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List of Carnegie libraries in Florida

The following list of Carnegie libraries in Florida provides detailed information on United States Carnegie libraries in Florida, where 10 public libraries were built from 10 grants (totaling $198,000) awarded by the Carnegie Corporation of New York from 1901 to 1917. In addition, academic libraries were built at 4 institutions (totaling $76,500).


  Building still operating as a library  Building standing, but now serving another purpose  Building no longer standing  Building listed on the National Register of Historic Places  Building contributes to a historic district on the National Register of Historic Places

Carnegie libraries
Library City or town Image Date granted[1] Grant amount[1] Location Notes
1 Bartow Bartow Mar 18, 1911 $8,000 Demolished in 1998
2 Bradenton Bradenton Bradenton FL Carnegie Library01.jpg Feb 3, 1917 $10,000
3 Clearwater Clearwater Mar 16, 1915 $10,000 Demolished c.2000
4 Gainesville Gainesville Mar 31, 1916 $10,000 Demolished in 1954
5 Jacksonville Jacksonville Jax FL Old Free Public Library02.jpg Feb 13, 1902 $55,000
6 Ocala Ocala Ocala-Carnegie.jpg Feb 21, 1907 $10,000 Demolished in 1968
7 Palmetto Palmetto Palmetto FL HD Hist Park Carnegie Lib01.jpg Jan 14, 1914 $10,000
8 St. Petersburg St. Petersburg St. Pete Mirror Lake Library02.jpg Jul 9, 1913 $17,500
9 Tampa Tampa Tampa Free Public Library01.jpg Dec 30, 1901 $50,000
10 West Tampa West Tampa West Tampa Free Public Library.jpg Jan 2, 1913 $17,500
Academic libraries
Institution Locality Image Year granted Grant amount Location Notes
1 Fessenden Academy Martin Mar 15, 1905 $6,500
2 State Normal and Industrial College for Colored Students, today Florida A&M University Tallahassee CarnegieLibraryTLH.JPG Jul 18, 1905 $10,000 Now houses the Southeastern Regional Black Archives Research Center and Museum. Carnegie built his library at the negro college after the city of Tallahassee refused it, because under Carnegie's rules it would have to have served all (i.e., black) patrons.
3 John B. Stetson University DeLand Stetson Univ - Sampson Hall2.jpg Mar 12, 1906 $40,000 Now Sampson Hall
4 Rollins College Winter Park Jun 22, 1905 $20,000
Carnegie Hall Library at Rollins College

One of the Florida libraries funded by Andrew Carnegie was on the campus of Rollins College in Winter Park. According to Cohen (2006), Carnegie’s “donation of 108 libraries to colleges in the first two decades of the twentieth century assisted 10 percent of the institutions of higher learning in the United States. Carnegie had a preference for colleges and universities that served African-American students, which Rollins College president William Fremont Blackman noted the school did in a letter to Carnegie appealing for a library in 1904:[2]

The fact that it is the only college in the country, North or South, in which the grandchildren of abolitionists and confederate soldiers, in about equal numbers, sit together in the same class-room and play together on the same athletic field, and learn thus to understand, respect and love one another;

Blackman’s request consisted of $35,000 in total: “$20,000 for a fireproof building, $3,000 for books, and $12,000 as an endowment for the continued purchase of books” (Cohen). Blackman received a response from Carnegie’s secretary James Bertram that noted the request was too general for consideration, and that Carnegie would need a profile of the university before consideration. Little progress was made for over a year, when Blackman again wrote to Carnegie, noting the university’s need for a library. Trustees and friends of the university wrote to Carnegie on Blackman’s behalf, including W.W. Cummer, a trustee from Jacksonville who served on the board of the city’s new Carnegie Library. A letter dated 22 June 1905 and written from Carnegie’s home in Scotland brought the welcome news of the offer of a library. Carnegie offered $20,000 for the construction of a library provided that the same amount would be raised for the library’s upkeep. While grateful for Carnegie’s proposal, Blackman was uneasy with its terms because the amount of funding required to match Carnegie’s offer would put a strain on those who had donated to start the college’s endowment fund ($200,000) as well as paid a debt ($30,000). In correspondence to Bertram dated July 11, 1905 Blackman wrote (according to Cohen):

Our college is in the poorest of States, remote from all centers of wealth and population, and our friends have strained themselves to the uttermost, in the effort to raise $230,000 in two years. I am by no means sure that we can meet Mr. Carnegie’s conditions.

In a January 1906 letter Blackman wrote to Carnegie expressing concern about meeting the conditions for the gift, noting that the college had a large debt that took “considerable self-sacrifice on the part of our friends.” That summer, another Florida college, Stetson University, was awarded $40,000 for a library from Carnegie. Upon learning this Blackman again wrote to Carnegie, seeking to amend the original terms of the agreement to match the amount that Stetson was awarded. He was turned down, but a year later was able to notify Carnegie that the school’s trustees had been able to match the $20,000 necessary for the gift to be awarded. Bertram wrote to Blackman to inform him that Carnegie had “authorized his Cashier…to arrange payments on Library Building, as work progresses, to the extent of Twenty Thousand Dollars.” The library, to be named Carnegie Hall, was dedicated on February 18, 1909.

The building had over 8,000 square feet of space, and was the school’s first dedicated library building. It served as so from 1909 until 1951. In addition to its function as a library, Carnegie Hall also served as the school’s post office. Since the library was moved from Carnegie to the newly built Mills Memorial Library, it has also housed a bookstore, admissions office, faculty offices, and human resources.[3]

Carnegie Library at Stetson University

Sampson Hall, Stetson University's Carnegie library was opened in 1908. The Carnegie donation was matched with funds donated by John B. Stetson's wife, Elizabeth S. Stetson, and the library later was named Sampson Library in honor of C.T. Sampson, one of the university's foremost trustees. Of the academic libraries that Carnegie helped to fund, Stetson's Sampson library received funds greatly exceeding those received by others in the state. The funding was given on March 12, 1906. Two years later, the resulting Sampson Library was a gorgeous structure which housed the university's library for fifty-six years before a lack of space led to changes. The structure was designed by Henry John Klutho, the first Floridian Architect to be inducted to the American Institute of Architects, and reflects the neoclassical style many Carnegie libraries adopted. The library's edifice is emblazoned with "Education is Power" in Roman style lettering and all around the building are the names of persons influential to academia, such as Chaucer, Tennyson, and Longfellow.[4] When Sampson Library was relocated to the DuPont-Ball Library in 1964, the entire university- students, faculty, and staff- helped to move the books by hand from one building to the other. Students we asked to give an hour of their time to move the resources, but many worked even longer helping to move the materials whose numbers exceed 100,000. Sampson Hall is still used by Stetson University and is a prominent structure along the palm court at the heart of the university. Today its space is divided into classrooms and faculty offices used by the Art, modern language, and American Studies departments; and also is home to student art studio spaces. It'd place as the library's former home and a building of great architectural importance on campus is still prominent.[5]

  1. At various times, Bobinski and Jones disagree on these numbers. In these cases, Jones' numbers have been used due to both a more recent publication date and a more detailed gazetteer of branch libraries, which are often where the discrepancies occur.
  2. Cohen, D.K. (2000). Andrew Carnegie and Academic Library Philanthropy: The Case of Rollins College, Winter Park, Florida. Libraries & Culture, 35(3), 389-408. JSTOR 25548838
  3. Rollins Olin Library. (2012). History of the Rollins Library-Library Buildings. Retrieved from http://www.rollins.edu/library/about/history2.html
  4. https://www.google.com/maps/@29.0346766,-81.302794,3a,75y,176.02h,138.06t/data=!3m6!1e1!3m4!1sNqZQBuwrA3qBkslp78_luw!2e0!7i13312!8i6656
  5. http://www.stetson.edu/other/about/history.php/
  • Anderson, Florence (1963). Carnegie Corporation Library Program 1911–1961. New York: Carnegie Corporation. OCLC 1282382.
  • Bobinski, George S. (1969). Carnegie Libraries: Their History and Impact on American Public Library Development. Chicago: American Library Association. ISBN 0-8389-0022-4.
  • Jones, Theodore (1997). Carnegie Libraries Across America. New York: John Wiley & Sons. ISBN 0-471-14422-3.
  • Miller, Durand R. (1943). Carnegie Grants for Library Buildings, 1890–1917. New York: Carnegie Corporation of New York. OCLC 2603611.

Note: The above references, while all authoritative, are not entirely mutually consistent. Some details of this list may have been drawn from one of the references (usually Jones) without support from the others. Reader discretion is advised.

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E. L. Konigsburg


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Frank L. Bodine


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Project LISTEN


Project LISTEN (Literacy Innovation that Speech Technology ENables) was a 25-year research project at Carnegie Mellon University to improve children's reading skills. Project LISTEN . The project created a computer-based Reading Tutor that listens to a child reading aloud, corrects errors, helps when the child is stuck or encounters a hard word, provides hints, assesses progress, and presents more advanced text when the child is ready. The Reading Tutor has been used daily by hundreds of children in field tests at schools in the United States, Canada, Ghana, and India. Thousands of hours of usage logged at multiple levels of detail, including millions of words read aloud, have been stored in a database that has been mined to improve the Tutor's interactions with students. An extensive list of publications (with abstracts) can be found at Carnegie Mellon University. Project LISTEN’s Reading Tutor is now being transformed into "RoboTutor" by Carnegie Mellon’s team competing in the Global Learning XPRIZE. The g ...more...

David Tepper


David Alan Tepper (born September 11, 1957) is an American investor, hedge fund manager , and philanthropist. He is the founder and president of Appaloosa Management , a global hedge fund based in Short Hills, New Jersey . He graduated from the University of Pittsburgh in 1978 with a bachelor's degree in economics. He also earned his MBA (then known as an MSIA) from Carnegie Mellon in 1982. In 2013, he donated his largest gift of $67 million to Carnegie Mellon University , whose Tepper School of Business is named after him. For the 2012 tax year, Institutional Investor’s Alpha ranked Tepper first, for earning a $2.2 billion paycheck. In 2016, Tepper earned US$1.2 billion marking him the world's 4th highest earning hedge fund manager. Early life and education Tepper was raised in a Jewish family in the East End of Pittsburgh , Pennsylvania in the Stanton Heights neighborhood. He was the second of three children born to Harry, who worked as an accountant, and Roberta, who was an elementary school teacher who ...more...

Association of Research Libraries


The Association of Research Libraries ( ARL ) is a nonprofit organization of 123 research libraries at comprehensive, research institutions in the United States and Canada that share similar missions, aspirations, and achievements. The Association’s importance and distinction are born from the ARL membership and the nature of the institutions represented. ARL member libraries make up a large portion of the academic and research library marketplace, spending more than $1.4 billion every year on information resources and actively engaging in the development of new models of scholarly communications. ARL co-founded an affiliate organization, the Coalition for Networked Information (CNI) , in 1990. CNI is a joint program of ARL and EDUCAUSE , a nonprofit association whose mission is to advance higher education by promoting the intelligent use of information technology. CNI is dedicated to supporting the transformative promise of digital information technology for the advancement of scholarly communication and the ...more...

Jimmy Sturr


James W. Sturr, Jr. is an American polka musician, trumpeter , clarinetist , saxophonist and leader of Jimmy Sturr & His Orchestra . His recordings have won 18 out of the 24 Grammy Awards given for Best Polka Album . Sturr's orchestra is on the Top Ten List of the All-Time Grammy Awards, and has acquired more Grammy nominations than anyone in the history of musical polka awards. Touring history Sturr and his orchestra have performed at Carnegie Hall , Lincoln Center in New York City and the Palace of Culture in Warsaw , Poland. When touring, the band rides in Jimmy's forty-five foot customized tour bus, previously owned by Billy Ray Cyrus . Radio show Sturr hosts a syndicated radio show on stations including WTBQ in his hometown of Florida, New York , the station he once owned. He also has a weekly radio show on SirusXM chanel, Rural Radio. Discography All American Polka Festival The Best of Jimmy Sturr and His Orchestra Come on and Dance Come Share the Wine (2008 Grammy) Double Magic First Class Polkas ...more...

Culture of Pittsburgh


The Culture of Pittsburgh stems from the city's long history as a center for cultural philanthropy , as well as its rich ethnic traditions. In the 19th and 20th centuries, wealthy businessmen such as Andrew Carnegie , Henry J. Heinz , Henry Clay Frick , and nonprofit organizations such as the Carnegie Foundation donated millions of dollars to create educational and cultural institutions. Architecture Cathedral of Learning, Pittsburgh, May 14, 2005. The Frank Lloyd Wright masterpiece Fallingwater is about an hour's drive from Downtown Pittsburgh . The North Shore has an 1895 neogothic church, Calvary Methodist , with an interior designed by Louis Comfort Tiffany . The church's stained glass windows are some of the largest and most elaborate work Tiffany ever created. The Church of the Immaculate Heart of Mary in Pittsburgh , an opulently decorated edifice with elaborate Old World flourishes is one of the finest examples of the so-called Polish Cathedral style , dominating the skyline over Polish Hill . The Al ...more...

List of autodidacts


This is a list of notable autodidacts which includes people who have been partially or wholly self-taught . Historical education levels Because of the large increase in years of education since 1800, especially during the early 20th century, it is difficult to define autodidactism and to compare autodidacts during different time periods. Artists and authors Benjamin Kidd (1858–1916), British sociologist, was not given a formal education. As a working adult, he attended some evening classes and he read incessantly. Kidd gained worldwide fame by the publication of Social Evolution in 1894. Jorge Luis Borges was an Argentine writer, essayist, and poet. Winner of the Jerusalem Prize . Machado de Assis , often described as the greatest Brazilian writer, never attended a university and taught himself four foreign languages (French, English, German and Greek). Hermann Hesse , Nobel Prize for Literature winner José Saramago , Nobel Prize for Literature . His parents were unable to pay for his studies at early age, ...more...

Lucy Gwynne Branham


Lucy Gwynne Branham (1892 in Kempsville, Virginia - 1966) was an American suffragist associated with the National Women's Party . She earned degrees in history from Washington College in Maryland, and Johns Hopkins University (Master's degree). While teaching in Florida, she received a Carnegie Medal for saving Dema T. Nelson from drowning in the ocean in 1915. She began work on a Ph.D. at Columbia University under Charles A. Beard , but, in the words of historian Julia L. Mickenberg, Branham "turned from academia to activism, becoming a field organizer for the NWP." Historian Katherine A. S. Siegel notes that, "In 1916, Branham put her studies aside to begin work in the National Woman's Party." Siegel writes that Branham "worked tirelessly for suffrage and, when she could, on the readings Beard assigned her," and she began teaching history in Columbia's adult extension program in the fall of 1920, but she left within a year to go to Russia as a representative of the New York Herald - Armand Hammer des ...more...

Janice Harsanyi


Janice Harsanyi (July 15, 1929 – March 22, 2007) was a soprano singer and college professor. Janice was born in Arlington, Massachusetts , the daughter of a Presbyterian minister and lived in the Hamilton Square section of Hamilton Township, Mercer County, New Jersey at an early age. Harsanyi married Nicholas Harsanyi , a violist who went to school with Béla Bartók in Hungary. Nikki founded the Tallahassee Symphony Orchestra in 1979, his wife, Janice, was known as "first lady" of the TSO. Nicholas Harsanyi died in 1987. In 1958, Harsanyi sang as soloist during the opening ceremonies for the United Nations . In 1959 she made her Carnegie Hall debut singing Berlioz 's La Damnation de Faust with the Philadelphia Orchestra . In 1960, Harsanyi sang on Eugene Ormandy and Philadelphia Orchestra 's recording of Carl Orff's majestic Carmina Burana with singer/actor Harve Presnell . This was released by Columbia/Sony on LP and CD. In 1964, Harsanyi sang Beethoven at a peace rally in Philadelphia featuring Martin Luthe ...more...

Audra McDonald


Audra Ann McDonald (born July 3, 1970) is an American actress and singer. She has appeared on the stage in musicals, operas, and dramas such as Ragtime , A Raisin in the Sun and Porgy and Bess . With her full lyric soprano voice, she maintains an active concert and recording career performing song cycles and operas as well as in concerts throughout the U.S. She has won six Tony Awards , more performance wins than any other actor, and is the only person to win all four acting categories. She starred as Dr. Naomi Bennett on the ABC television drama Private Practice . Early life and education McDonald was born in West Berlin , Germany, the daughter of American parents, Anna Kathryn, a university administrator, and Stanley McDonald, Jr., a high school principal. At the time of her birth, her father was stationed with the U.S. Army . McDonald was raised in Fresno, California , the elder of two daughters. McDonald graduated from the Roosevelt School of the Arts program within Theodore Roosevelt High School in F ...more...

University of Illinois at Urbana–Champaign


The University of Illinois at Urbana–Champaign (also known as U of I , Illinois , or colloquially as the University of Illinois or UIUC ) is a public research university in the U.S. state of Illinois . Founded in 1867 as a land-grant institution in the twin cities of Champaign and Urbana , it is the flagship campus of the University of Illinois system and a founding member of the Big Ten Conference . The University of Illinois at Urbana–Champaign is a member of the Association of American Universities and is classified as a R1 Doctoral Research University under the Carnegie Classification of Institutions of Higher Education , which denotes the highest research activity. In fiscal year 2015, research expenditures at Illinois totaled $640 million. The campus library system possesses the second-largest university library in the United States after Harvard University . The university also hosts the National Center for Supercomputing Applications (NCSA) and is home to the fastest supercomputer on a university ...more...

National Register of Historic Places listings in Bon Homme County, South Dakota


This is a list of the National Register of Historic Places listings in Bon Homme County, South Dakota . This is intended to be a complete list of the properties and districts on the National Register of Historic Places in Bon Homme County, South Dakota . The locations of National Register properties and districts for which the latitude and longitude coordinates are included below, may be seen in a map. There are 39 properties and districts listed on the National Register in the county. Current listings Name on the Register Image Date listed Location City or town Description 1 Bon Homme County Courthouse December 13, 1984 ( #84000581 ) 300 W. 18th Ave. 42°59′38″N 97°51′58″W  /  42.993860°N 97.866150°W Tyndall 2 Bon Homme Hutterite Colony June 30, 1982 ( #82003913 ) On the Missouri River 42°51′46″N 97°42′23″W  /  42.862778°N 97.706389°W Tabor 3 Gen. Charles T. Campbell House Upload image June 17, 1982 ( #82003911 ) 611 4th St. 43°08′26″N 97°42′58″W  /  43.140556°N 97.716111°W Scotland 4 Carnegie Public Li ...more...

Cleveland Clinic


The Cleveland Clinic is a multispecialty academic hospital located in Cleveland, Ohio that is owned and operated by the Cleveland Clinic Foundation, an Ohio nonprofit corporation established in 1921. In addition to their flagship hospital in Cleveland, Cleveland Clinic also operates affiliated facilities in Florida, Nevada, Canada, and the United Arab Emirates. History Beginnings Cleveland Clinic grew out of the surgical practice of Frank J. Weed (died 1891) at 16 Church Street on the near west side of Cleveland. The practice was purchased by his two assistants, Frank E. Bunts and George Washington Crile . In 1892 they brought Crile's cousin, William E. Lower into the practice. In 1897 they moved to the Osborn Building on Prospect Avenue in downtown Cleveland. A four-story outpatient building was constructed and Cleveland Clinic was dedicated at a private ceremony on February 26, 1921. It opened its doors two days later to the public and registered 42 patients. In April 1921, Cleveland Clinic had 60 emp ...more...

Mercer University


R. Kirby Godsey Administration Building, a university landmark listed on the National Register of Historic Places Mercer University is the oldest private university in Georgia with its main campus in Macon, Georgia , United States . Mercer enrolls more than 8,500 students in 12 colleges and schools: liberal arts , business , engineering , education , music , continuing and professional studies , law , theology , medicine , pharmacy , nursing , and health professions . Mercer is a member of the Georgia Research Alliance and has a chapter of Phi Beta Kappa , the nation's oldest collegiate honors society. Mercer has three campuses: the main campus in Macon , a graduate and professional education campus in Atlanta , and a four-year campus of the School of Medicine in Savannah . Mercer also has regional academic centers in Henry County , Douglas County , and Newnan ; the Walter F. George School of Law on its own campus in Macon; teaching hospitals in Macon, Savannah, and Columbus ; a university press and a perfo ...more...

Skitch Henderson


Lyle Russel "Skitch" Henderson (January 27, 1918 – November 1, 2005) was a pianist, conductor, and composer. His nickname "Skitch" came from his ability to "re-sketch" a song in a different key. Early years Lyle "Skitch" Henderson was born on a farm near Halstad, Minnesota , to Joseph and Josephine Henderson, both of Norwegian descent. His mother died shortly after his birth, and he was then sent to live with his aunt Hattie Henderson Gift and uncle Frank Gift, who raised him. She taught him piano, starting at the age of four. Although he didn't receive formal conservatory education in music, Henderson received classical training under Fritz Reiner , Albert Coates , Arnold Schoenberg , Ernst Toch and Arturo Toscanini , who invited him to conduct the NBC Symphony Orchestra . Henderson would later recount his learning the ropes by playing in taverns with popular singers of the day. Film After starting his professional career in the 1930s playing piano in the roadhouses of the American Midwest, Henderson's major ...more...

Jim Crow laws


Cover of an early edition of " Jump Jim Crow " sheet music (c. 1832) Jim Crow laws were state and local laws that enforced racial segregation in the Southern United States . Enacted by white Democratic-dominated state legislatures in the late 19th century after the Reconstruction period , these laws continued to be enforced until 1965. They mandated de jure racial segregation in all public facilities in the states of the former Confederate States of America , starting in 1896 with a " separate but equal " status for African Americans in railroad cars. Public education had essentially been segregated since its establishment in most of the South after the Civil War . This principle was extended to public facilities and transportation, including segregated cars on interstate trains and, later, buses. Facilities for African Americans were consistently inferior and underfunded compared to those which were then available to European Americans ; sometimes they did not exist at all. This body of law institutionalized ...more...

Valdosta, Georgia


Valdosta is a city in and the county seat of Lowndes County , located on the southern border of Georgia , United States. As of 2013, Valdosta has a total population of 56,481, and is the 14th largest city in Georgia. Valdosta is the principal city of the Valdosta Metropolitan Statistical Area , which in 2010 had a population of 139,588. It includes part of Brooks County to the west. Valdosta is the home of Valdosta State University , a regional university in the University System of Georgia with over 10,900 students. The local public Valdosta High School has the most winning football program of any high school in the United States. Valdosta is called the Azalea City, as the plant grows in profusion there. The city hosts an annual Azalea Festival in March. History Establishment Valdosta was incorporated on December 7, 1860, when it was designated by the state legislature as the new county seat, formerly at nearby Troupville . The railroad was built to Valdosta that year, rather than Troupville, stimulating ...more...

USS Requin (SS-481)


USS Requin (SS/SSR/AGSS/IXSS-481) , a Tench-class submarine , was the only ship of the United States Navy to be named after the requin , French for shark . Since 1990 it has been a museum ship at The Carnegie Science Center in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania . Her keel was laid down on 24 August 1944 by the Portsmouth Navy Yard in Kittery, Maine . She was launched on 1 January 1945 sponsored by Mrs. Slade D. Cutter, and commissioned on 28 April 1945 with Commander Slade D. Cutter in command. Initially, Requin carried heavier armament than usual for a fleet submarine, perhaps because Commander Cutter was one of the most decorated submarine skippers going to sea. She had an additional five-inch/25-caliber deck gun, as well as two 24-tube five-inch (127 mm) rocket launchers, which were intended to be used to provide offshore bombardment during Operation Downfall , the planned invasion of Kyūshū and Honshū . Shakedown and first conversion USS Requin seen here c. 1946 Following shakedown off the New England coast, Requin ...more...

Architecture of Jacksonville


The architecture of Jacksonville is notably marked by the city's early predominant position as Florida's financial and insurance center. Numerous buildings in the city have held state height records, dating as far back as 1902, and last holding the record from 1974 to 1981. It is important to note that few structures in the city center predate the Great Fire of 1901 . Contributing heavily during the reconstruction period following the Great Fire of 1901, a young New York architect named Henry John Klutho would come to influence generations of local designers. Klutho's works exhibit elements influenced by both the Chicago School , championed by Louis Sullivan , and the Prairie School of architecture, popularized by Frank Lloyd Wright . As a result, Jacksonville has one of the largest collections of Prairie Style buildings outside the Midwest. By the 1950s, modernist design principles would permeate throughout the United States, transforming the rapidly growing State of Florida. During this period, local arc ...more...

List of Skull and Bones members


Skull and Bones , a secret society at Yale University , was founded in 1832. Until 1971, the organization published annual membership rosters, which were kept at Yale's library . In this list of notable Bonesmen, the number in parentheses represents the cohort year of Skull and Bones, as well as their graduation year. There are no official rosters published after 1982 and membership for later years is speculative. Some news organizations refer to them as a power elite . Founding members (1832–33 academic year) William Huntington Russell, founder of Skull and Bones and the namesake of the society's corporate body, the Russell Trust Association Frederick Ellsworth Mather (1833), Democratic member of the New York State Assembly (1854–1857) Phineas Timothy Miller (1833), American physician William Huntington Russell (1833), Connecticut State Legislator, Major General Alphonso Taft (1833), U.S. Attorney General (1876–1877), Secretary of War (1876), Ambassador to Austria-Hungary (1882) and Russia (1884–1885), fathe ...more...

University of Alabama


The University of Alabama ( Alabama or UA ) is a public research university located in Tuscaloosa , Alabama , United States, and the flagship of the University of Alabama System . Founded in 1820, UA is the oldest and largest of the public universities in Alabama . UA offers programs of study in 13 academic divisions leading to bachelor's, master's, Education Specialist , and doctoral degrees. The only publicly supported law school in the state is at UA. Other academic programs unavailable elsewhere in Alabama include doctoral programs in anthropology , communication and information sciences, metallurgical engineering, music, Romance languages , and social work . As one of the first public universities established in the early 19th century southwestern frontier of the United States, the University of Alabama has left a vast cultural imprint on the state, region and nation over the past two centuries. The school was a center of activity during the American Civil War and the Civil Rights Movement . The Univers ...more...

Hispanic and Latino Americans


Hispanic Americans and Latino Americans ( Spanish : hispanos ; ) are people in the United States who are descendants of the countries of Hispanic America and Spain . It is the largest population of Latino Americans and Hispanics outside of Latin America . More generally, it includes all persons in the United States who self-identify as Hispanic or Latino , whether of full or partial ancestry. For the 2010 United States Census , people counted as "Hispanic" or "Latino" were those who identified as one of the specific Hispanic or Latino categories listed on the census questionnaire ("Mexican," "Puerto Rican," or "Cuban") as well as those who indicated that they were "other Spanish, Hispanic, or Latino." The national origins classified as Hispanic or Latino by the United States Census Bureau are the following: Spanish , Argentine , Cuban , Colombian , Puerto Rican , Dominican , Mexican , Costa Rican , Guatemalan , Honduran , Nicaraguan , Panamanian , Salvadoran , Bolivian , Chilean , Ecuadorian , Paragua ...more...

John MacKay Shaw


John MacKay Shaw (1897–1984) was a business executive, bibliophile, philanthropist, and writer. He was keenly interested in the tradition of poetry in the English language from the seventeenth through the twentieth centuries. He was especially attentive to its treatment of the theme of childhood. Biography Shaw was born 15 May 1897 at 60 Lumsden Street, dirk Overnewton, in Glasgow’s west end. He was the son of Neil and Catherine Ann (Mackenzie) Shaw. His father’s family was from the Island of Jura in the Inner Hebrides ; his mother's family was from the Isle of Lewis , one of the Outer Hebrides . Shaw was educated at the Willow Bank School in Glasgow. Neil Shaw emigrated to America in 1910, and in April 1911 John Shaw, his mother, and sisters Margaret and Anna followed. The Shaw family settled in Philadelphia. Feeling that he was too advanced for the grade level in which he was placed in the public schools, John Shaw departed from formal schooling and took the initiative in educating himself in various librar ...more...

James Alexander Robertson


James Alexander Robertson (August 19, 1873 – March 20, 1939) was an American academic historian , archivist , translator and bibliographer . He is most noted for his contributions to the history and historiography of the Philippines and other former territorial possessions of the Viceroyalty of New Spain . Life James Alexander Robertson was born 1873 in Corry, Pennsylvania . He was the sixth of eight children born to Canadian parents, who became naturalized U.S. citizens after relocating to Corry in 1866. His father, John McGregor Robertson, was a building contractor originally from Verulam, Ontario , near Peterborough . His mother, Elizabeth Borrowman Robertson, had emigrated to Canada from her native Scotland as a child. Robertson's mother died when he was seven. Three years later he and his family moved to Cleveland, Ohio , where James completed his secondary education. In 1892 he enrolled for graduate studies at Western Reserve University's Adelbert College. He majored in the study of Romance languages ...more...

National Register of Historic Places listings in Mendocino County, California


This is a list of the National Register of Historic Places listings in Mendocino County, California . This is intended to be a complete list of the properties and districts on the National Register of Historic Places in Mendocino County , California , United States . Latitude and longitude coordinates are provided for many National Register properties and districts; these locations may be seen together in a Google map. There are 43 properties and districts listed on the National Register in the county, including 1 National Historic Landmark . Current listings Name on the Register Image Date listed Location City or town Description 1 Albion River Bridge July 31, 2017 ( #100001383 ) Mile markers 43.7-44.0 on CA 1 39°13′36″N 123°46′09″W  /  39.2266°N 123.7691°W Albion 2 Arena Cove Historic District September 13, 1990 ( #90001363 ) Arena Cove 38°54′54″N 123°42′28″W  /  38.915°N 123.707778°W Point Arena 3 Dr. Raymond Babcock House Upload image August 19, 2004 ( #04000620 ) 96 S. Humboldt St. 39°24′45″N 123°21′ ...more...



Paramylodon is an extinct genus of ground sloth of the family Mylodontidae endemic to North America during the Pliocene through Pleistocene epochs, living from around ~4.9 Mya –11,000 years ago. It is also known as Harlan's ground sloth . Description La Brea Tar Pits fauna including Paramylodon by Charles R. Knight Paramylodon measured about 3 m (9.8 ft) in length and weighed as much as 1,000–1,089 kg. It is known from North America deposits, including in Mexico and the United States and as far south as Guatemala , and often mistaken as Glossotherium . Currently there is just one recognized species, P. harlani, (Owen) 1840, which is commonly referred to as Harlan's ground sloth in honor of American paleontologist Dr. Richard Harlan , who first discovered and described a lower jaw in 1835. Paramylodon exhibits the interesting characteristic of having had dermal ossicles , small bones embedded in the skin, presumably adding a degree of protection to the animal. This characteristic is also shared by the South A ...more...

Art museum


'> The National Gallery of Art , Washington DC. An art museum or art gallery is a building or space for the exhibition of art , usually visual art . Museums can be public or private, but what distinguishes a museum is the ownership of a collection. Paintings are the most commonly displayed art objects ; however, sculptures , decorative arts , furniture, textiles, costumes , drawings , pastels , watercolors , collages , prints , artist's books , photographs , and installation art are also regularly shown. Although primarily concerned with providing a space to show works of visual art, art galleries are sometimes used to host other artistic activities, such as performance arts , music concerts, or poetry readings. Types of galleries The Gallery of Cornelis van der Geest , Willem van Haecht , 1628. A private picture gallery as an early precursor of the modern museum. The term is used for both public galleries, which are non-profit or publicly owned museums that display selected collections of art. On the other ...more...

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