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List of Carnegie libraries in Florida

The following list of Carnegie libraries in Florida provides detailed information on United States Carnegie libraries in Florida, where 10 public libraries were built from 10 grants (totaling $198,000) awarded by the Carnegie Corporation of New York from 1901 to 1917. In addition, academic libraries were built at 4 institutions (totaling $76,500).


  Building still operating as a library  Building standing, but now serving another purpose  Building no longer standing  Building listed on the National Register of Historic Places  Building contributes to a historic district on the National Register of Historic Places

Carnegie libraries
Library City or town Image Date granted[1] Grant amount[1] Notes
1 Bartow Bartow Mar 18, 1911 $8,000 Demolished in 1998
2 Bradenton Bradenton Bradenton FL Carnegie Library01.jpg Feb 3, 1917 $10,000
3 Clearwater Clearwater Mar 16, 1915 $10,000 Demolished about 2000
4 Gainesville Gainesville Mar 31, 1916 $10,000 Demolished in 1954
5 Jacksonville Jacksonville Jax FL Old Free Public Library02.jpg Feb 13, 1902 $55,000
6 Ocala Ocala Ocala-Carnegie.jpg Feb 21, 1907 $10,000 Demolished in 1968
7 Palmetto Palmetto Palmetto FL HD Hist Park Carnegie Lib01.jpg Jan 14, 1914 $10,000
8 St. Petersburg St. Petersburg St. Pete Mirror Lake Library02.jpg Jul 9, 1913 $17,500
9 Tampa Tampa Tampa Free Public Library01.jpg Dec 30, 1901 $50,000
10 West Tampa West Tampa West Tampa Free Public Library.jpg Jan 2, 1913 $17,500
Academic libraries
Institution Locality Image Year granted Grant amount Notes
1 Fessenden Academy Martin Mar 15, 1905 $6,500
2 State Normal and Industrial College for Colored Students, today Florida A&M University Tallahassee CarnegieLibraryTLH.JPG Jul 18, 1905 $10,000 Now houses the Southeastern Regional Black Archives Research Center and Museum. Carnegie built his library at the negro college after the city of Tallahassee refused it, because under Carnegie's rules it would have to have served all (i.e., black) patrons.
3 John B. Stetson University DeLand Stetson Univ - Sampson Hall2.jpg Mar 12, 1906 $40,000 Now Sampson Hall
4 Rollins College Winter Park Jun 22, 1905 $20,000
Carnegie Hall Library at Rollins College

One of the Florida libraries funded by Andrew Carnegie was on the campus of Rollins College in Winter Park. According to Cohen (2006), Carnegie’s “donation of 108 libraries to colleges in the first two decades of the twentieth century assisted 10 percent of the institutions of higher learning in the United States. Carnegie had a preference for colleges and universities that served African-American students, which Rollins College president William Fremont Blackman noted the school did in a letter to Carnegie appealing for a library in 1904:[2]

The fact that it is the only college in the country, North or South, in which the grandchildren of abolitionists and confederate soldiers, in about equal numbers, sit together in the same class-room and play together on the same athletic field, and learn thus to understand, respect and love one another;

Blackman’s request consisted of $35,000 in total: “$20,000 for a fireproof building, $3,000 for books, and $12,000 as an endowment for the continued purchase of books” (Cohen). Blackman received a response from Carnegie’s secretary James Bertram that noted the request was too general for consideration, and that Carnegie would need a profile of the university before consideration. Little progress was made for over a year, when Blackman again wrote to Carnegie, noting the university’s need for a library. Trustees and friends of the university wrote to Carnegie on Blackman’s behalf, including W.W. Cummer, a trustee from Jacksonville who served on the board of the city’s new Carnegie Library. A letter dated 22 June 1905 and written from Carnegie’s home in Scotland brought the welcome news of the offer of a library. Carnegie offered $20,000 for the construction of a library provided that the same amount would be raised for the library’s upkeep. While grateful for Carnegie’s proposal, Blackman was uneasy with its terms because the amount of funding required to match Carnegie’s offer would put a strain on those who had donated to start the college’s endowment fund ($200,000) as well as paid a debt ($30,000). In correspondence to Bertram dated July 11, 1905 Blackman wrote (according to Cohen):

Our college is in the poorest of States, remote from all centers of wealth and population, and our friends have strained themselves to the uttermost, in the effort to raise $230,000 in two years. I am by no means sure that we can meet Mr. Carnegie’s conditions.

In a January 1906 letter Blackman wrote to Carnegie expressing concern about meeting the conditions for the gift, noting that the college had a large debt that took “considerable self-sacrifice on the part of our friends.” That summer, another Florida college, Stetson University, was awarded $40,000 for a library from Carnegie. Upon learning this Blackman again wrote to Carnegie, seeking to amend the original terms of the agreement to match the amount that Stetson was awarded. He was turned down, but a year later was able to notify Carnegie that the school’s trustees had been able to match the $20,000 necessary for the gift to be awarded. Bertram wrote to Blackman to inform him that Carnegie had “authorized his Cashier…to arrange payments on Library Building, as work progresses, to the extent of Twenty Thousand Dollars.” The library, to be named Carnegie Hall, was dedicated on February 18, 1909.

The building had over 8,000 square feet of space, and was the school’s first dedicated library building. It served as so from 1909 until 1951. In addition to its function as a library, Carnegie Hall also served as the school’s post office. Since the library was moved from Carnegie to the newly built Mills Memorial Library, it has also housed a bookstore, admissions office, faculty offices, and human resources.[3]

Carnegie Library at Stetson University

Sampson Hall, Stetson University's Carnegie library was opened in 1908. The Carnegie donation was matched with funds donated by John B. Stetson's wife, Elizabeth S. Stetson, and the library later was named Sampson Library in honor of C.T. Sampson, one of the university's foremost trustees. Of the academic libraries that Carnegie helped to fund, Stetson's Sampson library received funds greatly exceeding those received by others in the state. The funding was given on March 12, 1906. Two years later, the resulting Sampson Library was a gorgeous structure which housed the university's library for fifty-six years before a lack of space led to changes. The structure was designed by Henry John Klutho, the first Floridian Architect to be inducted to the American Institute of Architects, and reflects the neoclassical style many Carnegie libraries adopted. The library's edifice is emblazoned with "Education is Power" in Roman style lettering and all around the building are the names of persons influential to academia, such as Chaucer, Tennyson, and Longfellow.[4] When Sampson Library was relocated to the DuPont-Ball Library in 1964, the entire university- students, faculty, and staff- helped to move the books by hand from one building to the other. Students we asked to give an hour of their time to move the resources, but many worked even longer helping to move the materials whose numbers exceed 100,000. Sampson Hall is still used by Stetson University and is a prominent structure along the palm court at the heart of the university. Today its space is divided into classrooms and faculty offices used by the Art, modern language, and American Studies departments; and also is home to student art studio spaces. It'd place as the library's former home and a building of great architectural importance on campus is still prominent.[5]

  1. At various times, Bobinski and Jones disagree on these numbers. In these cases, Jones' numbers have been used due to both a more recent publication date and a more detailed gazetteer of branch libraries, which are often where the discrepancies occur.
  2. Cohen, D.K. (2000). Andrew Carnegie and Academic Library Philanthropy: The Case of Rollins College, Winter Park, Florida. Libraries & Culture, 35(3), 389-408. JSTOR 25548838
  3. Rollins Olin Library. (2012). History of the Rollins Library-Library Buildings. Retrieved from
  • Anderson, Florence (1963). Carnegie Corporation Library Program 1911–1961. New York: Carnegie Corporation. OCLC 1282382.
  • Bobinski, George S. (1969). Carnegie Libraries: Their History and Impact on American Public Library Development. Chicago: American Library Association. ISBN 0-8389-0022-4.
  • Jones, Theodore (1997). Carnegie Libraries Across America. New York: John Wiley & Sons. ISBN 0-471-14422-3.
  • Miller, Durand R. (1943). Carnegie Grants for Library Buildings, 1890–1917. New York: Carnegie Corporation of New York. OCLC 2603611.

Note: The above references, while all authoritative, are not entirely mutually consistent. Some details of this list may have been drawn from one of the references (usually Jones) without support from the others. Reader discretion is advised.

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National Register of Historic Places listings in Columbiana County, Ohio


This is a list of the National Register of Historic Places listings in Columbiana County, Ohio . This is intended to be a complete list of the properties and districts on the National Register of Historic Places in Columbiana County , Ohio , United States . The locations of National Register properties and districts for which the latitude and longitude coordinates are included below, may be seen in a Google map. There are 44 properties and districts listed on the National Register in the county, including 1 National Historic Landmark . Current listings Name on the Register Image Date listed Location City or town Description 1 Beginning Point of the U.S. Public Land Survey October 15, 1966 ( #66000606 ) On the Ohio/Pennsylvania border, east of East Liverpool 40°38′33″N 80°31′10″W  /  40.6425°N 80.519444°W East Liverpool Point from which the Public Land Survey System was performed, starting in 1785, which would open what was then the Northwest Territory for settlement. 2 Hiram Bell Farmstead December 9, 1999 ...more...

Palmetto Historical Park


Schoolhouse Chapel Cypress House Cottage Museum Historic post office Palmetto Historical Park is located in the heart of Palmetto' s Historic District in Palmetto, Florida, Manatee County, Florida. The Park includes Palmetto's first Post Office (1880), a cottage museum, a historic one room schoolhouse, a small military museum and a reproduction chapel representative of area churches. There is also a chapel, Military Museum and the 1914 Carnegie Library. Palmetto Historical Park is operated by the Palmetto Historical Commission, Manatee County Clerk of Circuit Court, the Manatee County Board of County Commission, and the City of Palmetto. It is located in the Palmetto Historic District. The Manatee County Agricultural Museum next door is housed in a building formerly housing Palmetto's police, fire and maintenance personnel. See also List of museums in Florida Links Palmetto Historical Park Manatee County Schoolhouse Chapel Cypress House Cottage Museum ...more...

Fred J. James


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Union Bank (Tallahassee, Florida)


Union Bank of Tallahassee The Union Bank of Tallahassee was established around 1830 and is the state's oldest surviving bank building. It is located at Apalachee Parkway and Calhoun Street. On February 24, 1971, it was added to the U.S. National Register of Historic Places . History The Union Bank was completed in 1841 as Tallahassee's first bank by William Williams when Florida was still a territory. Chartered to help finance local cotton plantations , it ultimately closed in 1843 due to the Seminole Wars , unsound banking practices, and the Panic of 1837 . In 1847, the bank was purchased by cotton plantation owners William Bailey and Isaac Mitchell. After the Civil War , the bank reopened as the Freedman's Savings and Trust Company in 1868 for emancipated slaves . It later served as a church, feed store, art house, coffee house, dance studio, locksmith's shop, beauty shop, and shoe factory. In 1971, the bank was moved from its original site on the west side of Adams Street between College Avenue and Park A ...more...

Upper North Franklin Street Commercial District


Brick building on North Franklin Upper North Franklin Street Commercial District is a historic neighborhood in Tampa , Florida listed on the National Register of Historic Places listings in Hillsborough County, Florida . The area includes the Cafe Hey coffee shop, the Old Tampa Carnegie Free Library , (now a city office building), and the Rialto Theatre (Tampa) built in 1925 and now vacant. Rialto Theatre building The Arlington Hotel and Fly Bar have reinvigorated the national historic district. Other listed areas of the city include Tampa Heights , Seminole Heights , Ybor City , Hyde Park , Hampton Terrace , West Tampa and properties on Davis Island . References National Park Service (2010-07-09). "National Register Information System" . National Register of Historic Places. National Park Service. Justin George Area of Tampa's Franklin Street nominated for listing in National Register of Historic Places March 19, 2010 Tampa Bay Times Long hard road: The evolution of Tampa's Franklin Street Brick building on ...more...

Project LISTEN


Project LISTEN (Literacy Innovation that Speech Technology ENables) was a 25-year research project at Carnegie Mellon University to improve children's reading skills. Project LISTEN . The project created a computer-based Reading Tutor that listens to a child reading aloud, corrects errors, helps when the child is stuck or encounters a hard word, provides hints, assesses progress, and presents more advanced text when the child is ready. The Reading Tutor has been used daily by hundreds of children in field tests at schools in the United States, Canada, Ghana, and India. Thousands of hours of usage logged at multiple levels of detail, including millions of words read aloud, have been stored in a database that has been mined to improve the Tutor's interactions with students. An extensive list of publications (with abstracts) can be found at Carnegie Mellon University. Project LISTEN’s Reading Tutor is now being transformed into "RoboTutor" by Carnegie Mellon’s team competing in the Global Learning XPRIZE. The g ...more...

Alpha Kappa Psi (sorority)


Alpha Kappa Psi ( ΑΚΨ ) sorority operated in the United States from 1900 to approximately 1920. Early history In 1900, Alpha Kappa Psi was founded as the first Greek letter sorority on the campus of Saint Mary's School in Raleigh , North Carolina . Rev. Theodore DuBose Bratton , eventual bishop of Mississippi (1903), assisted his students with the creation. The purpose was to "foster the highest ideals of Christian womanhood" (Saint Mary's Archives). The first initiation was held in 1901. Two Greek lettered literary societies were also founded on campus in 1900: Epsilon Alpha Pi, Sigma Lambda. Going National In 1904, AKP was incorporated as a national sorority. Soon, other chapters were chartered. Beta chapter was chartered at Virginia Female Institute (Stuart Hall) in Staunton, Virginia . The next eight years were the "heyday" of the sorority. Chapters were chartered at schools in Florida , Georgia , South Carolina , Washington DC , and Pennsylvania . The Alpha chapter disbanded in 1911, when rector Dr. Geo ...more...

Judith Resnik


Judith Arlene Resnik ( ; April 5, 1949 – January 28, 1986) was an American engineer and a NASA astronaut who died when the Space Shuttle Challenger was destroyed during the launch of mission STS-51-L . Resnik was the second American female astronaut in space, logging 145 hours in orbit. She was also the first Jewish American in space, and the first Jewish woman of any nationality in space. She was a graduate of Carnegie Mellon University and had a Ph.D. in electrical engineering from the University of Maryland . The IEEE Judith Resnik Award for space engineering is named in her honor. Early life Resnik was born in 1949 to Sarah and Marvin, an optometrist , in Akron, Ohio . Both her parents were Jewish immigrants from Ukraine . A graduate of Firestone High School in 1966, she excelled in mathematics and played classical piano. She received a B.S. in electrical engineering from Pittsburgh 's Carnegie Mellon University in 1970, the year she married fellow student Michael Oldak. They divorced in 1975. In 1977 sh ...more...

Tampa, Florida


Tampa () is a major city in, and the county seat of, Hillsborough County, Florida, United States. It is on the west coast of Florida on Tampa Bay, near the Gulf of Mexico, and is the largest city in the Tampa Bay Area. The city had a population of 335,709 at the 2010 census, and an estimated population of 377,165 in 2016. Archaeological evidence indicates the shores of Tampa Bay were inhabited by indigenous peoples for thousands of years. The Safety Harbor culture developed in the area around the year 1000 AD, and the descendant Tocobaga and Pohoy chiefdoms were living in or near the current city limits of Tampa when the area was first visited by Spanish explorers in the 16th century. Interactions between native peoples and the Spanish were brief and often violent, and although the newcomers did not stay for long, they introduced European diseases which brought the collapse of native societies across the Florida peninsula over the ensuing decades. Although Spain claimed all of Florida and beyond as part of ...more...

University of Central Florida College of Engineering and Computer Science


The University of Central Florida College of Engineering and Computer Science is an academic college of the University of Central Florida located in Orlando, Florida, United States. The college offers degrees in engineering, computer science and management systems, and houses UCF's Department of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science. The dean of the college is Michael Georgiopoulos, Ph.D. UCF is listed as a university with "very high research activity" by The Carnegie Foundation for the Advancement of Teaching. With an enrollment of over 7,500 undergraduate and graduate students as of Fall 2012, the college is one of the premier engineering schools in the United States. The college is recognized by U.S. News & World Report as one of the nation's best Engineering schools, and as one of the world's best in the ARWU rankings. The university has made noted research contributions to modeling and simulation, digital media, and engineering and computer science. History The College of Engineering an ...more...

Florida Institute of Technology


The Florida Institute of Technology (commonly referred to as Florida Tech and FIT ) is a private not-for-profit doctoral/research university in Melbourne, Florida . Florida Tech has seven main academic divisions with emphases on science, technology, engineering, mathematics (STEM), and aviation. The university's 130-acre primary residential campus is located near the Orlando Melbourne International Airport and the Florida Tech Research Park. It is about 50 miles (80 km) from the Kennedy Space Center and 75 miles (121 km) from Orlando . The university was founded in 1958 as Brevard Engineering College and has been known by its present name since 1966. In 2013, Florida Tech had an on-campus student body of 4,633, almost equally divided between graduate- and undergraduate-level students with the majority of them focusing their studies on engineering and the sciences. History Miller Building One of the oldest buildings on campus: a schoolhouse built in 1883. Florida Institute of Technology was founded as Brev ...more...

Lester Brickman


Lester Brickman is an emeritus professor at the Benjamin N. Cardozo School of Law of the Yeshiva University and a legal scholar. He is one of the founding faculty members of the Cardozo, recruited by Yeshiva University in 1976 from the University of Toledo College of Law . On May 31, 2016, Professor Brickman received the Monrad Paulsen Award of the Cardozo School, upon his retirement from teaching. He taught contracts , legal ethics and Land Use and Zoning at the Cardozo School of Law . He is the author of a book, Lawyer Barons: What Their Contingency Fees Really Cost America (Cambridge University Press, 2011), a detailed critique of perceived abuses and excessive costs of the American tort system, with proposals for reform. Brickman is a graduate of Carnegie Mellon University . He holds a juris doctor degree from the University of Florida and an LLM degree from Yale Law School . Professor Brickman has written on asbestos litigation and tort reform . Brickman, with co-authors Jeffrey O'Connell and Michael H ...more...

David Tepper


David Alan Tepper (born September 11, 1957) is an American investor, hedge fund manager, and philanthropist. He is the founder and president of Appaloosa Management, a global hedge fund based in Miami Beach, Florida. He graduated from the University of Pittsburgh in 1978 with a bachelor's degree in economics. He also earned his MBA (then known as an MSIA) from Carnegie Mellon in 1982. In 2013, he donated his largest gift of $67 million to Carnegie Mellon University, whose Tepper School of Business is named after him. For the 2012 tax year, Institutional Investor’s Alpha ranked Tepper first, for earning a $2.2 billion paycheck. In 2016, Tepper earned US$1.2 billion marking him the world's 4th highest earning hedge fund manager. Early life and education Tepper was raised in a Jewish family in the East End of Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania in the Stanton Heights neighborhood. He was the second of three children born to Harry, who worked as an accountant, and Roberta, who was an elementary school teacher who taug ...more...

University of South Carolina


The University of South Carolina (also referred to as USC , SC , South Carolina , or simply Carolina ) is a public , co-educational research university in Columbia, South Carolina , United States, with seven satellite campuses. Its campus covers over 359 acres (145 ha) in downtown Columbia not far from the South Carolina State House . The University is categorized by the Carnegie Foundation for the Advancement of Teaching as having "highest research activity." It has been ranked as an "up-and-coming" university by U.S. News & World Report , and its undergraduate and graduate International Business programs have ranked among the top three programs in the nation for over a decade. It also houses the largest collection of Robert Burns and Scottish literature materials outside Scotland, and the world's largest Ernest Hemingway collection. Founded in 1801 as South Carolina College , South Carolina is the flagship institution of the University of South Carolina System and offers more than 350 programs of s ...more...

List of Sinfonians


This is a list of distinguished members of Phi Mu Alpha Sinfonia Fraternity who have achieved significant recognition in their respective fields, including (but not limited to) education, film, industry, literature, music, philanthropy, public service, radio, science, and television. In determining the classification for each Sinfonian listed here, an attempt was made to classify the individual based on what he is most known for. In some cases, a person such as Aaron Copland may be known equally as a conductor and a composer. In other cases, an individual such as Branford Marsalis may be known equally as a jazz musician and a television personality. Honorary members are in italics, charter members are in bold. "Big band" leaders Name Original chapter Notability References Percy Faith Gamma Omega (1963) Bandleader, known for arrangements of "easy listening" music Hal Kemp Alpha Rho (1926) Jazz alto saxophonist, clarinetist, bandleader, composer, and arranger; member of the Big Band and Jazz Hall of Fame; had f ...more...

Fairfield, Iowa


Fairfield is a city in, and the county seat of, Jefferson County , Iowa , United States . It has a population totaling 9,464 people according to the 2010 census . It is a Midwestern city surrounded by rolling farmlands filled with corn, soybean, cattle, and hogs with a median family income of $46,138 (10% of families below the poverty line ). The city became the county seat in 1839 with 110 residents and grew to 650 by 1847. Its library was established in 1853, and it held its first fair in 1854. Early architecture includes work by George Franklin Barber and Barry Byrne , who trained under Frank Lloyd Wright . The city has an “abundance of start-up companies” and has been called "one of the state's economic superstars." It has received The Grassroots Rural Entrepreneurship Award, has been nicknamed “silicorn valley,” and was featured in a 2012 episode of the TV show, Oprah's Next Chapter . It has been the home of Maharishi University of Management (formerly Maharishi International University) since 1974 an ...more...

Richard Adams


Richard George Adams (9 May 1920 – 24 December 2016) was an English novelist who is best known as the author of Watership Down , Shardik and The Plague Dogs . He studied modern history at university before serving in the British Army during World War II. Afterwards, he completed his studies, and then joined the British Civil Service . In 1974, two years after Watership Down was published, Adams became a full-time author. Early life Adams was born on 9 May 1920 in Wash Common , near Newbury , Berkshire, England, the son of Lilian Rosa (Button) and Evelyn George Beadon Adams, a doctor. He attended Horris Hill School from 1926 to 1933, and then Bradfield College from 1933 to 1938. In 1938, he went to Worcester College, Oxford , to read Modern History . In July 1940, Adams was called up to join the British Army . He was posted to the Royal Army Service Corps and was selected for the Airborne Company, where he worked as a brigade liaison. He served in Palestine , Europe and the Far East but saw no direct action ...more...

E. L. Konigsburg


Elaine Lobl Konigsburg (February 10, 1930 – April 19, 2013) was an American writer and illustrator of children's books and young adult fiction . She is one of six writers to win two Newbery Medals , the venerable American Library Association award for the year's "most distinguished contribution to American children's literature." Konigsburg submitted her first two manuscripts to editor Jean Karl at Atheneum Publishers in 1966, and both were published in 1967: Jennifer, Hecate, Macbeth, William McKinley, and Me, Elizabeth and From the Mixed-Up Files of Mrs. Basil E. Frankweiler . They made her the only person to be Newbery Medal winner and one of the runners-up in one year. She won again for The View from Saturday in 1997, 29 years later, the longest span between two Newberys awarded to one author. For her contribution as a children's writer Konigsburg was U.S. nominee in 2006 for the biennial, international Hans Christian Andersen Award , the highest international recognition available to creators of child ...more...

Great Fire of 1901


The Great Fire of 1901 was a conflagration that occurred in Jacksonville, Florida , on May 3, 1901. It was one of the worst disasters in Florida history and the third largest urban fire in the US, next to the Great Chicago Fire , and the 1906 San Francisco fire . Fire Origin In 1901, Jacksonville was a city which consisted mainly of wooden buildings with wood shingled roofs. The city itself had been suffering under a prolonged drought, leaving the building exteriors across the city dry and fire-prone. At around noon on Friday, May 3, 1901, workers at the Cleaveland Fibre Factory, located on the corner of Beaver and Davis Streets, left for lunch. Several minutes later, sparks from the chimney of a nearby building started a fire in a pile of Spanish moss that had been laid out to dry. First, factory workers tried to put it out with a few buckets of water, as they had frequently done on similar occasions. However, the blaze was soon out of control due to the wind picking up out of the east. A brisk northwest ...more...

Frank L. Bodine


Bayonne Free Public Library Frank Lee Bodine (April 10, 1874 – after 1930) was an American architect who practiced in Asbury Park , New Jersey and in Orlando , Florida in the first four decades of the twentieth century. Bodine was born April 10, 1874 in Bridgeton, New Jersey . He is the son of Jeremiah Nixon Bodine and Annie Alexander Milliken. J. Nixon Bodine was a prosperous glass manufacturer. Bodine was educated at The Hill School with the class of 1896, but left before receiving his diploma in order to enroll at Penn. Bodine was an 1899 graduate of the University of Pennsylvania with a B.S. degree in architecture. While a student at Penn, he was awarded the T-Square Club prize, in 1897. From offices in Asbury Park, New Jersey, Frank L. Bodine designed a number of passenger depots for the Central Railroad of New Jersey , including Somerville , White House and Westfield . The Somerville depot is especially notable. The 1890 structure is perhaps the most distinctive station in the Raritan Valley, with it ...more...

National Register of Historic Places listings in Marion County, Kansas


This is a list of the National Register of Historic Places listings in Marion County, Kansas . This is intended to be a complete list of the properties and districts on the National Register of Historic Places in Marion County , Kansas , United States . The locations of National Register properties and districts for which the latitude and longitude coordinates are included below, may be seen in a map. There are 30 properties and districts listed on the National Register in the county. Current listings Name on the Register Image Date listed Location City or town Description 1 1927 Hillsboro Water Tower Upload image October 6, 2011 ( #11000727 ) Lots 10 & 11, Block 2, Hill's 2nd Addition 38°21′15″N 97°12′25″W  /  38.354167°N 97.206944°W Hillsboro 2 Amelia Park Bridge Upload image January 21, 2004 ( #03001467 ) 0.5 miles west of U.S. Route 77 on 260th Street (approximate 1 mile north-east of Antelope) 38°26′47″N 96°57′58″W  /  38.446389°N 96.966111°W Antelope 3 Bethel School Upload image December 17, 19 ...more...

List of information schools


This list of information schools includes members of the iSchools organization. iSchools organization This iSchools organization reflects a consortium of over 80 information schools in a dozen countries. iSchools promote an interdisciplinary approach to understanding the opportunities and challenges of information management, with a core commitment to concepts like universal access and user-centered organization of information. The field is concerned broadly with questions of design and preservation across information spaces, from digital and virtual spaces such as online communities, social networking, the World Wide Web, and databases to physical spaces such as libraries, museums, collections, and other repositories. Degree programs at iSchools include course offerings in areas such as information architecture, design, policy, and economics; knowledge management, user experience design, and usability; preservation and conservation; librarianship and library administration; the sociology of information; ...more...

Howard Avenue (Tampa)


Howard Avenue is a north-south road in the West Tampa (North Howard) and South Tampa (South Howard) sections of Tampa , Florida . South Howard is home to the SoHo (Tampa) (South Howard) entertainment district and several popular restaurants and bars. North Howard is home to several historic buildings. Howard Avenue was named in honor of Howard P. Macfarlane the a son of developer Hugh C. Macfarlane, who developed the area, and his 2nd wife Frances Pettingill. History It was part of a street route (closed in 1946). Delgado's Department Store owned by Emilia Salcines was located where Salcines Park is now located. Many historic buildings remain on Howard Avenue including the Alessi Bakery building used from the 1940s until the 1960s. Olympia Bakery remains on Howard. Patrone's Bakery was located on North Howard. The Sicilian Club and its Cazin theater were located at 2001 North Howard. Howard was also home to a cigar factory. Fort Homer W. Hesterly building El Centro Español of West Tampa The historic Fort H ...more...

List of brutalist structures


Huygens & Tappe, design. 110 Congdon St Providence RI, built between 1970-1974. Brutalism is an architectural style that spawned from the modernist architectural movement and which flourished from the 1950s to the 1970s. The following list provides numerous examples of this architectural style worldwide. List of notable brutalist structures 1950s Secretariat Building , Chandigarh, India Torre Velasca , Milan, Italy Unité d'Habitation de Marseille (Cité Radieuse), Marseille , France ( Le Corbusier , 1952) Embassy of the United States, Havana , Cuba (1953) Secretariat Building , Chandigarh , India ( Le Corbusier , 1953) Smithdon High School (formerly Hunstanton Secondary Modern School), Norfolk , England ( Peter and Alison Smithson , 1954) Tel Aviv-Yafo City Hall , Tel Aviv-Yafo , Israel ( Menachem Cohen , 1956–1964) Banco de Londres building , Buenos Aires , Argentina ( Clorindo Testa , 1959) Torre Velasca , Milan , Italy , ( BBPR group 1954) Maisons Jaoul , Neuilly-sur-Seine , France ( Le Corbusier , 195 ...more...

History of Tallahassee, Florida


The History of Tallahassee , like the History of Leon County , begins with the Native American population and its interaction with British and Spanish colonists as well as colonial Americans and fugitive slaves, as the Florida Territory moved toward statehood . Growing numbers of cotton plantations increased the settlement's population greatly. It became a city and capitol in 1821. Early history Osceola Tallahassee is situated within the Apalachee Province , home of the Apalachee , a Mississippian culture of agrarian people who farmed vast tracts of land. Their capital, Anhaica , was located within Tallahassee's city limits. The name "Tallahassee" is a Muskogean Indian word often translated as "old fields", or "old town." This may stem from the Creek (later called Seminole ) Indians that migrated into this region in the 18th century. The Apalachee's success as agriculturalists did not go unnoticed by the Spanish, who sent missionaries to the area throughout the 17th century. Several mission sites were establ ...more...

List of largest houses in the United States


This List of the 100 largest extant houses in the United States includes place holders for houses that have been demolished or currently under construction (i.e. under construction with substantial progress made, not merely proposed) ranked by square footage (which includes livable space of main house only, and does not count such ancillary buildings as guest houses, pool houses, etc.). Largest houses by floor space Rank Square footage Name Location Built for Owner Year completed Architectural style Architect Image 1 135,280 Biltmore Estate Asheville, North Carolina George Washington Vanderbilt II William A.V. Cecil Jr. 1895 Châteauesque Richard Morris Hunt 2 109,000 Oheka Castle Huntington, New York Otto Hermann Kahn Gary Melius 1919 Châteauesque Delano and Aldrich 3 100,000 Whitemarsh Hall Wyndmoor, Pennsylvania Edward T. Stotesbury (demolished in 1980) 1917 Georgian Horace Trumbauer 4 97,188 Arden House Harriman, New York Edward Henry Harriman Research Center on Natural Conservation 1909 Châteauesque Carrè ...more...

Janice Harsanyi


Janice Harsanyi (July 15, 1929 – March 22, 2007) was a soprano singer and college professor. Janice was born in Arlington, Massachusetts , the daughter of a Presbyterian minister and lived in the Hamilton Square section of Hamilton Township, Mercer County, New Jersey at an early age. Harsanyi married Nicholas Harsanyi , a violist who went to school with Béla Bartók in Hungary. Nikki founded the Tallahassee Symphony Orchestra in 1979, his wife, Janice, was known as "first lady" of the TSO. Nicholas Harsanyi died in 1987. In 1958, Harsanyi sang as soloist during the opening ceremonies for the United Nations . In 1959 she made her Carnegie Hall debut singing Berlioz 's La Damnation de Faust with the Philadelphia Orchestra . In 1960, Harsanyi sang on Eugene Ormandy and Philadelphia Orchestra 's recording of Carl Orff's majestic Carmina Burana with singer/actor Harve Presnell . This was released by Columbia/Sony on LP and CD. In 1964, Harsanyi sang Beethoven at a peace rally in Philadelphia featuring Martin Luthe ...more...

Belen Jesuit Preparatory School


Belen Jesuit Preparatory School is an all-male , Roman Catholic , preparatory school in Miami , Florida , operated by the Society of Jesus . It was established in Havana , Cuba , by the Jesuits in 1854, but moved to the United States after the communist government of Fidel Castro , himself an alumnus , took power and expelled the Jesuits. It has since made the Cardinal Newman Society 's honor roll. The name Belen is Spanish for "Bethlehem." History In Cuba In 1854, Queen Isabella II of Spain issued a royal charter founding the "Colegio de Belén" in Havana. The school took its name from the building it occupied at its founding, the former convent and convalescent hospital of Our Lady of Belen. Over time, the school expanded through the donation of several nearby buildings in Havana. The resulting complex became known as "El Palacio de Educación" (The Palace of Education). "El Palacio" now houses the Instituto Técnico Militar (Military Technical Institute). A meteorological observatory was established in 1857 ...more...

Effie Louise Power


Effie Louise Power (February 12, 1873 – October 8, 1969) was a children's librarian, educator, author, and storyteller. She encouraged children's book production and evaluated children's literature. Power “directly influenced the development of services to children in three major U.S. cities: Cleveland , St. Louis , and Pittsburgh .” Power also traveled across the country lecturing students and librarians on children and youth library services. She worked to build a network of children's librarians across the country who supported each other and established high standards for all in the profession. Early life and education Power was born in Conneautville, Pennsylvania in the United States to mother Francis Billing and father William Ellis Power. Power never married or had children. After graduating from high school, William Howard Brett, a Power family neighbor, jump-started Power's career by encouraging her to write the entrance exam for the Cleveland Public Library (CPL). Shortly thereafter, Power be ...more...

List of lakes of the United States


This is a list of lakes (including reservoirs) in the United States, grouped by state. By state Alabama Alaska Arizona Arkansas California Colorado Connecticut Bantam Lake (largest natural lake in Connecticut) Barkhamsted Reservoir Lake Beseck Bevin Pond Candlewood Lake (largest lake in Connecticut) Lake Forest Lake Gaillard Great Hollow Lake Lake Hayward Lake Lillinonah Mashapaug Lake Pinewood Lake Lake Pocotopaug Lake Saltonstall Saugatuck Reservoir Squantz Pond Lake Success Lake Terramuggus Twin Lakes Lake Waramaug Lake Whitney Lake Zoar Delaware Hoopes Reservoir Lums Pond (largest lake in Delaware) Moores Lake Red Mill Pond Silver Lake (Dover) Silver Lake (Milford) Florida Lake Alice Lake Apopka Lake Brantley Lake Crescent Lake George Lake Harney Lake Harris Lake Istokpoga Lake Kissimmee Lake Lelia Lake Okeechobee (largest lake in Florida) Lake Poinsett Red Lake Lake Rousseau Sawgrass Lake Lake Seminole (extends into Georgia) Lake Tarpon ...more...

Jimmy Sturr


James W. Sturr, Jr. is an American polka musician, trumpeter , clarinetist , saxophonist and leader of Jimmy Sturr & His Orchestra . His recordings have won 18 out of the 24 Grammy Awards given for Best Polka Album . Sturr's orchestra is on the Top Ten List of the All-Time Grammy Awards, and has acquired more Grammy nominations than anyone in the history of musical polka awards. Touring history Sturr and his orchestra have performed at Carnegie Hall , Lincoln Center in New York City and the Palace of Culture in Warsaw , Poland. When touring, the band rides in Jimmy's forty-five foot customized tour bus, previously owned by Billy Ray Cyrus . Radio show Sturr hosts a syndicated radio show on stations including WTBQ in his hometown of Florida, New York , the station he once owned. He also has a weekly radio show on SirusXM chanel, Rural Radio. Discography All American Polka Festival The Best of Jimmy Sturr and His Orchestra Come on and Dance Come Share the Wine (2008 Grammy) Double Magic First Class Polkas ...more...

Epping Forest (Jacksonville)


Epping Forest (also known as the Alfred I. duPont Estate) was a historic, 58-acre (230,000 m ) estate in Jacksonville, Florida where a luxurious riverfront mansion was built in the mid-1920s by industrialist Alfred I. du Pont and his third wife, Jessie Ball du Pont . It was added to the U.S. National Register of Historic Places in 1973 and has been restored to its original grandeur as the home of the Epping Forest Yacht Club. On April 18, 2012, the AIA 's Florida Chapter placed the Epping Forest Yacht Club on its list of Florida Architecture: 100 Years. 100 Places. du Pont history Alfred I. du Pont was originally from Delaware and controlled the famous DuPont Chemical Company with his cousins, Pierre and Coleman. Over the years, their relationship deteriorated to the point where Alfred resigned from the family company in 1917. He created business ventures in Delaware and New York, but in 1925, cousin Pierre was named Delaware's Tax Commissioner. To prevent Pierre from sticking his nose into Alfred’s property ...more...

Books in the United States


As of 2017, several firms in the United States rank among the world's biggest publishers of books in terms of revenue: Cengage Learning , HarperCollins , Houghton Mifflin Harcourt , McGraw-Hill Education , Quarto , Scholastic , Simon & Schuster , and Wiley . History In 1640 in Cambridge , Massachusetts, Stephen Daye produced the first book printed in British North America, the Bay Psalm Book . The American Library Association formed in 1876, and the Bibliographical Society of America in 1904. The national Center for the Book began in 1977. Types Children's books: United States and List of American children's books American cookbooks Bookselling Popular books in the 19th century included Sheldon's In His Steps (1896). 20th century bestsellers included Mitchell's Gone with the Wind (1936), Carnegie’s How to Win Friends and Influence People (1937), Spock’s Common Sense Book of Baby and Child Care (1946), Harris’ I'm OK – You're OK (1969), Woodward and Bernstein's All the President's Men (1974). Recent bests ...more...

J. P. Morgan


John Pierpont Morgan Sr. (April 17, 1837 – March 31, 1913) was an American financier and banker who dominated corporate finance and industrial consolidation in the United States of America in the late 19th and early 20th centuries. In 1892 Morgan arranged the merger of Edison General Electric and Thomson-Houston Electric Company to form General Electric. He also played important roles in the formation of the United States Steel Corporation, International Harvester and AT&T. At the height of Morgan's career during the early twentieth century, he and his partners had financial investments in many large corporations and had significant influence over the nation's high finance and United States Congress members. He directed the banking coalition that stopped the Panic of 1907. He was the leading financier of the Progressive Era, and his dedication to efficiency and modernization helped transform American business. Adrian Wooldridge characterized Morgan as America's "greatest banker". Morgan died in Rome, ...more...

List of autodidacts


This is a list of notable autodidacts which includes people who have been partially or wholly self-taught. Historical education levels Because of the large increase in years of education since 1800, especially during the early 20th century, it is difficult to define autodidactism and to compare autodidacts during different time periods. Artists and authors Benjamin Kidd (1858–1916), British sociologist, was not given a formal education. As a working adult, he attended some evening classes and he read incessantly. Kidd gained worldwide fame by the publication of Social Evolution in 1894. Jorge Luis Borges was an Argentine writer, essayist, and poet. Winner of the Jerusalem Prize. Machado de Assis, often described as the greatest Brazilian writer, never attended a university and taught himself four foreign languages (French, English, German and Greek). Hermann Hesse, Nobel Prize for Literature winner José Saramago, Nobel Prize for Literature. His parents were unable to pay for his studies at early ag ...more...

Hispanic and Latino Americans


Hispanic Americans and Latino Americans (Spanish: hispanos; ) are people in the United States who are descendants of people from countries of Latin America and Spain. This is the largest population of Latino Americans and Hispanics outside of Latin America. More generally, it includes all persons in the United States who self-identify as Hispanic or Latino, whether of full or partial ancestry. For the 2010 United States Census, people counted as "Hispanic" or "Latino" were those who identified as one of the specific Hispanic or Latino categories listed on the census questionnaire ("Mexican," "Puerto Rican," or "Cuban") as well as those who indicated that they were "other Spanish, Hispanic, or Latino." The national origins classified as Hispanic or Latino by the United States Census Bureau are the following: Argentine, Cuban, Colombian, Puerto Rican, Spaniards, Dominican, Mexican, Costa Rican, Guatemalan, Honduran, Nicaraguan, Panamanian, Salvadoran, Bolivian, Spanish, Chilean, Ecuadorian, Paraguayan, Peruvi ...more...

List of Gilded Age mansions


The Breakers , a "palace" in terms of opulence and size, epitomizes the Gilded Age mansions era. The so-called Gilded Age mansions were built in the United States by some of the richest people in the US history, in the period between 1870 and 1900. Raised by the nation's industrial, financial and commercial elite who amassed great fortunes coinciding with an era of expansion of the railroads, steel and fossil fuels industries, economic, technical and scientific progress, and a complete lack of personal income tax. This made possible the very rich to build true " palaces " in some cases, designed by prominent architects of its day and decorated with antiquities, furnitures, collectibles and works of art, many imported from Europe. Biltmore , one of the largest homes in the US. This small group of nouveau riche , entrepreneur citizens of a relatively young country found context and meaning for their lives and good fortune by thinking of themselves as heirs of a great Western Tradition. They traced their cultura ...more...

USS Requin (SS-481)


USS Requin (SS/SSR/AGSS/IXSS-481) , a Tench-class submarine , was the only ship of the United States Navy to be named after the requin , French for shark . Since 1990 it has been a museum ship at The Carnegie Science Center in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania . Her keel was laid down on 24 August 1944 by the Portsmouth Navy Yard in Kittery, Maine . She was launched on 1 January 1945 sponsored by Mrs. Slade D. Cutter, and commissioned on 28 April 1945 with Commander Slade D. Cutter in command. Initially, Requin carried heavier armament than usual for a fleet submarine, perhaps because Commander Cutter was one of the most decorated submarine skippers going to sea. She had an additional five-inch/25-caliber deck gun, as well as two 24-tube five-inch (127 mm) rocket launchers, which were intended to be used to provide offshore bombardment during Operation Downfall , the planned invasion of Kyūshū and Honshū . Shakedown and first conversion USS Requin seen here c. 1946 Following shakedown off the New England coast, Requin ...more...

Association of Research Libraries


The Association of Research Libraries ( ARL ) is a nonprofit organization of 125 research libraries at comprehensive, research institutions in the United States and Canada that share similar missions, aspirations, and achievements. The Association’s importance and distinction are born from the ARL membership and the nature of the institutions represented. ARL member libraries make up a large portion of the academic and research library marketplace, spending more than $1.4 billion every year on information resources and actively engaging in the development of new models of scholarly communications. ARL co-founded an affiliate organization, the Coalition for Networked Information (CNI) , in 1990. CNI is a joint program of ARL and EDUCAUSE , a nonprofit association whose mission is to advance higher education by promoting the intelligent use of information technology. CNI is dedicated to supporting the transformative promise of digital information technology for the advancement of scholarly communication and the ...more...



Pittsburgh ( PITS -burg ) is a city in the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania in the United States , and is the county seat of Allegheny County . As of 2017, a total population of 305,704 lives within the city limits, making it the 63rd- largest city in the U.S. The metropolitan population of 2,353,045 is the largest in both the Ohio Valley and Appalachia , the second-largest in Pennsylvania (behind Philadelphia ), and the 26th-largest in the U.S. Located at the confluence of the Allegheny , Monongahela , and Ohio rivers, Pittsburgh is known as both "the Steel City" for its more than 300 steel -related businesses, and as the "City of Bridges" for its 446 bridges . The city features 30 skyscrapers , two inclined railways , a pre-revolutionary fortification and the Point State Park at the confluence of the rivers. The city developed as a vital link of the Atlantic coast and Midwest , as the mineral-rich Allegheny Mountains made the area coveted by the French and British empires, Virginians , Whiskey Rebels , and Civ ...more...

Kate Greenaway


Catherine Greenaway (17 March 1846 – 6 November 1901) was a Victorian children's book illustrator and writer whose work influenced the children's style of the day. The only daughter of a successful draftsman and wood engraver, she studied graphic design and art between 1858 and 1869. Her first book, " Under the Window " was an instant best seller and brought her celebrity, and was followed by the equally popular and critically successful "The Birthday Book" (1880), Mother Goose (1881) and " Little Ann " (1883). Concurrently, she developed a career as a water-colorist ; with illustrators Walter Crane and Randolph Caldecott , Greenaway's work revolutionized the children's book market. In the late 1870s Greenaway initiated a collaboration with printer and engraver Edmund Evans which lasted two decades. Early life Kate Greenaway was born in Hoxton , London, the second of four children, to a working-class family. Elizabeth Greenaway was a dressmaker and John Greenaway a wood engraver, whose business failed when h ...more...

Mercer University


R. Kirby Godsey Administration Building, a university landmark listed on the National Register of Historic Places Mercer University is the oldest private university in Georgia with its main campus in Macon, Georgia , United States . Mercer enrolls more than 8,600 students in 12 colleges and schools: liberal arts , business , engineering , education , music , continuing and professional studies , law , theology , medicine , pharmacy , nursing , and health professions . Mercer is a member of the Georgia Research Alliance and has a chapter of Phi Beta Kappa , the nation's oldest collegiate honors society. Mercer has three campuses: the main campus in Macon , a graduate and professional education campus in Atlanta , and a four-year campus of the School of Medicine in Savannah . Mercer also has regional academic centers in Henry County , Douglas County , and Newnan ; the Walter F. George School of Law on its own campus in Macon; teaching hospitals in Macon, Savannah, and Columbus ; a university press and a perfo ...more...

Valdosta, Georgia


Valdosta is a city in and the county seat of Lowndes County, located on the southern border of Georgia, United States. As of 2013, Valdosta has a total population of 56,481, and is the 14th largest city in Georgia. Valdosta is the principal city of the Valdosta Metropolitan Statistical Area, which in 2010 had a population of 139,588. It includes part of Brooks County to the west. Valdosta is the home of Valdosta State University, a regional university in the University System of Georgia with over 10,900 students. The local public Valdosta High School has the most winning football program of any high school in the United States. Valdosta is called the Azalea City, as the plant grows in profusion there. The city hosts an annual Azalea Festival in March. History Establishment Valdosta was incorporated on December 7, 1860, when it was designated by the state legislature as the new county seat, formerly at nearby Troupville. The railroad was built to Valdosta that year, rather than Troupville, stimulatin ...more...

Art museum


The National Gallery of Art, Washington DC. An art museum or art gallery is a building or space for the exhibition of art, usually visual art. Museums can be public or private, but what distinguishes a museum is the ownership of a collection. Paintings are the most commonly displayed art objects; however, sculptures, decorative arts, furniture, textiles, costumes, drawings, pastels, watercolors, collages, prints, artist's books, photographs, and installation art are also regularly shown. Although primarily concerned with providing a space to show works of visual art, art galleries are sometimes used to host other artistic activities, such as performance arts, music concerts, or poetry readings. Types of galleries The Gallery of Cornelis van der Geest, Willem van Haecht, 1628. A private picture gallery as an early precursor of the modern museum. The term relates to public and private institutions. Public galleries are non-profit or public museums displaying selected art collections. Private ...more...

Jim Crow laws


Jim Crow laws were state and local laws that enforced racial segregation in the Southern United States . Enacted by white Democratic-dominated state legislatures in the late 19th century after the Reconstruction period , these laws continued to be enforced until 1965. They mandated racial segregation in all public facilities in the states of the former Confederate States of America , starting in 1896 with a " separate but equal " status for African Americans in railroad cars. Public education had essentially been segregated since its establishment in most of the South after the Civil War . This principle was extended to public facilities and transportation, including segregated cars on interstate trains and, later, buses. Facilities for African Americans were consistently inferior and underfunded compared to those which were then available to white Americans ; sometimes they did not exist at all. This body of law institutionalized a number of economic, educational, and social disadvantages. Segregation by law ...more...

University of Michigan


The University of Michigan (UM, U-M, U of M, or UMich), often simply referred to as Michigan, is a public research university in Ann Arbor, Michigan. The University of Michigan is the state's oldest university, founded in 1817 in Detroit, Michigan as the Catholepistemiad, or University of Michigania, 20 years before the Michigan Territory became a state. In 1821, the university was officially renamed the University of Michigan. It moved to Ann Arbor in 1837 onto 40 acres (16 ha) of what is now known as Central Campus. Since its establishment in Ann Arbor, the university campus has expanded to include more than 584 major buildings with a combined area of more than 34 million gross square feet (780 acres; 3.2 km ) spread out over a Central Campus and North Campus, two regional campuses in Flint and Dearborn, and a Center in Detroit. The University was a founding member of the Association of American Universities. Considered one of the foremost research universities in the United States, Michigan is classifie ...more...

Syracuse University


Crouse College, a Romanesque building completed in 1889, housed the first College of Fine Arts in the United States. It is now the home of the university's College of Visual and Performing Arts and the Setnor School of Music. Syracuse University (commonly referred to as Syracuse, 'Cuse, or SU ) is a private research university in Syracuse, New York, United States. The institution's roots can be traced to the Genesee Wesleyan Seminary (later becoming Genesee College), founded in 1831 by the Methodist Episcopal Church in Lima, New York. After several years of debate over relocating the college to Syracuse, the university was established in 1870, independent of the college. Since 1920, the university has identified itself as nonsectarian, although it maintains a relationship with The United Methodist Church. The campus is in the University Hill neighborhood of Syracuse, east and southeast of downtown, on one of the larger hills. Its large campus features an eclectic mix of buildings, ranging from nineteen ...more...

Booker T. Washington


Booker Taliaferro Washington (April 5, 1856 – November 14, 1915) was an American educator, author, orator, and advisor to presidents of the United States. Between 1890 and 1915, Washington was the dominant leader in the African-American community. Washington was from the last generation of black American leaders born into slavery and became the leading voice of the former slaves and their descendants. They were newly oppressed in the South by disenfranchisement and the Jim Crow discriminatory laws enacted in the post-Reconstruction Southern states in the late 19th and early 20th centuries. Washington was a key proponent of African-American businesses and one of the founders of the National Negro Business League. His base was the Tuskegee Institute, a historically black college in Alabama. As lynchings in the South reached a peak in 1895, Washington gave a speech, known as the "Atlanta compromise", which brought him national fame. He called for black progress through education and entrepreneurship, rather t ...more...

National Security Archive


The National Security Archive is a 501(c)(3) non-governmental , non-profit research and archival institution located on the campus of the George Washington University in Washington, D.C. Founded in 1985 to check rising government secrecy, the National Security Archive is an investigative journalism center, open government advocate, international affairs research institute, and is the largest repository of declassified U.S. documents outside the federal government. The National Security Archive has spurred the declassification of more than 10 million pages of government documents by being the leading non-profit user of the U.S. Freedom of Information Act (FOIA) , filing a total of more than 50,000 FOIA and declassification requests in its nearly 30-year history. Organization history and accolades Of all the FOIA requests made each year to the National Archives, one item has been requested more than any other: the December 21, 1970, photograph of Elvis Presley and Richard M. Nixon shaking hands during Presley' ...more...

Swire Smith


Sir Swire Smith (4 March 1842 – 16 March 1918) was an English woollen manufacturer, educationalist and Liberal Party politician. In many ways he was typical of the public-spirited, self-made Victorian. Of nonconformist lineage, he believed in social and intellectual improvement, the virtues of hard work and thrift and the role of the Liberal Party in the encouragement and promotion of this ethic. Family and education Swire Smith was born in Keighley in the West Riding of Yorkshire, the eldest son of George Smith and his wife Mary (née Swire). He was educated at the local National School in Keighley and at Wesley College, Sheffield. He never married. Career Early career On leaving school Smith served an apprenticeship with a Keighley worsted manufacturer. He soon began to develop his interest in education however and at the age of 24, was appointed honorary secretary to the building committee of the Keighley Institute, a society the object of which was "Mutual Instruction in Mechanics, Experimental Phi ...more...

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