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Lodi (Pashtun tribe)

Lodi (Pashto: لودي; Persian: لودی) or Lodhi is a Pashtun tribe.

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Muhajir culture

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Muhajir culture ( Urdu : ثقافتِ مهاجر ‬ ‎) is the culture of Urdu Muslim refugees that migrated mainly from North India after the independence of Pakistan in 1947 generally to the Sindh province and mainly to the city of Karachi . They are also known as Urdu speakers, on account of Urdu being their native language, and have also been referred to as Hindustani Musalman ("Indian Muslims"). Many Muhajirs of Pakistan are closely related to the Muslims of Uttar Pradesh in India . The Muhjairs are concentrated in urban areas of Sindh. History Early history of Urdu speaking community Delhi Sultanate The roots of Muhajirs lies with Muslim migration and settlement in North India especially modern Uttar Pradesh . The conversion of natives to Islam and the migration of Muslims from the Muslim World coalesced to form the Urdu Muslim community which was referred to as Hindustani Musalmans , East Punjab . Early settlement of Northern Muslims was due to the migrations and then establishment of Turkish Sultanate . Most Musli ...more...



Khyber Pakhtunkhwa

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Khyber Pakhtunkhwa (abbreviated as KP; Urdu: خیبر پختونخوا‬‎; Pashto: خیبر پښتونخوا‎) is one of the four administrative provinces of Pakistan, located in the northwestern region of the country along the international border with Afghanistan. It was previously known as the North-West Frontier Province (NWFP) until 2010, and is known colloquially by various other names. Khyber Pakhtunkhwa is the third-largest province of Pakistan by the size of both population and economy though it is geographically the smallest of four. It comprises 10.5% of Pakistan's economy, and is home to 11.9% of Pakistan's total population, with the majority of the province's inhabitants being Pashtuns, Hazarewal, Chitrali, and Kohistanis. The province is the site of the ancient kingdom Gandhara, including the ruins of its capital Pushkalavati near modern-day Charsadda. Originally a stronghold of Hinduism and Buddhism, the history of the region was characterized by frequent invasions under various Empires due to its geographical proximi ...more...



Barakzai dynasty

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The two branches of the Barakzai dynasty (Translation of Barakzai: sons of Barak) ruled modern day Afghanistan from 1826 to 1973 when the monarchy ended under Musahiban Mohammad Zahir Shah. The Barakzai dynasty was established by Dost Mohammad Khan after the Durrani dynasty of Ahmad Shah Durrani was removed from power. During this era, Afghanistan saw much of its territory lost to the British in the south and east, Persia in the west, and Russia in the north. There were also many conflicts within Afghanistan, including the three major Anglo-Afghan Wars and the 1929 civil war. Flag of the Abdali Afghan Tribes. Made from historical texts and references. History and background The Barakzai dynasty was the line of rulers in Afghanistan in the 19th and 20th centuries. Following the fall of the Durrani Empire in 1826, chaos reigned in the domains of Ahmed Shah Durrani's Afghan Empire as various sons of Timur Shah struggled for supremacy. The Afghan Empire ceased to exist as a single nation state, disin ...more...



Gulwal

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Gulwal is a branch of the Suleiman Khel subgroup of the Pashtun people . They are Sunni Muslims who live in western Afghanistan , South Waziristan , and in Punjab, India and have subbranches, such as Pachak, Azikkhel, and Ashiqkhel. They are not influenced by modernisation and their literacy rate is very low, but is increasing. The group also has its own unique customs and culture. Gulwal is a branch of the Suleiman Khel subgroup of the Pashtun people . They are Sunni Muslims who live in western Afghanistan , South Waziristan , and in Punjab, India and have subbranches, such as Pachak, Azikkhel, and Ashiqkhel. They are not influenced by modernisation and their literacy rate is very low, but is increasing. The group also has its own unique customs and culture. ...more...



Durrani Empire

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The Durrani Empire (Pashto: د درانیانو واکمني‎), also called the Afghan Empire (د افغانانو واکمني), was founded and built by Ahmad Shah Durrani. At its maximum extent, the empire covered the modern-day Afghanistan, Pakistan, as well as some parts of northeastern Iran, eastern Turkmenistan, and northwestern India including the Kashmir region. After the death of Nader Shah in 1747, the region of Kandahar was claimed by Ahmad Shah Durrani. From there he began conquering Ghazni followed by Kabul. In 1749 the Mughal ruler had ceded sovereignty over what is now Pakistan and northwestern Punjab to the Afghans. Ahmad Shah then set out westward to take possession of Herat, which was ruled by Shahrokh Shah. He next sent an army to subdue the areas north of the Hindu Kush and in short order all the different tribes began joining his cause. Ahmad Shah and his forces invaded India four times, taking control of the Kashmir and the Punjab region. Early in 1757, he sacked Delhi, but permitted the Mughal dynasty to remain ...more...



Kochi people

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Kochi people on the move in Panjshir Province of Afghanistan . Tents of Afghan nomads in Badghis Province of Afghanistan. Kochis or Kuchis (from the Persian word: کوچ koch; meaning "migration") are Afghan nomads primarily from the Ghilji tribal confederacy. Some of the most notable Ghilji Kochi tribes include the Kharoti , Andar and Ahmadzai . Sometimes Durrani tribes can be found among the Kochi, and occasionally there may also be some Baloch people among them that live a pastoral nomadic lifestyle. In the Pashto language , the terms are Kochai (singular) and Kochian (plural). In the Persian language , "Kochi" and "Kochiha" are the singular and plural forms (respectively). Description The National Multi-sectoral Assessment of Kochi in 2004, estimated that there are about 2.4 million Kochis in Afghanistan, with around 1.5 million (60%) remaining fully nomadic, and over 100,000 have been displaced due to natural disasters such as flood and drought in the past few years. "The nomads and semi-nomads, generally ...more...



Harifal

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The Harifal (Urdu حریفال حریف ال) are a Pashtun tribe inhabiting the Sherani District in the Balochistan province of Pakistan , and, to a lesser extent, the surrounding districts of Afghanistan . The tribe mostly populates the western slopes of Shinghar, a mountain in the Suleiman Range , though a considerable number reside in the Zhob District . There is also a scattered population in the Duki subdivision of Loralai District , Sanjavi subdivision of the Ziarat District , a small population in Quetta , and some in Zarkanai Daraban of Dera Ismail Khan district . The word Harifal is also transliterated as Airf Aal, Haripal, and Hurreepaul. The two union councils of Sherani district, Shinghar Harifal south with 23 villages (13,883 people) and Shinghar Harifal north with 31 villages (12,228 people), are altogether occupied by the Harifal tribe. The main bulk of the tribe lives in clusters of villages in the central block of Mt. Shinghar. The Harifal tribe is relatively small and tractable compared to other tribe ...more...



Bangash

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The Bangash ( Pashto : بنګش ‎), ( Urdu : بنگش ‬ ‎) are one of the largest and perhaps the most powerful Karlani Pashtun tribe of the border region of eastern Afghanistan and North Western Pakistan. They primarily inhabit the Kohat , Hangu , Doaba , Thall , and districts of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, as well as portions of the Kurram Agency and Orakzai Agency in FATA . A large number of Bangash are also found in the northeastern section of the Paktia and Paktika Province in Afghanistan. Descendants of Bangash are also found in the Uttar Pradesh state of India, particularly in the city of Farrukhabad which was founded by Muhammad Khan Bangash in 1714. Etymology and origins The name Bangash or Bankash is said to be derived from Persian namely "bun", meaning root, and "Kashtan", meaning 'To tear apart'.Since the origin of the tribe it was believed that during battle the tribesmen of the Bangash would not rest until they had ripped the enemy off of their roots.Hence the Name 'Bangash' or 'Root Destroyer'.It is believed ...more...



Durrani dynasty

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The Durrani dynasty ( Pashto : د درانيانو کورنۍ ‎) was founded in 1747 by Ahmad Shah Durrani at Kandahar , Afghanistan . He united the different Pashtun tribes and created the Durrani Empire with his Baloch allies, which at its peak included the modern-day Afghanistan, Pakistan , as well as some parts of northeastern Iran , eastern Turkmenistan , and northwestern India including the Kashmir region. The Durranis were replaced by the Barakzai dynasty during the early half of the 19th century. Ahmad Shah and his descendants were from the Sadozai line of the Durranis (formerly known as Abdalis), making them the second Pashtun rulers of Kandahar after the Hotak dynasty . The Durranis were very notable in the second half of the 18th century mainly due to the leadership of Ahmad Shah Durrani. Start of the dynasty Nader Shah 's rule ended in June 1747 after being murdered by his Persian soldiers. In October 1747, when the chiefs of the Afghans met at a loya jirga (grand council) in Kandahar to select a new ruler ...more...



History of Peshawar

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Peshawar City, Edwardes Gate, c. 1870 The history of Peshawar , a region of modern-day Khyber Pakhtunkhwa , Pakistan , covers thousands of years. The region was known as Puruṣapura in Sanskrit , literally meaning "city of men". It also found mention in the Zend Avesta as Vaēkərəta, the seventh most beautiful place on earth created by Ahura Mazda . It was known as the "crown jewel" of Bactria and also held sway over Takshashila (modern Taxila ). Being among the most ancient cities of the region between Central and South Asia, Peshawar has for centuries been a center of trade between Bactria, South Asia , and Central Asia . Overview Peshawar was known in Sanskrit as Puruṣapura (पुरुषपुर), literally meaning "city of men". It also found mention in the Zend Avesta as Vaēkərəta, the seventh most beautiful place on earth created by Ahura Mazda It was known as the "crown jewel" of Bactria and also held sway over Takshashila (modern Taxila ). Being among the most ancient cities of the region between Central and So ...more...



Abdul Shakoor Rashad

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Professor Abdul Shakoor Rashad ( Pashto : عبدالشکور رشاد ‎) was born on November 14, 1921, in Kandahar city , Afghanistan . Early life Abdul Shakoor Rashad graduated from school at the age of 12 in 1933. While he was only 13 years old, he was appointed as a teacher in school in 1934 from where he started his official career. In 1948, Abdul Shakoor went to India for further education where he continued his research in Pashto language. While he was in India , he wrote the book "Lodi Pashtoons" consisting of (351) pages and learned Hindi Language. Academic life In 1957, Abdul Shakoor became a member of the Pashto Tolana ( Pashto Academy ) and a professor of Pashto language at the Faculty of Language and Literature at the Kabul University. Later on he became the Assistant Director of pashto Tolana. In 1961, he was appointed as a Pashto teacher in the Institute of Eastern Research in St. Petersburg (Previously known as Lenin Grad) where he served for two and a half years. He moved back to Kabul where he continued ...more...



Pashto media

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Inside a radio station in Qalat, Afghanistan Pashto media includes Pashto literature, Pashto-language newspapers, magazines, television and radio stations, as well as Pashto films and Pashto internet. Pashto media involves the Pashtuns of Pakistan, Afghanistan and the Pashtun diaspora around the world. Pashto literature and poetry Pashto is not only the name of a language, but it comprises all traditions, norms and values of the Pashtun people. The history of Pashto language comprises thousands of years. It is widely believed among the Pashtuns that the earliest written Pashto poems were written in the 8th century CE by Amir Kror Suri of Ghor, Afghanistan. Amir Kror was the son of Amir Polad and they belonged to the Suri Pashtun tribe. Since paper was not much in use in the Pashtun territory, Poets usually performed poetry verbally and its fans memorized the work. Another reason may be that most Pashtuns were nomads and warriors, thus lack writing skills. Due to these and other reasons, Pashto remain ...more...



Hephthalite Empire

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The Hephthalites (or Ephthalites) were a people of Central Asia who were militarily important circa 450–560. They were based in Bactria and expanded east to the Tarim Basin, west to Sogdia and south through Afghanistan to northern India. They were a tribal confederation and included both nomadic and settled urban communities. They were part of the four major "Hunic" states known collectively as Xionites or "Hunas", being preceded by the Kidarites, and succeeded by the Alchon Huns and lastly the Nezak Huns. The Sveta Huna or White Huns who invaded northern India are probably the Hephthalites, but the exact relation is not clear. The stronghold of the Hephthalites was Tokharistan on the northern slopes of the Hindu Kush, in what is present-day northeastern Afghanistan. By 479, the Hephthalites had conquered Sogdia and driven the Kidarites westwards, and by 493 they had captured parts of present-day Dzungaria and the Tarim Basin in what is now Northwest China. They expanded into northwestern India as well. Th ...more...



Sher Shah Suri

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Shēr Shāh Sūrī (1486–22 May 1545), born Farīd Khān, was the founder of the Sur Empire in the northern part of the Indian subcontinent, with its capital at Delhi. An ethnic Afghan or Pashtun, Sher Shah took control of the Mughal Empire in 1538. After his accidental death in 1545, his son Islam Shah became his successor. He first served as a private before rising to become a commander in the Mughal army under Babur and then the governor of Bihar. In 1537, when Babur's son Humayun was elsewhere on an expedition, Sher Shah overran the state of Bengal and established the Sur dynasty. A brilliant strategist, Sher Shah proved himself as a gifted administrator as well as a capable general. His reorganization of the empire laid the foundations for the later Mughal emperors, notably Akbar, son of Humayun. During his seven-year rule from 1538 to 1545, he set up a new civic and military administration, issued the first Rupiya from "Taka" and re-organised the postal system of India. He further developed Humayun's Dina-p ...more...



Delhi Sultanate

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The Delhi Sultanate was a Muslim sultanate based mostly in Delhi that stretched over large parts of the Indian subcontinent for 320 years (1206–1526). Five dynasties ruled over the Delhi Sultanate sequentially: the Mamluk dynasty (1206–90), the Khalji dynasty (1290–1320), the Tughlaq dynasty (1320–1414), the Sayyid dynasty (1414–51), and the Lodi dynasty (1451–1526). The sultanate is noted for being one of the few states to repel an attack by the Mongol Empire, and enthroned one of the few female rulers in Islamic history, Razia Sultana, who reigned from 1236 to 1240. Qutb al-Din Aibak, a former Turkic Mamluk slave of Muhammad Ghori, was the first sultan of Delhi, and his Mamluk dynasty conquered large areas of northern India. Afterwards, the Khalji dynasty was also able to conquer most of central India, but both failed to conquer the whole of the Indian subcontinent. The sultanate reached the peak of its geographical reach during the Tughlaq dynasty, occupying most of the Indian subcontinent. This was fol ...more...



Islam in Uttar Pradesh

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Islam in Uttar Pradesh numbers about 38,483,967 (19.26%), according to 2011 census, and forms the largest religious minority in the Indian state of Uttar Pradesh . Muslims of Uttar Pradesh have also been referred to as Hindustani Musalman ( ہندوستانی مسلمان ‬). In the strict sense, the Uttar Pradesh Muslims do not form a single ethnic community. They are differentiated by sectarian and Baradari divisions, as well as by dialect and geographical distribution. Nevertheless, the Uttar Pradesh Muslims possess a sense of group identity based on cultural and historic factors. These include the Islamic religion, a Persian cultural tradition and its Indian offspring, the Urdu language . They are also a disproportionately urban community, reflecting an old historic legacy. Muslims are majority in Rampur district and cities of Sambhal , Rampur , Amroha , Bahraich and Mau according to 2011 census. History Early History Much of Uttar Pradesh formed part of the various Sultanate after 1000 CE and was ruled from their capi ...more...



Lodi Khel

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Lodhi Khel لودھی خیل is a small Town located in Khyber-Pakhtunkhwa province of Pakistan . It is a Shia dominated area and the main Pashtun tribe living there is Bangash Post Address - Village And Post Office Lodhi Khel District And Tehsil Hangu Prominent leaders Jabbar Lala Postal Code - 26196 Coordinates and location type Area Type: Populated place Location Type: Populated Place Latitude: 33.58972 Longitude: 71.16972 Latitude (DMS): 33° 35' 23 N Longitude (DMS): 71° 10' 11 E Lodhi Khel Location by Google Earth lodhi khel is a beautiful place (village ) like swat. lodhi khelianz are very aducated and well manered .lodhi khel khwago malgaro hujra group is very populer group bekoz graet hastiz like hadi jan - haji javeed -shahab jan -jamil jan - murtaza jan - shahid jan- engg qalbe -imtiaz bacha -sajjad jan-iqbal nbp-members in this great group . mulla ali ziyarat .dago . toey . star bagh . kacha .sepaley . chalgaze are populer palces in theis beautifull town . karbalai sharbat ali marhom . sher mehdi mama . ...more...



Bareilly district

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The Bareilly district  pronunciation  belongs to the state Uttar Pradesh in northern India. Its capital is Bareilly city and it is divided in six administrative division or tehsils: Aonla, Baheri, Bareilly city, Faridpur, Mirganj, and Nawabganj. The Bareilly district is a part of the Bareilly Division and occupies an area of 4120 km² with a population of 4,448,359 people (previously it was 3,618,589) according to the census of 2011. In the Sanskrit epic poem, Mahābhārata, the Bareilly region (Panchala) is described as the birthplace of Draupadi, also referred to as Pachali (which means one from the kingdom of Panchāla) or Krishnaa (kṛṣṇā). After Yudhishthira becomes the king at the end of the Mahābhārata, she becomes his queen. In the 12th century, the kingdom was ruled by several clans of Kshatriya Rajputs. After the Mughal invasion, the region became part of the Delhi Sultanate before getting absorbed by the emerging Mughal Empire. The modern City of Bareilly was founded by Mukrand Rai in 1657. Later it be ...more...



History of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa

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The History of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa concerns the history of the region in the north western area of the Indian subcontinent, particularly the Khyber Pakhtunkhwa province of modern day Pakistan; including surrounding areas. The region's role as the gateway into the Indian subcontinent had made it a common strategic area for Ancient Greek, Persian, and nomadic invaders. Historically a Hindu and Buddhist population, the area was once known as an important center of trade and learning. After the Ghaznavids had defeated King Jayapala, the last Hindu King of the region, the area had became a focal point of Islam in the Indian subcontinent due to local Pashtun peoples being converted to Islam. Despite a brief interlude of Maratha and Sikh rule, the region was firmly under Islamic rule until the British had managed to take control. The area was known to be part of the North West Frontier province under British rule. A notable feature of the history of the province was its support for Gandhian ideals under the leadershi ...more...



Iranian peoples

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The Iranian peoples, or Iranic peoples, are a diverse Indo-European ethno-linguistic group that comprise the speakers of the Iranian languages. Proto-Iranians are believed to have emerged as a separate branch of the Indo-Iranians in Central Asia in the mid 2nd millennium BC. At their peak of expansion in the mid 1st millennium BC, the territory of the Iranian peoples stretched across the Iranian Plateau and the entire Eurasian Steppe from the Great Hungarian Plain in the west to the Ordos Plateau in the east. The Western Iranian Persian Empires came to dominate much of the ancient world from the 6th century BC, leaving an important cultural legacy, while the Eastern Iranian nomads of the steppe played a decisive role in the development of Eurasian nomadism and the Silk Route. Ancient Iranian peoples who emerged after 1000 BC include the Persians, Parthians, Medes, Scythians, Alans, Bactrians, Dahae, Massagetae, Khwarezmians, Saka, Sarmatians, Sogdians, Sagartians, probably Cimmerians and other peoples of ...more...



Afghanistan

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Afghanistan (  (   listen ) ; Pashto / Dari : افغانستان ‬, Pashto: Afġānistān , Dari: Afġānestān ), officially the Islamic Republic of Afghanistan , is a landlocked country located within South Asia and Central Asia . Afghanistan is bordered by Pakistan in the south and east; Iran in the west; Turkmenistan , Uzbekistan , and Tajikistan in the north; and in the far northeast, China and the Pakistani-administered Gilgit-Baltistan which is claimed by India . Its territory covers 652,000 square kilometers (252,000 sq mi) and much of it is covered by the Hindu Kush mountain range, which experience very cold winters. The north consists of fertile plains, whilst the south-west consists of deserts where temperatures can get very hot in summers. Kabul serves as the capital and its largest city. Human habitation in Afghanistan dates back to the Middle Paleolithic Era, and the country's strategic location along the Silk Road connected it to the cultures of the Middle East and other parts of Asia. The land has histori ...more...



Jai Singh I

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Mirza Raja Jai Singh (15 July 1611 – 28 August 1667) was a senior general ("Mirza Raja") of the Mughal Empire and a ruler of the kingdom of Amber (later called Jaipur). His father was Raja Bhau Singh who ruled 1614-1621 who died at Battle of Ajmer. His daughter was married to Prince Muzzam (future Bahadur Shah) the eldest son of Aurangzeb. Accession and early career Maharaja Jai Singh of Amber and Maharaja Gaj Singh of Marwar - Folio from the Amber Album, circa 1630. At the age of 10, Jai Singh I became the Raja of Amber and the head of the Kachwaha Rajputs. His military career spans the full reign of Shah Jahan and the first half of Aurangzeb's reign. Jai Singh's first step in his rise to greatness took place on the accession of Shah Jahan (1627). Taking advantage of this change of sovereigns, Jai Singh's commander in the Deccan, Khan Jahan Lodi rebelled along with his Afghan followers. But the Rajput prince brought away his own army to the north and then joined in the campaign that finally defeate ...more...



Peshawar

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Peshawar (Pashto: پېښور‎  pronunciation ; Urdu: پشاور‬‎  pronunciation ; Hindko: پشور‎) is the capital of the Pakistani province of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa. It also serves as the administrative centre and economic hub for the Federally Administered Tribal Areas. Situated in a broad valley near the eastern end of the historic Khyber Pass, close to the border with Afghanistan, Peshawar's recorded history dates back to at least 539 BCE, making it the oldest city in Pakistan and one of the oldest in South Asia. Peshawar was the capital of the ancient Kushan Empire, and was home to what may have been the tallest building in the ancient world, the Kanishka stupa. Peshawar was then sacked by the White Huns, before the arrival of Muslim empires. The city was an important trading centre during the Mughal era before serving as capital for the Durrani Afghan Empire. The city of Peshawar has a population of 1,970,042 according to the 2017 census, making it the largest city in Khyber Pakhtunkhwa and the sixth-largest in Pa ...more...



History of Bareilly

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Ahichchhatra (or Ahi-Kshetra) was the ancient capital of Northern Panchala. The remains of this city has been discovered in Bareilly According to the epic Mahābhārata , Bareilly region ( Panchala ) is said to be the birthplace of Draupadi , who was also referred to as 'Panchali' (one from the kingdom of Panchāla) by Kṛṣṇā ( Lord Krishna ). When Yudhishthira becomes the king of Hastinapura at the end of the Mahābhārata , Draupadi becomes his queen. The folklore says that Gautama Buddha had once visited the ancient fortress city of Ahicchattra in Bareilly. The Jain Tirthankara Parshva is said to have attained Kaivalya at Ahichhatra. In the 12th century, the kingdom was under the rule by different clans of Kshatriya Rajputs. With the arrival of Muslim Turkic dynasties the region became a part of the Delhi Sultanate before getting absorbed in the emerging Mughal Empire . The foundation of the modern City of Bareilly foundation was laid by Mukrand Rai in 1657. Later the region became the capital of Rohilkhand reg ...more...



History of Afghanistan

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The history of Afghanistan, (Persian: تاریخ افغانستان‎ , Tārīkh e Afġānistān, Pashto: د افغانستان تاريخ‎ , Da Afġānistān Tārīkh) began in 1747 with its establishment by Ahmad Shah Durrani. The written recorded history of the land presently constituting Afghanistan can be traced back to around 500 BCE when the area was under the Achaemenid Empire, although evidence indicates that an advanced degree of urbanized culture has existed in the land since between 3000 and 2000 BCE. The Indus Valley Civilisation stretched up to large parts of Afghanistan in the north, with several sites being known. Alexander the Great and his Macedonian army arrived at what is now Afghanistan in 330 BCE after conquering Persia during the Battle of Gaugamela. Since then, many empires have established capitals inside Afghanistan, including the Greco-Bactrians, Mauryas, Kushans, Hindu Shahi, Saffarids, Samanids, Ghaznavids, Ghurids, Timurids, Mughals, Hotakis and Durranis. Afghanistan (meaning "land of the Afghans") has been a strateg ...more...

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Lahore

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Lahore (Urdu: لاہور‎, Punjabi: لہور; ) is the capital city of the Pakistani province of Punjab, and is the country’s second-most populous city after Karachi. The city is located in the north-eastern end of Pakistan's Punjab province, near the border with the Indian state of Punjab. Lahore is one of Pakistan's wealthiest cities with an estimated GDP of $58.14 billion (PPP) as of 2014, and is ranked as a beta-world city. Lahore is the historic cultural centre of the Punjab region, and is one of Pakistan's most socially liberal, progressive, and cosmopolitan cities. Lahore's origins reach into antiquity. The city has been controlled by numerous empires throughout the course of its history, including the Hindu Shahis, Ghaznavids, Ghurids, and Delhi Sultanate by the medieval era. Lahore reached the height of its splendour under the Mughal Empire between the late 16th and early 18th century, and served as its capital city for a number of years. The city was captured by the forces of Persian Emperor Nader Shah in ...more...



Sialkot

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Sialkot (Punjabi and Urdu: سيالكوٹ‬‎) is a city in Punjab, Pakistan. Sialkot is Pakistan's 12th most populous city, and is located in north-east Punjab — one of Pakistan's mostly highly industrialised regions. Along with the nearby cities of Gujranwala and Gujrat, Sialkot forms part of the so-called Golden Triangle of industrial cities with export-oriented economies. Sialkot is believed to be site of ancient Sagala, a city razed by Alexander the Great in 326 BCE, and then made capital of the Indo-Greek kingdom by Menander I in the 2nd century BCE – a time during which the city greatly prospered as a major centre for trade and Buddhist thought. Sialkot continued to be a major political centre, until it was eclipsed by Lahore around the turn of the first millennium. The city rose again in prominence during the British era, and is now one of Pakistan's most important industrial centres. Sialkot is wealthy relative to other cities in South Asia, with an estimated 2014 per capita income of $2800 (nominal). The ...more...



Hotak dynasty

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The Hotak dynasty (Pashto: د هوتکيانو ټولواکمني‎) was an Afghan monarchy of the Ghilji Pashtuns, established in April 1709 by Mirwais Hotak after leading a successful revolution against their declining Persian Safavid overlords in the region of Loy Kandahar ("Greater Kandahar") in what is now southern Afghanistan. It lasted until 1738 when the founder of the Afsharid dynasty, Nader Shah Afshar, defeated Hussain Hotak during the long siege of Kandahar, and started the reestablishment of Iranian suzerainty over all regions lost decades before against the Iranian archrival, the Ottomans, and the Russians. At its peak, the Hotak dynasty ruled briefly over an area which is now Afghanistan, Iran, western Pakistan, and some parts of Tajikistan and Turkmenistan. In 1715, Mirwais died of a natural cause and his brother Abdul Aziz succeeded the monarchy. He was quickly followed by Mahmud who ruled the empire at its largest extent for a mere three years. Following the 1729 Battle of Damghan, where Ashraf Hotak was rou ...more...



Third Battle of Panipat

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The Third Battle of Panipat took place on 14 January 1761 at Panipat, about 60 miles (97 km) north of Delhi, between a northern expeditionary force of the Maratha Empire and invading forces of the King of Afghanistan, Ahmad Shah Abdali, supported by two Indian allies—the Rohilla Afghans of the Doab, and Shuja-ud-Daula, the Nawab of Awadh. Militarily, the battle pitted the artillery and cavalry of the Marathas against the heavy cavalry and mounted artillery (zamburak and jezail) of the Afghans and Rohillas led by Abdali and Najib-ud-Daulah, both ethnic Afghans. The battle is considered one of the largest and most eventful fought in the 18th century, and has perhaps the largest number of fatalities in a single day reported in a classic formation battle between two armies. The specific site of the battle itself is disputed by historians, but most consider it to have occurred somewhere near modern-day Kaalaa Aamb and Sanauli Road. The battle lasted for several days and involved over 125,000 troops. Protracted s ...more...



Kabul

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Kabul (pronounced ; English: ) is the capital of Afghanistan as well as its largest city, located in the eastern section of the country. According to estimates in 2015, the population of Kabul is 4.635 million, which includes all the major ethnic groups. Rapid urbanization had made Kabul the world's 64th largest city. Kabul is located high up in a narrow valley between the Hindu Kush mountains, with an elevation of 1,790 metres (5,873 ft) making it one of the highest capitals in the world. The city is said to be over 3,500 years old, mentioned since at least the time of the Achaemenid Empire. It is at a strategic location along the trade routes of South and Central Asia, and a key location of the ancient Silk Road. It has been part of the Achaemenids followed by the Seleucids, Mauryans, Kushans, Kabul Shahis, Saffarids, Samanids, Ghaznavids, Ghurids, Khwarazmians, Qarlughids, Khaljis, Timurids, Mughals, and Hotaks, until finally becoming part of the Durrani Empire (also known as the "Afghan Empire") in 174 ...more...



Religious violence in India

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Religious violence in India includes acts of violence by followers of one religious group against followers and institutions of another religious group, often in the form of rioting. Religious violence in India, especially in recent times, has generally involved Hindus and Muslims, although incidents of violence have also involved atheists, Christians and Sikhs. There is also history of Muslim – Parsee riots (List of riots in Mumbai). Despite the secular and religiously tolerant constitution of India, broad religious representation in various aspects of society including the government, the active role played by autonomous bodies such as National Human Rights Commission of India and National Commission for Minorities, and the ground-level work being out by Non-governmental organisations, sporadic and sometimes serious acts of religious violence tend to occur as the root causes of religious violence often run deep in history, religious activities, and politics of India. Along with domestic organizations, in ...more...



Shaidu

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Shaidu (شيدو) is a town of about 75,000 people, in the Nowshera District of the Khyber Pakhtunkhwa Province , Pakistan . It is located about 24 kilometers east of the city of Nowshera, between the Khattak mountains to the south and the River Kabul (لندي سيند) in the north. Shaidu1.jpg Shaidu Entrance Shaidu Bus Stop ShaiduGreen.jpg Beauty Of Shaidu Dar UL Uloom E Rabania Shaidu Sunrise View Sunrise1.jpg Sunrise Beautiful View History Shaidu is politically, socially, and economically wonderful town. It gave some of the greatest economists, politicians, and industrialists to Pakistan such as Ghulam Faruque Khanbahadur. If we look up the history of Shaidu with its past and present, scores of outstanding and prominent people will stand in queue. We cannot give place to all of them as Shaidu itself is a moon shining with its thousands of stars. Following are few notables (out of many others) who either died or living retired lives after serving the country on very important/ major positions. KhanBahadur Ghulam Far ...more...



Timeline of Bihar

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Neolithic age Chirand , situated on the northern bank of the Ganga River in Saran district has continuous archaeological record from the Neolithic age (about 2500–1345 BC). The occupational categorization in Chirand covers three periods – Period I Neolithic (2500–1345 BC), Period II Chalcolithic (1600 B.C) and Period III Iron age . Later Vedic Period 1100-500BCE: Mithila region of Bihar became the centre of Indian Power in the later Vedic Period under the rule of Janaks. Sita , a daughter of one of the Janaks of Mithila is mentioned as the consort of Lord Rama , in the Hindu epic , Ramayana , written by Valmiki . Mahajanpadas Around 500-around 300 BCE: Foundation and rule of world's first republic , Vajji , a confederation of various clans, in the Mithila region of present-day Bihar with capital at Vaishali and Lichhivis are the most powerful clan of Vajji. 560-480 BCE: Rule of Anga Kingdom in present-day south-eastern Bihar. 490 BCE: Establishment of Pataliputra (Modern Patna). Before 325 BCE: Nanda clan r ...more...



Kohi Safi District

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Districts of Parwan Kohi Safi District , ( Dari : ولسوالی کوه صافی ‎), is now one major historical district located in South-eastern Parwan province , Kohi Safi district is one of the most single districts where almost all of the region is populated by Safi tribe . Although in 1930s Kohi Safi was said to be one of the 2nd most populous district of Parwan after Charakar, but during 1930s-1940s the region was depopulated due to Governments pressure to evacuation of area due to Saf's War on the King. Majority of its population were displaced or escaped further in the north away from borders of capital Kabul , few escaped to west in modern Herat and many into it India (After 1947 came to be Pakistan ). The root of the conflict seems to be started due to King Amanuallah Khan's proposal of modernization, Safi and with few other Afghan tribes armed against the ruling family of Durrani. Although some annalists assume the other factor behind the conflict and rise of Safi was mainly due to Safi's not being of ruling Du ...more...



Sayyid

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In the Ottoman Empire, Muhammad's descendants formed a kind of nobility with the privilege of wearing green turbans. Syed Hussain Ali Khan Barha was a leading administrator during the reign of the Mughal Emperor Farrukhsiyar. Sayyid Muhammad Rizvi, a Shia Islamic scholar, wearing a black turban. A black turban is worn by Ithna Ashari Shi'ite Sayyid clergymen, whilst a white turban is worn by non-Sayyid Ithna Ashari Shi'ite clergymen. Shah Syed Hasnain Baqai, a Sufi Islamic scholar, wearing a chishtiya turban. A chishtiya colour turban is mostly worn by Sufi Syed. Sayyid (also spelt Syed, Saiyed, Seyd, Sayed, Sayyad, Sayyed, Saiyid, Seyed, Said and Seyyed) (pronounced , Arabic: سيد‎; meaning Mister) (plural Sadah Arabic: سادة‎, Sāda(h), also spelled Sadat) is an honorific title denoting people (Sayyid for males, Sayyida for females) accepted as descendants of the Islamic prophet Muhammad through his grandsons, Hasan ibn Ali and Husayn ibn Ali (combined Hasnain), sons of Muhammad's daughte ...more...



Multan

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Multan ( Punjabi and Urdu : مُلتان ‬ ‎ ;   pronunciation   ), is a Pakistani city and the headquarters of Multan District in the province of Punjab . Located on the banks of the Chenab River , Multan is Pakistan's 6th most populous city, and is the premier cultural and economic centre of southern Punjab. Multan's history stretches deep into antiquity. The ancient city was site of the renowned Multan Sun Temple , and was besieged by Alexander the Great during the Mallian Campaign . Multan was one of the most important trading centres of medieval Islamic India, and attracted a multitude of Sufi mystics in the 11th and 12th centuries, earning the city the nickname City of Saints . The city, along with the nearby city of Uch , is renowned for its large collection of Sufi shrines dating from that era. Etymology The origin of Multan's name is unclear. It has been postulated that Multan derives its name from the Sanskrit word for the pre-Islamic Hindu Multan Sun Temple , called Mulasthana. Hukm Chand in the 1 ...more...



Muslim conquests of the Indian subcontinent

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Muslim conquests on the Indian subcontinent mainly took place from the 12th to the 16th centuries, though earlier Muslim conquests made limited inroads into modern Afghanistan and Pakistan as early as the time of the Rajput kingdoms in the 8th century. With the establishment of the Delhi Sultanate, Islam spread across large parts of the subcontinent. In 1204, Bakhtiyar Khalji led the Muslim conquest of Bengal, marking the eastern-most expansion of Islam at the time. Prior to the rise of the Maratha Empire, which was followed by the conquest of India by the British East India Company, the Muslim Mughal Empire was able to annex or subjugate most of India's kings. However, it was never able to conquer the kingdoms in the upper reaches of the Himalayas, such as those of modern Himachal Pradesh, Uttarakhand, Sikkim, Nepal and Bhutan; the kingdoms of the extreme south of India, such as Travancore and Tamil Nadu; or the kingdoms in the east, such as the Ahom Kingdom in Assam. Early Muslim presence Islam in Sout ...more...



Mughal Empire

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The Mughal Empire (Urdu: مغلیہ سلطنت‬‎, translit. Mughliyah Saltanat) or Mogul Empire was an empire in the Indian subcontinent, founded in 1526. It was established and ruled by a Muslim dynasty with Turco-Mongol Chagatai roots from Central Asia, but with significant Indian Rajput and Persian ancestry through marriage alliances; only the first two Mughal emperors were fully Central Asian, while successive emperors were of predominantly Rajput and Persian ancestry. The dynasty was Indo-Persian in culture, combining Persianate culture with local Indian cultural influences visible in its traits and customs. The Mughal Empire at its peak extended over nearly all of the Indian subcontinent and parts of Afghanistan. It was the second largest empire to have existed in the Indian subcontinent, spanning approximately four million square kilometres at its zenith, after only the Maurya Empire, which spanned approximately five million square kilometres. The Mughal Empire ushered in a period of proto-industrialization, ...more...



Lahore Fort

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The Lahore Fort (Punjabi and Urdu: شاہی قلعہ‬‎: Shahi Qila, or "Royal Fort"), is a citadel in the city of Lahore, Pakistan. The fortress is located at the northern end of Lahore's Walled City, and spreads over an area greater than 20 hectares. It contains 21 notable monuments, some of which date to the era of Emperor Akbar. The Lahore Fort is notable for having been almost entirely rebuilt in the 17th century, when the Mughal Empire was at the height of its splendour and opulence. Though the site of the Lahore Fort has been inhabited for millennia, the first record of a fortified structure at the site was in regard to an 11th-century mud-brick fort. The foundations of the modern Lahore Fort date to 1566 during the reign of Emperor Akbar, who bestowed the fort with a syncretic architectural style that featured both Islamic and Hindu motifs. Additions from the Shah Jahan period are characterized by luxurious marble with inlaid Persian floral designs, while the fort's grand and iconic Alamgiri Gate was constru ...more...



Pakistan

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Pakistan (  (   listen ) or  (   listen ) ; Urdu : پاکِستان ‬ ‎), officially the Islamic Republic of Pakistan ( Urdu : اِسلامی جمہوریہ پاکِستان ‬ ‎), is a country in South Asia . It is the fifth-most populous country with a population exceeding 209,970,000 people . In terms of area, it is the 33rd-largest country spanning 881,913 square kilometres (340,509 square miles). Pakistan has a 1,046-kilometre (650-mile) coastline along the Arabian Sea and Gulf of Oman in the south and is bordered by India to the east, Afghanistan to the west, Iran to the southwest, and China in the far northeast, respectively. It is separated narrowly from Tajikistan by Afghanistan's Wakhan Corridor in the north-west, and also shares a maritime border with Oman . The territory that now constitutes Pakistan was the site of several ancient cultures , including the Mehrgarh of the Neolithic and the Bronze Age Indus Valley Civilisation , and was later home to kingdoms ruled by people of different faiths and cultures, including Hindus , ...more...



Kabul Shahi

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The Kabul Shahi dynasties also called Shahiya ruled the Kabul Valley (in eastern Afghanistan) and the old province of Gandhara (northern Pakistan) during the Classical Period of India from the decline of the Kushan Empire in the 3rd century to the early 11th century. They are split into two eras: the Buddhist Turk Shahi and the later Hindu-Shahis with the change-over occurring around 870 CE. When Xuanzang visited the region early in the 7th century, the Kabul region was ruled by a Kshatriya king, who is identified as the Shahi Khingal, and whose name has been found in an inscription found in Gardez. These Hindu kings of Kabul and Gandhara may have had links to some ruling families in neighboring Kashmir, Punjab and other areas to the east. The Shahis were rulers of predominantly Buddhist and Hindu populations and were thus patrons of numerous faiths, and various artifacts and coins from their rule have been found that display their multicultural domain. The last Shahi emperors Jayapala, Anandapala and Tir ...more...





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