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List of Carnegie libraries in Florida

The following list of Carnegie libraries in Florida provides detailed information on United States Carnegie libraries in Florida, where 10 public libraries were built from 10 grants (totaling $198,000) awarded by the Carnegie Corporation of New York from 1901 to 1917. In addition, academic libraries were built at 4 institutions (totaling $76,500).

Key

  Building still operating as a library  Building standing, but now serving another purpose  Building no longer standing  Building listed on the National Register of Historic Places  Building contributes to a historic district on the National Register of Historic Places

Carnegie libraries
Library City or town Image Date granted[1] Grant amount[1] Location Notes
1 Bartow Bartow Mar 18, 1911 $8,000 Demolished in 1998
2 Bradenton Bradenton Bradenton FL Carnegie Library01.jpg Feb 3, 1917 $10,000
3 Clearwater Clearwater Mar 16, 1915 $10,000 Demolished c.2000
4 Gainesville Gainesville Mar 31, 1916 $10,000 Demolished in 1954
5 Jacksonville Jacksonville Jax FL Old Free Public Library02.jpg Feb 13, 1902 $55,000
6 Ocala Ocala Ocala-Carnegie.jpg Feb 21, 1907 $10,000 Demolished in 1968
7 Palmetto Palmetto Palmetto FL HD Hist Park Carnegie Lib01.jpg Jan 14, 1914 $10,000
8 St. Petersburg St. Petersburg St. Pete Mirror Lake Library02.jpg Jul 9, 1913 $17,500
9 Tampa Tampa Tampa Free Public Library01.jpg Dec 30, 1901 $50,000
10 West Tampa West Tampa West Tampa Free Public Library.jpg Jan 2, 1913 $17,500
Academic libraries
Institution Locality Image Year granted Grant amount Location Notes
1 Fessenden Academy Martin Mar 15, 1905 $6,500
2 State Normal and Industrial College for Colored Students, today Florida A&M University Tallahassee CarnegieLibraryTLH.JPG Jul 18, 1905 $10,000 Now houses the Southeastern Regional Black Archives Research Center and Museum. Carnegie built his library at the negro college after the city of Tallahassee refused it, because under Carnegie's rules it would have to have served all (i.e., black) patrons.
3 John B. Stetson University DeLand Stetson Univ - Sampson Hall2.jpg Mar 12, 1906 $40,000 Now Sampson Hall
4 Rollins College Winter Park Jun 22, 1905 $20,000
Carnegie Hall Library at Rollins College

One of the Florida libraries funded by Andrew Carnegie was on the campus of Rollins College in Winter Park. According to Cohen (2006), Carnegie’s “donation of 108 libraries to colleges in the first two decades of the twentieth century assisted 10 percent of the institutions of higher learning in the United States. Carnegie had a preference for colleges and universities that served African-American students, which Rollins College president William Fremont Blackman noted the school did in a letter to Carnegie appealing for a library in 1904:[2]

The fact that it is the only college in the country, North or South, in which the grandchildren of abolitionists and confederate soldiers, in about equal numbers, sit together in the same class-room and play together on the same athletic field, and learn thus to understand, respect and love one another;

Blackman’s request consisted of $35,000 in total: “$20,000 for a fireproof building, $3,000 for books, and $12,000 as an endowment for the continued purchase of books” (Cohen). Blackman received a response from Carnegie’s secretary James Bertram that noted the request was too general for consideration, and that Carnegie would need a profile of the university before consideration. Little progress was made for over a year, when Blackman again wrote to Carnegie, noting the university’s need for a library. Trustees and friends of the university wrote to Carnegie on Blackman’s behalf, including W.W. Cummer, a trustee from Jacksonville who served on the board of the city’s new Carnegie Library. A letter dated 22 June 1905 and written from Carnegie’s home in Scotland brought the welcome news of the offer of a library. Carnegie offered $20,000 for the construction of a library provided that the same amount would be raised for the library’s upkeep. While grateful for Carnegie’s proposal, Blackman was uneasy with its terms because the amount of funding required to match Carnegie’s offer would put a strain on those who had donated to start the college’s endowment fund ($200,000) as well as paid a debt ($30,000). In correspondence to Bertram dated July 11, 1905 Blackman wrote (according to Cohen):

Our college is in the poorest of States, remote from all centers of wealth and population, and our friends have strained themselves to the uttermost, in the effort to raise $230,000 in two years. I am by no means sure that we can meet Mr. Carnegie’s conditions.

In a January 1906 letter Blackman wrote to Carnegie expressing concern about meeting the conditions for the gift, noting that the college had a large debt that took “considerable self-sacrifice on the part of our friends.” That summer, another Florida college, Stetson University, was awarded $40,000 for a library from Carnegie. Upon learning this Blackman again wrote to Carnegie, seeking to amend the original terms of the agreement to match the amount that Stetson was awarded. He was turned down, but a year later was able to notify Carnegie that the school’s trustees had been able to match the $20,000 necessary for the gift to be awarded. Bertram wrote to Blackman to inform him that Carnegie had “authorized his Cashier…to arrange payments on Library Building, as work progresses, to the extent of Twenty Thousand Dollars.” The library, to be named Carnegie Hall, was dedicated on February 18, 1909.

The building had over 8,000 square feet of space, and was the school’s first dedicated library building. It served as so from 1909 until 1951. In addition to its function as a library, Carnegie Hall also served as the school’s post office. Since the library was moved from Carnegie to the newly built Mills Memorial Library, it has also housed a bookstore, admissions office, faculty offices, and human resources.[3]

Carnegie Library at Stetson University

Sampson Hall, Stetson University's Carnegie library was opened in 1908. The Carnegie donation was matched with funds donated by John B. Stetson's wife, Elizabeth S. Stetson, and the library later was named Sampson Library in honor of C.T. Sampson, one of the university's foremost trustees. Of the academic libraries that Carnegie helped to fund, Stetson's Sampson library received funds greatly exceeding those received by others in the state. The funding was given on March 12, 1906. Two years later, the resulting Sampson Library was a gorgeous structure which housed the university's library for fifty-six years before a lack of space led to changes. The structure was designed by Henry John Klutho, the first Floridian Architect to be inducted to the American Institute of Architects, and reflects the neoclassical style many Carnegie libraries adopted. The library's edifice is emblazoned with "Education is Power" in Roman style lettering and all around the building are the names of persons influential to academia, such as Chaucer, Tennyson, and Longfellow.[4] When Sampson Library was relocated to the DuPont-Ball Library in 1964, the entire university- students, faculty, and staff- helped to move the books by hand from one building to the other. Students we asked to give an hour of their time to move the resources, but many worked even longer helping to move the materials whose numbers exceed 100,000. Sampson Hall is still used by Stetson University and is a prominent structure along the palm court at the heart of the university. Today its space is divided into classrooms and faculty offices used by the Art, modern language, and American Studies departments; and also is home to student art studio spaces. It'd place as the library's former home and a building of great architectural importance on campus is still prominent.[5]

Notes
  1. At various times, Bobinski and Jones disagree on these numbers. In these cases, Jones' numbers have been used due to both a more recent publication date and a more detailed gazetteer of branch libraries, which are often where the discrepancies occur.
  2. Cohen, D.K. (2000). Andrew Carnegie and Academic Library Philanthropy: The Case of Rollins College, Winter Park, Florida. Libraries & Culture, 35(3), 389-408. JSTOR 25548838
  3. Rollins Olin Library. (2012). History of the Rollins Library-Library Buildings. Retrieved from http://www.rollins.edu/library/about/history2.html
  4. https://www.google.com/maps/@29.0346766,-81.302794,3a,75y,176.02h,138.06t/data=!3m6!1e1!3m4!1sNqZQBuwrA3qBkslp78_luw!2e0!7i13312!8i6656
  5. http://www.stetson.edu/other/about/history.php/
References
  • Anderson, Florence (1963). Carnegie Corporation Library Program 1911–1961. New York: Carnegie Corporation. OCLC 1282382.
  • Bobinski, George S. (1969). Carnegie Libraries: Their History and Impact on American Public Library Development. Chicago: American Library Association. ISBN 0-8389-0022-4.
  • Jones, Theodore (1997). Carnegie Libraries Across America. New York: John Wiley & Sons. ISBN 0-471-14422-3.
  • Miller, Durand R. (1943). Carnegie Grants for Library Buildings, 1890–1917. New York: Carnegie Corporation of New York. OCLC 2603611.

Note: The above references, while all authoritative, are not entirely mutually consistent. Some details of this list may have been drawn from one of the references (usually Jones) without support from the others. Reader discretion is advised.

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List of concert halls

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The interior of the Teatro Dal Verme in Milan , Italy, c. 1875 Ríos Reyna Hall, in the Teresa Carreño Cultural Complex of Caracas , Venezuela Carnegie Hall , New York City The Elbphilharmonie in Hamburg , Germany was opened 11 January 2017 Walt Disney Concert Hall , Los Angeles Musikverein , Vienna Suntory Hall , Tokyo The Odeon of Herodes Atticus in Athens is one of the oldest concert halls still in use today A concert hall is a cultural building with a stage which serves as a performance venue and an auditorium filled with seats. While early halls built in the 18th and 19th century were designed for classical orchestra , concerto and opera concerts and ballet performances, halls built in the 20th and 21st century were often built to accommodate a wider range of performance types, including musicals . In the 2010s, popular music such as rock music and traditional music such as folk music are also performed in these venues. Many concert halls exist as one of several halls or performance spaces within a larger



List of Lambda Chi Alpha chapters

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The following is a list of the chapters and colonies of the Lambda Chi Alpha Fraternity (ΛΧΑ), an international men's collegiate fraternity , ordered by name; activating the column headings will sort the list by installation year, institution, location, or status. Broadly, a chapter is an organization of members of the fraternity attached to an institution or geographic location which has received a charter authorizing it to operate as the local unit of Lambda Chi Alpha. A colony is a local group which is being organized or reorganized and has not yet met the standards for a charter. Most newly issued charters go to colonies established by the General Fraternity, although the majority of charters were issued to petitioning local societies. In the early days of the fraternity, founder Warren A. Cole issued charters to so-called picked delegations, groups of correspondents who were interested in forming a fraternity chapter but who had not yet organized themselves. Additionally, in 1939, Lambda Chi Alpha merge



J. P. Morgan

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John Pierpont Morgan Sr. (April 17, 1837 – March 31, 1913) was an American financier and banker who dominated corporate finance and industrial consolidation in late 19th and early 20th Century United States. In 1892, Morgan arranged the merger of Edison General Electric and Thomson-Houston Electric Company to form General Electric . He was also instrumental in the creation of the United States Steel Corporation , International Harvester and AT&T . At the height of Morgan's career during the early 1900s, he and his partners had financial investments in many large corporations and had significant influence over the nation's high finance and United States Congress members. He directed the banking coalition that stopped the Panic of 1907 . He was the leading financier of the Progressive Era , and his dedication to efficiency and modernization helped transform American business. Morgan has been described as America’s greatest banker. Morgan died in Rome, Italy, in his sleep in 1913 at the age of 75, leaving h



Alice's Adventures in Wonderland

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Alice's Adventures in Wonderland (commonly shortened to Alice in Wonderland ) is an 1865 fantasy novel written by English mathematician Charles Lutwidge Dodgson under the pseudonym Lewis Carroll . It tells of a girl named Alice falling through a rabbit hole into a fantasy world populated by peculiar, anthropomorphic creatures. The tale plays with logic , giving the story lasting popularity with adults as well as with children. It is considered to be one of the best examples of the literary nonsense genre. Its narrative course and structure, characters and imagery have been enormously influential in both popular culture and literature, especially in the fantasy genre. Background Page from the original manuscript copy of Alice's Adventures Under Ground, 1864 Alice was published in 1865, three years after Charles Lutwidge Dodgson and the Reverend Robinson Duckworth rowed a boat up the Isis on 4 July 1862 (this popular date of the "golden afternoon" might be a confusion or even another Alice-tale, for that



Great Fire of 1901

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The Great Fire of 1901 was a conflagration that occurred in Jacksonville, Florida , on May 3, 1901. It was one of the worst disasters in Florida history and the third largest urban fire in the US, next to the Great Chicago Fire , and the 1906 San Francisco fire . Fire Origin In 1901, Jacksonville was a city which consisted mainly of wooden buildings with wood shingled roofs. The city itself had been suffering under a prolonged drought, leaving the building exteriors across the city dry and fire-prone. At around noon on Friday, May 3, 1901, workers at the Cleaveland Fibre Factory, located on the corner of Beaver and Davis Streets, left for lunch. Several minutes later, sparks from the chimney of a nearby building started a fire in a pile of Spanish moss that had been laid out to dry. First, factory workers tried to put it out with a few buckets of water, as they had frequently done on similar occasions. However, the blaze was soon out of control due to the wind picking up out of the east. A brisk northwest



Independent Order of Odd Fellows

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Evolving from the Order of Odd Fellows first founded in England during the 1700s, the Independent Order of Odd Fellows ( IOOF ) is a non-political and non-sectarian international fraternal order founded in 1819 by Thomas Wildey in Baltimore , Maryland , United States . It was originally chartered by the Independent Order of Oddfellows Manchester Unity in England but has operated as independent organization since 1842, although it maintains an inter-fraternal relationship with the English Order. The order is also known as the Triple Link Fraternity, referring to the order's "Triple Links" symbol, alluding to its motto "Friendship, Love and Truth". While several unofficial Odd Fellows lodges had existed in New York City circa 1806-1818, because of its charter relationship, the American Odd Fellows is regarded as being founded with Washington Lodge No 1 in Baltimore at the Seven Stars Tavern on April 26, 1819, by Thomas Wildey along with some associates who assembled in response to an advertisement in the New



List of information schools

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This list of information schools includes members of the iSchools organization. iSchools organization This iSchools organization reflects a consortium of over 80 information schools in a dozen countries. iSchools promote an interdisciplinary approach to understanding the opportunities and challenges of information management, with a core commitment to concepts like universal access and user-centered organization of information. The field is concerned broadly with questions of design and preservation across information spaces, from digital and virtual spaces such as online communities, social networking, the World Wide Web, and databases to physical spaces such as libraries, museums, collections, and other repositories. Degree programs at iSchools include course offerings in areas such as information architecture , design, policy, and economics; knowledge management , user experience design, and usability ; preservation and conservation ; librarianship and library administration; the sociology of information;



List of autobiographies

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The following is a list of notable autobiographies : By profession Author Title of book Year Anthropology Margaret Mead Blackberry Winter: My Earlier Years 1972 Archaeology Margaret Murray My First Hundred Years with ammu 1963 Architecture Frank Lloyd Wright Autobiography 1943 Art Salvador Dali The Secret Life of Salvador Dalí 1942 Claude Monet An Interview 1900 Gwen Raverat Period Piece 1952 Business Andrew Carnegie Autobiography of Andrew Carnegie: with Illustrations 1920 Richard DeVos Simply Rich: Life and Lessons from the Cofounder of Amway: A Memoir 2014 Andrew S. Grove A Memoir: Swimming Across 2001 Comedy Stephen Fry Moab Is My Washpot 1997 Stephen Fry Ernie: the Autobiography 2009 Frankie Boyle My Shit Life So Far 2009 Craig Ferguson American on Purpose 2009 Dance Isadora Duncan My Life 1927 Drama Terry-Thomas Filling the Gap 1959 Vincent Price I Like What I Know 1959 George Sanders Memoirs of a Professional Cad 1960 Ken Murray Life On a Pogo Stick 1960 Fred Astaire Steps in Time 1960 Harpo Marx Harpo



List of Jewish actors

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This is a list of notable Jewish actors . Born in the 1990s–2000s Name Years Nationality Prominent roles References Sofia Black D'Elia 1991- American Skins Jonah Bobo 1997– American Zathura Cameron Boyce 1999- American Jessie , Gamer's Guide to Pretty Much Everything , Descendants Max Burkholder 1997- American Parenthood Timothée Chalamet 1995- American Homeland , Interstellar Emory Cohen 1990– American The Place Beyond the Pines Flora Cross 1993– American Bee Season Spencer Daniels 1992– American Zoey Deutch 1994– American Vampire Academy Anna Rezan 1992– Greek Ansel Elgort 1994– American The Fault in Our Stars Julia Garner 1994- American Esti Ginzburg 1990– Israeli Twelve Zachary Gordon 1998- American Diary of a Wimpy Kid Alexander Gould 1994– American Finding Nemo , Weeds Teo Halm 1999- American Earth to Echo Leo Howard 1997- American Kickin' It Carter Jenkins 1991- American Logan Lerman 1992– American Percy Jackson & the Olympians , Hoot , The Perks of Being a Wallflower Judah Lewis c. 2001/2002 Amer



Charlotte, North Carolina

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Charlotte is the largest city in the state of North Carolina . It is the county seat of Mecklenburg County . In 2016, the U.S. Census Bureau estimated the population was 842,051, making it the 17th-largest city in the United States based on population. The Charlotte metropolitan area ranks 22nd-largest in the U.S., and had a 2016 population of 2,474,314. The Charlotte metropolitan area is part of a sixteen-county market region or combined statistical area with a 2016 U.S. Census population estimate of 2,632,249. Between 2004 and 2014, Charlotte was ranked as the country's fastest growing metro area, with 888,000 new residents. Based on U.S. Census data from 2005 to 2015, it also tops the 50 largest U.S. cities as the millennial hub. It is the second-largest city in the southeastern United States , just behind Jacksonville, Florida . It is the third-fastest growing major city in the United States. It is listed as a "gamma-minus" global city by the Globalization and World Cities Research Network . Reside



Syracuse University

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Crouse College, a Romanesque building completed in 1889, housed the first College of Fine Arts in the United States. It is now the home of the university's College of Visual and Performing Arts and the Setnor School of Music. Syracuse University (commonly referred to as Syracuse , ' Cuse , or SU ) is a private research university in Syracuse, New York , United States. The institution's roots can be traced to the Genesee Wesleyan Seminary (later becoming Genesee College ), founded in 1831 by the Methodist Episcopal Church in Lima, New York . After several years of debate over relocating the college to Syracuse, the university was established in 1870, independent of the college. Since 1920, the university has identified itself as nonsectarian , although it maintains a relationship with The United Methodist Church . The campus is in the University Hill neighborhood of Syracuse, east and southeast of downtown , on one of the larger hills. Its large campus features an eclectic mix of buildings, ranging from n



James Fenimore Cooper

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James Fenimore Cooper (September 15, 1789 – September 14, 1851) was a prolific and popular American writer of the early 19th century. His historical romances of frontier and Indian life in the early American days created a unique form of American literature . He lived most of his life in Cooperstown, New York , which was founded by his father William on property that he owned. Cooper was a lifelong member of the Episcopal Church and, in his later years, contributed generously to it. He attended Yale University for three years, where he was a member of the Linonian Society , but was expelled for misbehavior. Before embarking on his career as a writer, he served in the U.S. Navy as a midshipman , which greatly influenced many of his novels and other writings. The novel that launched his career was The Spy , a tale about counterespionage set during the Revolutionary War and published in 1821. He also wrote numerous sea stories , and his best-known works are five historical novels of the frontier period known a



Judith Resnik

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Judith Arlene Resnik (April 5, 1949 – January 28, 1986) was an American engineer and a NASA astronaut who died when the Space Shuttle Challenger was destroyed during the launch of mission STS-51-L . Resnik was the second American female astronaut in space, logging 145 hours in orbit. She was also the first Jewish American in space, and the first Jewish woman of any nationality in space. She was a graduate of Carnegie Mellon University and had a Ph.D. in electrical engineering from the University of Maryland . The IEEE Judith Resnik Award for space engineering is named in her honor. Early life Resnik was born in 1949 to Sarah and Marvin, an optometrist , in Akron, Ohio . Both her parents were Jewish immigrants from Ukraine . A graduate of Firestone High School in 1966, she excelled in mathematics and played classical piano. She received a B.S. in electrical engineering from Pittsburgh 's Carnegie Mellon University in 1970, the year she married fellow student Michael Oldak. They divorced in 1975. In 1977 she e



University of Alabama

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The University of Alabama ( Alabama or UA ) is a public research university located in Tuscaloosa , Alabama , United States, and the flagship of the University of Alabama System . Founded in 1820, UA is the oldest and largest of the public universities in Alabama . UA offers programs of study in 13 academic divisions leading to bachelor's, master's, Education Specialist , and doctoral degrees. The only publicly supported law school in the state is at UA. Other academic programs unavailable elsewhere in Alabama include doctoral programs in anthropology , communication and information sciences, metallurgical engineering, music, Romance languages , and social work . As one of the first public universities established in the early 19th century southwestern frontier of the United States, the University of Alabama has left a vast cultural imprint on the state, region and nation over the past two centuries. The school was a center of activity during the American Civil War and the Civil Rights Movement . The Univers



List of lesbian, gay, bisexual, or transgender firsts by year

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This list of lesbian , gay , bisexual , and transgender ( LGBT ) firsts by year denotes pioneering LGBT endeavors organized chronologically. Openly LGBT people remain a demographic minority in most places. In areas that historically are not known for having (or being friendly to) LGBT people who do not remain closeted , a "first" can make it easier for other openly LGBT persons to enter the field or for those who are closeted to come out . Openly LGBT people being visible in society affects societal attitudes toward homosexuality , bisexuality, and the transgender community on a wider level. One commonly cited example is Harvey Milk , the first openly gay person to be elected to political office in California , becoming the most visible LGBT politician in the world in the 1970s, after decades of resistance to LGBT people by mainstream culture. Milk encouraged LGBT people to "come out of the closet" during his speeches; as a result of his work and his assassination—along with San Francisco mayor George Moscone



Alpha Kappa Psi (sorority)

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Alpha Kappa Psi ( ΑΚΨ ) sorority operated in the United States from 1900 to approximately 1920. Early history In 1900, Alpha Kappa Psi was founded as the first Greek letter sorority on the campus of Saint Mary's School in Raleigh , North Carolina . Rev. Theodore DuBose Bratton , eventual bishop of Mississippi (1903), assisted his students with the creation. The purpose was to "foster the highest ideals of Christian womanhood" (Saint Mary's Archives). The first initiation was held in 1901. Two Greek lettered literary societies were also founded on campus in 1900: Epsilon Alpha Pi, Sigma Lambda. Going National In 1904, AKP was incorporated as a national sorority. Soon, other chapters were chartered. Beta chapter was chartered at Virginia Female Institute (Stuart Hall) in Staunton, Virginia . The next eight years were the "heyday" of the sorority. Chapters were chartered at schools in Florida , Georgia , South Carolina , Washington DC , and Pennsylvania . The Alpha chapter disbanded in 1911, when rector Dr. Geo



Mercer University

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R. Kirby Godsey Administration Building, a university landmark listed on the National Register of Historic Places Mercer University is the oldest private university in Georgia with its main campus in Macon, Georgia , United States . Mercer enrolls more than 8,500 students in 12 colleges and schools: liberal arts , business , engineering , education , music , continuing and professional studies , law , theology , medicine , pharmacy , nursing , and health professions . Mercer is a member of the Georgia Research Alliance and has a chapter of Phi Beta Kappa , the nation's oldest collegiate honors society. Mercer has three campuses: the main campus in Macon , a graduate and professional education campus in Atlanta , and a four-year campus of the School of Medicine in Savannah . Mercer also has regional academic centers in Henry County , Douglas County , and Newnan ; the Walter F. George School of Law on its own campus in Macon; teaching hospitals in Macon, Savannah, and Columbus ; a university press and a perfo



Booker T. Washington

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Booker Taliaferro Washington (April 5, 1856 – November 14, 1915) was an American educator, author, orator, and advisor to presidents of the United States. Between 1890 and 1915, Washington was the dominant leader in the African-American community. Washington was from the last generation of black American leaders born into slavery and became the leading voice of the former slaves and their descendants. They were newly oppressed in the South by disenfranchisement and the Jim Crow discriminatory laws enacted in the post- Reconstruction Southern states in the late 19th and early 20th centuries. Washington was a key proponent of African-American businesses and one of the founders of the National Negro Business League . His base was the Tuskegee Institute , a historically black college in Alabama. As lynchings in the South reached a peak in 1895, Washington gave a speech, known as the " Atlanta compromise ", which brought him national fame. He called for black progress through education and entrepreneurship, rather



List of Columbia University alumni and attendees

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This is a partial list of notable persons who have had ties to Columbia University . For further listings of notable Columbians see notable alumni at: Columbia College of Columbia University Columbia University School of General Studies Columbia Law School Columbia Business School Columbia University Graduate School of Journalism Columbia Graduate School of Architecture, Planning and Preservation Columbia University College of Physicians and Surgeons Columbia University Graduate School of Education (Teachers College) Fu Foundation School of Engineering and Applied Science Columbia Graduate School of Arts and Sciences Columbia University School of the Arts School of International and Public Affairs Politics, military and law Business See also: Notable alumni of Columbia Business School , Columbia Law School (Business and Philanthropy), Columbia College of Columbia University , School of Engineering and Applied Science (Columbia University) (Businesspeople) for separate listing of more than 155 businesspersons



Pittsburgh Steelers

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The Pittsburgh Steelers are a professional American football team based in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania . The Steelers compete in the National Football League (NFL), as a member club of the league's American Football Conference (AFC) North division. Founded in 1933 , the Steelers are the oldest franchise in the AFC. In contrast with their status as perennial also-rans in the pre- merger NFL, where they were the oldest team never to win a league championship, the Steelers of the post-merger (modern) era are one of the most successful NFL franchises. Pittsburgh has won more Super Bowl titles (6) and hosted more conference championship games (11) than any other NFL team. The Steelers have won 8 AFC championships , tied with the Denver Broncos , but behind the New England Patriots record 9 AFC championships. They share the record for most conference championship games played in with the San Francisco 49ers (15). The Steelers share the record for second most Super Bowl appearances with the Broncos, and Dallas Cowboys



Pittsburgh

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Pittsburgh ( PITS -burg ) is a city in the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania in the United States , and is the county seat of Allegheny County . As of 2017, a total population of 305,704 lives within the city limits, making it the 63rd- largest city in the U.S. The metropolitan population of 2,353,045 is the largest in both the Ohio Valley and Appalachia , the second-largest in Pennsylvania (behind Philadelphia ), and the 26th-largest in the U.S. Located at the confluence of the Allegheny , Monongahela , and Ohio Rivers , Pittsburgh is known as both "the Steel City" for its more than 300 steel -related businesses, and as the "City of Bridges" for its 446 bridges . The city features 30 skyscrapers , two inclines , a pre-revolutionary fortification and the Point State Park at the confluence of the rivers. The city developed as a vital link of the Atlantic coast and Midwest , as the mineral-rich Allegheny Mountains made the area coveted by the French and British empires, Virginians , Whiskey Rebels , and Civil War



List of foreign recipients of the Légion d'Honneur

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The Order of Légion d'Honneur is the highest decoration in France and is divided into five degrees: Chevalier (Knight), Officier (Officer), Commandeur (Commander), Grand Officier (Grand Officer) and Grand Croix (Grand Cross). Membership in the Légion d'Honneur is restricted to French nationals. Foreign nationals who have served France or the ideals it upholds may, however, receive a distinction of the Légion, which is nearly the same thing as membership in the Légion. Foreign nationals who live in France are submitted to the same requirements as Frenchmen. Foreign nationals who live abroad may be awarded a distinction of any rank or dignity in the Légion. A complete, chronological list of the members of the Legion of Honour nominated from the very first ceremony in 1803 to now does not exist. The number is estimated at one million. Among them about 3 000 were decorated with the Grand Cross (including 1 200 French). Albania Fatos KONGOLI 2010 (Knight) writer Ismail KADARE 2016 (Commander) writer Edi Rama 201



Epping Forest (Jacksonville)

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Epping Forest (also known as the Alfred I. duPont Estate) was a historic, 58-acre (230,000 m ) estate in Jacksonville, Florida where a luxurious riverfront mansion was built in the mid-1920s by industrialist Alfred I. du Pont and his third wife, Jessie Ball du Pont . It was added to the U.S. National Register of Historic Places in 1973 and has been restored to its original grandeur as the home of the Epping Forest Yacht Club. On April 18, 2012, the AIA 's Florida Chapter placed the Epping Forest Yacht Club on its list of Florida Architecture: 100 Years. 100 Places. du Pont history Alfred I. du Pont was originally from Delaware and controlled the famous DuPont Chemical Company with his cousins, Pierre and Coleman. Over the years, their relationship deteriorated to the point where Alfred resigned from the family company in 1917. He created business ventures in Delaware and New York, but in 1925, cousin Pierre was named Delaware's Tax Commissioner. To prevent Pierre from sticking his nose into Alfred’s property



National Register of Historic Places listings in Marion County, Kansas

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This is a list of the National Register of Historic Places listings in Marion County, Kansas . This is intended to be a complete list of the properties and districts on the National Register of Historic Places in Marion County , Kansas , United States . The locations of National Register properties and districts for which the latitude and longitude coordinates are included below, may be seen in a map. There are 30 properties and districts listed on the National Register in the county. Current listings Name on the Register Image Date listed Location City or town Description 1 1927 Hillsboro Water Tower Upload image October 6, 2011 ( #11000727 ) Lots 10 & 11, Block 2, Hill's 2nd Addition 38°21′15″N 97°12′25″W  /  38.354167°N 97.206944°W Hillsboro 2 Amelia Park Bridge Upload image January 21, 2004 ( #03001467 ) 0.5 miles west of U.S. Route 77 on 260th Street (approximate 1 mile north-east of Antelope) 38°26′47″N 96°57′58″W  /  38.446389°N 96.966111°W Antelope 3 Bethel School Upload image December 17, 19



List of African-American firsts

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African Americans (also known as Black Americans and Afro-Americans) are an ethnic group in the United States. The first achievements by African Americans in various fields historically marked footholds, often leading to more widespread cultural change. The shorthand phrase for this is "breaking the color barrier". One commonly cited example is that of Jackie Robinson , who was the first African American of the modern era to become a Major League Baseball player, ending 60 years of segregated Negro Leagues . 18th century 1730s–1770s 1738 First free African-American community: Gracia Real de Santa Teresa de Mose (later named Fort Mose) in Florida 1760 First known African-American published author: Jupiter Hammon (poem "An Evening Thought: Salvation by Christ with Penitential Cries", published as a broadside ) 1768 First known African American to be elected to public office: Wentworth Cheswell , town constable in Newmarket, New Hampshire . 1773 First known African-American woman to publish a book: Phillis Wheat




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