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Lodi (Pashtun tribe)

Lodi (Pashto: لودي; Persian: لودی) is a Pashtun tribe of the Bettani family, being the group of Pashtun tribes who claim descent from Bet, the second son of Qais Abdur Rashid.[1]

Lodi dynasty

The Lodi dynasty ruled from Delhi in India between 1451-1526.[1] The sultans of this dynasty were Bahlul Lodi, Sikandar Lodi and Ibrahim Lodi. They spread Islam in South Asia, in particular Sufism. They established themselves during the Islamic period as a Muslim ruling class and were valued warriors.

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Lodi (Pashtun tribe)

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Lodi ( Pashto : لودي; Persian : لودی) is a Pashtun tribe of the Bettani family, being the group of Pashtun tribes who claim descent from Bet, the second son of Qais Abdur Rashid . Lodi dynasty The Lodi dynasty ruled from Delhi in India between 1451-1526. The sultans of this dynasty were Bahlul Lodi , Sikandar Lodi and Ibrahim Lodi . They spread Islam in South Asia , in particular Sufism . They established themselves during the Islamic period as a Muslim ruling class and were valued warriors. References Noelle, Christine (2012). State and Tribe in Nineteenth-Century Afghanistan: The Reign of Amir Dost Muhammad Khan (1826-1863) . Routledge. p. 159. ISBN   978-1-13660-317-4 . Lodi ( Pashto : لودي; Persian : لودی) is a Pashtun tribe of the Bettani family, being the group of Pashtun tribes who claim descent from Bet, the second son of Qais Abdur Rashid . Lodi dynasty The Lodi dynasty ruled from Delhi in India between 1451-1526. The sultans of this dynasty were Bahlul Lodi , Sikandar Lodi and Ibrahim Lodi . They



Lodi

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Look up Lodi  or lodi in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. Lodi may refer to: Places Lodi, Ontario , a community in North Stormont, Ontario, Canada Italy Lodi, Lombardy , in the Province of Lodi of the Lombardy region Treaty of Lodi , 1454 between Italian city-states Battle of Lodi , 1796 in Lodi Province of Lodi , a province in the Lombardy region of Italy Lodi Vecchio , a commune of the Lombardy region United States Lodi, Arkansas Lodi, California Lodi AVA , a California wine region Lodi Academy , a school in Lodi, California Lodi, Illinois (disambiguation) , various places Lodi, Indiana Lodi, Michigan (disambiguation) , various places Lodi, Mississippi (disambiguation) , various places Lodi, Missouri Lodi, Nebraska Lodi, New Jersey Lodi (village), New York , a village in Seneca County Lodi, New York , a town in Seneca County Lodi, Ohio Lodi, Texas Lodi, Virginia Lodi, Wisconsin , a city Lodi (town), Wisconsin Lodi Township, Athens County, Ohio Lodi Township, Michigan Lodi Township, Minnesota Lodi Township,



Pashtun tribes

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The Pashtun tribes or Afghan tribes ( Pashto : پښتانه ټبرونه يا پښتانه قبايل ‎) are the large family units of the Eastern Iranian ethnic groups who use the Pashto language and follow Pashtunwali code of conduct. They are found primarily in Afghanistan and Pakistan and form the world's largest tribal society , comprising over 49 million people and between 350 and 400 tribes and clans. They are traditionally divided into four tribal confederacies: the Sarbani ( سربڼي ), the Bettani ( بېټني ), the Gharghashti ( غرغښتي ), and the Karlani ( کرلاڼي ). Flag of the Durrani (Abdali or Ebodalo) tribes of the Sarbani confederacy Folkloric genealogies trace the descendants of the Pashtuns to Qais Abdur Rashid and his three sons Sarbaṇ ( سربڼ ), Beṭ ( بېټ ), and Gharghax̌t ( غرغښت ) as well as his fourth son, the Karlani confederacy Ormur Baraki , who became the progenitor of the Karlani . There are several levels of organisation of Pashtun tribes. The "tribe" is subdivided into kinship groups, each of which is a khe



Panni (Pashtun tribe)

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The term "Balailzai (Panni)" refers to a Pashtun tribe in Afghanistan and Pakistan . Another name for the tribe of Panni is Balailzai. Like other Pashtuns, they have Eastern Iranian genetic and ethnolinguistic heritage, and also carry genetic traces of European and other Middle Eastern people. They descended from Gharghasht, one of Qais Abdur Rashīd's sons. Most are settled in parts of Pakistan or Afghanistan, such as Karachi , Quetta , Musakhail, Dera Ismail Khan , Mardan , Peshawar , Panian , Haripur , Kabul , Tank , Kohat , while there are some communities in the United States, United Kingdom, and other Western countries. They were, at one point in time, were holding main posts in the Government especially during the rule of Bahlol Lodhi. After his reign ended, they scattered and migrated to various parts of the Indian subcontinent and the Middle East. History Panni Naghar, Devi and Babai were real brothers. All tribes are present in Baluchistan( Pakistan ) and Afghanistan. The Balailzai tribe were camel a



Lodi dynasty

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The Lodi dynasty (or Lodhi) was a Pashtun dynasty that ruled the Delhi Sultanate from 1451 to 1526. It was the last dynasty of the Delhi Sultanate and was founded by Bahlul Khan Lodi when he replaced the Sayyid dynasty . Bahlul Lodi Bahlul Khan Lodi ( r.  1451  –  1489 ) was the nephew and son-in-law of Malik Sultan Shah Lodi, the governor of Sirhind in ( Punjab ), India and succeeded him as the governor of Sirhind during the reign of Sayyid dynasty ruler Muhammad Shah (Muhammad-bin-Farid). Muhammad Shah raised him to the status of an emir. He was the most powerful of the Punjab chiefs and a vigorous leader, holding together a loose confederacy of Afghan and Turkish chiefs with his strong personality. He reduced the turbulent chiefs of the provinces to submission and infused some vigour into the government. After the last Sayyid ruler of Delhi , Ala-ud-Din Aalm Shah voluntarily abdicated in favour of him, Bahlul Khan Lodi ascended the throne of the Delhi sultanate on 19 April 1451. The most important event



Lodhi (disambiguation)

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The Lodi_(Pashtun_tribe) is a Batani Pashtun (Ghilzai) tribe mainly found in Afghanistan and Pakistan. Lodhi may also refer to: Lodhi colony , a residential colony in South Central part of New Delhi Lodhi community , the Hindu community in India Other uses Azhar Lodhi , a newscaster and commentator at the Pakistan Television Corporation Faheem Khalid Lodhi , a Pakistani-Australian architect Maleeha Lodhi , a journalist, academic and diplomat from Pakistan Sultanpur Lodhi , a city in the Indian state of Punjab See also Lodi (disambiguation) Lohri , the Punjabi Festival History of Lodhi Rajputs The Lodi_(Pashtun_tribe) is a Batani Pashtun (Ghilzai) tribe mainly found in Afghanistan and Pakistan. Lodhi may also refer to: Lodhi colony , a residential colony in South Central part of New Delhi Lodhi community , the Hindu community in India Other uses Azhar Lodhi , a newscaster and commentator at the Pakistan Television Corporation Faheem Khalid Lodhi , a Pakistani-Australian architect Maleeha Lodhi , a journalist,



Sur (Pashtun tribe)

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Sur ( Pashto : سور ‎, literally the color "red"), also known as Suri , Zur and Zuri ( Pashto : زوري ‎), are a historical Pashtun tribe living primarily in Afghanistan and Pakistan . They trace their descent to the Ghorids , a formerly Hindu or Buddhist people originating from Mandesh in the Ghor region of modern-day central Afghanistan, converted to Islam by the powerful Turkic Ghaznavids in early 11th century. The founder of the Suri Empire in India , Sher Shah Suri , belonged to the Sur tribe. They ruled the Suri Empire from 1540 until they were removed from power in 1555 after the Battle of Sirhind by Humayun and the Persian army, who re-established the Mughal Empire . Today, the Sur are part of the Pashtun tribal system , and identify with the Lodi Bettani confederacy. The Sur are also related to the Ghilji , another Bettani tribal confederacy but it is also believed that Suri is the sub-tribe of Kakar Pashtun. It was at the time of this bounty of Sultán Bahlol, that the grandfather of Sher Sháh, by name



Garhi Matani

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Ghari Matani is a village in Attock District , Punjab , Pakistan . It is situated to the south of the river Indus and has fertile lands. The population are predominately Pashtun of Yusufzai and Abdali extraction and speak the heavy/hard "Drana" Pukhto/Pakhto Pashto dialect of the Yusufzai tribe. There are a minority of Kashmiri's living there also. A notable inscription is located in the area. It is situated on the banks of the river Indus . The tribes of Muradkhel (possibly of the Abdaal/Duranni tribe?), Syedkhel, Inamkhel and Khankhel known as Lodi Pashtun tribe , and follow pashtunwali code of conduct. The religion is Sunni Islam . The origins of the village are currently being studied, but all sources point to it being accommodated by the Pashtun tribes between 100–200 years old which rules out the Lodhi theory. There is historical evidence of the Afghan Cameleers venturing from the village and into Australia for business purposes which occurred during the late 19th century. The cameleer on record belonge



List of Pashtun empires and dynasties

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The following is a list of Pashtun empires and dynasties. It includes states, princely states, empires and dynasties in the history of Central and South Asia which were founded by Pashtun rulers. The Pashtuns, alternatively known as ethnic Afghans or Pathans, are an eastern Iranian ethnic group originating from Afghanistan and northwest Pakistan, and have an extensive military history in the region (see military history of Afghanistan and military history of Pakistan). As a result of migration and military conquests in South Asia, a large number of communities throughout the region claim Pashtun ancestry, especially in areas which were previously ruled by Pashtun dynasties. Empires Ibrahim Lodi, grandson of Bahlul Khan Lodi and the last ruler of the Lodi dynasty Sher Shah Suri, founder of the Sur Empire Ahmad Shah Durrani, founder of the Durrani Empire Lodi dynasty (1451–1526), founded by Bahlul Khan Lodi, who belonged to the Lodi tribe born in Multan. The dynasty encompassed much of P



Pathans of Uttar Pradesh

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The Pathans of Uttar Pradesh ( Pashto : د اوتار پرادش پښتانه ‎), have a large community of Pashtuns in the state of Uttar Pradesh in India , who form one of the largest Muslim communities in the state. They are also known as khans, which is a commonly used surname, although not all those who use the surname are Pathans, for example the Khanzada community of eastern Uttar Pradesh , who are Muslim Rajputs , are also commonly known as khan. Indeed, in Awadh , the boundary between the Khanzada and Pathans are blurred. In addition, the phrase Pathan Khanzada is used to describe Muslim Rajput groups, found mainly in Gorakhpur , who have been absorbed into the Pathan community. However, in Rohilkhand , and in parts of the Doab and Awadh , there are genuine communities of Pashtuns , such as the Rohilla . History and origin The word Pathan is simply the Hindustani pronunciation of the word Pashtun . Their presence in the territory that now forms Uttar Pradesh dates from at the least the 10th Century. Various medieval



Lohani

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The Lohani , sometimes called Nuhani is a Pashtun tribe found in Pakistan especially in the region of Dera Ismail Khan, Tank, Lakki Marwat, Shakargarh, Afghanistan and India. Nuhanis are not to be confused with Hindu caste of Lohana. Pashtun Nuhanis or Luhanis are descendants of a person by the name of Nuhan or Luhan, great grandson of Ibrahim alias Lodi. Nuharnai or Nuhan, his descendants came to be known as Nuhani, variously corrupted by the others into Luhani, Lohani and Lawani. They were a mostly pastoral and migratory tribe but nowadays most of them have settled down in the plains of DI Khan, Tank and Lakki Marwat. Lohanis have four branches, Marwat, Daulat Khel, Miya Khel and Tatoor. The Tatoor tribe was crushed by Nadir shah and Daulat khel (Nawab of Tank) who brought them near to extinction. Therefore, nowadays Tatoor tribe is generally dispersed in the region of Tank, Dera Ismail khan and FR Tank and especially found in village Tatoor near Tank city. Origin Lohanis or Nuhanis are not to be confused



Bahlul Lodi

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Bahlul Khan Lodi (died 12 July 1489) was the chief of the Pashtun Lodi tribe and founder of Lodi dynasty of the Delhi Sultanate upon the abdication of the last claimant from the previous Sayyid rule. Bahlul became sultan of the dynasty on 19 April 1451 (855 AH ). Early life Billon Tanka of 80 ratti of Bahlul Lodi Bahlul's grandfather, Malik Bahram, was a Pashtun from Multan ,he took service under the governor of Multan, Malik Mardan Daulat. Malik Bahram had a total of about five sons. His eldest son, Malik Sultan Shah Lodi, later served under the Sayyid dynasty ruler Khizr Khan and distinguished himself by killing in the battle later's worst enemy Mallu Iqbal Khan . He was rewarded with the title of Islam Khan and in 1419 appointed the governor of Sirhind . Bahlul, the son of Malik Kala, the younger brother of Malik Sultan was married to Malik Sultan's daughter. In his youth, Bahlul was involved in the trading of horses and once sold his finely bred horses to the Sayyid dynasty Sultan Mohammad Shah. As a p



Pashtun diaspora

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Pashtun diaspora refers to ethnic Pashtuns who live outside of their traditional homeland, which is south of the Hindu Kush mountains in Afghanistan and west of the Indus River in Pakistan . Pakistan is home to the largest Pashtun community. Smaller populations of Pashtuns are found in the European Union , North America , Australia and other parts of the world. They may also be found in the Middle East , particularly in the United Arab Emirates , Iran , Oman , Saudi Arabia , Kuwait , Qatar and Bahrain . In Northern India , there are communities of Indians who trace their origins to the traditional Pashtun homeland. The Pashtun ethnic group also known as Pathan are believed to have settled in the vast Pashtunistan tribal region in the first millennium C.E., between the Hindu Kush mountains and the Indus River. According to Ethnologue , they currently number around 50 million but some sources give slightly lower or higher figures. In the Indian subcontinent , the group is usually referred to as Pathan. Nati



Pashtuns

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The Pashtuns or ( Pashto : پښتانه ‎ Pax̌tānə; singular masculine: پښتون Pax̌tūn, feminine: پښتنه Pax̌tana; also Pukhtuns ), historically known by the exonyms Afghans ( Persian : افغان ‎‎, Afğān), and Pathans ( Hindustani : پٹھان, पठान, Paṭhān), are an ethnic group who mainly live in the Pashtunistan region of southern and central Asia , in Afghanistan and North-Western Pakistan . They speak the Pashto language and adhere to Pashtunwali , which is a traditional set of ethics guiding individual and communal conduct. The origin of Pashtuns is unclear but historians have come across references to various ancient peoples called Pakthas (Pactyans) between the 2nd and the 1st millennium BC, who may be their early ancestors. Their history is mostly spread amongst the countries of Pakistan and Afghanistan , centred on their traditional seat of power in that region. As the largest ethnic group in Afghanistan , Pashtuns have been the dominant ethno-linguistic group for over 300 years. During the Delhi Sultanate



Pashtun culture

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Pashtun culture or Afghan culture ( Pashto : پښتوني هڅوب ‎) is based on Islam and Pashtunwali , which is an ancient way of life, as well as speaking of the Pashto language and wearing Pashtun dress . The culture of the Pashtun people is highlighted since at least the time of Herodotus (484-425 BC) or Alexander the Great , when he explored the Afghanistan and Pakistan region in 330 BC. The Pashtun culture has little outside influence, and, over the ages, has retained a great degree of purity. Holidays and special events The biggest holidays for Pashtuns are the Islamic Eid al-Fitr and Eid al-Adha , followed by Afghan Independence Day (August 19) and Pakistan Independence Day (August 14). The arrival of Sparlay or spring, known as Naw-Wraz (New Day), is also celebrated by some Pashtuns. It is an ancient annual Pashtun festival which celebrates both the beginning of spring and the New Year. Amongst some Pashtuns , Sheshbeeyeh, a prelude festival to Nava Wroz , is also celebrated. This tradition still survives, m



Marwat

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The Marwats ( Pashto : مروت ‎) are a Pashtun tribe, a branch of the Lohani tribe and belong to Lodi section of the Mati Afghans, located primarily in Lakki Marwat District , parts of Dera Ismail Khan District , some villages of Tank district and in the Katawaz area of Afghanistan. The Marwats are also known as Spin Lohani (White faction of Lohanis), and their most closely related kin are other Lohani tribes like Miya Khel, Daulat Khel and Tatur. In the Afghan dynasty of Hind (1451-1526), Lohanis were the most powerful among the Lodi Afghans and were in possession of one quarter of jagirs in India. The Marwats were named for their ancestor Marwat Khan Lodi. History Marwats, as well as other branches of Lohanis, lived in Katawaz (located in the Paktika province) as well as Wana valley of South Waziristan. They had a long-standing dispute with Sulaiman Khels and other Ghilzais , who had already forced other Lodi tribes to migrate en masse to India. In one of the decisive battles, in the mid-15th century, Lohanis



Pashtunwali

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Pashtunwali ( Pashto : پښتونوالی ‎) or Pakhtunwali is a non-written ethical code and traditional lifestyle which the indigenous Pashtun people follow. It is a system of law and governance that is preserved and still in use today, mostly in the rural tribal areas. Its meaning may also be interpreted as "the way of the Pashtuns" or "the code of life". Pashtunwali is widely practiced among Pashtuns, especially among the non- urbanized Pashtuns in the countryside. In addition to being practiced by members of the Pashtun diaspora , it has been adopted by some non-Pashtun Afghans and Pakistanis that live in the Pashtun regions or close to the Pashtuns, who have gradually become Pashtunized over time. During the Pashtun-dominated Taliban regime, Pashtunwali was practiced throughout the Islamic Emirate of Afghanistan in conjunction with the Taliban's interpretation of Deobandi Islam . Overview The native Pashtun tribes , often described as fiercely independent people, have inhabited the Pashtunistan region (eas



Pathans of Punjab

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The Pathans of Punjab (Punjabi: پنجابی پٹھان (Shahmukhi); Pashto: د پنجاب پښتانه‎; also called Punjabi Pathans are originally Pashtun people (Pathans) who have settled in the Punjab region of Pakistan and north India.[2] Most of these Pashtun communities are scattered throughout the Punjab and have over time assimilated into the Punjabi identity. These non-frontier Pathans are usually known by the town or locality in which they are settled, e.g., Qasuria Pathans or Multani Pathans.[3] History and origin Colonies of Pathans (Pashtun people) arriving in Punjab are accounted for by Sir Densil Ibbetson in the following manner: During the Lodi and Suri dynasties many Pathans migrated to Punjab especially during the reign of Bahlol Lodhi and Sher Shah Suri. These naturally belonged to the Ghilzai section from which those kings sprung.[4] — Sir Densil Ibbetson The history of Pathans in India is much earlier. Trapusa and Bahalika, variously assumed to be merchants or slaves from Balkh were the first lay-person



Pashtunization

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Pashtunization ( Pashto : پښتون‌ جوړونه ‎), also called Pathanization , is a process of cultural or linguistic change in which someone or something non-Pashtun becomes accultured to Pashtun influence. The Pashtun people are the largest ethnic group in Afghanistan and the second largest in Pakistan . Dynasties and settlements Tents of Afghan nomads in Badghis Province of Afghanistan . Known in Pashto as Kuchans , they are mostly Ghilzais who migrate seasonally. Farming villages came into existence in Afghanistan about 7,000 years ago. People become Pashtunized when they settle in Pashtun-dominated areas and adopt Pashtun culture , either by adapting the Pashto language or absorbing Pashtunwali customs. Pashtunization is a specific form of cultural assimilation and has been taking place in Pashtun-populated regions of Afghanistan and Pakistan for several centuries. "In the eighth and ninth centuries ancestors of many of today's Turkic -speaking Afghans settled in the Hindu Kush area (partly to obtain better



Babar (Pashtun tribe)

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The Babar ( Pashto : بابړ) or Babori tribe is a Pashtun tribe. The Babar diaspora is spread across Pakistan, Afghanistan and India today. In the First World War 78 people of the Babar tribe from Pirpiai went to the war as Indian Army men and four were killed. Hence, Pirpiai is one of the very few villages which has an official plaque commemorating its First World War contribution. History Babar, the ancestor of the Babar tribe was born at Takht-e-Sulaiman in 1175; six generations after Qais Abdur Rashid . It is interesting to note that the Babars were initially the same tribe as the Shiranis , also settled in and around the same region as the Babars. As far as the pedigrees show, Shirani was the father of Babar. The Shiranis have three sub-tribes, namely: Marani Miani Babar Maranis still refer to themselves as 'Shirani' as they are the main sub-tribe, but Babars and Mianis identify themselves as completely separate tribes. The Babars are treated by some genealogists as a section of the Shirani Tribe . They ar



Anti-Pashtun sentiment

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Anti-Pashtun sentiment refers to fear, dislike, or hostility towards Pashtun people or anything related to Pashtun culture in general. It can sometimes be broadly construed as a subcategory of anti-Pakistan sentiment or anti-Afghan sentiment as Pashtuns are the second largest ethnic group in Pakistan and the largest in Afghanistan. Anti-Pashtun sentiment has been present in South - Central Asia at various points in history among different non-Pashtun groups, for various political and historical reasons. Afghanistan The traditional rivalry for power and influence between the Pashtun majority and the minority Persian ( Dari )-speaking ethnic groups of Afghanistan such as the Tajiks , Hazaras , Uzbeks and Turkmen , has often stirred anti-Pashtun sentiments among the latter. In 1975, an uprising broke out in Panjsher Valley against the rule of Afghan prime minister and Pashtun nationalist Daoud Khan , which was believed to have been "sparked by anti-Pashtun frustrations." The Settam-e-Melli , led by Uzbek activi



Pashtunistan

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Pashtūnistān ( Pashto : پښتونستان ‎, transliteration Pashtūnistān or Pakhtūnistān, meaning "homeland of the Pashtuns ") is the geographic region inhabited by the indigenous Pashtun people of modern-day Afghanistan and Pakistan . Alternative names historically used for the region included " Afghānistān " and " Pashtūnkhwā ", since at least the 3rd century CE onward. Pashtunistan borders Punjab to the east, Iran to the west, Persian and Turkic speaking areas to the north, Kashmir to the northeast, and Balochistan to the south. For administrative division in 1893, Mortimer Durand drew the Durand Line , fixing the limits of the spheres of influence between King Abdur Rahman Khan and British India . This porous line that runs through the centre of the Pashtun region forms the modern border between Afghanistan and Pakistan. Roughly, the Pashtun homeland stretches from areas south of the Amu River in Afghanistan to west of the Indus River in Pakistan, mainly consisting of southwestern, eastern and some north



Tokhi

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Tokhi ( Pashto : توخی ) is a Ghilji Pashtun tribe found throughout southern, eastern, southeastern and northeastern Afghanistan . In the Pashtun tribal hierarchy Tokhi is one of the most respected tribes. They are wholly powerful, rich and widely considered to be one of the most brave, warlike and tough Pashtun tribes. The mother of Mir Wais Hotak , founder of the Hotaki dynasty in Kandahar , belonged to the Tokhi tribe. Their origin is unclear but historically they have mostly lived in what is now Zabul Province and Kandahar in Afghanistan. The family currently in charge of leading the tribe is considered to have great influence over the government of Afghanistan. In other words, they are regarded to as the policy makers of Afghanistan and are widely respected. Geographic distribution They have traditionally centered on Qalat-i-Ghilzai, also known as Qalat-i-Tokhi. As Ghilzai are a nomadic tribe, Tokhi have moved from one place to another over the centuries. Although, some still following nomadic traditions,



Karrani dynasty

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The Karrani dynasty ( Pashto : د کرلاڼيو واکمني ‎) was founded in 1564 by Taj Khan Karrani , an ethnic Pashtun from the Karlani tribe. It was the last dynasty to rule the Sultanate of Bengal . Founding Taj Khan was formerly an employee of the Sur Emperor Sher Shah Suri . From 1562 to 1564, Taj Khan captured south-eastern Bihar and west Bengal , and with his assassination of the last Muhammed Shahi ruler, he seized all of Bengal . The capital was at Sonargaon . Taj Khan was followed by Sulaiman Khan Karrani , who shifted the seat of government from Gaurr to Tanda in 1565. In 1568, Sulaiman Khan annexed Orissa to the Karrani sultanate permanently. Nominally he accepted sovereignty of the Mughal Emperor Akbar , and his prime minister Lodi Khan placated the Mughals with gifts and banqueting. Sulaiman Khan's authority extended from Koch Bihar to Puri , and from Son River to Brahmaputra River . Mughal invasion On 25 September 1574, the Mughal general Munim Khan captured the Karrani capital Tanda. The Battle of Tuk



Pakthas

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Pakthas are an ancient people that find reference in Sanskrit and Greek sources as a people living in the region which includes south-eastern Afghanistan and Northern parts of Pakistan . In the Rigveda , the Kurram is mentioned as "Kruma". Pachytyans were in charge of all "elephants" used in battle fields. Elephant hoarders or boarders or they took care of elephants. Today, the Kurram Valley is mostly inhabited by the Bangash and Turi Pashtun tribes , and because of that the ancient Pakhtas are believed to be part of the modern-day Pashtun confederation . "The Pakthas, Bhalanases, Vishanins, Alinas, and Sivas were the five frontier tribes. The Pakthas lived in the hills from which the Kruma originates. Zimmer locates them in present-day eastern Afghanistan, identifying them with the modern Pakthun ." Rigved Pakthas The Pakthas were one of the tribes that fought against Sudas in the Dasarajna the Battle of the Ten Kings (dāśarājñá), a battle alluded to in Mandala 7 of the Rigveda ( RV 7 .18.7). Herodotus recor



Kakazai

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Kakazai Pashtuns - Page 22 from "A Dictionary of the Pathan Tribes of the North West Frontier of India" - Published 1910 :: Courtesy: The British Library Family Tree — From Qais Abdul Rashid to the Kakazai (Loi Mamund) Pashtuns Daulat Khel, Maghdud Khel, Mahsud Khel and Mahmud Khel, Sub-divisions of Kakazai Pashtun Tribe :: Courtesy: The British Library The Kakazai ( Pashto : کاکازي / ککےزي / ککازي ‎, Urdu , Persian : کاکازَئی / کَکےزَئی / کَکازَئی ‎‎), also known as Loi or Loye Mamund ( Pashto : لوی ماموند ‎; Urdu : لو ئے / لوئی مَاموند ‎), a division of the Mamund clan, are part of the larger Tarkani ( ترکاڼي ) tribe who are mainly settled in Bajaur Agency , Pakistan, but originally hailed from the Laghman province of Afghanistan . However, it has grown and scattered around to such an extent that it is recognized as tribe of its own. Etymology The name "Kakazai" means "descendants/offspring/children of Kakae or Kaka" (in Pashto , Kaka or Kakae = a contemporary Afghan name



Ghilji

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The Ghilji ( Pashto : غلجي ‎), Ghilzai ( Pashto : غلزی ‎), and Gharzai ( Pashto : غرزی ‎, ghar literally means "mountain" and zai "born of"), are the largest Pashtun tribal confederacy . The Ghilji at various times became rulers of present Afghanistan region and were the most dominant Pashtun confederacy from c. 1000 A.D. until 1747 A.D., when power shifted to the Durranis . The Ghilji tribes are today scattered all over Afghanistan and some parts of Pakistan , but most are concentrated in the region from Zabul to Kabul province, with Ghazni and Paktika provinces in the center of their region. The Ghilji tribes are also settled in Balochistan and Khyber Pakhtunkhwa in Pakistan. Many of the migrating Kochi people of Afghanistan belong to the Ghilji confederacy. From 1709 to 1738, the Ghilji ruled the Hotak Empire based first in Kandahar , Afghanistan and later, from 1722–1728, in Isfahan , Persia. Etymology Etymologically the word Ghilji is derived from ghar-zai ( غرزی ), meaning "son of mountain". Descent, o



Ethnic groups in Afghanistan

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CIA map showing the territory of the settlement of ethnic groups and subgroups in Afghanistan (2005) Afghanistan is a multiethnic and mostly-tribal society. The population of the country is divided into the following ethnolinguistic groups: Pashtun, Tajik, Hazara, Uzbek, Aimak, Turkmen, Baloch, Pashai, Nuristani, Gujjar, Arab, Brahui, Pamiri and a few others. The Afghan National Anthem and the Afghan Constitution mention a total of 14 ethnic groups.[1] National identity The term "Afghan" is synonymous with the ethnonym "Pashtun" and has been mentioned as early as the 3rd century, referring to the tribes inhabiting the lands south of the Hindu Kush around the Sulaiman Mountains. It became prominent during the Khilji, Lodi, and Suri dynasties of Northern India. The name became the national identity of Afghanistan in modern times.[2] Despite being of various ethnic groups, in a research poll that was conducted in 2009, 72% of the population labelled their identity as Afghan first, before ethnici



Afghans in India

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Afghan refugees in India are a community numbering up to 10,000. Most are recent Hindu and Sikh refugees who fled the Taliban regime and political instability in Afghanistan ; they are concentrated in and around Delhi . Muslim families account for about 10% of Afghan nationals in India, although recent migration has seen a boost in numbers. Apart from citizens and expatriates, there are hundreds of communities in India who trace their ancestries back to Pashtun forefathers. Before the creation of the modern state of Afghanistan, the term Afghan was used synonymously with Pashtun, and there has been much history of Pashtuns that have lived in India. There are an estimate of 10,000 Pashtuns in India. Thousands of Pashtun descent Indians migrated to Pakistan after the partition. Currently are a few ethnic Pashtuns that have retained their culture in India. Most have integrated into Indian culture. There's a sizable number Pashtuns in Indian state of Jammu and Kashmir.The North-Western Frontier Province (now cal



Shilmani

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The Shalmani , or Shilmani ( Pashto : شلمانى ‎) are Pashtun Sub section of Mohmand tribe who are primarily concentrated in the Shalman Valley in Khyber Agency near Peshawar , Khyber Pakhtunkhwa , Pakistan . Shalmani are also known as Sulemani ( Pashto : سليمانى ‎) in Abbottabad , Mansehra and Haripur . The tribe is also present in different areas of Pakistan, Afghanistan and Iran . In Pakistan, the tribe lives in Swat , Upper Dir , Lower Dir , Bajour , Buner , Shangla , Malakand District , Dargai , Sakha Koat, Charsadda ( Hashtnagar ). Similar to Shalman of Khyber, a city by name Shalman is also present in Gilan Province of Iran and the shalmani associated with Iranian Shalman also speak Pashto and Persian as well. History Khan Roshan Khan a Pakhtun historian says that Shalmani were originally brought to Swat District by one of the famous conquerors and kings, Muhammad of Ghor , from Shalman Valley of khyber Agency in present Pakistan and Karman of today's Afghanistan . M.Saida Khan Shinwari said that Shilm



Bangash

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The Bangash (Pashto: بنګش‎), (Urdu: بنگش‎) are one of the largest and perhaps the most powerful Karlani Pashtun tribe of the border region of eastern Afghanistan and North Western Pakistan. They primarily inhabit the Kohat, Hangu, Doaba, Thall, and districts of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, as well as portions of the Kurram Agency and Orakzai Agency in FATA.[1] A large number of Bangash are also found in the northeastern section of the Paktia and Paktika Province in Afghanistan. Descendants of Bangash are also found in the Uttar Pradesh state of India, particularly in the city of Farrukhabad which was founded by Muhammad Khan Bangash in 1714.[2] [3] Etymology and origins The name Bangash or Bankash is said to be derived from Persian namely "bun", meaning root, and "Kashtan",[4] meaning 'To tear apart'.Since the origin of the tribe it was believed that during battle the tribesmen of the Bangash would not rest until they had ripped the enemy off of their roots.Hence the Name 'Bangash' or 'Root Destroyer'.It is believ



Khizarkhel

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Khizarkhel (خضر خیل) is a clan of Pashtun Tribe Niazi .They are living in many parts of Pakistan but many of them are living in Isakhel and Khanewal, their ancestral village is Khaglan Wala . They are also living in Sukkur, Bahawalpur, Karachi, Lahore and Faisalabad. History The Niazi originally lived on the border of present-day Afghanistan and Pakistan . For several generations the Niazi were traders and carriers with their cousins, the Marwats , with whom they were allied. In the late 15th century, the Niazi expanded north toward present-day Lakki Marwat and settled on the banks of the Kurram and descendants of Khizar Khan and other elders like Ahmad Khan founded Khaglanwala in 1748. Khizar Khan of Khizarkhel Clan Khizar Khan or Khizar Khan Niazi born in late 16th century or early 17th century was son of Sheikh Mukhal Khan or Sheikh Muhali Khan and sometimes Muhammad Ali Khan, Khizar Khan also had a elder brother name Sheikh Fareed Khan.Khizar Khan is ancestor of all Khizarkhel clan and was Great-great gra



Afghana

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Afghana or Avagana is a tribal chief or prince in Pashtun folklore , said to be of Bani Israel ( Israelite ) origin, who is traditionally considered the progenitor of modern-day Pashtuns , the largest ethnic group in Afghanistan and second largest in Pakistan . The ethnonym "Afghan" is believed to derive from his name. House of King Saul Genealogy and family tree of Malak Afghana, grandson of King Saul. According to the Tanakh , King Saul ( Talut ) was the son of Kish , a member of the tribe of Benjamin , one of the twelve Tribes of Israel ( 1 Samuel 9:1-2 ). Saul married Ahinoam , daughter of Ahimaaz and had four sons and two daughters. The sons were Jonathan , Abinadab , Malchishua and Ish-bosheth . Saul's daughters were named Merab and Michal . Pashtun folklore and some historians suggest that King Saul had five sons instead of four, the fifth was named Irmia ( Jeremiah ). Family Tree & Lineage The legend describes Malak Afghana as the son of Irmia (Jeremiah) and grandson of King Saul (Talut).



Bettani

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The Bhittani or Bēṭanī ( Pashto : بېټني ‎) (also spelled Bettani in older British sources) is a Pashtun tribal confederacy located mostly in Afghanistan and Pakistan with a small number dwelling in India . The Bettani are named after Shaykh Beṭ, their legendary ancestor who is said to be the second son of Qais Abdur Rashid . The Bettani's are Sunni Muslims of Hanafi sect. The Bettani confederacy includes the supertribes of Ghilji and Lodi , as well as the tribe of Shirani . The Ghilji reside in east-central Afghanistan, most concentrated in the region from Zabul to Kabul province. The Bettani proper in Pakistan reside in Frontier Region Tank , a territory that is a buffer zone separating Tank District from the Mahsud tribe of South Waziristan Region in Pakistan's Federally Administered Tribal Areas . The Bettani tribe live in the Frontier Region of District Tank and in FR Lakki Marwat of Khyber Pakhtunkwa , Pakistan . Jandola is considered the capital of the Bettani tribes in FR Tank. District Tank, FR Tank



Name of Afghanistan

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The name Afghānistān ( Persian : افغانستان ‎‎, ) means "land of the Afghans", which originates from the ethnonym " Afghan ". Historically, the name "Afghan" mainly designated the Pashtun people , the largest ethnic group of Afghanistan . The earliest reference to the name is found in the 10th-century geography book known as Hudud ul-'alam . The last part of the name, -stān is a Persian suffix for "place". In the early 19th century, Afghan politicians adopted the name Afghanistan for the entire Durrani Empire after its English translation had already appeared in various treaties with Qajarid Persia and British India . In 1857, in his review of J.W. Kaye's The Afghan War, Friedrich Engels describes "Afghanistan" as: "an extensive country of Asia ... between Persia and the Indies, and in the other direction between the Hindu Kush and the Indian Ocean. It formerly included the Persian provinces of Khorassan and Kohistan , together with Herat , Beluchistan , Cashmere , and Sinde , and a considerable part of



Durrani dynasty

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The Durrani dynasty was founded in 1747 by Ahmad Shah Durrani at Kandahar , present Afghanistan. He united the different Pashtun tribes and created the Durrani Empire with his Baloch allies which included the most of present-day Pakistan , and the Kashmir and Punjab regions of present-day India . The Durrani dynasty was composed of ethnic Pashtuns and Baloch Durranis were replaced by the Barakzai dynasty during the early half of the 19th century. Ahmad Shah and his descendants were from the Sadozai line of the Durranis (formerly known as Abdalis), making them the second Pashtun rulers of Kandahar after the Hotakis . The Durranis were very notable in the second half of the 18th century mainly due to the leadership of Ahmad Shah Durrani. Start of the dynasty Nader Shah 's rule ended in June 1747 after being murdered by his Persian soldiers. In October 1747, when the chiefs of the Afghans met at a loya jirga (grand council) in Kandahar to select a new ruler for the Abdali confederation, the young 25-year-old



Barakzai dynasty

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The two branches of the Barakzai dynasty (Translation of Barakzai: sons of Barak ) ruled modern day Afghanistan from 1826 to 1973 when the monarchy ended under Musahiban Mohammad Zahir Shah . The Barakzai dynasty was established by Dost Mohammad Khan after the Durrani dynasty of Ahmad Shah Durrani was removed from power. During this era, Afghanistan saw much of its territory lost to the British in the south and east, Persia in the west, and Russia in the north. There were also many conflicts within Afghanistan, including the three major Anglo-Afghan Wars and the 1929 civil war. Flag of the Abdali Afghan Tribes. Made from historical texts and references. History and background The Barakzai dynasty was the line of rulers in Afghanistan in the 19th and 20th centuries. Following the fall of the Durrani Empire in 1826, chaos reigned in the domains of Ahmed Shah Durrani 's Afghan Empire as various sons of Timur Shah struggled for supremacy. The Afghan Empire ceased to exist as a single nation state , disintegratin



Muhajir culture

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Muhajir culture ( Urdu : ثقافتِ مهاجر ‎) is the culture of Urdu Muslim refugees that migrated mainly from North India after the independence of Pakistan in 1947 generally to the Sindh province and mainly to the city of Karachi . They are also known as Urdu speakers, on account of Urdu being their native language, and have also been referred to as Hindustani Musalman ("Indian Muslims"). Many Muhajirs of Pakistan are closely related to the Muslims of Uttar Pradesh in India . The Muhjairs are concentrated in urban areas of Sindh. History Early history of Urdu speaking community Delhi Sultanate The roots of Muhajirs lies with Muslim migration and settlement in North India especially modern Uttar Pradesh . The conversion of natives to Islam and the migration of Muslims from the Muslim World coalesced to form the Urdu Muslim community which was referred to as Hindustani Musalmans , East Punjab . Early settlement of Northern Muslims was due to the migrations and then establishment of Turkish Sultanate . Most Muslim



Khyber Pakhtunkhwa

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Khyber Pakhtunkhwa (abbreviated as KP ; Urdu : خیبر پختونخوا ‎ ; Pashto : خیبر پښتونخوا ‎) is one of the four provinces of Pakistan , located in the northwestern region of the country along the international border with Afghanistan . It was officially known as North-West Frontier Province ( NWFP ) until 2010, and is known colloquially by various other names . Khyber Pakhtunkhwa's provincial capital and largest city is Peshawar , with Mardan being the second-largest. It shares borders with the Federally Administered Tribal Areas to the west; Gilgit–Baltistan to the northeast; Azad Kashmir , Islamabad and Punjab to the east and southeast. Khyber Pakhtunkhwa does not officially share a border with Balochistan , which instead borders FATA. Khyber Pakhtunkhwa also shares an international border with Afghanistan , to which the province is linked via the historic Khyber Pass . Khyber Pakhtunkhwa is the site of the ancient kingdom Gandhara , including the ruins of its capital, Pushkalavati , near modern day Charsadd



Lodi Khel

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Lodhi Khel لودھی خیل is a small Town located in Khyber-Pakhtunkhwa province of Pakistan . It is a Shia dominated area and the main Pashtun tribe living there is Bangash Post Address - Village And Post Office Lodhi Khel District And Tehsil Hangu Prominent leaders Muhammad Hadi malak Shahid Hussain malak Iqbal Javid Iqbal Noor Ali malak Jabbar Lala Postal Code - 26196 Coordinates and location type Area Type: Populated place Location Type: Populated Place Latitude: 33.58972 Longitude: 71.16972 Latitude (DMS): 33° 35' 23 N Longitude (DMS): 71° 10' 11 E Lodhi Khel Location by Google Earth lodhi khel is a beautiful place (village ) like swat. lodhi khelianz are very aducated and well manered .lodhi khel khwago malgaro hujra group is very populer group bekoz graet hastiz like hadi jan - haji javeed -shahab jan -jamil jan - murtaza jan - shahid jan- engg qalbe -imtiaz bacha -sajjad jan-iqbal nbp-members in this great group . mulla ali ziyarat .dago . toey . star bagh . kacha .sepaley . chalgaze are populer palces i



History of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa

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The history of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa stretches back to Greek exploration in the 500s BCE. It is now a province of Pakistan in the mountainous Hindu Kush region where the South Asian subcontinent meets with Central asia.[1] During the colonial period, the province was the North-West Frontier Province (1901–1955), forming the northwestern frontier of British India. The government of Pakistan changed its name.[2] Pre-modern history In ancient times, the region was part the state of Gandhara occupied the Vale of Peshawar and adjoining areas. This kingdom was important because of its strategic location at the eastern end of the Khyber Pass. Gandhara was annexed by the Persian Achaemenian dynasty in the early 6th century BCE and remained a Persian satrapy until 327 bce. The region then passed successively under Greek, Indian, Indo-Bactrian, Sakan, Parthian, and Kushan rule.[3] At some point after 516 BCE, Darius Hystaspes sent Scylax, a Greek seaman from Karyanda, to explore the course of the river. Darius Hystas



Pashto media

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Inside a radio station in Qalat , Afghanistan Pashto media includes Pashto literature , Pashto-language newspapers, magazines, television and radio stations, as well as Pashto films and Pashto internet. Pashto media involves the Pashtuns of Pakistan , Afghanistan and the Pashtun diaspora around the world. Pashto literature and poetry Pashto is not only the name of a language, but it comprises all traditions, norms and values of the Pashtun people . The history of Pashto language comprises thousands of years. It is widely believed among the Pashtuns that the earliest written Pashto poems were written in the 8th century CE by Amir Kror Suri of Ghor , Afghanistan. Amir Kror was the son of Amir Polad and they belonged to the Suri Pashtun tribe . Since paper was not much in use in the Pashtun territory, Poets usually performed poetry verbally and its fans memorized the work. Another reason may be that most Pashtuns were nomads and warriors, thus lack writing skills. Due to these and other reasons, Pashto remained



History of Peshawar

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Peshawar City, Edwardes Gate, c. 1870 The history of Peshawar , a region of modern-day Khyber Pakhtunkhwa , Pakistan , covers thousands of years. The region was known as Puruṣapura in Sanskrit , literally meaning "city of men". It also found mention in the Zend Avesta as Vaēkərəta, the seventh most beautiful place on earth created by Ahura Mazda . It was known as the "crown jewel" of Bactria and also held sway over Takshashila (modern Taxila ). Being among the most ancient cities of the region between Central and South Asia, Peshawar has for centuries been a center of trade between Bactria, South Asia , and Central Asia . Overview Peshawar was known in Sanskrit as Puruṣapura (पुरुषपुर), literally meaning "city of men". It also found mention in the Zend Avesta as Vaēkərəta, the seventh most beautiful place on earth created by Ahura Mazda It was known as the "crown jewel" of Bactria and also held sway over Takshashila (modern Taxila ). Being among the most ancient cities of the region between Central and So



Delhi Sultanate

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The Delhi Sultanate was a Persianate Muslim kingdom based mostly in Delhi that stretched over large parts of the Indian subcontinent for 320 years (1206–1526).[4] [5] Five dynasties ruled over Delhi Sultanate sequentially: the Mamluk dynasty (1206–90), the Khilji dynasty (1290–1320), the Tughlaq dynasty (1320–1414),[6] the Sayyid dynasty (1414–51), and the Lodi dynasty (1451–1526). The first four dynasties (Mamluk, Khilji, Tughlaq and Sayyid) were of Turkic origin, and the last dynasty (Lodi) was of Afghan origin. The sultanate is noted for being one of the few states to repel an attack from the Mongol Empire,[7] and enthroned one of the few female rulers in Islamic history, Razia Sultana, who reigned from 1236 to 1240.[8] Qutb al-Din Aibak, a former slave of Muhammad Ghori, was the first sultan of Delhi and his dynasty conquered large areas of northern India. Afterwards the Khilji dynasty was also able to conquer most of central India, but both failed to unite the Indian subcontinent. The sultanate reach



Bareilly district

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The Bareilly district  pronunciation  belongs to the state Uttar Pradesh in northern India. Its capital is Bareilly city and it is divided in six administrative division or tehsils: Aonla, Baheri, Bareilly city, Faridpur, Mirganj, and Nawabganj. The Bareilly district is a part of the Bareilly Division and occupies an area of 4120 km² with a population of 4,448,359 people (previously it was 3,618,589) according to the census of 2011.[1] In the Sanskrit epic poem, Mahābhārata, the Bareilly region (Panchala) is described as the birthplace of Draupadi, also referred to as Pachali (which means one from the kingdom of Panchāla) or Krishnaa (kṛṣṇā). After Yudhishthira becomes the king at the end of the Mahābhārata, she becomes his queen. In the 12th century, the kingdom was ruled by several clans of Kshatriya Rajputs. After the Islamic invasion, the region became part of the Delhi Sultanate before getting absorbed by the emerging Mughal Empire. The modern City of Bareilly was founded by Mukrand Rai in 1657. Later i



Harifal

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The Harifal (Urdu حریفال حریف ال) are a Pashtun tribe inhabiting the Sherani District in the Balochistan province of Pakistan , and, to a lesser extent, the surrounding districts of Afghanistan . The tribe mostly populates the western slopes of Shinghar, a mountain in the Suleiman Range , though a considerable number reside in the Zhob District . There is also a scattered population in the Duki subdivision of Loralai District , Sanjavi subdivision of the Ziarat District , a small population in Quetta , and some in Zarkanai Daraban of Dera Ismail Khan district . The word Harifal is also transliterated as Airf Aal, Haripal, and Hurreepaul. The two union councils of Sherani district, Shinghar Harifal south with 23 villages (13,883 people) and Shinghar Harifal north with 31 villages (12,228 people), are altogether occupied by the Harifal tribe. The main bulk of the tribe lives in clusters of villages in the central block of Mt. Shinghar. The Harifal tribe is relatively small and tractable compared to other tribe



Durrani Empire

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The Durrani Empire (Pashto: د درانیانو واکمني‎), also called the Afghan Empire,[6] was founded and built by Ahmad Shah Durrani with its capitals at Kandahar, Afghanistan, and Peshawar, Pakistan. At its maximum extent, the empire covered the modern states of Afghanistan and Pakistan as well as northeastern Iran, eastern Turkmenistan, northwestern India including the Kashmir region.[7] It is recognized as one of the most powerful Muslim empires. After the death of Nader Shah Afshar in 1747, the region of Kandahar was claimed by Ahmad Shah Durrani. From there he began conquering Ghazni followed by Kabul. In 1749 the Mughal ruler had ceded sovereignty over what is now Pakistan and northwestern Punjab to the Afghans. Ahmad Shah then set out westward to take possession of Herat, which was ruled by Shahrukh Afshar. He next sent an army to subdue the areas north of the Hindu Kush and in short order all the different tribes began joining his cause. Ahmad Shah and his forces invaded India four times, taking control



Babur

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Babur ( Persian : بابر ‎, translit.   Bābur , lit.   'Tiger'‎; 14 February 1483 – 26 December 1530), born Ẓahīr-ud-Dīn Muhammad ( Persian : ظهیرالدین محمد ‎, translit.   Zahīr ad-Dīn Muhammad ‎), was a conqueror from Central Asia who, following a series of setbacks, finally succeeded in laying the basis for the Mughal dynasty in the Indian subcontinent and became the first Mughal emperor. He was a direct descendant of Turco-Mongol conqueror Timur (Tamurlane) from the Barlas clan, through his father, and also a descendant of Genghis Khan through his mother. He was also influenced by the Persian culture and this affected both his own actions and those of his successors, giving rise to a significant expansion of the Persianate ethos in the Indian subcontinent. Babur was the eldest son of Umar Sheikh Mirza . He ascended the throne of Fergana in 1495 at the age of twelve and faced rebellion from his own relatives. He conquered Samarkand two years later, only to lose the city of Fergana soon after. In his attempt

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Hephthalite Empire

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The Hephthalites (or Ephthalites) were a people of Central Asia who were militarily important circa 450-560. They were based in Bactria and expanded east to the Tarim Basin , west to Sogdia and south through Afghanistan to northern India. They were a tribal confederation and included both nomadic and urban, settled communities. They were part of the four major "Hunic" states known collectively as Xionites or " Hunas ", being preceeded by the Kidarites , and succeeded by the Alchon Huns and lastly the Nezak Huns . The Sveta Huna or White Huns who invaded northern India are probably the Ephthalites, but the exact relation is not clear. The stronghold of the Hephthalites was Tokharistan on the northern slopes of the Hindu Kush , in what is present-day northeastern Afghanistan. By 479, the Hephthalites had conquered Sogdia and driven the Kidarites westwards, and by 493 they had captured parts of present-day Dzungaria and the Tarim Basin in what is now Northwest China . They expanded into northwestern India as wel



Sher Shah Suri

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Sher Shah Suri (1486–22 May 1545) was the founder of the Sur Empire in North India, with its capital at Delhi. An ethnic Pashtun, Sher Shah took control of the Mughal Empire in 1540. After his accidental death in 1545, his son Islam Shah became his successor.[2] [3] [4] [5] [6] [7] He first served as a private before rising to become a commander in the Mughal army under Babur and then the governor of Bihar. In 1537, when Babur's son Humayun was elsewhere on an expedition, Sher Shah overran the state of Bengal and established the Sur dynasty.[8] A brilliant strategist, Sher Shah proved himself as a gifted administrator as well as a capable general. His reorganization of the empire laid the foundations for the later Mughal emperors, notably Akbar, son of Humayun.[8] During his five-year rule from 1540 to 1545, he set up a new civic and military administration, issued the first Rupiya and re-organised the postal system of India.[9] He further developed Humayun's Dina-panah city and named it Shergarh and revi



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