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Kunrei-shiki romanization

Kunrei-shiki rōmaji (訓令式ローマ字) is a Cabinet-ordered romanization system to transcribe the Japanese language into the Latin alphabet. It is abbreviated as Kunrei-shiki. Its name is rendered Kunreisiki using Kunrei-shiki itself.

Kunrei-shiki is sometimes known as the Monbushō system in English because it is taught in the Monbushō-approved elementary school curriculum. The ISO has standardized Kunrei-shiki, under ISO 3602.

Kunrei-shiki is based on the older Nihon-shiki (Nipponsiki) system, which was modified for modern standard Japanese. For example, the word かなづかい, romanized kanadukai in Nihon-shiki, is pronounced kanazukai in standard modern Japanese and is romanized as such in Kunrei-shiki.

Kunrei-shiki competes with the older Hepburn romanization system, which was promoted by the authorities during the Allied occupation of Japan, after World War II.


Before World War II, there was a political conflict between supporters of Hepburn romanization and supporters of Nihon-shiki romanization. In 1930, a board of inquiry, under the aegis of the Minister of Education, was established to determine the proper romanization system. The Japanese government, by cabinet order (訓令 kunrei),[1] announced on September 21, 1937 that a modified form of Nihon-shiki would be officially adopted as Kunrei-shiki.[2] The form at the time differs slightly from the modern form.[3] Originally, the system was called the Kokutei (国定, government-authorized) system.[2]

The Japanese government gradually introduced Kunrei-shiki, which appeared in secondary education, on railway station signboards, on nautical charts, and on the 1:1,000,000 scale International Map of the World.[4] While the central government had strong control, from 1937 to 1945, the Japanese government used Kunrei-shiki in its tourist brochures.[5] In Japan, some use of Nihon-shiki and Modified Hepburn remained, however, because some individuals supported the use of those systems.[4]

J. Marshall Unger, the author of Literacy and Script Reform in Occupation Japan: Reading between the Lines, said that the Hepburn supporters "understandably" believed that the Kunrei-shiki "compromise" was not fair because of the presence of the "un-English-looking spellings" that the Modified Hepburn supporters had opposed.[6] Andrew Horvat, the author of Japanese Beyond Words: How to Walk and Talk Like a Native Speaker, argued that "by forcing non-native speakers of Japanese with no intentions of learning the language to abide by a system intended for those who have some command of Japanese, the government gave the impression of intolerant language management that would have dire consequences later on."[5]

After the Japanese government was defeated in 1945, General Douglas MacArthur, the Supreme Commander for the Allied Powers issued a directive, dated September 3, 1945, that stated that Modified Hepburn was the method to transcribe Japanese names. Some editorials printed in Japanese newspapers advocated for using only Hepburn.[7] Supporters of Hepburn denounced pro-Kunrei-shiki and pro-Nihon-shiki advocates to the SCAP offices[6] by accusing them of being inactive militarists[7] and of collaborating with militarists. Unger said that the nature of Kunrei-shiki led to "pent-up anger" by Hepburn supporters.[6] During the postwar period, several educators and scholars tried to introduce romanized letters as a teaching device and possibility later replacing kanji. However, Kunrei-shiki had associations with Japanese militarism, and the US occupation was reluctant to promote it.[5] On December 9, 1954, the Japanese government re-confirmed Kunrei-shiki as its official system[2] but with slight modifications.[8] Eleanor Jorden, an American linguist, made textbooks with a modified version of Kunrei-shiki, which were used in the 1960s in courses given to US diplomats. The use of her books did not change the US government's hesitation to use Kunrei-shiki.[5]

As of 1974, according to the Geographical Survey Institute, Kunrei-shiki was used for topographical maps, and Modified Hepburn was used for geological maps and aeronautical charts.[9]

As of 1978, the National Diet Library used Kunrei-shiki. The Ministry of Foreign Affairs, the Ministry of International Trade and Industry, and many other official organizations instead used Hepburn, as did The Japan Times, the Japan Travel Bureau, and many other private organizations.[2]

Legal status

The system was originally promulgated as Japanese Cabinet Order No. 3 as of September 21, 1937. Since it had been overturned by the SCAP during the occupation of Japan, the Japanese government repealed it and decreed again, as Japanese Cabinet Order No.1 as of December 29, 1954. It mandated the use of Kunrei-shiki in "the written expression of Japanese generally." Specific alternative spellings could be used in international relations and to follow established precedent. See Permitted Exceptions for details.[1]

Kunrei-shiki has been recognized, along with Nihon-shiki, in ISO 3602:1989. Documentation—Romanization of Japanese (kana script) by the ISO. It was also recommended by the ANSI after it withdrew its own standard, ANSI Z39.11-1972 American National Standard System for the Romanization of Japanese (Modified Hepburn), in 1994.

Example: tat-u
Conjugation Kunrei Hepburn
Mizen 1 tat-a- tat-a-
Mizen 2 tat-o- tat-o-
Ren'yô tat-i tach-i
Syûsi/Rentai tat-u tats-u
Katei tat-e- tat-e-
Meirei tat-e tat-e

Despite its official recognition, Japanese commonly choose between Nihon-shiki/Kunrei-shiki and Hepburn for any given situation. However, the Japanese government generally uses Hepburn, especially for passports,[10] road signage,[10] and train signage.[11]

Otherwise, most Western publications and all English-language newspapers use some form of Hepburn.[12]

Because Kunrei-shiki is based on Japanese phonology, it can cause non-native speakers to pronounce words incorrectly. John Hinds, the author of Japanese: Descriptive Grammar, describes that as "a major disadvantage."[13]

Additional complications appear with newer kana combinations such as ティーム(チーム) team. In Hepburn, they would be distinguished as different sounds and represented as mu and chīmu respectively. That gives better indications of the English pronunciations. For some Japanese-speakers, however, the sounds ティ "ti" and チ "chi" are the same phoneme; both are represented in Kunrei-shiki as tîmu. Such complications may be confusing to those who do not know Japanese phonology well.

Today, the main users of Kunrei-shiki are native speakers of Japanese, especially within Japan, and linguists studying Japanese. The main advantage of Kunrei-shiki is that it is better able to illustrate Japanese grammar, as Hepburn preserves the irregularity of certain conjugations (see table, right).[14] The most serious problem of Hepburn in this context is that it may change the stem of a verb, which is not reflected in the underlying morphology of the language. One notable introductory textbook for English-speakers, Eleanor Jorden's Japanese: The Spoken Language, uses her JSL romanization, a system strongly influenced by Kunrei-shiki in its adherence to Japanese phonology, but it is adapted to teaching proper pronunciation of Japanese phonemes.

Kunrei-shiki spellings of kana
gojūon yōon
あ ア a い イ i う ウ u え エ e お オ o (ya) (yu) (yo)
か カ ka き キ ki く ク ku け ケ ke こ コ ko きゃ キャ kya きゅ キュ kyu きょ キョ kyo
さ サ sa し シ si す ス su せ セ se そ ソ so しゃ シャ sya しゅ シュ syu しょ ショ syo
た タ ta ち チ ti つ ツ tu て テ te と ト to ちゃ チャ tya ちゅ チュ tyu ちょ チョ tyo
な ナ na に ニ ni ぬ ヌ nu ね ネ ne の ノ no にゃ ニャ nya にゅ ニュ nyu にょ ニョ nyo
は ハ ha ひ ヒ hi ふ フ hu へ ヘ he ほ ホ ho ひゃ ヒャ hya ひゅ ヒュ hyu ひょ ヒョ hyo
ま マ ma み ミ mi む ム mu め メ me も モ mo みゃ ミャ mya みゅ ミュ myu みょ ミョ myo
や ヤ ya (i) ゆ ユ yu (e) よ ヨ yo
ら ラ ra り リ ri る ル ru れ レ re ろ ロ ro りゃ リャ rya りゅ リュ ryu りょ リョ ryo
わ ワ wa ゐ ヰ i (u) ゑ ヱ e を ヲ o
ん ン n
voiced sounds (dakuten)
が ガ ga ぎ ギ gi ぐ グ gu げ ゲ ge ご ゴ go ぎゃ ギャ gya ぎゅ ギュ gyu ぎょ ギョ gyo
ざ ザ za じ ジ zi ず ズ zu ぜ ゼ ze ぞ ゾ zo じゃ ジャ zya じゅ ジュ zyu じょ ジョ zyo
だ ダ da ぢ ヂ zi づ ヅ zu で デ de ど ド do ぢゃ ヂャ zya ぢゅ ヂュ zyu ぢょ ヂョ zyo
ば バ ba び ビ bi ぶ ブ bu べ ベ be ぼ ボ bo びゃ ビャ bya びゅ ビュ byu びょ ビョ byo
ぱ パ pa ぴ ピ pi ぷ プ pu ぺ ペ pe ぽ ポ po ぴゃ ピャ pya ぴゅ ピュ pyu ぴょ ピョ pyo
  • Characters in red are obsolete in modern Japanese.
  • When he (へ) is used as a particle, it is written as e, not he (as in Nihon-shiki).
  • When ha (は) is used as a particle, it is written as wa, not ha.
  • wo (を/ヲ) is used only as a particle, written o.
  • Long vowels are indicated by a circumflex accent: long o is written ô.
  • Vowels that are separated by a morpheme boundary are not considered to be a long vowel. For example, おもう (思う) is written omou, not omô.
  • Syllabic n (ん) is written as n' before vowels and y but as n before consonants and at the end of a word.
  • Geminate consonants are always marked by doubling the consonant following the sokuon (っ).
  • The first letter in a sentence and all proper nouns are capitalized.
  • ISO 3602 has the strict form; see Nihon-shiki.
Permitted exceptions

The Cabinet Order makes an exception to the above chart:

  • In international relations and situations for which prior precedent would make a sudden reform would be difficult, the spelling may also be given by Chart 2:
しゃ sha し shi しゅ shu しょ sho
    つ tsu  
ちゃ cha ち chi ちゅ chu ちょ cho
    ふ fu  
じゃ ja じ ji じゅ ju じょ jo
  ぢ di づ du  
ぢゃ dya   ぢゅ dyu ぢょ dyo
くゎ kwa      
ぐゎ gwa      
      を wo

The exceptional clause is not to be confused with other systems of romanization (such as Hepburn) and does not specifically relax other requirements, such as marking long vowels.

See also
  1. Horvat, p. 166. ""The zi ending of roomazi comes from the Kunreeshiki system promulgated in the 1930s through a cabinet order, or kunree."
  2. Kent, et al. "Oriental Literature and Bibliography." p. 155.
  3. Hadamitzky, p. 12.
  4. "Romanization in Japan." (Archive) (Paper presented by Japan) United Nations Economic and Social Council. July 8, 1977. p. 3. English only. Retrieved on May 15, 2013.
  5. Horvat, Andrew. "The Romaji (Roomaji) Conundrum." (Archive) – Excerpt from Horvat's book: Japanese Beyond Words: How to Walk and Talk Like a Native Speaker. Hosted at the David See-Chai Lam Centre for International Communication of Simon Fraser University. Retrieved on May 13, 2013.
  6. Unger, p. 54.
  7. Unger, p. 78.
  8. Gottlieb, p. 78.
  9. Bulletin of the Geographical Survey Institute, p. 22. "As reported at the Second Conference, the writing of geographical names in Roman letters in Japan comes in two types — Kunrei Siki (system adopted under a Cabinet ordinance) and Syûsei Hebon Siki (Modified Hepburn System). Kunrei Siki is used for topographical maps, whereas Syûsei Hebon Siki is in use for aeronautical charts and geological maps." - Content also available in "Romanization in Japan." (Archive) (Paper presented by Japan) United Nations Economic and Social Council. July 8, 1977. p. 2. English only.
  12. Powers, John. "Japanese Names", The Indexer Vol. 26 No. 2 June 2008. "It [Hepburn] can be considered the norm as, in slightly modified form, it is followed by the great majority of Western publications and by all English-language newspapers."
  13. Hinds, John (1986). Japanese: Descriptive Grammar. Croom Helm. ISBN 0-7099-3733-4. LCCN 86006372. The major disadvantage of this system (Kunrei-shiki) is that there is a tendency for nonnative speakers of Japanese to pronounce certain forms incorrectly.
  14. Hinds, John (1986). Japanese: Descriptive Grammar. Croom Helm. ISBN 0-7099-3733-4. LCCN 86006372. The major advantage of kunrei-shiki is that inflectional endings are seen to be more regular.
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Tomie Ohtake


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Mount Fuji


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Hyōgai kanji


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Kikai language


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Katakana ( 片仮名 , カタカナ ) is a Japanese syllabary , one component of the Japanese writing system along with hiragana , kanji , and in some cases the Latin script (known as romaji ). The word katakana means "fragmentary kana", as the katakana characters are derived from components of more complex kanji. Katakana and hiragana are both kana systems. With one or two minor exceptions, each syllable (strictly mora ) in the Japanese language is represented by one character, or kana, in each system. Each kana is either a vowel such as "a" (katakana ア ); a consonant followed by a vowel such as "ka" (katakana カ ); or "n" (katakana ン ), a nasal sonorant which, depending on the context, sounds either like English m, n, or ng , or like the nasal vowels of Portuguese . In contrast to the hiragana syllabary, which is used for Japanese words not covered by kanji and for grammatical inflections, the katakana syllabary usage is quite similar to italics in English; specifically, it is used for transcription of foreign language wo ...more...

Chinese characters


Chinese characters are logograms used in the writing of Chinese , Japanese , Korean , and some other Asian languages. In Standard Chinese , they are called hànzì ( simplified Chinese : 汉字 ; traditional Chinese : 漢字 , lit "Han characters"). They have been adapted to write a number of other languages, including Japanese , where they are known as kanji ( 漢字 ); Korean , where they are known as Hanja ( 漢字 ); and Vietnamese , in a system known as chữ Nôm . Collectively, they are known as CJK characters . Chinese characters constitute the oldest continuously used system of writing in the world. By virtue of their widespread current use in East Asia , and historic use throughout the Sinosphere , Chinese characters are among the most widely adopted writing systems in the world by number of users. Chinese characters number in the tens of thousands, though most of them are minor graphic variants encountered only in historical texts. Studies in China have shown that functional literacy in written Chinese requires a k ...more...

Jackie Chan


Chan Kong-sang , SBS , MBE , PMW ( 陳 港 生 ; born 7 April 1954), known professionally as Jackie Chan , is a Hong Kong martial artist, actor, film director, producer, stuntman, and singer. In his movies, he is known for his acrobatic fighting style, comic timing, use of improvised weapons, and innovative stunts, which he typically performs himself. He has trained in Kung Fu and Hapkido . He has been acting since the 1960s and has appeared in over 150 films. Chan has received stars on the Hong Kong Avenue of Stars , and the Hollywood Walk of Fame . He has been referenced in various pop songs, cartoons, and video games. He is an operatically trained vocalist and is also a Cantopop and Mandopop star, having released a number of albums and sung many of the theme songs for the films in which he has starred. He is also a notable philanthropist. In 2015, Forbes magazine estimated his net worth to be $350 million. Early life Chan was born on 7 April 1954, in Hong Kong , as Chan Kong-sang, to Charles and Lee-Lee Chan ...more...

Historical kana orthography


The historical kana orthography ( 歴史的仮名遣 rekishi-teki kana-zukai, or "rekishi-teki kana-dukahi" in the old system) , or old orthography ( 旧仮名遣 kyū kana-zukai, or "kiu kana-dukahi" in the old system) , refers to the kana orthography ( 正仮名遣 sei kana-zukai ) in general use until orthographic reforms after World War II ; the current orthography was adopted by Cabinet order in 1946. By that point the historical orthography was no longer in accord with Japanese pronunciation. It differs from modern usage ( Gendai kana-zukai ) in the number of characters and the way those characters are used. There was considerable opposition to the official adoption of the current orthography, on the grounds that the historical orthography conveys meanings better, and some writers continued to use it for many years since. The historical orthography is found in most Japanese dictionaries , such as Kōjien . In the current edition of the Kōjien, if the historical orthography is different from the modern spelling, the old spelling is p ...more...

Solar term


A solar term is any of 24 points in traditional East Asian lunisolar calendars that matches a particular astronomical event or signifies some natural phenomenon. The points are spaced 15° apart along the ecliptic and are used by lunisolar calendars to stay synchronized with the seasons, which is crucial for agrarian societies. The solar terms are also used to calculate intercalary months in East Asian calendars; which month is repeated depends on the position of the sun at the time. Because the Sun 's speed along the ecliptic varies depending on the Earth-Sun distance, the number of days that it takes the Sun to travel between each pair of solar terms varies slightly throughout the year. Each solar term is divided into three pentads (候 hòu), so there are 72 pentads in a year. Each pentad consists of five, rarely six, days, and are mostly named after phenological (biological or botanical) phenomena corresponding to the pentad. Solar terms originated in China , then spread to Korea , Vietnam , and Japan , cou ...more...

East Asia


Northeast Asia or East Asia is the eastern subregion of the Asian continent, which can be defined in either geographical or pan-ethno-cultural terms. Geographically and geopolitically, it includes Mainland China, Hong Kong, Macau, Taiwan, Japan, Mongolia, North Korea and South Korea; it covers about 12,000,000 km (4,600,000 sq mi), or about 28% of the Asian continent. GDP(PPP) of East Asia is 32.4 trillion while Nominal GDP is 19.1 trillion USD. East Asians comprise around 1.6 billion people. About 38% of the population of Asia and 22%, or over one fifth, of world's population lives in East Asia. Although the coastal and riparian areas of the region form one of the world's most populated places, the population in Mongolia and Western China , both landlocked areas, is very sparsely distributed, with Mongolia having the lowest population density of a sovereign state . The overall population density of the region is 133 inhabitants per square kilometre (340/sq mi), about three times the world average of 45/km ...more...

Buddhist cuisine


Buddhist cuisine is an East Asian cuisine which is followed by monks and many believers from areas historically influenced by Chinese Buddhism . It is vegetarian or vegan, and it is based on the Dharmic concept of ahimsa (non-violence). Vegetarianism is common in other Dharmic faiths such as Hinduism , Jainism and Sikhism as well as East Asian religions like Taoism . While monks and a minority of believers are vegetarian year-round, many believers follow the Buddhist vegetarian diet temporarily, similar to Christian Lent . Vegetarian cuisine is known as sùshí (素食) ("vegetarian food"), chúnsù (纯素) ("pure vegetarian") , zhāicài (斋菜) ("lent / fasting food") in China , Hong Kong , Malaysia , Singapore and Taiwan ; đồ chay in Vietnam ; shōjin ryōri ( 精進料理 , devotion cuisine) in Japan ; sachal eumsik ( 사찰음식 "temple food") in Korea ; jay (เจ) in Thailand and by other names in many countries. The dishes that comprise Buddhist cuisine in any given place will be influenced by the style of food there. The origin of "Bud ...more...

Sgt. Frog


Sgt. Frog ( ケロロ軍曹 Keroro Gunsō, lit. "Sergeant Keroro") is a manga series by Mine Yoshizaki . It was later adapted into an anime television series directed by Junichi Sato . Both the anime and manga are comedies that follow the attempts of a platoon of frog-like alien invaders to conquer Earth. Sergeant Keroro, the titular character, is the leader of the platoon, but is at the mercy of a human family of three after he is captured while trying to hide in one of the family member's bedrooms. In both the manga and anime, Keroro is forced to do meaningless chores and errands for the family after his army abandons his platoon on Earth. The platoon has many failed attempts at taking over Earth. The series takes its comedy from a combination of wordplay (particularly puns and homophones), physical humor, situational irony, breaking of the fourth wall , and numerous pop culture references (especially to Gundam , Kamen Rider , Super Sentai , Space Battleship Yamato , Dragon Ball , Neon Genesis Evangelion and many othe ...more...

Keyboard layout


A keyboard layout is any specific mechanical, visual, or functional arrangement of the keys, legends, or key-meaning associations (respectively) of a computer , typewriter , or other typographic keyboard. Mechanical layout The placements and keys of a keyboard. Visual layout The arrangement of the legends (labels, markings, engravings) that appear on the keys of a keyboard. Functional layout The arrangement of the key-meaning associations, determined in software, of all the keys of a keyboard. Most computer keyboards are designed to send scancodes to the operating system , rather than directly sending characters. From there, the series of scancodes is converted into a character stream by keyboard layout software. This allows a physical keyboard to be dynamically mapped to any number of layouts without switching hardware components – merely by changing the software that interprets the keystrokes. It is usually possible for an advanced user to change keyboard operation, and third-party software is available to ...more...

Northern Ryukyuan languages


The Northern Ryukyuan languages are a group of languages spoken in the Amami Islands , Kagoshima Prefecture and the Okinawa Islands , Okinawa Prefecture of southwestern Japan . It is one of two primary branches of the Ryukyuan languages , which are then part of the Japonic languages . The subdivisions of Northern Ryukyuan are a matter of scholarly debate. Internal classification Within the Ryukyu Kingdom , territory was divided into magiri , which in turn were divided into shima. A magiri was comparable to a Japanese prefecture while shima were individual villages. There were about 800 shima in the Ryukyu Kingdom. Linguists Seizen Nakasone and Nishioka Satoshi have proposed that each shima developed their own distinct dialects or accents due to people very rarely traveling outside of their shima. At high level, linguists mostly agree to make the north–south division. In this framework, Northern Ryukyuan covers the Amami Islands , Kagoshima Prefecture and the Okinawa Islands , Okinawa Prefecture . The subdivi ...more...

Yilan Creole Japanese


Yilan Creole Japanese is a Japanese -based creole of Taiwan. It arose in the 1930s and 1940s, with contact between Japanese colonists and the native Atayal people of southern Yilan County, Taiwan . The vocabulary of a speaker born in 1974 was 70% Japanese and 30% Atayal , but the grammar of the creole does not closely resemble either of the source languages. It is incomprehensible to both Japanese and Atayal native speakers. The creole was identified in 2006 by Chien Yuehchen and Sanada Shinji, however its existence is still largely unknown. It was named by Sanada and Chien for its location. The official language of Taiwan , Mandarin , threatens the existence of Yilan Creole. Classification Yilan Creole is a creole language that is considered to be part of the Japonic language family. The superstratum and substratum languages of the creole are Japanese and Atayal, respectively. It has possibly been used as the first language among the Atayal and Seediq people since the 1930s. History The island of Taiwa ...more...

Kyōiku kanji


Kyōiku kanji ( 教育漢字 , literally "education kanji") , also known as Gakunenbetsu kanji haitōhyō ( 学年別漢字配当表 , literally "list of kanji by school year ") is a list of 1,006 kanji and associated readings developed and maintained by the Japanese Ministry of Education that prescribes which kanji, and which readings of kanji, Japanese schoolchildren should learn for each year of primary school. Although the list is designed for Japanese children, it can also be used as a sequence of learning characters by non-native speakers as a means of focusing on the most commonly used kanji.  ( ja:学年別漢字配当表 ) Kyōiku kanji is a subset of Jōyō kanji . Versions of kyōiku list A list of all jōyō kanji according to Halpern's KKLD indexing system , with kyōiku kanji coloured according to grade level. 1946 created with 881 characters 1977 expanded to 996 characters 1982 expanded to 1,006 characters 2020 will be expanded to 1,026 characters 茨 ( Ibaraki ), 媛 ( Ehime ), 岡 ( Shizuoka , Okayama and Fukuoka ), 潟 ( Niigata ), 岐 ( Gifu ), 熊 ( ...more...

Kashimashi: Girl Meets Girl


Kashimashi: Girl Meets Girl ( かしまし ~ガール・ミーツ・ガール~ Kashimashi ~Gāru Mītsu Gāru~) is a Japanese yuri manga series written by Satoru Akahori and illustrated by Yukimaru Katsura . The manga was originally serialized in Dengeki Daioh between the July 2004 and May 2007 issues, and later published in five bound volumes by MediaWorks from January 2005 to May 2007. The story focuses on Hazumu Osaragi, a normal, albeit effeminate high school boy who is killed when an alien spaceship crash lands on him, only to be restored to health as a girl. This results in a same-sex love triangle that Hazumu finds herself in with two of her best female friends. A single light novel written by Mako Komao and illustrated by the manga's artist was published by MediaWorks under their Dengeki Bunko imprint in January 2006. The manga series was adapted into a twelve-episode anime television series plus a single original video animation (OVA) sequel by Studio Hibari . The anime aired in Japan on TV Tokyo between January and March 2006; the ...more...

Index of Japan-related articles (K)


This page lists Japan-related articles with romanized titles beginning with the letter K . For names of people, please list by surname (i.e., "Tarō Yamada" should be listed under "Y", not "T"). Please also ignore particles (e.g. "a", "an", "the") when listing articles (i.e., " A City with No People " should be listed under "City"). Ka Kabuki Kadena, Okinawa Kadogawa, Miyazaki Kadoma, Osaka Kaga, Japanese aircraft carrier Kaga Domain Kaga, Ishikawa Kaga Province Takeshi Kaga Kagami, Kochi (Kami) Kagami, Kochi (Tosa) Kagami, Kumamoto Kagamino, Okayama Kagawa District, Kagawa Kagawa Prefecture Kagawa, Kagawa Kagerou (band) Kagome Higurashi Kagome Kagome Kagoshima District, Kagoshima Kagoshima Main Line Kagoshima Prefecture Kagoshima, Kagoshima Kagura Kagura (Azumanga Daioh) Kaho District, Fukuoka Kaho, Fukuoka Kahoku, Ishikawa Kahoku, Kōchi Kahoku, Kumamoto Kai Province Kai, Yamanashi Kaibara Ekken Kaibara, Hyogo Kaibun Kaifu District, Tokushima Toshiki Kaifu Kaifu, Tokushima Kaigan Line Kaiji Kawaguchi Kaiju Ka ...more...

Motoichi Kumagai


Motoichi Kumagai ( 熊谷 元一 Kumagai Motoichi, 12 July 1909 – 6 November 2010) was a Japanese photographer and illustrator of books for children, known for his portrayal of rural and school life. Born in Ōchi ( 会地 ; now Achi ), Shimoina District , Nagano Prefecture , Kumagai worked from 1930 to 1933 as a teacher. He had his first work for children published in the May 1932 issue of the magazine Kodomo no Kuni. In 1936 he bought a Pearlette camera (a Konishiroku derivative of the Vest Pocket Kodak ), with a simple meniscus lens, and started to use this to photograph village life; his first photograph collection was published two years later by Asahi Shinbunsha . In 1939 he went to Tokyo as a government photographer and was later sent three times to Manchukuo ; after the war, he returned to teach in his village. A book of photographs of school life published by Iwanami Shoten in 1955 won a photography prize from Mainichi Shimbun . Kumagai published books of works for children as well as books of photographs. His ...more...

List of jōyō kanji


The jōyō kanji system of representing written Japanese consists of 2,136 characters. List of characters For brevity, only one English translation is given per kanji . The "Grade" column specifies the grade in which the kanji is taught in Elementary schools in Japan . Grade "S" means that it is taught in secondary school . The list is sorted by Japanese reading (on'yomi then kun'yomi), in accordance with the ordering in the official Jōyō table. This list does not include characters that were present in older versions of the list but have since been removed ( 勺 , 銑 , 脹 , 錘 , 匁 ). Hyphens in the kun'yomi readings separate kanji from their okurigana . The "Old" column reflects the official kyūjitai specified in the standard jōyō table; it does not include unofficial, extended, or Asahi characters . The "New" column attempts to reflect the official glyph shapes as closely as possible. This requires using the characters 𠮟, 塡, 剝, 頰 which are outside of Japan's basic character set, JIS X 0208 (one of them is also ou ...more...

Otome wa Boku ni Koishiteru


Otome wa Boku ni Koishiteru ( 処女はお姉さまに恋してる , lit. The Maidens Are Falling in Love with Me) , commonly known as Otoboku ( おとボク ) , is a Japanese adult visual novel developed by Caramel Box and released on January 28, 2005 playable on Windows PCs . The game was later ported to the PlayStation 2 and PlayStation Portable (PSP) with the adult content removed. The Windows version was released in English by MangaGamer in 2012. The story follows the life of Mizuho Miyanokouji, an androgynous male high school student, who transfers into an all-girls school due to his grandfather's will. The gameplay in Otoboku follows a branching plot line which offers pre-determined scenarios with courses of interaction, and focuses on the appeal of the six female main characters by the player character . The game ranked as the second best-selling PC game sold in Japan for the time of its release, and charted in the national top 50 several more times afterwards. Caramel Box went on to produce two fan discs released in 2005 and 2007 ...more...

Transcription into Japanese


In contemporary Japanese writing , foreign-language loanwords and foreign names are normally written in the katakana script, which is one component of the Japanese writing system. As far as possible, sounds in the source language are matched to the nearest sounds in the Japanese language, and the result is transcribed using standard katakana characters, each of which represents one syllable (strictly mora ). For example, America is written アメリカ (A-me-ri-ka). To accommodate various foreign-language sounds not present in Japanese, a system of extended katakana has also developed to augment standard katakana. Katakana, like the other Japanese kana, hiragana , has a one-to-one correspondence between sounds and characters. Therefore, once the "Japanese sound" of a word is established, there is no ambiguity in its katakana spelling (unlike spelling in English, for example). A much less common form of transcription, not covered in this article, uses kanji characters for their phonetic values. For information on this ...more...

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