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Lodi (Pashtun tribe)

Lodi(Pashto: لودي),(Persian: لودی) is a Pashtun tribe from the Bettani tribal confederacy mainly found in Afghanistan and Northern Pakistan.

In the 15th century, a branch of the Lodi's founded the Lodi dynasty. Lodi (Persian: لودی) (Pashto: لودي) is a tribe mainly found in Afghanistan and Northern Pakistan. The Lodi's were the first Pashtun tribe to rule India.

Lodi (Pashto / Persian: لودي) is a Pashtun tribe of 2 million people, most likely a sub-group of the larger Ghilzai tribe of Afghanistan and Pakistan. They were part of a wave of Pashtuns who pushed east into what is today Pakistan. Often accompanying the Timurids who conquered South Asia, the Lodi established themselves during the Islamic period as a Muslim ruling class and were valued warriors.

Legend has it that the tribe derives from a descendent of Qais Abdur Rashid, who married a Turkish princess. The term Lodi is said to be a corruption of the Pashto word loy dai (meaning big person)

Members of this tribe established the Lodi dynasty, which ruled over the Delhi Sultanate and included the prominent ruler Ibrahim Lodi. The "Lodi" family name is often linked with the title "Khan" in the form "Khan Lodi" or "Khan-Lodi". Sometimes only the "Khan" or "Lodi" is retained. "Khan" is a title denoting nobility, and does not necessarily mean its bearer is a Lodi or of Lodi extraction.

Subtribes
History
Lodi dynasty

The Lodi's were Pashtuns who ruled India from 1444-1526. The sultans of this dynasty were Buhlul Lodi, Sikandar Lodi and Ibrahim Lodi. They spread Islam in South Asia, in particular Sufism. They established themselves during the Islamic period as a Muslim ruling class and were valued warriors. The Pashtun Lodi dynasty replaced the Turkic rulers in Northern India. The Lodi's were part of a wave of Pashtuns who pushed east into what is today northern Pakistan. Often accompanying the Timurids who invaded Northern India. Legend has it that the tribe derives from a descendent of Qais Abdur Rashid (the legendary patriarch of all Pashtuns). The term Lodi is said to have evolved from the Pashto word loy da (meaning honored person). Members of this tribe established the Lodi dynasty, which ruled over the Delhi Sultanate and included the prominent ruler Ibrahim Lodi. The Lodi's who migrated to Pakistan after partition speak Pashto and Urdu. Lodi Pashtuns (Pathan) are predominantly an Eastern Iranian people, who use Pashto as their first language, and live in Afghanistan/Northern Pakistan. Pashtun nationalism emerged following the rise of Pashto poetry that linked language and ethnic identity. Pashto has national status in Afghanistan and regional status in neighbouring Pakistan. In addition to their native tongue, many Pashtuns are fluent in Dari, Persian, Urdu and English. Throughout their history, poets, prophets, kings and warriors have been among the most revered members of Pashtun society. Early written records of Pashto began to appear around the 16th century. Today, Lodi are mainly found in Afghanistan and some parts of Pakistan.

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Lodi (Pashtun tribe)

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Lodi ( Pashto : لودي),(Persian: لودی) is a Pashtun tribe from the Bettani tribal confederacy mainly found in Afghanistan and Northern Pakistan . In the 15th century, a branch of the Lodi's founded the Lodi dynasty . Lodi (Persian: لودی) (Pashto: لودي) is a tribe mainly found in Afghanistan and Northern Pakistan. The Lodi's were the first Pashtun tribe to rule India. Lodi (Pashto / Persian: لودي) is a Pashtun tribe of 2 million people, most likely a sub-group of the larger Ghilzai tribe of Afghanistan and Pakistan. They were part of a wave of Pashtuns who pushed east into what is today Pakistan. Often accompanying the Timurids who conquered South Asia, the Lodi established themselves during the Islamic period as a Muslim ruling class and were valued warriors. Legend has it that the tribe derives from a descendent of Qais Abdur Rashid, who married a Turkish princess. The term Lodi is said to be a corruption of the Pashto word loy dai (meaning big person) Members of this tribe established the Lodi dynasty, which



Lodi

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Look up Lodi  or lodi in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. Lodi may refer to: Places Lodi, Ontario , a community in North Stormont, Ontario, Canada Italy Lodi, Lombardy , in the Province of Lodi of the Lombardy region Treaty of Lodi , 1454 between Italian city-states Battle of Lodi , 1796 in Lodi Province of Lodi , a province in the Lombardy region of Italy Lodi Vecchio , a commune of the Lombardy region United States Lodi, Arkansas Lodi, California Lodi AVA , a California wine region Lodi Academy , a school in Lodi, California Lodi, Illinois (disambiguation) , various places Lodi, Indiana Lodi, Michigan (disambiguation) , various places Lodi, Mississippi (disambiguation) , various places Lodi, Missouri Lodi, Nebraska Lodi, New Jersey Lodi (village), New York , a village in Seneca County Lodi, New York , a town in Seneca County Lodi, Ohio Lodi, Texas Lodi, Virginia Lodi, Wisconsin , a city Lodi (town), Wisconsin Lodi Township, Athens County, Ohio Lodi Township, Michigan Lodi Township, Minnesota Lodi Township,



Pashtun tribes

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The Pashtun tribes or Pukhtun tribes ( Pashto : پښتانه ټبرونه يا پښتانه قبايل ‎) are the large family units of the Eastern Iranian ethnic groups who use the Pashto language and follow Pashtunwali code of conduct. They are found primarily in Afghanistan and Pakistan and form the world's largest tribal society , comprising over 49 million people and between 350 and 400 tribes and clans. They are traditionally divided into four tribal confederacies: the Sarbani ( سربڼي ), the Bettani ( بېټني ), the Gharghashti ( غرغښتي ), and the Karlani ( کرلاڼي ). Flag of the Durrani (Abdali or Ebodalo) tribes of the Sarbani confederacy Folkloric genealogies trace the descendants of the Pashtuns to Qais Abdur Rashid and his three sons Sarbaṇ ( سربڼ ), Beṭ ( بېټ ), and Gharghax̌t ( غرغښت ) as well as his fourth son, the Karlani confederacy Ormur Baraki , who became the progenitor of the Karlani . There are several levels of organisation of Pashtun tribes. The "tribe" is subdivided into kinship groups, each of which is a kh



Panni (Pashtun tribe)

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The term "Balailzai (Panni)" refers to a Pashtun tribe in Afghanistan and Pakistan . Another name for the tribe of Panni is Balailzai. Like other Pashtuns, they have Eastern Iranian genetic and ethnolinguistic heritage, and also carry genetic traces of European and other Middle Eastern people. They descended from Gharghasht, one of Qais Abdur Rashīd's sons. Most are settled in parts of Pakistan or Afghanistan, such as Karachi , Quetta , Musakhail, Dera Ismail Khan , Mardan , Peshawar , Panian, Haripur, Kabul , Tank , Kohat , while there are some communities in the United States, United Kingdom, and other Western countries. They were, at one point in time, camel and horse breeders, especially during the rule of Bahlol Lodhi. After his reign ended, they scattered and migrated to various parts of the Indian subcontinent and the Middle East. Panni is also a commune in the southeast of Italy, in the Apulia region. History Panni Naghar, Devi and Babai were real brothers. All tribes are present in Baluchistan( Pakis



Lodhi (disambiguation)

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The Lodi_(Pashtun_tribe) is a Batani Pashtun (Ghilzai) tribe mainly found in Afghanistan and Pakistan. Lodhi may also refer to: Lodhi colony , a residential colony in South Central part of New Delhi Lodhi community , the Hindu community in India Other uses Azhar Lodhi , a newscaster and commentator at the Pakistan Television Corporation Faheem Khalid Lodhi , a Pakistani-Australian architect Maleeha Lodhi , a journalist, academic and diplomat from Pakistan Sultanpur Lodhi , a city in the Indian state of Punjab See also Lodi (disambiguation) Lohri , the Punjabi Festival History of Lodhi Rajputs The Lodi_(Pashtun_tribe) is a Batani Pashtun (Ghilzai) tribe mainly found in Afghanistan and Pakistan. Lodhi may also refer to: Lodhi colony , a residential colony in South Central part of New Delhi Lodhi community , the Hindu community in India Other uses Azhar Lodhi , a newscaster and commentator at the Pakistan Television Corporation Faheem Khalid Lodhi , a Pakistani-Australian architect Maleeha Lodhi , a journalist,



Lodi dynasty

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The Lodi dynasty (or Lodhi) was an Afghan Pashtun dynasty that ruled the Delhi Sultanate from 1451 to 1526. It was the last dynasty of the Delhi Sultanate and was founded by Bahlul Khan Lodi when he replaced the Sayyid dynasty . Bahlul Lodi Bahlul Khan Lodi (r.1451–89) was the nephew and son-in-law of Malik Sultan Shah Lodi, the governor of Sirhind in ( Punjab ), India and succeeded him as the governor of Sirhind during the reign of Sayyid dynasty ruler Muhammad Shah (Muhammad-bin-Farid). Muhammad Shah raised him to the status of an emir. He was the most powerful of the Punjab chiefs and a vigorous leader, holding together a loose confederacy of Afghan and Turkish chiefs with his strong personality. He reduced the turbulent chiefs of the provinces to submission and infused some vigour into the government. After the last Sayyid ruler of Delhi , Ala-ud-Din Aalm Shah voluntarily abdicated in favour of him, Bahlul Khan Lodi ascended the throne of the Delhi sultanate on April 19, 1451. The most important event



Ludin

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Ludin ( Pashto : لودین ‎) are progenited by Syed Muhammad Masood from his son Allauddin. and related to Ghurghasht tribe of Pashtuns . They are scattered all over Afghanistan and can be found in most of the major cities. Demographics Ludins are primarily found in Kandahar , Zabul , Nangarhar , Kunduz , Akora khattak , Balkh , Logar , Kabul and Herat provinces. Ludins in Balkh Province are mainly located in Dawlatabad District and Mazari Sharif . In Logar Province they live in Mohammad Agha and Pul-i-Alam districts. Notable Ludins Atiqullah Ludin - former general and current governor of Logar Province Azizullah Lodin - head of Afghanistan's Independent Electoral Commission (IEC) References فاروقی, سید دل آغا. "حضرت مولانا شاه غوث محمد رحمة الله علیه - شجرة و سلسلة" . tolyshareef.blogfa.com . Retrieved 2017-01-30 . شاہ, سید یوسف (1930). حالات مشوانی. Lahore, Punjab: محمدی پریس. Khan, Sher Muhammad (1894). تواریخ خورشید جھاں. Lahore, Punjab: Islamia Publications. p. 311. Ludin ( Pashto : لودین ‎) are progenit



Garhi Matani

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Ghari Matani is a village in Attock District , Punjab , Pakistan . It is situated to the south of the river Indus and has fertile lands. The population are predominately Pashtun of Yusufzai and Abdali extraction and speak the heavy/hard "Drana" Pukhto/Pakhto Pashto dialect of the Yusufzai tribe. There are a minority of Kashmiri's living there also. A notable inscription is located in the area. It is situated on the banks of the river Indus . The tribes of Muradkhel (possibly of the Abdaal/Duranni tribe?), Syedkhel, Inamkhel and Khankhel known as Lodi Pashtun tribe , and follow pashtunwali code of conduct. The religion is Sunni Islam . The origins of the village are currently being studied, but all sources point to it being accommodated by the Pashtun tribes between 100–200 years old which rules out the Lodhi theory. There is historical evidence of the Afghan Cameleers venturing from the village and into Australia for business purposes which occurred during the late 19th century. The cameleer on record belonge



Sur (Pashtun tribe)

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Sur ( Pashto : سور ‎, literally the color "red"), also known as Suri , Zur and Zuri ( Pashto : زوري ‎), are a historical Pashtun tribe living primarily in Afghanistan and Pakistan . They trace their descent to the Ghorids , a formerly Buddhist and later Islamic dynasty originating from Mandesh in the Ghor region of modern-day central Afghanistan. The founder of the Sur Empire in India , Sher Shah Suri , belonged to the Sur tribe. They ruled the Suri Empire from 1540 until they were removed from power in 1556–57 by the Mughal Empire . Today, the Sur are part of the Pashtun tribal system , and identify with the Lodi Bettani confederacy. The Sur are also related to the Ghilji , another Bettani tribal confederacy but it is also believed that Suri is the sub-tribe of Kakar Pashtun. It was at the time of this bounty of Sultán Bahlol, that the grandfather of Sher Sháh, by name Ibráhím Khán Súr,* [The Súr represent themselves as descendants of Muhammad Súr, one of the princes of the house of the Ghorian , who left h



List of Pashtun empires and dynasties

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The following is a list of Pashtun empires and dynasties . It includes states , princely states , empires and dynasties in the history of Central and South Asia which were founded by Pashtun rulers. The Pashtuns , alternatively known as ethnic Afghans or Pathans, are an eastern Iranian ethnic group originating from Afghanistan and northwest Pakistan , and have an extensive military history in the region (see military history of Afghanistan and military history of Pakistan ). As a result of migration and military conquests in South Asia , a large number of communities throughout the region claim Pashtun ancestry , especially in areas which were previously ruled by Pashtun dynasties. Empires Ibrahim Lodi , grandson of Bahlul Khan Lodi and the last ruler of the Lodi dynasty Sher Shah Suri , founder of the Sur Empire Ahmad Shah Durrani , founder of the Durrani Empire Lodi dynasty (1451–1526), founded by Bahlul Khan Lodi , who belonged to the Lodi tribe born in Multan . The dynasty encompassed much of Pakistan and



Pathans of Uttar Pradesh

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The Pathans of Uttar Pradesh ( Pashto : د اوتار پرادش پښتانه ‎), have a large community of Pashtuns in the state of Uttar Pradesh in India , who form one of the largest Muslim communities in the state. They are also known as khans, which is a commonly used surname, although not all those who use the surname are Pathans, for example the Khanzada community of eastern Uttar Pradesh , who are Muslim Rajputs , are also commonly known as khan. Indeed, in Awadh , the boundary between the Khanzada and Pathans are blurred. In addition, the phrase Pathan Khanzada is used to describe Muslim Rajput groups, found mainly in Gorakhpur , who have been absorbed into the Pathan community. However, in Rohilkhand , and in parts of the Doab and Awadh , there are genuine communities of Pashtuns , such as the Rohilla . History and origin The word Pathan is simply the Hindustani pronunciation of the word Pashtun . Their presence in the territory that now forms Uttar Pradesh dates from at the least the 10th Century. Various medieval



Lohani

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The Lohani , sometimes called Nuhani is a Pashtun tribe found in Pakistan especially in the region of Dera Ismail Khan, Tank, Lakki Marwat,Shakargarh, Afghanistan and India. Nuhanis are not to be confused with Hindu caste of Lohana. Pashtun Nuhanis or Luhanis are descendants of a person by the name of Nuhan or Luhan, great grandson of Ibrahim alias Lodi. Nuharnai or Nuhan, his descendants came to be known as Nuhani, variously corrupted by the others into Luhani, Lohani and Lawani. They were a mostly pastoral and migratory tribe but nowadays most of them have settled down in the plains of DI Khan, Tank and Lakki Marwat. Lohanis have four branches, Marwat, Daulat Khel, Miya Khel and Tatoor. The Tatoor tribe was crushed by Nadir shah and Daulat khel (Nawab of Tank) who brought them near to extinction. Therefore, nowadays Tatoor tribe is generally dispersed in the region of Tank, Dera Ismail khan and FR Tank and especially found in village Tatoor near Tank city. Origin Lohanis or Nuhanis are not to be confused w



Pashtuns

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The Pashtuns or ( Pashto : پښتانه ‎ Pax̌tānə; singular masculine: پښتون Pax̌tūn, feminine: پښتنه Pax̌tana; also Pukhtuns ), historically known by the exonyms Afghans ( Persian : افغان ‎‎, Afğān), and Pathan ( Hindi-Urdu : पठान, پٹھان, Paṭhān), are an ethnic group native to Afghanistan and North-Western Pakistan. They are generally classified as Eastern Iranian ethno-linguistically, who use Pashto language and follow Pashtunwali , which is a traditional set of ethics guiding individual and communal conduct. The origin of Pashtuns is unclear but historians have come across references to various ancient peoples called Pakthas (Pactyans) between the 2nd and the 1st millennium BC, who may be their early ancestors. Their history is mostly spread amongst various countries of South and Central Asia , centred on their traditional seat of power in medieval Afghanistan . As the largest ethnic group in Afghanistan , Pashtuns have been the dominant ethno-linguistic group for over 300 years. During the Delhi Sultan



Pashtun diaspora

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Pashtun diaspora refers to ethnic Pashtuns who live outside of their traditional homeland, which is south of the Hindu Kush mountains in Afghanistan and west of the Indus River in Pakistan . Pakistan is home to the largest Pashtun community. Smaller populations of Pashtuns are found in the European Union , North America , Australia and other parts of the world. They may also be found in the Middle East , particularly in the United Arab Emirates , Iran , Oman , Saudi Arabia , Kuwait , Qatar and Bahrain . In Northern India , there are communities of Indians who trace their origins to the traditional Pashtun homeland. The Pashtun ethnic group also known as Pathan are believed to have settled in the vast Pashtunistan tribal region in the first millennium C.E., between the Hindu Kush mountains and the Indus River. According to Ethnologue , they currently number around 50 million but some sources give slightly lower or higher figures. In the Indian subcontinent , the group is usually referred to as Pathan. Nati



Bahlul Lodi

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Bahlul Khan Lodi , ( Pashto : بهلول لودي), (died 12 July 1489) was chief of the Pashtun Lodi tribe and founder of Lodi dynasty of the Delhi Sultanate upon the abdication of the last claimant from the previous Sayyid rule. Bahlul became sultan of the dynasty on 19 April 1451 (855 AH ). Early life Billon Tanka of 80 ratti of Bahlul Lodi Bahlul's grandfather, Malik Bahram, was a Pashtun from Multan ,he took service under the governor of Multan, Malik Mardan Daulat. Malik Bahram had a total of about five sons. His eldest son, Malik Sultan Shah Lodi, later served under the Sayyid dynasty ruler Khizr Khan and distinguished himself by killing in the battle later's worst enemy Mallu Iqbal Khan . He was rewarded with the title of Islam Khan and in 1419 appointed the governor of Sirhind . Bahlul, the son of Malik Kala, the younger brother of Malik Sultan was married to Malik Sultan's daughter. In his youth, Bahlul was involved in the trading of horses and once sold his finely bred horses to the Sayyid dynasty Sultan



Pashtun culture

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Pashtun culture ( Pashto : پښتوني هڅوب ‎) is based on Islam and Pashtunwali , which is an ancient way of life, as well as speaking of the Pashto language and wearing Pashtun dress . The culture of the Pashtun people is highlighted since at least the time of Herodotus (484-425 BC) or Alexander the Great , when he explored the Afghanistan and Pakistan region in 330 BC. The Pashtun culture has little outside influence, and, over the ages, has retained a great degree of purity. Holidays and special events The biggest holidays for Pashtuns are the Islamic Eid al-Fitr and Eid al-Adha , followed by Afghan Independence Day (August 19) and Pakistan Independence Day (August 14). The arrival of Sparlay or spring, known as Naw-Wraz (New Day), is also celebrated by some Pashtuns. It is an ancient annual Pashtun festival which celebrates both the beginning of spring and the New Year. Amongst some Pashtuns , Sheshbeeyeh, a prelude festival to Nava Wroz , is also celebrated. This tradition still survives, mainly amongst the



Marwat

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The Marwats ( Pashto : مروت ‎) are a Pashtun tribe, a branch of the Lohani tribe and belong to Lodi section of the Mati Afghans, located primarily in Lakki Marwat District , parts of DI Khan ,some villages of Tank district and in the Katawaz area of Afghanistan. The Marwats are also known as Spin Lohani (White faction of Lohanis), and their most closely related kin are other Lohani tribes like Miya Khel, Daulat Khel and Tatur. In the Afghan dynasty of Hind (1451-1526), Lohanis were the most powerful among the Lodi Afghans and were in possession of one quarter of jagirs in India. The Marwats were named for their ancestor Marwat Khan Lodi. History Marwats, as well as other branches of Lohanis, lived in Katawaz (located in the Paktika province) as well as Wana valley of South Waziristan. They had a long-standing dispute with Sulaiman Khels and other Ghilzais , who had already forced other Lodi tribes to migrate en masse to India. In one of the decisive battles, in the mid-15th century, Lohanis were thoroughly de



Pashtunwali

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Pashtunwali ( Pashto : پښتونوالی ‎) or Pakhtunwali is a non-written ethical code and traditional lifestyle which the indigenous Pashtun people follow. It is a system of law and governance that is preserved and still in use today, mostly in the rural tribal areas. Its meaning may also be interpreted as "the way of the Pashtuns" or "the code of life". Pashtunwali dates back to ancient pre-Islamic times and is widely practiced among Pashtuns, especially among the non- urbanized Pashtuns in the countryside. In addition to being practiced by members of the Pashtun diaspora , it has been adopted by some non-Pashtun Afghans and Pakistanis that live in the Pashtun regions or close to the Pashtuns, who have gradually become Pashtunized over time. During the Pashtun-dominated Taliban regime, Pashtunwali was practiced throughout the Islamic Emirate of Afghanistan in conjunction with the Taliban's interpretation of Deobandi Islam . Overview The native Pashtun tribes , often described as fiercely independent people,



Pathans of Punjab

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The Pathans of Punjab ( Punjabi : پنجابی پٹھان ( Shahmukhi ) ; Pashto : د پنجاب پښتانه ‎; also called Punjabi Pathans are originally Pashtun people (Pathans) who have settled in the Punjab region of Pakistan and north India . Most of these Pashtun communities are scattered throughout the Punjab and have over time assimilated into the Punjabi identity. These non-frontier Pathans are usually known by the town or locality in which they are settled, e.g., Qasuria Pathans or Multani Pathans. History and origin Colonies of Pathans (Pashtun people) arriving in Punjab are accounted for by Sir Densil Ibbetson in the following manner: During the Lodi and Suri dynasties many Pathans migrated to Punjab especially during the reign of Bahlol Lodhi and Sher Shah Suri . These naturally belonged to the Ghilzai section from which those kings sprung. — Sir Densil Ibbetson The history of Pathans in India is much earlier. Trapusa and Bahalika , variously assumed to be merchants or slaves from Balkh were the first lay-person to a



Swati (Pashtun tribe)

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Swatis are a pashtun tribe that holds major land holdings in Pakhli and Nindhiyar areas in Mansehra and Battagram districts of Khyber Pakhtunkhawa. They were masters of Swat when Swat was ruled by Jahangeeri Sultans from Achemanids Gaberi ancestory. The tribe came from Dara e Peech in Kunar province present day Afghanistan under Ghaznavids and Ghoris. With more population influx from Afghanistan latter and the pastoral tribes striving to settle in Swat, the tribe moved to Upper Swat Valley and eventually to Pakhli ) cis Indus Hazara division of Khyber Pakhtunkhawa to fight against Doma Hindus and their Turk masters. Their commander in this campaign in Hazara was Akhun Salak Kabulgrami. However, the land distribution amongst the clans of this tribe was made by Syed Jalal Baba who held the daftar of Pakhli due to his relationship with the Turk Sultan of the area. The tribe speaks Pashto and follows strict Pakhtunwali called Swatiwali by them while some of them even speak hindko. The tribe is distributed amongst



Babar (Pashtun tribe)

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The Babar ( Pashto : بابړ) or Babori tribe is a Pashtun tribe. The Babar diaspora is spread across Pakistan, Afghanistan and India today. In the First World War 78 people of the Babar tribe from Pirpiai went to the war as Indian Army men and four were killed. Hence, Pirpiai is one of the very few villages which has an official plaque commemorating its First World War contribution. History Babar, the ancestor of the Babar tribe was born at Takht-e-Sulaiman in 1175; six generations after Qais Abdur Rashid . It is interesting to note that the Babars were initially the same tribe as the Shiranis , also settled in and around the same region as the Babars. As far as the pedigrees show, Shirani was the father of Babar. The Shiranis have three sub-tribes, namely: Marani Miani Babar Maranis still refer to themselves as 'Shirani' as they are the main sub-tribe, but Babars and Mianis identify themselves as completely separate tribes. The Babars are treated by some genealogists as a section of the Shirani Tribe . They ar



Pashtunization

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Pashtunization ( Pashto : پښتون‌ جوړونه ‎), also called Pathanization , is a process of cultural or linguistic change in which someone or something non-Pashtun becomes accultured to Pashtun influence. The Pashtun people are the largest ethnic group in Afghanistan and the second largest in Pakistan . Dynasties and settlements Tents of Afghan nomads in Badghis Province of Afghanistan . Known in Pashto as Kuchans , they are mostly Ghilzais who migrate seasonally. Farming villages came into existence in Afghanistan about 7,000 years ago. People become Pashtunized when they settle in Pashtun-dominated areas and adopt Pashtun culture , either by adapting the Pashto language or absorbing Pashtunwali customs. Pashtunization is a specific form of cultural assimilation and has been taking place in Pashtun-populated regions of Afghanistan and Pakistan for several centuries. "In the eighth and ninth centuries ancestors of many of today's Turkic -speaking Afghans settled in the Hindu Kush area (partly to obtain better



Hotak

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The Hotak ( Pashto : هوتک ‎), or Hotaki ( Pashto : هوتکي ‎), are a tribe of the Ghilji confederacy of the Pashtun people . The Hotak started centuries ago as a political family. The first king to take power in Kandahar , Afghanistan , was Mirwais Hotak (1673–1715). After his death many different Hotaks took the throne, such as Mahmud Hotak , Ashraf Hotak , and Hussain Hotak , eventually losing control. See also Hotak dynasty Mirwais Hotak Nazo Tokhi Pashtun tribes References Hotak Family by Naval Postgraduate School Family Tree of the Hotak's Afghanland - Mirwais Khan Hotaki References[edit] Jump up ^ Hotak Family by Naval Postgraduate School Jump up ^ Family Tree of the Hotak's Jump up ^ Afghanland - Mirwais Khan Hotaki [hide] v t e Pashtun tribes Bettani Ghilji Akakhel Alikhel Andar Gulwal Hotak Ibrahimkhel Ibrahimzai Kharoti Nasher Nasar Sulaimankhel Ahmadzai Jabbarkhel Tarakai Tokhi Toran Swati Allaiwal Samkori Barkhani Deshiwal Beror Jadoor Kuchelai Sumlakhel Warozai Khazani Maddakhel Naror Sanakhel T



Anti-Pashtun sentiment

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Anti-Pashtun sentiment refers to fear, dislike, or hostility towards Pashtun people or anything related to Pashtun culture in general. It can sometimes be broadly construed as a subcategory of anti-Pakistan sentiment or anti-Afghan sentiment as Pashtuns are the second largest ethnic group in Pakistan and the largest in Afghanistan. Anti-Pashtun sentiment has been present in South - Central Asia at various points in history among different non-Pashtun groups, for various political and historical reasons. Afghanistan The traditional rivalry for power and influence between the Pashtun majority and the minority Persian ( Dari )-speaking ethnic groups of Afghanistan such as the Tajiks , Hazaras , Uzbeks and Turkmen , has often stirred anti-Pashtun sentiments among the latter. In 1975, an uprising broke out in Panjsher Valley against the rule of Afghan prime minister and Pashtun nationalist Daoud Khan , which was believed to have been "sparked by anti-Pashtun frustrations." The Settam-e-Melli , led by Uzbek activi



Tokhi

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Tokhi ( Pashto : توخی ) is a Ghilji Pashtun tribe found throughout southern, eastern, southeastern and northeastern Afghanistan . Similarly some members from Tokhi tribe also reside in Western, Southern and Eastern regions of Pakistan . In the Pashtun tribal hierarchy Tokhi is one of the most respected tribes. They are wholly powerful, rich and widely considered to be one of the most brave, warlike and tough Pashtun tribes. The mother of Mir Wais Hotak , founder of the Hotaki dynasty in Kandahar , belonged to the Tokhi tribe. Their origin is unclear but historically they have mostly lived in what is now Zabul Province in Afghanistan. The family currently in charge of leading the tribe is considered to have great influence over the government of Afghanistan. In other words, they are regarded to as the policy makers of Afghanistan Geographic distribution They have traditionally centered on Qalat-i-Ghilzai, also known as Qalat-i-Tokhi. As Ghilzai are a nomadic tribe, Tokhi have moved from one place to another ov



Pashtunistan

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Pashtunistan ( Pashto : پښتونستان ‎, Pax̌tūnistān; also called Pukhtunistan , or Pathanistan , meaning the "land of Pashtuns ") is the geographic region inhabited by the indigenous Pashtun people of modern-day Afghanistan and Pakistan . Alternative names historically used for the region included " Afghānistān " and " Pashtūnkhwā " (for present Khyber Pakhtunkhwa province specifically, since at least the 3rd century CE onward). Pashtunistan borders Punjab to the east, Persian and Turkic speaking regions to the west and north, Kashmir to the northeast, and Balochistan to the south. For administrative division in 1893, Mortimer Durand drew the Durand Line , fixing the limits of the spheres of influence between King Abdur Rahman Khan and British India . This porous line that runs through the center of the Pashtun region forms the modern border between Afghanistan and Pakistan. Roughly, the Pashtun homeland stretches from areas south of the Amu River in Afghanistan to west of the Indus River in Pakistan



Kakazai

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Kakazai Pashtuns - Page 22 from "A Dictionary of the Pathan Tribes of the North West Frontier of India" - Published 1910 :: Courtesy: The British Library Family Tree — From Qais Abdul Rashid to the Kakazai (Loi Mamund) Pashtuns Daulat Khel, Maghdud Khel, Mahsud Khel and Mahmud Khel, Sub-divisions of Kakazai Pashtun Tribe :: Courtesy: The British Library The Kakazai ( Pashto : کاکازي / ککےزي / ککازي ‎, Urdu , Persian : کاکازَئی / کَکےزَئی / کَکازَئی ‎‎), also known as Loi or Loye Mamund ( Pashto : لوی ماموند ‎; Urdu : لو ئے / لوئی مَاموند ‎), a division of the Mamund clan, are part of the larger Tarkani ( ترکاڼي ) tribe who are mainly settled in Bajaur Agency , Pakistan, but originally hailed from the Laghman province of Afghanistan . However, it has grown and scattered around to such an extent that it is recognized as tribe of its own. Etymology The name "Kakazai" means "descendants/offspring/children of Kakae or Kaka" (in Pashto , Kaka or Kakae = a contemporary Afghan name



Pakthas

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Pakthas are an ancient people that find reference in Sanskrit and Greek sources as a people living in the region which includes south-eastern Afghanistan and Northern parts of Pakistan . In the Rigveda , the Kurram is mentioned as "Kruma". Pachytyans were in charge of all "elephants" used in battle fields. Elephant hoarders or boarders or they took care of elephants. Today, the Kurram Valley is mostly inhabited by the Bangash and Turi Pashtun tribes , and because of that the ancient Pakhtas are believed to be part of the modern-day Pashtun confederation . "The Pakthas, Bhalanases, Vishanins, Alinas, and Sivas were the five frontier tribes. The Pakthas lived in the hills from which the Kruma originates. Zimmer locates them in present-day eastern Afghanistan, identifying them with the modern Pakthun ." Rigved Pakthas The Pakthas were one of the tribes that fought against Sudas in the Dasarajna the Battle of the Ten Kings (dāśarājñá), a battle alluded to in Mandala 7 of the Rigveda ( RV 7 .18.7). Herodotus recor



Mubaraka Yusufzai

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Mubaraka Yusufzai , (other names Bibi Mubaraka, Mubarika Yusufzay, Bika Begum, Afghani Aghacha) became known as Bega Begm was the Empress consort of the Mughal Empire as the wife of Babur , the founder of the Mughal Empire and the first Mughal emperor. Biography She was born in Pashtun family of present Pukhtunkhwa . She belonged to the Yusufzai tribe of Pashtuns and from the state of Swat in Pakhtunkhwa , in the Yusufzai dominated territory. She was the daughter of Malik Shah Mansur Yusufzai who was the chieftain of the Yusufzai during the time of Babur and grand daughter of Suleman Shah, who was the elder of the Yusufzais during the reign of Alag Baig in Kabul. It is thought that Babur married her to form an unspoken alliance with the Yusufzai Pashtuns so that they will give him and his armies a safe passage to the capital of the Lodi Empire in Delhi , India. The marriage of Bibi Mubaraka and Babur is believed to be a very interesting story. Babur met Bibi Mubaraka as a beggar when she was distributing food



Ghilji

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The Ghilji ( Pashto : غلجي ‎), also known as Khilji ( Pashto : خلجي ‎), Ghilzai ( Pashto : غلزی ‎), and Gharzai ( Pashto : غرزی ‎, ghar literally means "mountain" and zai "born of"), are the largest Pashtun tribal confederacy . The Ghilji at various times became rulers of present Afghanistan region and were the most dominant Pashtun confederacy from c. 1000 A.D. until 1747 A.D., when power shifted to the Durranis . The Ghilji tribes are today scattered all over Afghanistan and some parts of Pakistan , but most are concentrated in the region from Zabul to Kabul province, with Ghazni and Paktika provinces in the center of their region. The Ghilji tribes are also settled in Balochistan and Khyber Pakhtunkhwa in Pakistan. Many of the migrating Kochi people of Afghanistan belong to the Ghilji confederacy. From 1709 to 1738, the Ghilji ruled the Hotak Empire based first in Kandahar , Afghanistan and later, from 1722–1728, in Isfahan , Persia. Etymology Etymologically the word Ghilji is derived from ghar-zai ( غرزی



Ethnic groups in Afghanistan

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CIA map showing the territory of the settlement of ethnic groups and subgroups in Afghanistan (2005) Afghanistan is a multiethnic society . The population of the country is divided into a wide variety of ethnolinguistic groups . The ethnic groups of the country are as follow: Pashtun , Tajik , Hazara , Uzbek , Aimak , Turkmen , Baloch , Pashai , Nuristani , Gujjar , Arab , Brahui , Pamiri and some others. The Afghan National Anthem mentions a total of 14 ethnic groups. National identity The term " Afghan " is synonymous with the ethnonym " Pashtun " and has been mentioned as early as the 3rd century, referring to the tribes inhabiting the lands south of the Hindu Kush around the Sulaiman Mountains . It became prominent during the Khilji , Lodi , and Suri dynasties of Northern India . The name became the national identity of Afghanistan in modern times. Despite being of various ethnic groups, in a research poll that was conducted in 2009, 72% of the population labelled their identity as Afghan first, before e



Karrani dynasty

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The Karrani dynasty ( Pashto : د کرلاڼيو واکمني ‎) was founded in 1564 by Taj Khan Karrani , an ethnic Pashtun from the Karlani tribe. It was the last dynasty to rule the Sultanate of Bengal . Founding Taj Khan was formerly an employee of the Sur Emperor Sher Shah Suri . From 1562 to 1564, Taj Khan captured south-eastern Bihar and west Bengal , and with his assassination of the last Muhammed Shahi ruler, he seized all of Bengal . The capital was at Sonargaon . Taj Khan was followed by Sulaiman Khan Karrani , who shifted the seat of government from Gaurr to Tanda in 1565. In 1568, Sulaiman Khan annexed Orissa to the Karrani sultanate permanently. Nominally he accepted sovereignty of the Mughal Emperor Akbar , and his prime minister Lodi Khan placated the Mughals with gifts and banqueting. Sulaiman Khan's authority extended from Koch Bihar to Puri , and from Son River to Brahmaputra River . Mughal invasion On 25 September 1574, the Mughal general Munim Khan captured the Karrani capital Tanda. The Battle of Tuk



Afghans in India

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Afghan refugees in India are a community numbering up to 10,000. Most are recent Hindu and Sikh refugees who fled the Taliban regime and political instability in Afghanistan ; they are concentrated in and around Delhi . Muslim families account for about 10% of Afghan nationals in India, although recent migration has seen a boost in numbers. Apart from citizens and expatriates, there are hundreds of communities in India who trace their ancestries back to Pashtun forefathers. Before the creation of the modern state of Afghanistan, the term Afghan was used synonymously with Pashtun, and there has been much history of Pashtuns that have lived in India. There are an estimate of 10,000 Pashtuns in India. Thousands of Pashtun descent Indians migrated to Pakistan after the partition. Currently are a few ethnic Pashtuns that have retained their culture in India. Most have integrated into Indian culture. There's a sizable number Pashtuns in Indian state of Jammu and Kashmir.The North-Western Frontier Province (now cal



Shisha Gumbad

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Shisha Gumbad ( Hindi : शीशा गुम्बद ) (literal English translation of "Shisha" is "glass" and "Gumbad" is " Dome ") is a tomb from the last lineage of the Lodhi Dynasty and is thought to have possibly been constructed between 1489 and 1517 CE . The Shisha Gumbad (glass dome) houses tombs of an unknown family that may have been a part of the Lodhi family and a part of Sikandar Lodi 's court. It is however believed by some historians that the tomb is of Bahlul Lodi (died 12 July 1489), who was chief of the Pashtun Lodi tribe and founder & Sultan of the Lodi dynasty of the Delhi Sultanate , though Ibrahim Lodhi's Tomb exists 100 kilometres (62 mi) away at Panipat city in Haryana state. Shisha Gumbad is situated in the Lodhi Gardens in Delhi and the area where the tomb is situated was formally called village Khairpur. History Exact date of construction of Shisha Gumbad is not known. There are four monuments (tombs) in the Lodhi Gardens including the Shisha Gumbad. The oldest of the four tombs is the t



Name of Afghanistan

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The name Afghānistān ( Persian : افغانستان ‎‎, ) means "land of the Afghans", which originates from the ethnonym " Afghan ". Historically, the name "Afghan" mainly designated the Pashtun people , the largest ethnic group of Afghanistan . The earliest reference to the name is found in the 10th-century geography book known as Hudud ul-'alam . The last part of the name, -stān is a Persian suffix for "place". In the early 19th century, Afghan politicians adopted the name Afghanistan for the entire Durrani Empire after its English translation had already appeared in various treaties with Qajarid Persia and British India . In 1857, in his review of J.W. Kaye's The Afghan War, Friedrich Engels describes "Afghanistan" as: "an extensive country of Asia ... between Persia and the Indies, and in the other direction between the Hindu Kush and the Indian Ocean. It formerly included the Persian provinces of Khorassan and Kohistan , together with Herat , Beluchistan , Cashmere , and Sinde , and a considerable part of



Shilmani

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The Shalmani , or Shilmani ( Pashto : شلمانى ‎) are Pashtun Sub section of Mohmand tribe who are primarily concentrated in the Shalman Valley in Khyber Agency near Peshawar , Khyber Pakhtunkhwa , Pakistan . Shalmani are also known as Sulemani ( Pashto : سليمانى ‎) in Abbottabad , Mansehra and Haripur . The tribe is also present in different areas of Pakistan, Afghanistan and Iran . In Pakistan, the tribe lives in Swat , Upper Dir , Lower Dir , Bajour , Buner , Shangla , Malakand District , Dargai , Sakha Koat, Charsadda ( Hashtnagar ). Similar to Shalman of Khyber, a city by name Shalman is also present in Gilan Province of Iran and the shalmani associated with Iranian Shalman also speak Pashto and Persian as well. History Khan Roshan Khan a Pakhtun historian says that Shalmani were originally brought to Swat District by one of the famous conquerors and kings, Muhammad of Ghor , from Shalman Valley of khyber Agency in present Pakistan and Karman of today's Afghanistan . M.Saida Khan Shinwari said that Shilm



Bangash

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The Bangash ( Pashto : بنګش ‎), ( Urdu : بنگش ‎) are one of the largest and perhaps the most powerful Karlani Pashtun tribe of the border region of eastern Afghanistan and North Western Pakistan. They primarily inhabit the Kohat , Hangu , Doaba , Thall , and districts of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, as well as portions of the Kurram Agency and Orakzai Agency in FATA . A large number of Bangash are also found in the northeastern section of the Paktia and Paktika Province in Afghanistan. Descendants of Bangash are also found in the Uttar Pradesh state of India, particularly in the city of Farrukhabad which was founded by Muhammad Khan Bangash in 1714. Etymology and origins The name Bangash or Bankash is said to be derived from Persian namely "bun", meaning root, and "Kashtan", meaning 'To tear apart'.Since the origin of the tribe it was believed that during battle the tribesmen of the Bangash would not rest until they had ripped the enemy off of their roots.Hence the Name 'Bangash' or 'Root Destroyer'.It is believed b



Afghana

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Afghana or Avagana is a tribal chief or prince in Pashtun folklore , said to be of Bani Israel ( Israelite ) origin, who is traditionally considered the progenitor of modern-day Pashtuns , the largest ethnic group in Afghanistan and second largest in Pakistan . The ethnonym "Afghan" is believed to derive from his name. House of King Saul Genealogy and family tree of Malak Afghana, grandson of King Saul. According to the Tanakh , King Saul ( Talut ) was the son of Kish , a member of the tribe of Benjamin , one of the twelve Tribes of Israel ( 1 Samuel 9:1-2 ). Saul married Ahinoam , daughter of Ahimaaz and had four sons and two daughters. The sons were Jonathan , Abinadab , Malchishua and Ish-bosheth . Saul's daughters were named Merab and Michal . Pashtun folklore and some historians suggest that King Saul had five sons instead of four, the fifth was named Irmia ( Jeremiah ). Family Tree & Lineage The legend describes Malak Afghana as the son of Irmia (Jeremiah) and grandson of King Saul (Talut).



Bettani

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The Bhittani or Bēṭanī ( Pashto : بېټني ‎) (also spelled Bettani in older British sources) is a Pashtun tribal confederacy located mostly in Afghanistan and Pakistan with a small number dwelling in India . The Bettani are named after Shaykh Beṭ, their legendary ancestor who is said to be the second son of Qais Abdur Rashid . The Bettani's are Sunni Muslims of Hanafi sect. The Bettani confederacy includes the supertribes of Ghilji and Lodi , as well as the tribe of Shirani . The Ghilji reside in east-central Afghanistan, most concentrated in the region from Zabul to Kabul province. The Bettani proper in Pakistan reside in Frontier Region Tank , a territory that is a buffer zone separating Tank District from the Mahsud tribe of South Waziristan Region in Pakistan's Federally Administered Tribal Areas . The Bettani tribe live in the Frontier Region of District Tank and in FR Lakki Marwat of Khyber Pakhtunkwa , Pakistan . Jandola is considered the capital of the Bettani tribes in FR Tank. District Tank, FR Tank



Barakzai dynasty

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The two branches of the Barakzai dynasty (Translation of Barakzai: sons of Barak ) ruled modern day Afghanistan from 1826 to 1973 when the monarchy ended under Musahiban Mohammad Zahir Shah . The Barakzai dynasty was established by Dost Mohammad Khan after the Durrani dynasty of Ahmad Shah Durrani was removed from power. During this era, Afghanistan saw much of its territory lost to the British in the south and east, Persia in the west, and Russia in the north. There were also many conflicts within Afghanistan, including the three major Anglo-Afghan Wars and the 1929 civil war. Flag of the Abdali Afghan Tribes. Made from historical texts and references. History and background The Barakzai dynasty was the line of rulers in Afghanistan in the 19th and 20th centuries. Following the fall of the Durrani Empire in 1826, chaos reigned in the domains of Ahmed Shah Durrani 's Afghan Empire as various sons of Timur Shah struggled for supremacy. The Afghan Empire ceased to exist as a single nation state , disintegratin



Lodi Khel

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Lodi Khel is a small village located in Khyber-Pakhtunkhwa province of Pakistan . It is a Shia dominated area and the main Pashtun tribe living there is Bangash Prominent leaders 1: Muhammed Hadi Bangash 2: Sajid Malik 3: Murtaza Ali Bangash 4: Javid Iqbal Bangash 5: Hadi john Coordinates and location type Area Type: Populated place Location Type: Populated Place Latitude: 33.58972 Longitude: 71.16972 Latitude (DMS): 33° 35' 23 N Longitude (DMS): 71° 10' 11 E Lodhi Khel Location by Google Earth Lodi Khel is a small village located in Khyber-Pakhtunkhwa province of Pakistan . It is a Shia dominated area and the main Pashtun tribe living there is Bangash Prominent leaders 1: Muhammed Hadi Bangash 2: Sajid Malik 3: Murtaza Ali Bangash 4: Javid Iqbal Bangash 5: Hadi john Coordinates and location type Area Type: Populated place Location Type: Populated Place Latitude: 33.58972 Longitude: 71.16972 Latitude (DMS): 33° 35' 23 N Longitude (DMS): 71° 10' 11 E Lodhi Khel Location by Google Earth



Sur Empire

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The Sur Empire ( Pashto : د سوریانو ټولواکمني ‎) was an empire established by a Muslim dynasty of Pashtun origin who ruled a large territory in Northern part of South Asia for nearly 16 years, between 1540 and 1556, with Delhi serving as its capital. It interrupted the rule of the Mughal Empire under Humayun , who later restored the Mughal Empire by ending the Sur Empire. History The empire was founded by Sher Shah Suri , an ethnic Pashtun of the tribal house of Sur , who supplanted the Mughal dynasty as rulers of North India during the reign of the relatively ineffectual second Mughal Humayun . Sher Shah defeated badhsah-i-Hind ('Hindustani emperor') Humayun in the Battle of Chausa (26 June 1539) and again in the Battle of Bilgram (17 May 1540). The Sur dynasty held control of nearly all the Mughal territories, from modern-day eastern Afghanistan in the west to Bengal in modern-day Bangladesh in the east. During the almost 17-year rule of the Sur dynasty, until the return of the Mughals to the throne, the



Khyber Pakhtunkhwa

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Khyber Pakhtunkhwa (abbreviated as KP ; Urdu : خیبر پختونخوا ‎ ; Pashto : خیبر پښتونخوا ‎) is one of the four provinces of Pakistan , located in the northwestern region of the country. It was formerly known as North-West Frontier Province (NWFP) and commonly called Sarhad, which in Urdu means "frontier." Its provincial capital and largest city is Peshawar , followed by Mardan . It shares borders with the Federally Administered Tribal Areas to the west; Gilgit–Baltistan to the northeast; Azad Kashmir , Islamabad and Punjab to the east and southeast. Khyber Pakhtunkhwa does not share a border with Balochistan , which lies to its southwest. Khyber Pakhtunkhwa also shares an international border with Afghanistan , connected through the Khyber Pass . It is also the site of the ancient kingdom Gandhara , the ruins of its capital, Pushkalavati , (modern day Charsadda ), and the most prominent center of learning in the Peshawar Valley, Takht-i-Bahi . It has been under the suzerainty of the Persians , Greeks , Maurya



Khizarkhel

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Khizarkhel is a clan of Mammokhel clan of sub-tribe Isakhel of Pashtun Tribe Niazi .They are living in many parts of Pakistan but many of them are living in Isakhel and Khanewal, their ancestral village is Khaglan Wala , Isakhel . Some are also living in Sukkur, Bahawalpur, Karachi and Lahore. In Khanewal they live in 30/10-r, 32/10-r 39/10-r and 88/10-r. Notable People Asmatullah Niazi, PTV News References Khizarkhel is a clan of Mammokhel clan of sub-tribe Isakhel of Pashtun Tribe Niazi .They are living in many parts of Pakistan but many of them are living in Isakhel and Khanewal, their ancestral village is Khaglan Wala , Isakhel . Some are also living in Sukkur, Bahawalpur, Karachi and Lahore. In Khanewal they live in 30/10-r, 32/10-r 39/10-r and 88/10-r. Notable People Asmatullah Niazi, PTV News References



Durrani dynasty

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The Durrani dynasty was founded in 1747 by Ahmad Shah Durrani at Kandahar , present Afghanistan. He united the different Pashtun tribes and created the Durrani Empire with his Baloch allies which included the most of present-day Pakistan , and the Kashmir and Punjab regions of present-day India . The Durrani dynasty was composed of ethnic Pashtuns and Baloch Durranis were replaced by the Barakzai dynasty during the early half of the 19th century. Ahmad Shah and his descendants were from the Sadozai line of the Durranis (formerly known as Abdalis), making them the second Pashtun rulers of Kandahar after the Hotakis . The Durranis were very notable in the second half of the 18th century mainly due to the leadership of Ahmad Shah Durrani. Start of the dynasty Nader Shah 's rule ended in June 1747 after being murdered by his Persian soldiers. In October 1747, when the chiefs of the Afghans met at a loya jirga (grand council) in Kandahar to select a new ruler for the Abdali confederation, the young 25-year-old



Muhajir culture

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Muhajir culture ( Urdu : ثقافتِ مهاجر ‎ is the culture of Urdu Muslim refugees that migrated mainly from North India after the independence of Pakistan in 1947 generally to the Sindh province and mainly to the city of Karachi . They are also known as Urdu speakers, on account of Urdu being their native language, and have also been referred to as Hindustani Musalman ("Indian Muslims"). Many Muhajirs of Pakistan are closely related to the Muslims of Uttar Pradesh in India . The Muhjairs are concentrated in urban areas of Sindh and in the cities of Lahore , Multan , Faisalabad , Gujrat and Rawalpindi in Punjab province, Peshawer , Abottabad KPK Province. History Early history of Urdu speaking community Delhi Sultanate The roots of Muhajirs lies with Muslim migration and settlement in North India especially modern Uttar Pradesh . The conversion of natives to Islam and the migration of Muslims from the Muslim World coalesced to form the Urdu Muslim community which was referred to as Hindustani Musalmans , East Pun



History of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa

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The history of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa stretches back to Greek exploration in the 500s BCE. It is now a province of Pakistan in the mountainous Hindu Kush region where the South Asian subcontinent meets with Central asia . During the colonial period, the province was the North-West Frontier Province (1901–1955) , forming the northwestern frontier of British India . The government of Pakistan changed its name. Pre-modern history In ancient times, the region was part the state of Gandhara occupied the Vale of Peshawar and adjoining areas. This kingdom was important because of its strategic location at the eastern end of the Khyber Pass. Gandhara was annexed by the Persian Achaemenian dynasty in the early 6th century BCE and remained a Persian satrapy until 327 bce. The region then passed successively under Greek, Indian, Indo-Bactrian, Sakan, Parthian, and Kushan rule. At some point after 516 BCE, Darius Hystaspes sent Scylax , a Greek seaman from Karyanda , to explore the course of the river. Darius Hystaspes subs



Durrani Empire

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The Durrani Empire , Durrani Tulukamani , Durrani Wakmani , Durrani Emirate ( Pashto : د درانیانو واکمني ‎), also called the Sadozai Kingdom and the Last Afghan Empire , was founded in 1747 by Ahmad Shah Durrani with its capital at Kandahar , in present-day Afghanistan . The Durrani Empire at its maximum extent encompassed present-day Afghanistan, northeastern Iran , eastern Turkmenistan (including the Panjdeh oasis), most of Pakistan , and northwestern India , including the Kashmir region. With the support of various tribal leaders, Ahmad Shah Durrani with his Baloch allies extended Afghan control from Khorasan in the west to Kashmir and Delhi in the east, and from the Amu Darya in the north to the Arabian Sea in the south. The Afghan army began their conquests by capturing Ghazni and Kabul from the local rulers. In 1749 the Mughal ruler had ceded sovereignty over what is now Pakistan and northwestern Punjab to the Afghans. Ahmad Shah then set out westward to take possession of Herat , which was ruled by



Pashto media

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Inside a radio station in Qalat , Afghanistan Pashto media includes Pashto literature , Pashto-language newspapers, magazines, television and radio stations, as well as Pashto films and Pashto internet. Pashto media involves the Pashtuns of Pakistan , Afghanistan and the Pashtun diaspora around the world. Pashto literature and poetry Pashto is not only the name of a language, but it comprises all traditions, norms and values of the Pashtun people . The history of Pashto language comprises thousands of years. It is widely believed among the Pashtuns that the earliest written Pashto poems were written in the 8th century CE by Amir Kror Suri of Ghor , Afghanistan. Amir Kror was the son of Amir Polad and they belonged to the Suri Pashtun tribe . Since paper was not much in use in the Pashtun territory, Poets usually performed poetry verbally and its fans memorized the work. Another reason may be that most Pashtuns were nomads and warriors, thus lack writing skills. Due to these and other reasons, Pashto remained



Delhi Sultanate

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The Delhi Sultanate was a Muslim kingdom based mostly in Delhi that stretched over large parts of the Indian subcontinent for 320 years (1206–1526). Five dynasties ruled over Delhi Sultanate sequentially: the Mamluk dynasty (1206–90), the Khilji dynasty (1290–1320), the Tughlaq dynasty (1320–1414), the Sayyid dynasty (1414–51), and the Lodi dynasty (1451–1526). The first two and the fourth dynasties (Mamluk, Khilji, and Sayyid) were of Turkic origin, the third (Tughlaq) was of Turko-Indian origin, and the last dynasty (Lodi) was of Afghan origin. The sultanate is noted for being one of the few states to repel an attack from the Mongol Empire , and enthroned one of the few female rulers in Islamic history, Razia Sultana , who reigned from 1236 to 1240. Qutb al-Din Aibak , a former slave of Muhammad Ghori , was the first sultan of Delhi and his dynasty conquered large areas of northern India. Afterwards the Khilji dynasty was also able to conquer most of central India, but both failed to unite the Indian s



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