Marvin Harris outlined a universal structure of sociocultural systems. He mentioned infrastructure (production and population), structure (which is behavioural, like corporations, political organizati ...more...

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Operating system

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Operating system

An operating system (OS) is system software that manages computer hardware and software resources and provides common services for computer programs. Time-sharing operating systems schedule tasks for efficient use of the system and may also include accounting software for cost allocation of processor time, mass storage, printing, and other resources. For hardware functions such as input and output and memory allocation, the operating system acts as an intermediary between programs and the computer hardware,[1][2] although the application code is usually executed directly by the hardware and frequently makes system calls to an OS function or is interrupted by it. Operating systems are found on many devices that contain a computer – from cellular phones and video game consoles to web servers and supercomputers. The dominant desktop operating system is Microsoft Windows with a market share of around 82.74%. macOS by Apple Inc. is in second place (13.23%), and the varieties of Linux are collectively in third p ...more...

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Cybernetics

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Cybernetics

Cybernetics is a transdisciplinary[1] approach for exploring regulatory systems—their structures, constraints, and possibilities. Norbert Wiener defined cybernetics in 1948 as "the scientific study of control and communication in the animal and the machine."[2] In the 21st century, the term is often used in a rather loose way to imply "control of any system using technology." In other words, it is the scientific study of how humans, animals and machines control and communicate with each other. Cybernetics is applicable when a system being analyzed incorporates a closed signaling loop—originally referred to as a "circular causal" relationship—that is, where action by the system generates some change in its environment and that change is reflected in the system in some manner (feedback) that triggers a system change. Cybernetics is relevant to, for example, mechanical, physical, biological, cognitive, and social systems. The essential goal of the broad field of cybernetics is to understand and define the funct ...more...

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Information system

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Information system

An information system (IS) is an organized system for the collection, organization, storage and communication of information. More specifically, it is the study of complementary networks that people and organizations use to collect, filter, process, create and distribute data. Further, "[a]n information system (IS) is a group of components that interact to produce information. It focuses on the internal rather than the external." Information system can also be described as a combination of hardware, software, data, business process and functions which can be used to increase efficiency and management of an organization. Information Systems is the expression used to describe an Automated System (which may be referred to as a Computerized Information System), be it manual, which covers people, machines or organized methods to collect, process, transmit and disseminate data representing information for the user or client.[1] A computer information system is a system that a branch of Science composed of people a ...more...

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Biorhythm

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Biorhythm

Biorhythm chart over the first 66-day period after birth:   Physical   Emotional   Intellectual A biorhythm (from Greek βίος - bios, "life"[1] and ῥυθμός - rhuthmos, "any regular recurring motion, rhythm"[2]) is an attempt to predict various aspects of a person's life through simple mathematical cycles. The theory was developed by Wilhelm Fliess in the late 19th century, and was popularized in the United States in late 1970s. Most scientists believe that the idea has no more predictive power than chance.[3] "The theory of biorhythms is a theory that claims our daily lives are significantly affected by rhythmic cycles."[4][5][6] Theory Basic rhythm details Physical cycle 23 days; Circavigintan coordination strength well-being Emotional cycle 28 days; Circatrigintan creativity sensitivity mood perception awareness Intellectual cycle 33 days; Circatrigintan alertness analytical functioning logical analysis memory or recall communication According to the theory of ...more...

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Multi-agent system

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Multi-agent system

Simple reflex agent Learning agent A multi-agent system (MAS or "self-organized system") is a computerized system composed of multiple interacting intelligent agents. Multi-agent systems can solve problems that are difficult or impossible for an individual agent or a monolithic system to solve. Intelligence may include methodic, functional, procedural approaches, algorithmic search or reinforcement learning. Despite considerable overlap, a multi-agent system is not always the same as an agent-based model (ABM). The goal of an ABM is to search for explanatory insight into the collective behavior of agents (which don't necessarily need to be "intelligent") obeying simple rules, typically in natural systems, rather than in solving specific practical or engineering problems. The terminology of ABM tends to be used more often in the sciences, and MAS in engineering and technology.[1] Applications where multi-agent systems research may deliver an appropriate approach include online trading,[2] disaster res ...more...

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Operations research

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Operations research

Operations research, or operational research in British usage, is a discipline that deals with the application of advanced analytical methods to help make better decisions.[1] Further, the term 'operational analysis' is used in the British (and some British Commonwealth) military as an intrinsic part of capability development, management and assurance. In particular, operational analysis forms part of the Combined Operational Effectiveness and Investment Appraisals (COEIA), which support British defense capability acquisition decision-making. It is often considered to be a sub-field of applied mathematics.[2] The terms management science and decision science are sometimes used as synonyms.[3] Employing techniques from other mathematical sciences, such as mathematical modeling, statistical analysis, and mathematical optimization, operations research arrives at optimal or near-optimal solutions to complex decision-making problems. Because of its emphasis on human-technology interaction and because of its focu ...more...

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World-systems theory

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World-systems theory

World-systems theory (also known as world-systems analysis or the world-systems perspective)[1] is a multidisciplinary, macro-scale approach to world history and social change which emphasizes the world-system (and not nation states) as the primary (but not exclusive) unit of social analysis.[1][2] "World-system" refers to the inter-regional and transnational division of labor, which divides the world into core countries, semi-periphery countries, and the periphery countries.[2] Core countries focus on higher skill, capital-intensive production, and the rest of the world focuses on low-skill, labor-intensive production and extraction of raw materials.[3] This constantly reinforces the dominance of the core countries.[3] Nonetheless, the system has dynamic characteristics, in part as a result of revolutions in transport technology, and individual states can gain or lose their core (semi-periphery, periphery) status over time.[3] This structure is unified by the division of labour. It is a world-economy rooted ...more...

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George Dantzig

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George Dantzig

George Bernard Dantzig (; November 8, 1914 – May 13, 2005) was an American mathematical scientist who made important contributions to operations research, computer science, economics, and statistics. Dantzig is known for his development of the simplex algorithm,[1] an algorithm for solving linear programming problems, and for his other work with linear programming. In statistics, Dantzig solved two open problems in statistical theory, which he had mistaken for homework after arriving late to a lecture by Jerzy Neyman.[2] Dantzig was the Professor Emeritus of Transportation Sciences and Professor of Operations Research and of Computer Science at Stanford. Life Born in Portland, Oregon, George Bernard Dantzig was named after George Bernard Shaw, the Irish writer.[3][4] His father, Tobias Dantzig, was a Baltic German mathematician and linguist, and his mother, Anja Dantzig (née Ourisson), was a French linguist of Jewish origin. Dantzig's parents met during their study at the University of Paris, where Tobias ...more...

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Systems biology

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Systems biology

An illustration of the systems approach to biology Systems biology is the computational and mathematical modeling of complex biological systems. It is a biology-based interdisciplinary field of study that focuses on complex interactions within biological systems, using a holistic approach (holism instead of the more traditional reductionism) to biological research. Particularly from year 2000 onwards, the concept has been used widely in biology in a variety of contexts. The Human Genome Project is an example of applied systems thinking in biology which has led to new, collaborative ways of working on problems in the biological field of genetics.[1] One of the aims of systems biology is to model and discover emergent properties, properties of cells, tissues and organisms functioning as a system whose theoretical description is only possible using techniques of systems biology.[2] These typically involve metabolic networks or cell signaling networks.[3] Overview Systems biology can be considered from a num ...more...

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Energy system

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Energy system

Physical components of a generic energy system supplying fuels and electricity (but not district heat) to end-users An energy system is a system primarily designed to supply energy-services to end-users.[1]:941 Taking a structural viewpoint, the IPCC Fifth Assessment Report defines an energy system as "all components related to the production, conversion, delivery, and use of energy".[2]:1261 The field of energy economics includes energy markets and treats an energy system as the technical and economic systems that satisfy consumer demand for energy in the forms of heat, fuels, and electricity.[1]:941 The first two definitions allow for demand-side measures, including daylighting, retrofitted building insulation, and passive solar building design, as well as socio-economic factors, such as aspects of energy demand management and even telecommuting, while the third does not. Neither does the third account for the informal economy in traditional biomass that is significant in many developing countries.[3] T ...more...

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Open and closed systems in social science

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Open and closed systems in social science

Ludwig Bertalanffy describes two types of systems: open systems and closed systems. The open systems are systems that allow interactions between their internal elements and the environment. An open system is defined as a “system in exchange of matter with its environment, presenting import and export, building-up and breaking-down of its material components.”[1] Closed systems, on the other hand, are held to be isolated from their environment. Equilibrium thermodynamics, for example, is a field of study that applies to closed systems. The idea of open systems was further developed in systems theory. Social science In social sciences, schematically, if there is an interaction or feedback loop between ideal and material or subjective and objective then the system is an open system, otherwise it is a closed system. A closed system offers a deterministic relationship. René Descartes’ view of a Cartesian subject as a determining agent, detached from nature, is a closed system. Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel’s vi ...more...

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Isolated system

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Isolated system

Properties of Isolated, closed, and open systems in exchanging energy and matter. In physical science, an isolated system is either of the following: a physical system so far removed from other systems that it does not interact with them. a thermodynamic system enclosed by rigid immovable walls through which neither matter nor energy can pass. Though subject internally to its own gravity, an isolated system is usually taken to be outside the reach of external gravitational and other long-range forces. This can be contrasted with what (in the more common terminology used in thermodynamics) is called a closed system, being enclosed by selective walls through which energy can pass as heat or work, but not matter; and with an open system, which both matter and energy can enter or exit, though it may have variously impermeable walls in parts of its boundaries. An isolated system obeys the conservation law that its total energy–mass stays constant. Most often, in thermodynamics, matter and energy are treate ...more...

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Diatonic scale

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Diatonic scale

Diatonic scale on C, a "white note" scale In western music theory, a diatonic scale is a heptatonic scale that includes five whole steps (whole tones) and two half steps (semitones) in each octave, in which the two half steps are separated from each other by either two or three whole steps, depending on their position in the scale. This pattern ensures that, in a diatonic scale spanning more than one octave, all the half steps are maximally separated from each other (i.e. separated by at least two whole steps). The seven pitches of any diatonic scale can also be obtained by using a chain of six perfect fifths. For instance, the seven natural pitches that form the C-major scale can be obtained from a stack of perfect fifths starting from F: F—C—G—D—A—E—B Any sequence of seven successive natural notes, such as C–D–E–F–G–A–B, and any transposition thereof, is a diatonic scale. Modern musical keyboards are designed so that the white notes form a diatonic scale, though transpositions of this diatonic scale requ ...more...

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Grinder (biohacking)

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Grinder (biohacking)

Grinders are people who apply the hacker ethic to improve their own bodies with do-it-yourself cybernetic devices[1] or introducing chemicals[2] into the body to enhance or change their bodies' functionality. Many grinders identify with the biopunk movement, open-source transhumanism, and techno-progressivism.[3][4][5] The Grinder movement is strongly associated with the body modification movement and practices actual implantation of cybernetic devices in organic bodies as a method of working towards transhumanism,[3][6] such as designing and installing do-it-yourself body-enhancements such as magnetic implants.[3][6] Biohacking emerged in a growing trend of non-institutional science and technology development.[7][8][9] According to Biohack.me, "Grinders are passionate individuals who believe the tools and knowledge of science belong to everyone. Grinders practice functional extreme body modification in an effort to improve the human condition. [Grinders] hack [them]selves with electronic hardware to extend ...more...

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Formal system

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Formal system

A formal system is the name of a logic system usually defined in the mathematical way. Logical calculus is carried out in the system. It can represent a well-defined system of abstract thought. Spinoza's Ethics imitates the form of Euclid's Elements. Spinoza employed Euclidean elements such as "axioms" or "primitive truths", rules of inferences, etc., so that a calculus can be built using these. Some theorists use the term formalism as a rough synonym for formal system, but the term is also used to refer to a particular style of notation, for example, Paul Dirac's bra–ket notation. Background Each formal system uses a set of primitive symbols (sometimes known as an alphabet) to finitely construct a formal language from a set of axioms through inferential rules of formation. The system thus consists of valid formulas built up through finite combinations of the primitive symbols—combinations that are formed from the axioms in accordance with the stated rules.[1] More formally, this can be expressed as the ...more...

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Physical system

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Physical system

Weather map as an example of a physical system In physics, a physical system is a portion of the physical universe chosen for analysis. Everything outside the system is known as the environment. The environment is ignored except for its effects on the system. The split between system and environment is the analyst's choice, generally made to simplify the analysis. For example, the water in a lake, the water in half of a lake, or an individual molecule of water in the lake can each be considered a physical system. An isolated system is one that has negligible interaction with its environment. Often a system in this sense is chosen to correspond to the more usual meaning of system, such as a particular machine. In the study of quantum coherence, the "system" may refer to the microscopic properties of an object (e.g. the mean of a pendulum bob), while the relevant "environment" may be the internal degrees of freedom, described classically by the pendulum's thermal vibrations. See also Conceptual systems ...more...

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Complex adaptive system

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Complex adaptive system

A complex adaptive system is a system in which a perfect understanding of the individual parts does not automatically convey a perfect understanding of the whole system's behavior.[1] The study of complex adaptive systems, a subset of nonlinear dynamical systems,[2] is highly interdisciplinary and blends insights from the natural and social sciences to develop system-level models and insights that allow for heterogeneous agents, phase transition, and emergent behavior.[3] They are complex in that they are dynamic networks of interactions, and their relationships are not aggregations of the individual static entities, i.e., the behavior of the ensemble is not predicted by the behavior of the components. They are adaptive in that the individual and collective behavior mutate and self-organize corresponding to the change-initiating micro-event or collection of events.[4][5][1] They are a "complex macroscopic collection" of relatively "similar and partially connected micro-structures" formed in order to adapt to ...more...

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Holon (philosophy)

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Holon (philosophy)

A fractal is close to the idea of holon, as it is a part that represents a whole at the same time. Do seeds contain trees or do trees contain seeds? We could say both are true, because 'trees and seeds' is an example of a holon. A holon (Greek: ὅλον, holon neuter form of ὅλος, holos "whole") is something that is simultaneously a whole and a part. The word was coined by Arthur Koestler in his book The Ghost in the Machine (1967, p. 48). Koestler was influenced by two observations in proposing the notion of the holon. The first observation was influenced by Herbert A. Simon's parable of the two watchmakers—in which Simon concludes that complex systems evolve from simple systems much more rapidly when there are stable intermediate forms present in the evolutionary process than if they are not present.[1] The second observation was made by Koestler himself in his analysis of hierarchies and stable intermediate forms in non-living matter (atomic and molecular structure), living organisms, and social organizations ...more...

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Sensory nervous system

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Sensory nervous system

The visual system and the somatosensory system are active even during resting state fMRI Activation and response in the sensory nervous system The sensory nervous system is a part of the nervous system responsible for processing sensory information. A sensory system consists of sensory neurons (including the sensory receptor cells), neural pathways, and parts of the brain involved in sensory perception. Commonly recognized sensory systems are those for vision, hearing, touch, taste, smell, and balance. In short, senses are transducers from the physical world to the realm of the mind where we interpret the information, creating our perception of the world around us.[1] Organisms need information to solve at least three kinds of problems: (a) to maintain an appropriate environment, i.e., homeostasis; (b) to time activities (e.g., seasonal changes in behavior) or synchronize activities with those of conspecifics; and (c) to locate and respond to resources or threats (e.g., by moving towards resources or ev ...more...

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Sociotechnical system

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Sociotechnical system

Sociotechnical systems (STS) in organizational development is an approach to complex organizational work design that recognizes the interaction between people and technology in workplaces. The term also refers to the interaction between society's complex infrastructures and human behaviour. In this sense, society itself, and most of its substructures, are complex sociotechnical systems. The term sociotechnical systems was coined by Eric Trist, Ken Bamforth and Fred Emery, in the World War II era, based on their work with workers in English coal mines at the Tavistock Institute in London.[1] Sociotechnical systems pertains to theory regarding the social aspects of people and society and technical aspects of organizational structure and processes. Here, technical does not necessarily imply material technology. The focus is on procedures and related knowledge, i.e. it refers to the ancient Greek term logos. "Technical" is a term used to refer to structure and a broader sense of technicalities. Sociotechnical re ...more...

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Writing system

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Writing system

A writing system is any conventional method of visually representing verbal communication. While both writing and speech are useful in conveying messages, writing differs in also being a reliable form of information storage and transfer.[1] The processes of encoding and decoding writing systems involve shared understanding between writers and readers of the meaning behind the sets of characters that make up a script. Writing is usually recorded onto a durable medium, such as paper or electronic storage, although non-durable methods may also be used, such as writing on a computer display, on a blackboard, in sand, or by skywriting. The general attributes of writing systems can be placed into broad categories such as alphabets, syllabaries, or logographies. Any particular system can have attributes of more than one category. In the alphabetic category, there is a standard set of letters (basic written symbols or graphemes) of consonants and vowels that encode based on the general principle that the letters (or ...more...

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System dynamics

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System dynamics

Dynamic stock and flow diagram of model New product adoption (model from article by John Sterman 2001) System dynamics (SD) is an approach to understanding the nonlinear behaviour of complex systems over time using stocks, flows, internal feedback loops, table functions and time delays.[1] Overview System dynamics is a methodology and mathematical modeling technique to frame, understand, and discuss complex issues and problems. Originally developed in the 1950s to help corporate managers improve their understanding of industrial processes, SD is currently being used throughout the public and private sector for policy analysis and design.[2] Convenient graphical user interface (GUI) system dynamics software developed into user friendly versions by the 1990s and have been applied to diverse systems. SD models solve the problem of simultaneity (mutual causation) by updating all variables in small time increments with positive and negative feedbacks and time delays structuring the interactions and control. Th ...more...

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Complex system

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Complex system

A complex system is a system composed of many components which may interact with each other. In many cases it is useful to represent such a system as a network where the nodes represent the components and the links their interactions. Examples of complex systems are Earth's global climate, organisms, the human brain, social and economic organizations (like cities), an ecosystem, a living cell, and ultimately the entire universe. Complex systems are systems whose behavior is intrinsically difficult to model due to the dependencies, relationships, or other types of interactions between their parts or between a given system and its environment. Systems that are "complex" have distinct properties that arise from these relationships, such as nonlinearity, emergence, spontaneous order, adaptation, and feedback loops, among others. Because such systems appear in a wide variety of fields, the commonalities among them have become the topic of their own independent area of research. Overview The term complex systems ...more...

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Buddhabrot

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Buddhabrot

A Buddhabrot iterated to 20,000 times. The Buddhabrot is a fractal rendering technique related to the Mandelbrot set. Its name reflects its pareidolic resemblance to classical depictions of Gautama Buddha, seated in a meditation pose with a forehead mark (tikka) and traditional topknot (ushnisha). Discovery The Buddhabrot rendering technique was discovered by Melinda Green (then known as Dan Green),[1] who later described it in a 1993 Usenet post to sci.fractals.[2] Previous researchers had come very close to finding the precise Buddhabrot technique. In 1988, Linas Vepstas relayed similar images[3] to Cliff Pickover for inclusion in Pickover's then-forthcoming book Computers, Pattern, Chaos, and Beauty. This led directly to the discovery of Pickover stalks. However, these researchers did not filter out non-escaping trajectories required to produce the ghostly forms reminiscent of Hindu art. The inverse, "Anti-Buddhabrot" filter produces images similar to no filtering. Green first named this pattern Ganes ...more...

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Systems neuroscience

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Systems neuroscience

Systems neuroscience is a subdiscipline of neuroscience and systems biology that studies the function of neural circuits and systems. It is an umbrella term, encompassing a number of areas of study concerned with how nerve cells behave when connected together to form neural pathways, neural circuits, and larger brain networks. At this level of analysis, neuroscientists study how different neural circuits analyze sensory information, form perceptions of the external world, make decisions, and execute movements. Researchers in systems neuroscience are concerned with the relation between molecular and cellular approaches to understanding brain structure and function, as well as with the study of high-level mental functions such as language, memory, and self-awareness (which are the purview of behavioral and cognitive neuroscience). Systems neuroscientists typically employ techniques for understanding networks of neurons as they are seen to function, by way of electrophysiology using either single-unit recording ...more...

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List of American scientists

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List of American scientists

This is a list of American scientists. A Farid F. Abraham Thomas Adams Javier Perez-Capdevila Peter Agre Dan Alderson Paul Alivisatos Paul Wheaton Warder Clyde Allee John P. Allen Braden Allenby Bradley Alpert John Alroy David Alter Roy Amara Henry James Anderson Walter Truett Anderson Martin Apple Jerome Apt David Archer Frances Arnold Joseph Brant Arseneau Aseem Shukla Anthony Atala James E. Atwater Oscar Auerbach VA Shiva Ayyadurai Avi Ben-Abraham B Addison Bain Ira Baldwin Siva S. Banda Utpal Banerjee George Frederick Barker Kathy Barker Charles Bartley Hans D. Baumann Robert Nason Beck Robert O. Becker Charles Emerson Beecher James F. Bell, III Arden L. Bement, Jr. May R. Berenbaum Joseph Young Bergen Helen M. Berman Harvey Bialy John Bidwell Rene J. Bienvenu Amasa Stone Bishop Victor Gustav Bloede James Bloodworth, Jr. Hendrik Wade Bode Mark Boslough Karel Bossart William C. Boyd Herbert Boyer Robert S. Boyer John Brashear Martin Stanisla ...more...

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Error analysis for the Global Positioning System

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Error analysis for the Global Positioning System

Artist's conception of GPS Block II-F satellite in orbit The analysis of errors computed using the Global Positioning System is important for understanding how GPS works, and for knowing what magnitude of errors should be expected. The Global Positioning System makes corrections for receiver clock errors and other effects but there are still residual errors which are not corrected. The Global Positioning System (GPS) was created by the United States Department of Defense (DOD) in the 1970s. It has come to be widely used for navigation both by the U.S. military and the general public. GPS receiver position is computed based on data received from the satellites. Errors depend on geometric dilution of precision and the sources listed in the table below. Overview Sources of User Equivalent Range Errors (UERE) Source Effect (m) Signal arrival C/A ±3 Signal arrival P(Y) ±0.3 Ionospheric effects ±5 Ephemeris errors ±2.5 Satellite clock errors ±2 Multipath distortion ±1 Tropospheri ...more...

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Theory of relativity

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Diatonic set theory

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Diatonic set theory

Diatonic set theory is a subdivision or application of musical set theory which applies the techniques and insights of discrete mathematics to properties of the diatonic collection such as maximal evenness, Myhill's property, well formedness, the deep scale property, cardinality equals variety, and structure implies multiplicity. The name is something of a misnomer as the concepts involved usually apply much more generally, to any periodically repeating scale. Music theorists working in diatonic set theory include Eytan Agmon, Gerald J. Balzano, Norman Carey, David Clampitt, John Clough, Jay Rahn, and mathematician Jack Douthett. A number of key concepts were first formulated by David Rothenberg, who published in the journal Mathematical Systems Theory, and Erv Wilson, working entirely outside of the academic world. See also Bisector Generic interval Specific interval Diatonic and chromatic Rothenberg propriety Further reading Johnson, Timothy (2003), Foundations of Diatonic Theory: A Mathematical ...more...

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Claude Shannon

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Claude Shannon

Claude Elwood Shannon (April 30, 1916 – February 24, 2001) was an American mathematician, electrical engineer, and cryptographer known as "the father of information theory".[1][2] Shannon is noted for having founded information theory with a landmark paper, A Mathematical Theory of Communication, that he published in 1948. He is, perhaps, equally well known for founding digital circuit design theory in 1937, when—as a 21-year-old master's degree student at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT)—he wrote his thesis demonstrating that electrical applications of Boolean algebra could construct any logical, numerical relationship.[3] Shannon contributed to the field of cryptanalysis for national defense during World War II, including his fundamental work on codebreaking and secure telecommunications. Biography Childhood Shannon was born in Petoskey, Michigan and grew up in Gaylord, Michigan.[4] His father, Claude, Sr. (1862–1934), a descendant of early settlers of New Jersey, was a self-made businessm ...more...

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Francisco Varela

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Francisco Varela

Francisco Javier Varela García (September 7, 1946 – May 28, 2001) was a Chilean biologist, philosopher, and neuroscientist who, together with his teacher Humberto Maturana, is best known for introducing the concept of autopoiesis to biology, and for co-founding the Mind and Life Institute to promote dialog between science and Buddhism. Life and career Varela was born in 1946 in Santiago in Chile, the son of Corina María Elena García Tapia and Raúl Andrés Varela Rodríguez.[1] After completing secondary school at the Liceo Aleman del Verbo Divino in Santiago (1951–1963), like his mentor Humberto Maturana, Varela temporarily studied medicine at the Pontifical Catholic University of Chile and graduated with a degree in biology from the University of Chile. He later obtained a Ph.D. in biology at Harvard University. His thesis, defended in 1970 and supervised by Torsten Wiesel, was titled Insect Retinas: Information processing in the compound eye. After the 1973 military coup led by Augusto Pinochet, Varela and ...more...

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Converts to Buddhism

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Living systems

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Living systems

Living systems are open self-organizing life forms that interact with their environment. These systems are maintained by flows of information, energy and matter. Some scientists have proposed in the last few decades that a general living systems theory is required to explain the nature of life.[1] Such a general theory, arising out of the ecological and biological sciences, attempts to map general principles for how all living systems work. Instead of examining phenomena by attempting to break things down into components, a general living systems theory explores phenomena in terms of dynamic patterns of the relationships of organisms with their environment.[2] Theory Living systems theory is a general theory about the existence of all living systems, their structure, interaction, behavior and development. This work is created by James Grier Miller, which was intended to formalize the concept of life. According to Miller's original conception as spelled out in his magnum opus Living Systems, a "living syste ...more...

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Richard E. Bellman

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Richard E. Bellman

Richard Ernest Bellman[3] (August 26, 1920 – March 19, 1984) was an American applied mathematician, who introduced dynamic programming in 1953, and important contributions in other fields of mathematics. Biography Bellman was born in 1920 in New York City to non-practising[4] Jewish parents of Polish and Russian descent, Pearl (née Saffian) and John James Bellman,[5] who ran a small grocery store on Bergen Street near Prospect Park, Brooklyn.[6] He attended Abraham Lincoln High School, Brooklyn in 1937,[5] and studied mathematics at Brooklyn College where he earned a BA in 1941. He later earned an MA from the University of Wisconsin–Madison. During World War II he worked for a Theoretical Physics Division group in Los Alamos. In 1946 he received his Ph.D at Princeton under the supervision of Solomon Lefschetz.[7] Beginning 1949 Bellman worked for many years at RAND corporation and it was during this time that he developed dynamic programming.[8] Later in life, Richard Bellman's interests began to emphasize ...more...

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System archetype

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System archetype

System archetypes are patterns of behavior of a system. Systems expressed by circles of causality have therefore similar structure. Identifying a system archetype and finding the leverage enables efficient changes in a system. The basic system archetypes and possible solutions of the problems are mentioned in the section Examples of system archetypes.[1] A fundamental property of nature is that no cause can affect the past. System archetypes do not imply that current causes affect past effects. Circles of causality The basic idea of system thinking is that every action triggers a reaction. In system dynamics this reaction is called feedback. There are two types of feedback – reinforcing feedback and balancing feedback. Sometimes a feedback (or a reaction) does not occur immediately – the process contains delays. Any system can be drawn as a diagram set up with circles of causality – including actions, feedbacks and delays.[1] Reinforcing feedback (+) Reinforcing feedback (or amplifying feedback) accelerat ...more...

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Ecosystem

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Ecosystem

There are many different ecosystems on Earth. Left: Coral reefs are a highly productive marine ecosystem[1], right: Temperate rainforest on the Olympic Peninsula in Washington state. An ecosystem is a community made up of living organisms and nonliving components such as air, water, and mineral soil.[3] Ecosystems can be studied in two different ways. They can be thought of as interdependent collections of plants and animals, or as structured systems and communities governed by general rules.[4] The living (biotic) and non-living (abiotic) components interact through nutrient cycles and energy flows.[5] Ecosystems include interactions among organisms, and between organisms and their environment.[6] Ecosystems can be of any size but each ecosystem has a specific, limited space.[7] Some scientists view the entire planet as one ecosystem.[8] Energy, water, nitrogen and soil minerals are essential abiotic components of an ecosystem. The energy used by ecosystems comes primarily from the sun, via photosynthesis. ...more...

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