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Lodi (Pashtun tribe)

Lodi (Pashto: لودي; Persian: لودی) is a Pashtun tribe of the Bettani family, being the group of Pashtun tribes who claim descent from Bet, the second son of Qais Abdur Rashid.[1]

Lodi dynasty

The Lodi dynasty ruled from Delhi in India between 1451-1526.[1] The sultans of this dynasty were Bahlul Lodi, Sikandar Lodi and Ibrahim Lodi. They spread Islam in South Asia, in particular Sufism. They established themselves during the Islamic period as a Muslim ruling class and were valued warriors.

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Durrani Empire


The Durrani Empire ( Pashto : د درانیانو واکمني ‎), also called the Afghan Empire , was founded and built by Ahmad Shah Durrani with its capitals at Kandahar , Afghanistan , and Peshawar , Pakistan . It covered the modern states of Afghanistan and Pakistan, and at its maximum extent under its founder Ahmad Shah Durrani, it also held suzerainty over northeastern Iran , eastern Turkmenistan , northwestern India , and the Kashmir region. It is recognized as one of the most powerful Muslim empires. After the death of Nader Shah Afshar in 1747, the region of Kandahar was claimed by Ahmad Shah Durrani. From there he began conquering Ghazni followed by Kabul . In 1749 the Mughal ruler had ceded sovereignty over what is now Pakistan and northwestern Punjab to the Afghans. Ahmad Shah then set out westward to take possession of Herat , which was ruled by Shahrukh Afshar . He next sent an army to subdue the areas north of the Hindu Kush and in short order all the different tribes began joining his cause. Ahmad Shah an



Babur ( Persian : بابر ‎, translit.   Bābur , lit.   'Tiger'‎; 14 February 1483 – 26 December 1530), born Ẓahīr-ud-Dīn Muḥammad ( Persian : ظهیرالدین محمد ‎, translit.   Ẓahīr ad-Dīn Muḥammad ‎), was a conqueror from Central Asia who, following a series of setbacks, finally succeeded in laying the basis for the Mughal dynasty in the Indian subcontinent and became the first Mughal emperor. He was a direct descendant of Turco-Mongol conqueror Timur (Tamurlane) from the Barlas clan, through his father, and also a descendant of Genghis Khan through his mother. He was also influenced by the Persian culture and this affected both his own actions and those of his successors, giving rise to a significant expansion of the Persianate ethos in the Indian subcontinent. Babur was the eldest son of Umar Sheikh Mirza . He ascended the throne of Fergana in 1495 at the age of twelve and faced rebellion from his own relatives. He conquered Samarkand two years later, only to lose the city of Fergana soon after. In his attempt

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Islam in Uttar Pradesh


Islam in Uttar Pradesh ( Urdu : اتر پردیشی مسلمان ‎) numbers about 38,483,967 (19.26%), according to 2011 census, and forms the largest religious minority in the Indian state of Uttar Pradesh . Muslims of Uttar Pradesh have also been referred to as Hindustani Musalman ( ہندوستانی مسلمان ). In the strict sense, the Uttar Pradesh Muslims do not form a single ethnic community. They are differentiated by sectarian and Baradari divisions, as well as by dialect and geographical distribution. Nevertheless, the Uttar Pradesh Muslims possess a sense of group identity based on cultural and historic factors. These include the Islamic religion, a Persian cultural tradition and its Indian offspring, the Urdu language . They are also a disproportionately urban community, reflecting an old historic legacy. Muslims are majority in Rampur district and cities of Sambhal , Rampur , Amroha and Bahraich according to 2011 census. History Early History Much of Uttar Pradesh formed part of the various Sultanate after 1000 CE and wa

Kohi Safi District


Districts of Parwan Kohi Safi District or Sapi Ghar (Persian: ولسوالی کوه صافی ) is now one major historical district located in South-eastern Parwan province , Kohi Safi district is one of the most single districts where almost all of the region is populated by Safi tribe . Although in 1930s Kohi Safi was said to be one of the 2nd most populous district of Parwan after Charakar, but during 1930s-1940s the region was depopulated due to Governments pressure to evacuation of area due to Saf's War on the King. Majority of its population were displaced or escaped further in the north away from borders of capital Kabul , few escaped to west in modern Herat and many into it India (After 1947 came to be Pakistan ). The root of the conflict seems to be started due to King Amanuallah Khan's proposal of modernization, Safi and with few other Afghan tribes armed against the ruling family of Durrani. Although some annalists assume the other factor behind the conflict and rise of Safi was mainly due to Safi's not being of

Khyber Pass


The Khyber Pass ( Pashto : د خیبر درہ ‎, Urdu : در خیبر ‎) (elevation: 1,070 m or 3,510 ft) is a mountain pass connecting Afghanistan and Pakistan , cutting through the northeastern part of the Spin Ghar mountains. An integral part of the ancient Silk Road , it has long had significant cultural, economic, and geopolitical significance. Throughout history it has been an important trade route between Central Asia and the Indian Subcontinent and a strategic military location. The summit of the pass is 5 km (3.1 mi) inside Pakistan at Landi Kotal . The Khyber Pass is part of the Asian Highway 1 ( AH1 ). History Elephant battery of heavy artillery along the Khyber Pass at Campbellpur , 1895 Well known invasions of the area have been predominantly through the Khyber Pass, such as the invasions by Darius I , Genghis Khan and later Mongols such as Duwa , Qutlugh Khwaja and Kebek . Prior to the Kushan era , the Khyber Pass was not a widely used trade route. Among the Muslim invasions of ancient India, the famous inva

Iranian peoples


The Iranian peoples or Iranic peoples are a diverse Indo-European ethno-linguistic group that comprise the speakers of the Iranian languages . Proto-Iranians are believed to have emerged as a separate branch of the Indo-Iranians in Central Asia in the mid 2nd millennium BC. At their peak of expansion in the mid 1st millennium BC, the territory of the Iranian peoples stretched across the Iranian Plateau and the entire Eurasian Steppe from the Great Hungarian Plain in the west to the Ordos Plateau in the east. The Western Iranian Persian Empires came to dominate much of the ancient world from the 6th century BC, leaving an important cultural legacy, while the Eastern Iranian nomads of the steppe played a decisive role in the development of Eurasian nomadism and the Silk Route . Ancient Iranian peoples who emerged after 1000 BC include the Persians , Parthians , Medes , Scythians , Cimmerians , Alans , Bactrians , Dahae , Massagetae , Khwarezmians , Saka , Sarmatians , Sogdians , Sagartians and other peoples

History of Bareilly


Ahichchhatra (or Ahi-Kshetra) was the ancient capital of Northern Panchala. The remains of this city has been discovered in Bareilly According to the epic Mahābhārata , Bareilly region ( Panchala ) is said to be the birthplace of Draupadi , who was also referred to as 'Panchali' (one from the kingdom of Panchāla) by Kṛṣṇā ( Lord Krishna ). When Yudhishthira becomes the king of Hastinapura at the end of the Mahābhārata , Draupadi becomes his queen. The folklore says that Gautama Buddha had once visited the ancient fortress city of Ahicchattra in Bareilly. The Jain Tirthankara Parshva is said to have attained Kaivalya at Ahichhatra. In the 12th century, the kingdom was under the rule by different clans of Kshatriya Rajputs. With the Islamic Turkic Invasion the region became a part of the Delhi Sultanate before getting absorbed in the emerging Mughal Empire . The foundation of the modern City of Bareilly foundation was laid by Mukrand Rai in 1657. Later the region became the capital of Rohilkhand region before

History of Sindh


Sindh ( Sind ) ( Sindhi : سنڌ, Urdu : سندھ) is one of the provinces of Pakistan . Sindh had one of the world's oldest civilizations, the Indus Valley civilization . Historical eras Ancient era The Buddhist Kingdom of Sindh 642 A.D Sindh has been known by various names in the past, the name Sindh comes from the Indo-Aryans whose legends claimed that the Indus River flowed from the mouth of a lion or Sinh-ka-bab. In Sanskrit, the province was dubbed Sindhu meaning an ocean. The Assyrians (as early as the seventh century BCE) knew the region as Sinda, the Persians Abisind, the Greeks Sinthus, the Romans Sindus, the Chinese Sintow, while the Arabs dubbed it Sind. Also, in ancient times, the territory of the modern Sindh province was sometimes known as Sovira (or Souveera) and also as Sindhudesh, Sindhu being the original name for Indus river and the suffix 'desh' roughly corresponding to country or territory. The first known village settlements date as far back as 7000 BCE . Permanent settlements at Mehrgarh to t

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Peshawar ( Urdu : پشاور ‎; Pashto : پېښور ‎; Hindko : پشور ) is the capital of the Pakistani province of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa . It also serves as the administrative centre and economic hub for the Federally Administered Tribal Areas . Situated in a broad valley near the eastern end of the historic Khyber Pass , close to the border with Afghanistan , Peshawar's recorded history dates back to at least 539 B.C.E. , making it the oldest city in Pakistan and one of the oldest in South Asia . Peshawar is the largest city of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa province. According to the last census, it is also the ninth-largest city of Pakistan. Etymology The earliest settlement established in the area of Peshawar was called Puruṣapura ( Sanskrit : पुरूषपुर; "City of Men"), from which the current name "Peshawar" is derived. The Arab historian and geographer Al-Masudi noted that by the mid 10th century, the city had become known as Parashāwar. After the Ghaznavid invasion, the city's name was again noted to be Parashāwar by Al-Biru

Hotak dynasty


The Hotak dynasty or the Hotaki dynasty was an Afghan monarchy of the Ghilji Pashtuns, established in April 1709 by Mirwais Hotak after leading a successful revolution against their declining Persian Safavid overlords in Kandahar . It lasted until 1738 when the founder of the Afsharid dynasty , Nader Shah Afshar , defeated Hussain Hotak during the long siege of Kandahar , and started the reestablishment of Iranian suzerainty over all regions lost decades before against the Iranian archrival, the Ottomans , and the Russians. At its peak, the Hotak dynasty ruled very briefly over an area which is now Afghanistan , western Pakistan , and large parts of Iran. In 1715, Mirwais died of a natural cause and his brother Abdul Aziz succeeded the monarchy. He was quickly followed by Mahmud who ruled the empire at its largest extent for a mere three years. Following the 1729 Battle of Damghan , where Ashraf Hotak was roundly defeated by Nader Shah, Ashraf was banished to what is now southern Afghanistan with Hotak rule

Jai Singh I


Mirza Raja Jai Singh (15 July 1611 – 28 August 1667) was a senior general (" Mirza Raja ") of the Mughal Empire and a ruler of the kingdom of Amber (later called Jaipur ). His father was Raja Bhau Singh who ruled 1614-1621 who died at Battle of Ajmer. His daughter was married to Prince Muzzam (future Bahadur Shah) the eldest son of Aurangzeb . Accession and early career Maharaja Jai Singh of Amber and Maharaja Gaj Singh of Marwar - Folio from the Amber Album, circa 1630. At the age of 10, Jai Singh I became the Raja of Amber and the head of the Kachwaha Rajputs . His military career spans the full reign of Shah Jahan and the first half of Aurangzeb's reign. Jai Singh's first step in his rise to greatness took place on the accession of Shah Jahan (1627). Taking advantage of this change of sovereigns, Jai Singh's commander in the Deccan, Khan Jahan Lodi rebelled along with his Afghan followers. But the Rajput prince brought away his own army to the north and then joined in the campaign that finally defeated the

History of Afghanistan


The written history of Afghanistan, ( Persian : تاریخ افغانستان ‎‎ , Tārīkh e Afġānistān ), Pashto : د افغانستان تاريخ ‎ , Da Afġānistān Tārīkh), can be traced back to around 500 BCE when the area was under the Achaemenid Empire , although evidence indicates that an advanced degree of urbanized culture has existed in the land since between 3000 and 2000 BCE. The Indus Valley Civilisation stretched up to large parts of Afghanistan in the north, with several sites being known. Alexander the Great and his Macedonian army arrived at what is now Afghanistan in 330 BCE after conquering Persia during the Battle of Gaugamela . Since then, many empires have established capitals inside Afghanistan, including the Greco-Bactrians , Mauryas , Kushans , Hindu Shahi , Saffarids , Samanids , Ghaznavids , Ghurids , Timurids , Mughals , Hotakis and Durranis . Afghanistan (meaning "land of the Afghans") has been a strategically important location throughout history. The land served as "a gateway to India , impinging on th

History of Balochistan


The history of Balochistan began in 650 BCE with vague allusions to the region in Greek historical records. Balochistan is divided between the Pakistani province of Balochistan , the Iranian province of Sistan and Baluchestan and the Afghan region of Balochistan . Prehistoric Balochistan dates to the Paleolithic lithic scatters . Pre-Islamic history In 650 BC, the Greek historian Herodotus described the Paraitakenoi as a tribe ruled by Deiokes , a Persian zaid, in north-western Persia (History I.101). Arrian described how Alexander the Great encountered the Pareitakai in Bactria and Sogdiana , and had Craterus conquer them (Anabasis Alexandrou IV). The Periplus of the Erythraean Sea in the 1st century described the territory of the Paradon beyond the Ommanitic region on the coast of modern Baluchistan. Ancient empires at the time of Alexander the Great The earliest evidence of human occupation in what is now Balochistan is dated to the Paleolithic era, represented by hunting camps and lithic scatters , chippe



In the Ottoman Empire , Muhammad's descendants formed a kind of nobility with the privilege of wearing green turbans. Syed Hussain Ali Khan Barha was a leading administrator during the reign of the Mughal Emperor Farrukhsiyar . Sayyid Muhammad Rizvi , a Shia Islamic scholar, wearing a black turban. A black turban is worn by Ithna Ashari Shi'ite Sayyid clergymen, whilst a white turban is worn by non-Sayyid Ithna Ashari Shi'ite clergymen. Shah Syed Hasnain Baqai , a Sufi Islamic scholar, wearing a chishtiya turban. A chishtiya colour turban is mostly worn by Sufi Syed . Sayyid (also spelled Syed , Saiyed , Seyd , Sayed , Sayyad , Sayyed , Saiyid , Seyed , Said and Seyyed ) ( pronounced  , Arabic : سيد ‎‎; meaning Mister ) (plural Sadah Arabic : سادة ‎‎, Sāda(h) , also spelled Sadat) is an honorific title denoting people (Sayyid for males, Sayyida for females) accepted as descendants of the Islamic prophet Muhammad through his grandsons, Hasan ibn Ali and Husayn ibn Ali , sons of Muhammad's daughter Fatimah and



Afghanistan ( ; Pashto / Dari : افغانستان , Afġānistān), officially the Islamic Republic of Afghanistan , is a landlocked country located within South Asia and Central Asia . It has a population of 33 million, making it the 42nd most populous country in the world. It is bordered by Pakistan in the south and east; Iran in the west; Turkmenistan , Uzbekistan , and Tajikistan in the north; and China in the far northeast. Its territory covers 652,000 square kilometers (252,000 sq mi), making it the 41st largest country in the world. Human habitation in Afghanistan dates back to the Middle Paleolithic Era, and the country's strategic location along the Silk Road connected it to the cultures of the Middle East and other parts of Asia. Through the ages the land has been home to various peoples and witnessed numerous military campaigns, notably by Alexander the Great , Mauryas , Muslim Arabs , Mongols , British , Soviet , and in the modern era by Western powers . The land also served as the source from which the Ku



Kabul ( Pashto / Dari : کابل ‎, pronounced  ; English: ) is the capital of Afghanistan as well as its largest city , located in the eastern section of the country. According to a 2015 estimate, the population of the city was around 3,678,033 which includes all the major ethnic groups . Rapid urbanization had made Kabul the world's 64th largest city and the fifth fastest-growing city in the world. Kabul is said to be over 3,500 years old, mentioned since at least the time of the Achaemenid Empire . The city is at a strategic location along the trade routes of South and Central Asia , and a key location of the ancient Silk Road . It has been part of the Achaemenids , Seleucids , Mauryans , Kushans , Kabul Shahis , Saffarids , Ghaznavids , and Ghurids . Later, it was controlled by the Mughal Empire until finally becoming part of the Durrani Empire in 1747. The city is located high up in a narrow valley between the Hindu Kush mountains. Kabul became the capital of Afghanistan during the reign of Timur Shah Du

Muhajir people


Muhajir (also spelled Mahajir and Mohajir ) ( Urdu : مہاجر ‎, Arabic : مهاجر ‎‎) is an Arabic -origin term used in Pakistan to describe Muslim immigrants, of multi-ethnic origin, and their descendants, who migrated from various regions of India after the Partition of India to settle in the newly independent state of Pakistan. Although some of them speak different languages at the native level, they are primarily identified as native Urdu speakers and hence are called Urdu-speaking people. Etymology The Urdu term muhājir ( Urdu : مہاجر ‎) comes from the Arabic muhājir ( Arabic : مهاجر ‎‎), meaning an "immigrant", and the term is associated in early Islamic history to the migration of Muslims . After the independence of Pakistan , a significant number of Muslims emigrated or were out-migrated from territory that remained India . In the aftermath of partition, a huge population exchange occurred between the two newly formed states. In the riots which preceded the partition in the Punjab region, between 2



Multan ( Punjabi and Urdu : مُلتان ‎) (   pronunciation   ), is a Pakistani city located in Punjab province. Multan is Pakistan's 5th most populous city, and is the premier-centre for southern Punjab province. Multan is located on the banks of the Chenab River , and is at the heart of Pakistan's Seraiki -speaking regions. Multan's history stretches back into antiquity. The ancient city was site of the renowned Multan Sun Temple , and was besieged by Alexander the Great during the Mallian Campaign . Multan was one of the most important trading centres of medieval Islamic India, and attracted a multitude of Sufi mystics in the 11th and 12th centuries, earning the city the nickname City of Saints . The city, along with the nearby city of Uch , is renowned for its large collection of Sufi shrines dating from that era. Etymology The origin of Multan's name is unclear. It has been postulated that Multan derives its name from the Sanskrit word for the pre-Islamic Hindu Multan Sun Temple , called Mulasthana. Huk

Timeline of Pakistani history


This is a timeline of Pakistani history , comprising important legal and territorial changes and political events in Pakistan and its predecessor states. To read about the background to these events, see History of Pakistan . See also the list of Presidents of Pakistan and list of Prime Ministers of Pakistan and the list of years in Pakistan . Although the modern day Pakistan , the land of Indus , emerged on the world map as a new nation-state in 1947 this area has a very long history that goes back over thousands of years and it is one of the world's oldest continuously inhabited regions. The Indus Valley was known as Meluhha in Mesopotamia when the Harappan civilization was thriving here. When the Aryan tribes came and settled down in the upper Indus valley in the middle of the second millennium BC they called it Sapta-Sindhu (the land of seven rivers). Now this Indus land is called Pakistan which is an acronym composed from the initial letters of the name of its provinces namely, P unjab, A fghania, K as

Religious violence in India


Communal violence in India includes acts of violence by followers of one religious group against followers and institutions of another religious group, often in the form of rioting. Religious violence in India, especially in recent times, has generally involved Hindus and Muslims , although incidents of violence have also involved atheists , Christians , Jews , and Sikhs . There is also history of Muslim – Parsee riots ( List of riots in Mumbai ). Despite the secular and religiously tolerant constitution of India , broad religious representation in various aspects of society including the government, the active role played by autonomous bodies such as National Human Rights Commission of India and National Commission for Minorities , and the ground-level work being out by Non-governmental organisations, sporadic and sometimes serious acts of religious violence tend to occur as the root causes of religious violence often run deep in history, religious activities, and politics of India. Along with domestic org

Mughal Empire


The Mughal Empire ( Urdu : مغلیہ سلطنت ‎, translit.   Mughliyah Salṭanat ) or Mogul Empire , self-designated as Gurkani ( Persian : گورکانیان ‎‎, Gūrkāniyān, meaning "son-in-law"), was an empire in the Indian subcontinent , established and ruled by a Muslim Turco-Mongol dynasty of Chagatai origin from Central Asia . The dynasty, though ethnically Turco-Mongol , was Persianate in culture, with local influences visible in its traits and customs. The Mughal empire extended over large parts of the Indian subcontinent and Afghanistan . The empire at its peak was the second largest to have existed in the Indian subcontinent , spanning 4 million square kilometres at its zenith after the Maurya Empire which spanned 5 million square kilometres. The beginning of the empire is conventionally dated to the victory by its founder Babur over Ibrahim Lodi , the last ruler of the Delhi Sultanate , in the First Battle of Panipat (1526). The Mughal emperors were Central Asian Turco-Mongols belonging to the Timurid dyn

Third Battle of Panipat


The Third Battle of Panipat took place on 14 January 1761 at Panipat , about 60 miles (97 km) north of Delhi , between a northern expeditionary force of the Maratha Empire and invading forces of the King of Afghanistan , Ahmad Shah Abdali , supported by two Indian allies—the Rohilla Afghans of the Doab , and Shuja-ud-Daula , the Nawab of Awadh . Militarily, the battle pitted the artillery and cavalry of the Marathas against the heavy cavalry and mounted artillery (zamburak and jizail) of the Afghans and Rohillas led by Ahmad Shah Abdali and Najib-ud-Daulah , both ethnic Afghans (the former is also known as Ahmad Shah Durrani). The battle is considered one of the largest and most eventful fought in the 18th century, and has perhaps the largest number of fatalities in a single day reported in a classic formation battle between two armies. The specific site of the battle itself is disputed by historians, but most consider it to have occurred somewhere near modern-day Kaalaa Aamb and Sanauli Road. The battle las

History of Azad Kashmir


The history of Azad Kashmir , a part of the Kashmir region administered by Pakistan , is related to the history of over all Kashmir region during the Dogra rule. Azad Kashmir borders the Pakistani provinces of Punjab and Khyber Pakhtunkhwa to the south and west respectively, Gilgit–Baltistan to the north and the Indian administered state of Jammu and Kashmir to the east. Early history The princely state of Jammu and Kashmir came into being in 1846 after the First Anglo-Sikh War . Prior to that, Jammu was a tributary of the Sikh empire based in Lahore . Gulab Singh , formerly a footman in the Maharaja Ranjit Singh 's army who distinguished himself in various campaigns, was appointed as the Raja of Jammu in 1822. The Valley of Kashmir was also a part of the Sikh empire, ruled through a separate governor. Raja Gulab Singh successively fought and captured Rajouri (1821), Kishtwar (1821), and through his general Zorawar Singh , Suru valley and Kargil (1835), Ladakh (1834–1840), and Baltistan (1840). He became a we



Lahore Fort


The Lahore Fort ( Urdu / Punjabi : شاہی قلعہ : Shahi Qila , or Royal Fort), is a citadel in the city of Lahore , Pakistan . The fortress is located at the northern end of Lahore's Walled City , and spreads over an area greater than 20 hectares . It contains 21 notable monuments, some of which date to the era of Emperor Akbar . The Lahore Fort is notable for having been almost entirely rebuilt in the 17th century, when the Mughal Empire was at the height of its splendour and opulence. Though the site of the Lahore Fort has been inhabited for millennia, the first record of a fortified structure at the site was in regard to an 11th-century mud-brick fort. The foundations of the modern Lahore Fort date to 1566 during the reign of Emperor Akbar, who bestowed the fort with an architectural style that featured Hindu motifs. Additions from the Shah Jahan period are characterized by luxurious marble with inlaid Persian floral designs, while the fort's grand and iconic Alamgiri Gate was constructed by the last o

History of the Punjab


The name Punjab is a xenonym / exonym and the first known mention of the word Punjab is in the writings of Ibn Batūtā, who visited the region in the 14th century. The term came into wider use in the second half of the 16th century, and was used in the book Tarikh-e-Sher Shah Suri (1580), which mentions the construction of a fort by "Sher Khan of Punjab". The first mentioning of the Sanskrit equivalent of ' Punjab ', however, occurs in the great epic, the Mahabharata (pancha-nada 'country of five rivers'). The name is mentioned again in Ain-e-Akbari (part 1), written by Abul Fazal , who also mentions that the territory of Punjab was divided into two provinces, Lahore and Multan . Similarly in the second volume of Ain-e-Akbari, the title of a chapter includes the word Panjnad in it. The Mughal King Jahangir also mentions the word Panjab in Tuzk-i-Janhageeri. Punjab, derived from Persian and introduced by the Turkic conquerors of India , literally means "five" (panj) "waters" (āb), i.e., the Land of Five Riv

Timeline of Bihar


Neolithic age Chirand , situated on the northern bank of the Ganga River in Saran district has continuous archaeological record from the Neolithic age (about 2500–1345 BC). The occupational categorization in Chirand covers three periods – Period I Neolithic (2500–1345 BC), Period II Chalcolithic (1600 B.C) and Period III Iron age . Later Vedic Period 1100-500BCE: Mithila region of Bihar became the centre of Indian Power in the later Vedic Period under the rule of Janaks. Sita , a daughter of one of the Janaks of Mithila is mentioned as the consort of Lord Rama , in the Hindu epic , Ramayana , written by Valmiki . Buddhism 560-480 BCE: Anga 490 BCE: Establishment of Pataliputra (Modern Patna) Before 325 BCE: Anga , Nanda clan in Magadha , Licchavis in Vaishali Before 500 BCE: Foundation of world's first republic in Vaishali . Magadh Empire 450-362 BCE: Mahapadma Nanda is ruler of the Magadh Empire, Nanda Dynasty; Start of the Golden Age of Bihar 325-185 BCE: Period of the Maurya dynasty 340 BCE: Period of Ch

Kabul Shahi


The Kabul Shahi dynasties also called Shahiya ruled the Kabul Valley (in eastern Afghanistan ) and the old province of Gandhara (northern Pakistan) during the Classical Period of India from the decline of the Kushan Empire in the 3rd century to the early 9th century. They are split into two eras the Buddhist- Shahis and the later Hindu -Shahis with the change-over occurring around 870. When Xuanzang visited the region early in the 7th century, the Kabul region was ruled by a Kshatriya king, who is identified as the Shahi Khingal, and whose name has been found in an inscription found in Gardez . These Hindu kings of Kabul and Gandhara may have had links to some ruling families in neighboring Kashmir, Punjab and other areas to the east. The Shahis were rulers of predominantly Buddhist and Hindu populations and were thus patrons of numerous faiths, and various artifacts and coins from their rule have been found that display their multicultural domain. The last Shahi emperors Jayapala , Anandapala and Tirlochanp

Alauddin Khilji


Khilji dynasty Ala ud-Din Khilji ( Arabic : علاء الدین الخلجی ‎‎; died 1316), born Juna Muhammad Khilji , was the second ruler of the Khilji dynasty reigning from 1296 to 1316. He is considered to be one of the most powerful rulers of Delhi Sultanate . ʿAlāʾ al-Dīn’s sent his lieutenant, Malik Kāfūr , on expedition to the south in 1308, which led to the capture of Warangal, the overthrow of the Hoysala dynasty south of the Krishna River, and the occupation of Madura in the extreme south. Malik Kāfūr returned to Delhi in 1311 laden with spoils. Thereafter the fortunes of ʿAlāʾ al-Dīn and the dynasty declined. The sultan died in early 1316, and Malik Kāfūr’s attempted usurpation ended with his own death. He was a strategist and military commander who commanded forces across the Indian subcontinent. Sultan Ala-ud-din Khilji is also noted in history for being one of the few rulers in the world to have repeatedly defended his empire against Mongol invasions . He defeated large Mongol armies and then launched pu



Pakistan ( or ; Urdu : پاکستان ‎), officially the Islamic Republic of Pakistan ( Urdu : اسلامی جمہوریہ پاکستان ‎), is a federal parliamentary republic in South Asia on the crossroads of Central and Western Asia . It is the sixth-most populous country with a population exceeding 201 million people . In terms of area, it is the 33rd-largest country spanning 881,913 square kilometres (340,509 square miles). Pakistan has a 1,046-kilometre (650-mile) coastline along the Arabian Sea and its Gulf of Oman in the south and is bordered by India to the east, Afghanistan to the west, Iran to the southwest, and China in the far northeast, respectively. It is separated from Tajikistan by Afghanistan's narrow Wakhan Corridor in the north, and also shares a maritime border with Oman . The territory that now constitutes Pakistan is considered a cradle of civilisation that was previously home to several ancient cultures , including the Mehrgarh of the Neolithic and the Bronze Age Indus Valley Civilisation , and later home to

History of Pakistan


The history of Pakistan encompasses the history of the regions constituting modern day Pakistan . Prior to independence in 1947, the current areas of Pakistan were ruled in various periods by local kings and numerous imperial powers, the last being the British Empire . The ancient history of the region consisting of present-day Pakistan also includes some of the oldest empires of the South Asia ; and some of the world's major civilizations such as the Indus Valley civilization . Pakistan's political history is closely connected with the struggle of South Asian Muslims to regain power after they lost it to British colonialism. In 1906 the Muslim League was established in opposition to the Congress party which it accused of failing to protect "Muslim interests, aims neglect and under-representation." On 29 December 1930, philosopher Sir Muhammad Iqbal called for an autonomous new state in "northwestern India for Indian Muslims". The League rose in popularity through the late 1930s. Muhammad Ali Jinnah e

List of Indian battles


The following list enumerates the battles that took place in India and those with any kingdom or government in India were belligerents. Battle. Year Place Part of Winner Loser Remarks Battle of the Ten Kings c. 14th century BCE near the Ravi River in Punjab. King Sudas of Trustu-Bharata Tribe Ten Kings Rigvedic tribes were conquered by Sudas . Bharatas settle in Kurukshetra. Emergence of Kuru Kingdom . Kurukshetra War Kurukshetra, modern-day Haryana, India Territory-less Pandavas of the Kurus with the support of the mighty Panchala tribe and others. Kauravas (Kuru tribe) with capital at Hastinapura and their allies Reunification of the Kuru states of Hastinapura and Indraprastha under the Pandavas. Return of Panchal lands held by Drona to the original Panchala state. Conquest of the Nanda Empire 321-320 BC Nanda Empire in Northern India Maurya Empire Dhana Nanda It led to the establishment of the Maurya Empire. Battle of the Hydaspes 326 BC Hydaspes River Alexander Porus The battle is historically significant

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