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Lodi (Pashtun tribe)

Lodi (Pashto: لودي; Persian: لودی) is a Pashtun tribe of the Bettani family, being the group of Pashtun tribes who claim descent from Bet, the second son of Qais Abdur Rashid.[1]

Lodi dynasty

The Lodi dynasty ruled from Delhi in India between 1451-1526.[1] The sultans of this dynasty were Bahlul Lodi, Sikandar Lodi and Ibrahim Lodi. They spread Islam in South Asia, in particular Sufism. They established themselves during the Islamic period as a Muslim ruling class and were valued warriors.

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Islam in Uttar Pradesh

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Islam in Uttar Pradesh numbers about 38,483,967 (19.26%), according to 2011 census, and forms the largest religious minority in the Indian state of Uttar Pradesh . Muslims of Uttar Pradesh have also been referred to as Hindustani Musalman ( ہندوستانی مسلمان ). In the strict sense, the Uttar Pradesh Muslims do not form a single ethnic community. They are differentiated by sectarian and Baradari divisions, as well as by dialect and geographical distribution. Nevertheless, the Uttar Pradesh Muslims possess a sense of group identity based on cultural and historic factors. These include the Islamic religion, a Persian cultural tradition and its Indian offspring, the Urdu language . They are also a disproportionately urban community, reflecting an old historic legacy. Muslims are majority in Rampur district and cities of Sambhal , Rampur , Amroha , Bahraich and Mau according to 2011 census. History Early History Much of Uttar Pradesh formed part of the various Sultanate after 1000 CE and was ruled from their capit



Kohi Safi District

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Districts of Parwan Kohi Safi District or Sapi Ghar (Persian: ولسوالی کوه صافی ) is now one major historical district located in South-eastern Parwan province , Kohi Safi district is one of the most single districts where almost all of the region is populated by Safi tribe . Although in 1930s Kohi Safi was said to be one of the 2nd most populous district of Parwan after Charakar, but during 1930s-1940s the region was depopulated due to Governments pressure to evacuation of area due to Saf's War on the King. Majority of its population were displaced or escaped further in the north away from borders of capital Kabul , few escaped to west in modern Herat and many into it India (After 1947 came to be Pakistan ). The root of the conflict seems to be started due to King Amanuallah Khan's proposal of modernization, Safi and with few other Afghan tribes armed against the ruling family of Durrani. Although some annalists assume the other factor behind the conflict and rise of Safi was mainly due to Safi's not being of



Iranian peoples

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The Iranian peoples or Iranic peoples are a diverse Indo-European ethno-linguistic group that comprise the speakers of the Iranian languages . Proto-Iranians are believed to have emerged as a separate branch of the Indo-Iranians in Central Asia in the mid 2nd millennium BC. At their peak of expansion in the mid 1st millennium BC, the territory of the Iranian peoples stretched across the Iranian Plateau and the entire Eurasian Steppe from the Great Hungarian Plain in the west to the Ordos Plateau in the east. The Western Iranian Persian Empires came to dominate much of the ancient world from the 6th century BC, leaving an important cultural legacy, while the Eastern Iranian nomads of the steppe played a decisive role in the development of Eurasian nomadism and the Silk Route . Ancient Iranian peoples who emerged after 1000 BC include the Persians , Parthians , Medes , Scythians , Cimmerians , Alans , Bactrians , Dahae , Massagetae , Khwarezmians , Saka , Sarmatians , Sogdians , Sagartians and other peoples



History of Bareilly

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Ahichchhatra (or Ahi-Kshetra) was the ancient capital of Northern Panchala. The remains of this city has been discovered in Bareilly According to the epic Mahābhārata, Bareilly region (Panchala) is said to be the birthplace of Draupadi, who was also referred to as 'Panchali' (one from the kingdom of Panchāla) by Kṛṣṇā (Lord Krishna). When Yudhishthira becomes the king of Hastinapura at the end of the Mahābhārata, Draupadi becomes his queen. The folklore says that Gautama Buddha had once visited the ancient fortress city of Ahicchattra in Bareilly.[1] The Jain Tirthankara Parshva is said to have attained Kaivalya at Ahichhatra.[2] In the 12th century, the kingdom was under the rule by different clans of Kshatriya Rajputs. With the Islamic Turkic Invasion the region became a part of the Delhi Sultanate before getting absorbed in the emerging Mughal Empire. The foundation of the modern City of Bareilly foundation was laid by Mukrand Rai in 1657. Later the region became the capital of Rohilkhand region b



Peshawar

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Peshawar ( Urdu : پشاور ‎; Pashto : پېښور ‎; Hindko : پشور ) is the capital of the Pakistani province of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa . It also serves as the administrative centre and economic hub for the Federally Administered Tribal Areas . Situated in a broad valley near the eastern end of the historic Khyber Pass , close to the border with Afghanistan , Peshawar's recorded history dates back to at least 539 B.C.E. , making it the oldest city in Pakistan and one of the oldest in South Asia . Peshawar is the largest city of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa province. According to the last census, it is also the ninth-largest city of Pakistan. Etymology The earliest settlement established in the area of Peshawar was called Purushapura ( IAST :Puruṣapura; "City of Men"), from which the current name "Peshawar" is derived. The Arab historian and geographer Al-Masudi noted that by the mid 10th century, the city had become known as Parashāwar. After the Ghaznavid invasion, the city's name was again noted to be Parashāwar by Al-Biruni



Hotak dynasty

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The Hotak dynasty or the Hotaki dynasty was an Afghan monarchy of the Ghilji Pashtuns, established in April 1709 by Mirwais Hotak after leading a successful revolution against their declining Persian Safavid overlords in Kandahar . It lasted until 1738 when the founder of the Afsharid dynasty , Nader Shah Afshar , defeated Hussain Hotak during the long siege of Kandahar , and started the reestablishment of Iranian suzerainty over all regions lost decades before against the Iranian archrival, the Ottomans , and the Russians. At its peak, the Hotak dynasty ruled very briefly over an area which is now Afghanistan , western Pakistan , and large parts of Iran. In 1715, Mirwais died of a natural cause and his brother Abdul Aziz succeeded the monarchy. He was quickly followed by Mahmud who ruled the empire at its largest extent for a mere three years. Following the 1729 Battle of Damghan , where Ashraf Hotak was roundly defeated by Nader Shah, Ashraf was banished to what is now southern Afghanistan with Hotak rule



Jai Singh I

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Mirza Raja Jai Singh (15 July 1611 – 28 August 1667) was a senior general ("Mirza Raja") of the Mughal Empire and a ruler of the kingdom of Amber (later called Jaipur). His father was Raja Bhau Singh who ruled 1614-1621 who died at Battle of Ajmer. His daughter was married to Prince Muzzam (future Bahadur Shah) the eldest son of Aurangzeb. Accession and early career Maharaja Jai Singh of Amber and Maharaja Gaj Singh of Marwar - Folio from the Amber Album, circa 1630. At the age of 10, Jai Singh I became the Raja of Amber and the head of the Kachwaha Rajputs. His military career spans the full reign of Shah Jahan and the first half of Aurangzeb's reign. Jai Singh's first step in his rise to greatness took place on the accession of Shah Jahan (1627). Taking advantage of this change of sovereigns, Jai Singh's commander in the Deccan, Khan Jahan Lodi rebelled along with his Afghan followers. But the Rajput prince brought away his own army to the north and then joined in the campaign that finally defeated



History of Afghanistan

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The written history of Afghanistan, ( Persian : تاریخ افغانستان ‎‎ , Tārīkh e Afġānistān ), Pashto : د افغانستان تاريخ ‎ , Da Afġānistān Tārīkh), can be traced back to around 500 BCE when the area was under the Achaemenid Empire , although evidence indicates that an advanced degree of urbanized culture has existed in the land since between 3000 and 2000 BCE. The Indus Valley Civilisation stretched up to large parts of Afghanistan in the north, with several sites being known. Alexander the Great and his Macedonian army arrived at what is now Afghanistan in 330 BCE after conquering Persia during the Battle of Gaugamela . Since then, many empires have established capitals inside Afghanistan, including the Greco-Bactrians , Mauryas , Kushans , Hindu Shahi , Saffarids , Samanids , Ghaznavids , Ghurids , Timurids , Mughals , Hotakis and Durranis . Afghanistan (meaning "land of the Afghans") has been a strategically important location throughout history. The land served as "a gateway to India , impinging on th



Afghanistan

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Afghanistan ( ; Pashto / Dari : افغانستان , Pashto: Afġānistān , Dari: Afġānestān ), officially the Islamic Republic of Afghanistan , is a landlocked country located within South Asia and Central Asia . The country has a population of 33 million, making it the 42nd most populous country in the world. Afghanistan is bordered by Pakistan in the south and east; Iran in the west; Turkmenistan , Uzbekistan , and Tajikistan in the north; and China in the far northeast. Its territory covers 652,000 square kilometers (252,000 sq mi), making it the 41st largest country in the world. Human habitation in Afghanistan dates back to the Middle Paleolithic Era, and the country's strategic location along the Silk Road connected it to the cultures of the Middle East and other parts of Asia. The land has historically been home to various peoples and has witnessed numerous military campaigns, including those by Alexander the Great , Mauryas , Muslim Arabs , Mongols , British , Soviet , and in the modern era by Western powers



Kabul

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Kabul ( Pashto / Dari : کابل ‎‎, pronounced  ; English: ) is the capital of Afghanistan as well as its largest city , located in the eastern section of the country. According to latest estimates, the population of the city is about 4.6 million, which includes all the major ethnic groups . Rapid urbanization had made Kabul the world's 64th largest city and the fifth fastest-growing city in the world. Kabul is said to be over 3,500 years old, mentioned since at least the time of the Achaemenid Empire . The city is at a strategic location along the trade routes of South and Central Asia , and a key location of the ancient Silk Road . It has been part of the Achaemenids , Seleucids , Mauryans , Kushans , Kabul Shahis , Saffarids , Ghaznavids , and Ghurids . Later, it was controlled by the Mughal Empire until finally becoming part of the Durrani Empire in 1747. The city is located high up in a narrow valley between the Hindu Kush mountains. Kabul became the capital of Afghanistan during the reign of Timur Shah



Multan

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Multan ( Punjabi and Urdu : مُلتان ‎;   pronunciation   ), is a Pakistani city located in Punjab province. Multan is Pakistan's 5th most populous city, and is the premier-centre for southern Punjab province. Multan is located on the banks of the Chenab River , and is at the heart of Pakistan. Multan's history stretches back into antiquity. The ancient city was site of the renowned Multan Sun Temple , and was besieged by Alexander the Great during the Mallian Campaign . Multan was one of the most important trading centres of medieval Islamic India, and attracted a multitude of Sufi mystics in the 11th and 12th centuries, earning the city the nickname City of Saints . The city, along with the nearby city of Uch , is renowned for its large collection of Sufi shrines dating from that era. Etymology The origin of Multan's name is unclear. It has been postulated that Multan derives its name from the Sanskrit word for the pre-Islamic Hindu Multan Sun Temple , called Mulasthana. Hukm Chand in the 19th century su



Muhajir people

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Muhajir (also spelled Mahajir and Mohajir ) ( Urdu : مہاجر ‎, Arabic : مهاجر ‎‎) is an Arabic -origin term used in Pakistan to describe Muslim immigrants, of multi-ethnic origin, and their descendants, who migrated from various regions of India after the Partition of India to settle in the newly independent state of Pakistan. Although some of them speak different languages at the native level, they are primarily identified as native Urdu speakers and hence are called Urdu-speaking people. Etymology The Urdu term muhājir ( Urdu : مہاجر ‎) comes from the Arabic muhājir ( Arabic : مهاجر ‎‎), meaning an "immigrant", and the term is associated in early Islamic history to the migration of Muslims . After the independence of Pakistan , a significant number of Muslims emigrated or were out-migrated from territory that remained India . In the aftermath of partition, a huge population exchange occurred between the two newly formed states. In the riots which preceded the partition in the Punjab region, between 2



Sayyid

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In the Ottoman Empire , Muhammad's descendants formed a kind of nobility with the privilege of wearing green turbans. Syed Hussain Ali Khan Barha was a leading administrator during the reign of the Mughal Emperor Farrukhsiyar . Sayyid Muhammad Rizvi , a Shia Islamic scholar, wearing a black turban. A black turban is worn by Ithna Ashari Shi'ite Sayyid clergymen, whilst a white turban is worn by non-Sayyid Ithna Ashari Shi'ite clergymen. Shah Syed Hasnain Baqai , a Sufi Islamic scholar, wearing a chishtiya turban. A chishtiya colour turban is mostly worn by Sufi Syed . Sayyid (also spelled Syed , Saiyed , Seyd , Sayed , Sayyad , Sayyed , Saiyid , Seyed , Said and Seyyed ) ( pronounced  , Arabic : سيد ‎‎; meaning Mister ) (plural Sadah Arabic : سادة ‎‎, Sāda(h) , also spelled Sadat) is an honorific title denoting people (Sayyid for males, Sayyida for females) accepted as descendants of the Islamic prophet Muhammad through his grandsons, Hasan ibn Ali and Husayn ibn Ali combined Hasnain , sons of Muhammad's da



Religious violence in India

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Communal violence in India includes acts of violence by followers of one religious group against followers and institutions of another religious group, often in the form of rioting.[1] Religious violence in India, especially in recent times, has generally involved Hindus and Muslims,[2] although incidents of violence have also involved atheists, Christians and Sikhs. There is also history of Muslim – Parsee riots (List of riots in Mumbai). Despite the secular and religiously tolerant constitution of India, broad religious representation in various aspects of society including the government, the active role played by autonomous bodies such as National Human Rights Commission of India and National Commission for Minorities, and the ground-level work being out by Non-governmental organisations, sporadic and sometimes serious acts of religious violence tend to occur as the root causes of religious violence often run deep in history, religious activities, and politics of India.[3] [4] [5] [6] Along with domes



Third Battle of Panipat

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The Third Battle of Panipat took place on 14 January 1761 at Panipat , about 60 miles (97 km) north of Delhi , between a northern expeditionary force of the Maratha Empire and invading forces of the King of Afghanistan , Ahmad Shah Abdali , supported by two Indian allies—the Rohilla Afghans of the Doab , and Shuja-ud-Daula , the Nawab of Awadh . Militarily, the battle pitted the artillery and cavalry of the Marathas against the heavy cavalry and mounted artillery ( zamburak and jezail ) of the Afghans and Rohillas led by Ahmad Shah Abdali and Najib-ud-Daulah , both ethnic Afghans (the former is also known as Ahmad Shah Durrani). The battle is considered one of the largest and most eventful fought in the 18th century, and has perhaps the largest number of fatalities in a single day reported in a classic formation battle between two armies. The specific site of the battle itself is disputed by historians, but most consider it to have occurred somewhere near modern-day Kaalaa Aamb and Sanauli Road. The battle l



Mughal Empire

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The Mughal Empire ( Urdu : مغلیہ سلطنت ‎, translit.   Mughliyah Salṭanat ) or Mogul Empire , self-designated as Gurkani ( Persian : گورکانیان ‎‎, Gūrkāniyān, meaning "son-in-law"), was an empire in the Indian subcontinent , established and ruled by a Muslim Turco-Mongol dynasty of Chagatai origin from Central Asia . The dynasty, though ethnically Turco-Mongol , was Persianate in culture, with local influences visible in its traits and customs. The Mughal empire extended over large parts of the Indian subcontinent and Afghanistan . The empire at its peak was the second largest to have existed in the Indian subcontinent , spanning 4 million square kilometres at its zenith after the Maurya Empire which spanned 5 million square kilometres. The beginning of the empire is conventionally dated to the victory by its founder Babur over Ibrahim Lodi , the last ruler of the Delhi Sultanate , in the First Battle of Panipat (1526). The Mughal emperors were Central Asian Turco-Mongols belonging to the Timurid dyn



Lahore Fort

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The Lahore Fort ( Urdu / Punjabi : شاہی قلعہ : Shahi Qila , or Royal Fort), is a citadel in the city of Lahore , Pakistan . The fortress is located at the northern end of Lahore's Walled City , and spreads over an area greater than 20 hectares . It contains 21 notable monuments, some of which date to the era of Emperor Akbar . The Lahore Fort is notable for having been almost entirely rebuilt in the 17th century, when the Mughal Empire was at the height of its splendour and opulence. Though the site of the Lahore Fort has been inhabited for millennia, the first record of a fortified structure at the site was in regard to an 11th-century mud-brick fort. The foundations of the modern Lahore Fort date to 1566 during the reign of Emperor Akbar, who bestowed the fort with an architectural style that featured Hindu motifs. Additions from the Shah Jahan period are characterized by luxurious marble with inlaid Persian floral designs, while the fort's grand and iconic Alamgiri Gate was constructed by the last o



Muslim conquests of the Indian subcontinent

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Muslim conquests on the Indian subcontinent mainly took place from the 12th to the 16th centuries, though earlier Muslim conquests made limited inroads into modern Afghanistan and Pakistan as early as the time of the Rajput kingdoms in the 8th century. With the establishment of the Delhi Sultanate, Islam spread across large parts of the subcontinent. In 1204, Bakhtiar Khilji led the Muslim conquest of Bengal, marking the eastern-most expansion of Islam at the time. Prior to the rise of the Maratha Empire, which was followed by the conquest of India by the British East India Company, the Muslim Mughal Empire was able to annex or subjugate most of India's kings. However, it was never able to conquer the kingdoms in upper reaches of the Himalayas such as the regions of today's Himachal Pradesh, Uttarakhand, Sikkim, Nepal and Bhutan; the extreme south of India, such as Travancore and Tamil Nadu; and in the east, such as the Ahom kingdom in Assam. Early Muslim Presence Islam in South Asia existed in communiti



History of the Punjab

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The name Punjab is a xenonym / exonym and the first known mention of the word Punjab is in the writings of Ibn Batūtā, who visited the region in the 14th century. The term came into wider use in the second half of the 16th century, and was used in the book Tarikh-e-Sher Shah Suri (1580), which mentions the construction of a fort by "Sher Khan of Punjab". The first mentioning of the Sanskrit equivalent of ' Punjab ', however, occurs in the great epic, the Mahabharata (pancha-nada 'country of five rivers'). The name is mentioned again in Ain-e-Akbari (part 1), written by Abul Fazal , who also mentions that the territory of Punjab was divided into two provinces, Lahore and Multan . Similarly in the second volume of Ain-e-Akbari, the title of a chapter includes the word Panjnad in it. The Mughal King Jahangir also mentions the word Panjab in Tuzk-i-Janhageeri. Punjab, derived from Persian and introduced by the Turkic conquerors of India , literally means "five" (panj) "waters" (āb), i.e., the Land of Five Riv



Timeline of Bihar

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Neolithic age Chirand , situated on the northern bank of the Ganga River in Saran district has continuous archaeological record from the Neolithic age (about 2500–1345 BC). The occupational categorization in Chirand covers three periods – Period I Neolithic (2500–1345 BC), Period II Chalcolithic (1600 B.C) and Period III Iron age . Later Vedic Period 1100-500BCE: Mithila region of Bihar became the centre of Indian Power in the later Vedic Period under the rule of Janaks. Sita , a daughter of one of the Janaks of Mithila is mentioned as the consort of Lord Rama , in the Hindu epic , Ramayana , written by Valmiki . Mahajanpadas Around 500-around 300 BCE: Foundation and rule of world's first republic , Vajji , a confederation of various clans, in the Mithila region of present-day Bihar with capital at Vaishali and Lichhivis are the most powerful clan of Vajji. 560-480 BCE: Rule of Anga Kingdom in present-day south-eastern Bihar. 490 BCE: Establishment of Pataliputra (Modern Patna). Before 325 BCE: Nanda clan r



Kabul Shahi

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The Kabul Shahi dynasties also called Shahiya ruled the Kabul Valley (in eastern Afghanistan ) and the old province of Gandhara (northern Pakistan) during the Classical Period of India from the decline of the Kushan Empire in the 3rd century to the early 9th century. They are split into two eras: the Buddhist - Shahis and the later Hindu -Shahis with the change-over occurring around 870 CE. When Xuanzang visited the region early in the 7th century, the Kabul region was ruled by a Kshatriya king, who is identified as the Shahi Khingal, and whose name has been found in an inscription found in Gardez . These Hindu kings of Kabul and Gandhara may have had links to some ruling families in neighboring Kashmir, Punjab and other areas to the east. The Shahis were rulers of predominantly Buddhist and Hindu populations and were thus patrons of numerous faiths, and various artifacts and coins from their rule have been found that display their multicultural domain. The last Shahi emperors Jayapala , Anandapala and Tirlo



Pakistan

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Pakistan ( or ; Urdu : پاکستان ‎), officially the Islamic Republic of Pakistan ( Urdu : اسلامی جمہوریہ پاکستان ‎), is a country in South Asia . It is the sixth-most populous country with a population exceeding 201 million people . In terms of area, it is the 33rd-largest country spanning 881,913 square kilometres (340,509 square miles). Pakistan has a 1,046-kilometre (650-mile) coastline along the Arabian Sea and its Gulf of Oman in the south and is bordered by India to the east, Afghanistan to the west, Iran to the southwest, and China in the far northeast, respectively. It is separated from Tajikistan by Afghanistan's narrow Wakhan Corridor in the north, and also shares a maritime border with Oman . The territory that constitutes Pakistan is considered a cradle of civilisation that was previously home to several ancient cultures , including the Mehrgarh of the Neolithic and the Bronze Age Indus Valley Civilisation , and later home to kingdoms ruled by people of different faiths and cultures, including Hind




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