Kunrei-shiki romanization

Kunrei-shiki rōmaji (訓令式ローマ字) is a Cabinet-ordered romanization system to transcribe the Japanese language into the Latin alphabet. It is abbreviated as Kunrei-shiki. Its name is rendered Kunreisiki using Kunrei-shiki itself.

Kunrei-shiki is sometimes known as the Monbushō system in English because it is taught in the Monbushō-approved elementary school curriculum. The ISO has standardized Kunrei-shiki, under ISO 3602.

Kunrei-shiki is based on the older Nihon-shiki (Nipponsiki) system, which was modified for modern standard Japanese. For example, the word かなづかい, romanized kanadukai in Nihon-shiki, is pronounced kanazukai in standard modern Japanese and is romanized as such in Kunrei-shiki.

Kunrei-shiki competes with the older Hepburn romanization system, which was promoted by the authorities during the Allied occupation of Japan, after World War II.

History

Before World War II, there was a political conflict between supporters of Hepburn romanization and supporters of Nihon-shiki romanization. In 1930, a board of inquiry, under the aegis of the Minister of Education, was established to determine the proper romanization system. The Japanese government, by cabinet order (訓令 kunrei),[1] announced on September 21, 1937 that a modified form of Nihon-shiki would be officially adopted as Kunrei-shiki.[2] The form at the time differs slightly from the modern form.[3] Originally, the system was called the Kokutei (国定, government-authorized) system.[2]

The Japanese government gradually introduced Kunrei-shiki, which appeared in secondary education, on railway station signboards, on nautical charts, and on the 1:1,000,000 scale International Map of the World.[4] While the central government had strong control, from 1937 to 1945, the Japanese government used Kunrei-shiki in its tourist brochures.[5] In Japan, some use of Nihon-shiki and Modified Hepburn remained, however, because some individuals supported the use of those systems.[4]

J. Marshall Unger, the author of Literacy and Script Reform in Occupation Japan: Reading between the Lines, said that the Hepburn supporters "understandably" believed that the Kunrei-shiki "compromise" was not fair because of the presence of the "un-English-looking spellings" that the Modified Hepburn supporters had opposed.[6] Andrew Horvat, the author of Japanese Beyond Words: How to Walk and Talk Like a Native Speaker, argued that "by forcing non-native speakers of Japanese with no intentions of learning the language to abide by a system intended for those who have some command of Japanese, the government gave the impression of intolerant language management that would have dire consequences later on."[5]

After the Japanese government was defeated in 1945, General Douglas MacArthur, the Supreme Commander for the Allied Powers issued a directive, dated September 3, 1945, that stated that Modified Hepburn was the method to transcribe Japanese names. Some editorials printed in Japanese newspapers advocated for using only Hepburn.[7] Supporters of Hepburn denounced pro-Kunrei-shiki and pro-Nihon-shiki advocates to the SCAP offices[6] by accusing them of being inactive militarists[7] and of collaborating with militarists. Unger said that the nature of Kunrei-shiki led to "pent-up anger" by Hepburn supporters.[6] During the postwar period, several educators and scholars tried to introduce romanized letters as a teaching device and possibility later replacing kanji. However, Kunrei-shiki had associations with Japanese militarism, and the US occupation was reluctant to promote it.[5] On December 9, 1954, the Japanese government re-confirmed Kunrei-shiki as its official system[2] but with slight modifications.[8] Eleanor Jorden, an American linguist, made textbooks with a modified version of Kunrei-shiki, which were used in the 1960s in courses given to US diplomats. The use of her books did not change the US government's hesitation to use Kunrei-shiki.[5]

As of 1974, according to the Geographical Survey Institute, Kunrei-shiki was used for topographical maps, and Modified Hepburn was used for geological maps and aeronautical charts.[9]

As of 1978, the National Diet Library used Kunrei-shiki. The Ministry of Foreign Affairs, the Ministry of International Trade and Industry, and many other official organizations instead used Hepburn, as did The Japan Times, the Japan Travel Bureau, and many other private organizations.[2]

Legal status

The system was originally promulgated as Japanese Cabinet Order No. 3 as of September 21, 1937. Since it had been overturned by the SCAP during the occupation of Japan, the Japanese government repealed it and decreed again, as Japanese Cabinet Order No.1 as of December 29, 1954. It mandated the use of Kunrei-shiki in "the written expression of Japanese generally". Specific alternative spellings could be used in international relations and to follow established precedent. See Permitted Exceptions for details.[1]

Kunrei-shiki has been recognized, along with Nihon-shiki, in ISO 3602:1989. Documentation—Romanization of Japanese (kana script) by the ISO. It was also recommended by the ANSI after it withdrew its own standard, ANSI Z39.11-1972 American National Standard System for the Romanization of Japanese (Modified Hepburn), in 1994.

Usage
Example: tat-u
Conjugation Kunrei Hepburn
Mizen 1 tat-a- tat-a-
Mizen 2 tat-o- tat-o-
Ren'yô tat-i tach-i
Syûsi/Rentai tat-u tats-u
Katei tat-e- tat-e-
Meirei tat-e tat-e

Despite its official recognition, Japanese commonly choose between Nihon-shiki/Kunrei-shiki and Hepburn for any given situation. However, the Japanese government generally uses Hepburn, especially for passports,[10] road signage,[10] and train signage.[11]

Otherwise, most Western publications and all English-language newspapers use some form of Hepburn.[12]

Because Kunrei-shiki is based on Japanese phonology, it can cause non-native speakers to pronounce words incorrectly. John Hinds, the author of Japanese: Descriptive Grammar, describes that as "a major disadvantage."[13]

Additional complications appear with newer kana combinations such as ティーム(チーム) team. In Hepburn, they would be distinguished as different sounds and represented as mu and chīmu respectively. That gives better indications of the English pronunciations. For some Japanese-speakers, however, the sounds ティ "ti" and チ "chi" are the same phoneme; both are represented in Kunrei-shiki as tîmu. Such complications may be confusing to those who do not know Japanese phonology well.

Today, the main users of Kunrei-shiki are native speakers of Japanese, especially within Japan, and linguists studying Japanese. The main advantage of Kunrei-shiki is that it is better able to illustrate Japanese grammar, as Hepburn preserves the irregularity of certain conjugations (see table, right).[14] The most serious problem of Hepburn in this context is that it may change the stem of a verb, which is not reflected in the underlying morphology of the language. One notable introductory textbook for English-speakers, Eleanor Jorden's Japanese: The Spoken Language, uses her JSL romanization, a system strongly influenced by Kunrei-shiki in its adherence to Japanese phonology, but it is adapted to teaching proper pronunciation of Japanese phonemes.

Kunrei-shiki spellings of kana
gojūon yōon
あ ア a い イ i う ウ u え エ e お オ o (ya) (yu) (yo)
か カ ka き キ ki く ク ku け ケ ke こ コ ko きゃ キャ kya きゅ キュ kyu きょ キョ kyo
さ サ sa し シ si す ス su せ セ se そ ソ so しゃ シャ sya しゅ シュ syu しょ ショ syo
た タ ta ち チ ti つ ツ tu て テ te と ト to ちゃ チャ tya ちゅ チュ tyu ちょ チョ tyo
な ナ na に ニ ni ぬ ヌ nu ね ネ ne の ノ no にゃ ニャ nya にゅ ニュ nyu にょ ニョ nyo
は ハ ha ひ ヒ hi ふ フ hu へ ヘ he ほ ホ ho ひゃ ヒャ hya ひゅ ヒュ hyu ひょ ヒョ hyo
ま マ ma み ミ mi む ム mu め メ me も モ mo みゃ ミャ mya みゅ ミュ myu みょ ミョ myo
や ヤ ya (i) ゆ ユ yu (e) よ ヨ yo
ら ラ ra り リ ri る ル ru れ レ re ろ ロ ro りゃ リャ rya りゅ リュ ryu りょ リョ ryo
わ ワ wa ゐ ヰ i (u) ゑ ヱ e を ヲ o
ん ン n
voiced sounds (dakuten)
が ガ ga ぎ ギ gi ぐ グ gu げ ゲ ge ご ゴ go ぎゃ ギャ gya ぎゅ ギュ gyu ぎょ ギョ gyo
ざ ザ za じ ジ zi ず ズ zu ぜ ゼ ze ぞ ゾ zo じゃ ジャ zya じゅ ジュ zyu じょ ジョ zyo
だ ダ da ぢ ヂ zi づ ヅ zu で デ de ど ド do ぢゃ ヂャ zya ぢゅ ヂュ zyu ぢょ ヂョ zyo
ば バ ba び ビ bi ぶ ブ bu べ ベ be ぼ ボ bo びゃ ビャ bya びゅ ビュ byu びょ ビョ byo
ぱ パ pa ぴ ピ pi ぷ プ pu ぺ ペ pe ぽ ポ po ぴゃ ピャ pya ぴゅ ピュ pyu ぴょ ピョ pyo
Notes
  • Characters in red are obsolete in modern Japanese.
  • When he (へ) is used as a particle, it is written as e, not he (as in Nihon-shiki).
  • When ha (は) is used as a particle, it is written as wa, not ha.
  • wo (を/ヲ) is used only as a particle, written o.
  • Long vowels are indicated by a circumflex accent: long o is written ô.
  • Vowels that are separated by a morpheme boundary are not considered to be a long vowel. For example, おもう (思う) is written omou, not omô.
  • Syllabic n (ん) is written as n' before vowels and y but as n before consonants and at the end of a word.
  • Geminate consonants are always marked by doubling the consonant following the sokuon (っ).
  • The first letter in a sentence and all proper nouns are capitalized.
  • ISO 3602 has the strict form; see Nihon-shiki.
Permitted exceptions

The Cabinet Order makes an exception to the above chart:

  • In international relations and situations for which prior precedent would make a sudden reform difficult, the spelling given by Chart 2 may also be used:
しゃ sha し shi しゅ shu しょ sho
    つ tsu  
ちゃ cha ち chi ちゅ chu ちょ cho
    ふ fu  
じゃ ja じ ji じゅ ju じょ jo
  ぢ di づ du  
ぢゃ dya   ぢゅ dyu ぢょ dyo
くゎ kwa      
ぐゎ gwa      
      を wo

The exceptional clause is not to be confused with other systems of romanization (such as Hepburn) and does not specifically relax other requirements, such as marking long vowels.

See also
Sources
References
  1. Horvat, p. 166. ""The zi ending of roomazi comes from the Kunreeshiki system promulgated in the 1930s through a cabinet order, or kunree."
  2. Kent, et al. "Oriental Literature and Bibliography." p. 155.
  3. Hadamitzky, p. 12.
  4. "Romanization in Japan." (Archive) (Paper presented by Japan) United Nations Economic and Social Council. July 8, 1977. p. 3. English only. Retrieved on May 15, 2013.
  5. Horvat, Andrew. "The Romaji (Roomaji) Conundrum." (Archive) – Excerpt from Horvat's book: Japanese Beyond Words: How to Walk and Talk Like a Native Speaker. Hosted at the David See-Chai Lam Centre for International Communication of Simon Fraser University. Retrieved on May 13, 2013.
  6. Unger, p. 54.
  7. Unger, p. 78.
  8. Gottlieb, p. 78.
  9. Bulletin of the Geographical Survey Institute, p. 22. "As reported at the Second Conference, the writing of geographical names in Roman letters in Japan comes in two types — Kunrei Siki (system adopted under a Cabinet ordinance) and Syûsei Hebon Siki (Modified Hepburn System). Kunrei Siki is used for topographical maps, whereas Syûsei Hebon Siki is in use for aeronautical charts and geological maps." - Content also available in "Romanization in Japan." (Archive) (Paper presented by Japan) United Nations Economic and Social Council. July 8, 1977. p. 2. English only.
  10. http://www.kictec.co.jp/inpaku/iken%20keikai/syasin/hebon/romaji.htm
  11. http://tabi-mo.travel.coocan.jp/font_kitei2.htm#10
  12. Powers, John. "Japanese Names", The Indexer Vol. 26 No. 2 June 2008. "It [Hepburn] can be considered the norm as, in slightly modified form, it is followed by the great majority of Western publications and by all English-language newspapers."
  13. Hinds, John (1986). Japanese: Descriptive Grammar. Croom Helm. ISBN 0-7099-3733-4. LCCN 86006372. The major disadvantage of this system (Kunrei-shiki) is that there is a tendency for nonnative speakers of Japanese to pronounce certain forms incorrectly.
  14. Hinds, John (1986). Japanese: Descriptive Grammar. Croom Helm. ISBN 0-7099-3733-4. LCCN 86006372. The major advantage of kunrei-shiki is that inflectional endings are seen to be more regular.
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Kunrei-shiki romanization

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Kunrei-shiki romanization

Kunrei-shiki rōmaji (訓令式ローマ字) is a Cabinet-ordered romanization system to transcribe the Japanese language into the Latin alphabet. It is abbreviated as Kunrei-shiki. Its name is rendered Kunreisiki using Kunrei-shiki itself. Kunrei-shiki is sometimes known as the Monbushō system in English because it is taught in the Monbushō-approved elementary school curriculum. The ISO has standardized Kunrei-shiki, under ISO 3602. Kunrei-shiki is based on the older Nihon-shiki (Nipponsiki) system, which was modified for modern standard Japanese. For example, the word かなづかい, romanized kanadukai in Nihon-shiki, is pronounced kanazukai in standard modern Japanese and is romanized as such in Kunrei-shiki. Kunrei-shiki competes with the older Hepburn romanization system, which was promoted by the authorities during the Allied occupation of Japan, after World War II. History Before World War II, there was a political conflict between supporters of Hepburn romanization and supporters of Nihon-shiki romanization. In 1930, a ...more...

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Hepburn romanization

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Hepburn romanization (ヘボン式ローマ字 Hebon-shiki Rōmaji, 'Hepburn-type Roman letters')[1] is a system for the romanization of Japanese, that uses the Latin alphabet to write the Japanese language. It is used by most foreigners learning to spell Japanese in the Latin alphabet[2] and by the Japanese for romanizing personal names, geographical locations, and other information such as train tables, road signs, and official communications with foreign countries.[3] Largely based on English writing conventions, consonants closely correspond to the English pronunciation and vowels approximate the Italian pronunciation.[1] The Hepburn style (Hebon-shiki) was developed in the late 19th century by an international commission that was formed to develop a unified system of romanization. The commission's romanization scheme was popularized by the wide dissemination of a Japanese–English dictionary by commission member and American missionary James Curtis Hepburn which was published in 1886.[1] The "modified Hepburn system" (sh ...more...

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Romanization of Japanese

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Romanization of Japanese

The romanization of Japanese is the use of Latin script to write the Japanese language.[1] This method of writing is sometimes referred to in English as rōmaji (ローマ字, literally, "Roman letters") ( ( listen). There are several different romanization systems. The three main ones are Hepburn romanization, Kunrei-shiki romanization (ISO 3602), and Nihon-shiki romanization (ISO 3602 Strict). Variants of the Hepburn system are the most widely used. Japanese is normally written in a combination of logographic characters borrowed from Chinese (kanji) and syllabic scripts (kana) that also ultimately derive from Chinese characters. Rōmaji may be used in any context where Japanese text is targeted at non-Japanese speakers who cannot read kanji or kana, such as for names on street signs and passports, and in dictionaries and textbooks for foreign learners of the language. It is also used to transliterate Japanese terms in text written in English (or other languages that use the Latin script) on topics related to Japan, ...more...

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Nihon-shiki romanization

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Nihon-shiki romanization

Nihon-shiki, or Nippon-shiki Rōmaji (Japanese: 日本式ローマ字, "Japan-style," romanized as Nihon-siki or Nippon-siki in Nippon-shiki itself), is a romanization system for transliterating the Japanese language into the Latin alphabet. In discussion about romaji, it is abbreviated as Nihon-shiki or Nippon-shiki. Among the major romanization systems for Japanese, it is the most regular one and has a one-to-one relation to the kana writing system. In practice, however, Nippon-shiki has been largely supplanted by Hepburn romanization. History It was invented by physicist Aikitsu Tanakadate (田中館 愛橘) in 1885,[1] with the intention to replace the Hepburn system of romanization.[2] Tanakadate's intention was to replace the traditional kanji and kana system of writing Japanese completely by a romanized system, which he felt would make it easier for Japan to compete with Western countries. Since the system was intended for Japanese people to use to write their own language, it is much more regular than Hepburn romanization, ...more...

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JSL romanization

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JSL is a romanization system for transcribing the Japanese language into the Latin script. It was devised by Eleanor Jorden for (and named after) her 1987 book Japanese: The Spoken Language. The system is based on Kunrei-shiki romanization.[1] Example: tat-u Conjugation JSL Hepburn Mizen 1 tat-a- tat-a- Mizen 2 tat-o- tat-o- Ren'yô tat-i- tach-i- Syûsi tat-u. tats-u. Rentai tat-u- tats-u- Katei tat-e- tat-e- Meirei tat-e. tat-e. It is designed for teaching spoken Japanese, and so, it follows Japanese phonemes fairly closely. For example, different conjugations of a verb may be achieved by changing the final vowel (as in the chart on the right), thus "bear[ing] a direct relation to Japanese structure" (in Jorden's words[1]), whereas the common Hepburn romanization may require exceptions in some cases, in order to more clearly illustrate pronunciation to native English speakers. JSL differs from Hepburn particularly in that it uses doubled vowels, rather than macrons, to represent the long ...more...

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Chi (kana)

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Transcription of the Japanese language in Esperanto

This article explains the transcription of the Japanese language in the Esperanto alphabet. Esperantists often use non-Esperanto transcriptions, such as Hepburn and Kunrei. However, the need for a transcription in the Esperanto alphabet is essential for non-Japanese speaking Esperantists to be able to pronounce words. Summary There are two well-known transcription systems of Japanese in Latin alphabet: Hepburn and Kunrei. However, there is no official Esperanto transcription for Japanese. This page presents one of the unofficial methods of transcription. Transcription Most books on Esperanto published in Japan provide tables for transcription. In 2012, a book by Kenichi Fujimaki, called Marugoto-esuperanto-bunpō-kaichōban まるごとエスペラント文法 改訂版 (lit. Revised Esperanto Grammar).[1] explains one way of transcription, however, as far as 1923, Yoshimi Ishiguro writes his Shotō esuperanto kyōkasho 初等エスペラント教科書 (lit. Beginning Esperanto Textbook),[2] explaining a transcription, however the remaining digital copies of ...more...

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Mount Fuji

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Mount Fuji

Mount Fuji (富士山 Fujisan, IPA:  ( listen)), located on Honshū, is the highest mountain]m in Japan at 3,776.24 m (12,389 ft), 2nd-highest peak of an island (volcanic) in Asia, and 7th-highest peak of an island in the world.[1] It is an active stratovolcano that last erupted in 1707–1708.[4][5] Mount Fuji lies about 100 kilometers (60 mi) south-west of Tokyo, and can be seen from there on a clear day. Mount Fuji's exceptionally symmetrical cone, which is snow-capped for about 5 months a year, is a well-known symbol of Japan and it is frequently depicted in art and photographs, as well as visited by sightseers and climbers.[6] Mount Fuji is one of Japan's "Three Holy Mountains" (三霊山 Sanreizan) along with Mount Tate and Mount Haku. It is also a Special Place of Scenic Beauty and one of Japan's Historic Sites.[7] It was added to the World Heritage List as a Cultural Site on June 22, 2013.[7] According to UNESCO, Mount Fuji has "inspired artists and poets and been the object of pilgrimage for centuries". UNESCO re ...more...

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Wāpuro rōmaji

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Wāpuro rōmaji

Wāpuro rōmaji (ワープロローマ字), or kana spelling, is a style of romanization of Japanese originally devised for entering Japanese into word processors (ワードプロセッサー wādo purosessā, often abbreviated wāpuro) while using a Western QWERTY keyboard. In Japanese, the more formal name is rōmaji kana henkan (ローマ字仮名変換), literally "Roman character kana conversion". One conversion method has been standardized as JIS X 4063:2000 (Keystroke to KANA Transfer Method Using Latin Letter Key for Japanese Input Method); however, the standard explicitly states that it is intended as a means of input, not as a method of romanization.[1] Wāpuro rōmaji is now frequently employed in general-purpose computer input as well as word processing, but the name lives on. Wāpuro-style romanizations are also frequently used by native speakers of Japanese in informal contexts, as well as by many fans of anime and other aspects of Japanese culture. A common characteristic of these (often online) cases is the avoidance of hard-to-type circumflexes or ...more...

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Retsu

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Retsu

Retsu (烈) (also romanized Retu in the Kunrei-shiki system) is a Japanese word meaning "violent". Retsu is also the name of the following fictional characters: Retsu Unohana, a character from the manga and anime Bleach Retsu, a character from the game Street Fighter Retsu, the final boss from the game Final Fight 2 Retsu Seiba, one of the main characters of Bakusō Kyōdai Let's & Go!! Retsu Fukami, main character from the 2007 Japanese tokusatsu television series, Juken Sentai Gekiranger. Retsu Kaioh, one of the main characters of Baki the Grappler ...more...



Musya

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Musya

Musya: Imoto's Saga or Musya: The Classic Japanese Tale of Horror, known in Japan as Gōsō Jinrai Densetsu Musya (豪槍神雷伝説「武者」 Gōsō Jinrai Densetsu Musha, roughly "Brave Spearman Jinrai's Legend – Warrior"), is a 1992 action platformer video game developed by Jorudan and published by Datam Polystar for the Super Nintendo Entertainment System. The game was translated into English by Seta U.S.A.. Musya was released in Japan on April 21, 1992 and in North America in December 1992. The name Musya is romanized by the English translators in the Kunrei-shiki style (Musya) instead of the Hepburn romanization style (Musha). Gameplay Imoto, bearing 16 units of health (Qi (気 Ki, meaning "life energy")), dies when the health is depleted. He carries up to three lives (命 Inochi). The game starts with three lives; once the life count is zero and Imoto dies, the game ends. When Imoto defeats a boss, the words "monster defeated" (怨霊調伏 Onryō Chōfuku, "Vengeful Ghost Submitted") appear and the player gains a scroll containing a ...more...

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List of short place names

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List of short place names

This is a list of short placenames with one or two letters. One-letter place names Road sign marking the end of the village of Y in the Somme département, France. A, a former village in Kami-Amakusa city, Kumamoto, Japan Å, a village in Andøy municipality, Nordland, Norway. Å is Danish, Norwegian and Swedish for "brook" or "small river". Å, a village in Moskenes municipality, Nordland, Norway Å, a village in Meldal municipality, Sør-Trøndelag, Norway Å, a village in Åfjord municipality, Sør-Trøndelag, Norway Å, a village in Ibestad municipality, Troms, Norway Å, a village in Lavangen municipality, Troms, Norway Å, a village in Tranøy municipality, Troms, Norway Å, a place in Funen, Denmark[1] Å, a village in Norrköping municipality, Östergötland, Sweden Ά, an eco-hippie community in Buenos Aires Province, Argentina Ą, a non-village settlement in northern Lubusz Voivodeship, near Gorzów Wielkopolski, Poland. D, a river in Oregon, United States E, a mountain in Hokkaidō, Ja ...more...

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Lists of superlatives

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E (kana)

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E (kana)

In Japanese writing, the kana え (hiragana) and エ (katakana) (romanised e) occupy the fourth place, between う and お, in the modern Gojūon (五十音) system of collating kana. In the Iroha, they occupy the 34th, between こ and て. In the table at right (ordered by columns, from right to left), え lies in the first column (あ行, "column A") and the fourth row (え段, "row E"). Both represent . Form Rōmaji Hiragana Katakana Normal a/i/u/e/o(あ行 a-gyō) e え エ eieeē えい, えぃええ, えぇえー エイ, エィエエ, エェエー Derivation え and エ originate, via man'yōgana, from the kanji 衣 and 江, respectively. The archaic kana ゑ (we), as well as many non-initial occurrences of the character へ (he), have entered the modern Japanese language as え. The directional particle へ is today pronounced "e", though not written as え. Compare this to は (ha) and を (wo), which are pronounced "wa" and "o" when used as grammatical particles. Variant forms Scaled-down versions of the kana (ぇ, ェ) are used to express morae foreign to the Japanese languag ...more...

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Kashimashi: Girl Meets Girl

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Kashimashi: Girl Meets Girl

Kashimashi: Girl Meets Girl (かしまし ~ガール・ミーツ・ガール~ Kashimashi ~Gāru Mītsu Gāru~) is a Japanese yuri manga series written by Satoru Akahori and illustrated by Yukimaru Katsura. The manga was originally serialized in Dengeki Daioh between the July 2004 and May 2007 issues, and later published in five bound volumes by MediaWorks from January 2005 to May 2007. The story focuses on Hazumu Osaragi, a normal, albeit effeminate high school boy who is killed when an alien spaceship crash lands on him, only to be restored to health as a girl. This results in a same-sex love triangle that Hazumu finds herself in with two of her best female friends. A single light novel written by Mako Komao and illustrated by the manga's artist was published by MediaWorks under their Dengeki Bunko imprint in January 2006. The manga series was adapted into a twelve-episode anime television series plus a single original video animation (OVA) sequel by Studio Hibari. The anime aired in Japan on TV Tokyo between January and March 2006; the OV ...more...

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Media franchises

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Jōruri

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Jōruri

Jōruri (浄瑠璃) can refer to: Jōruri (music), a type of sung narrative with shamisen accompaniment, typically found in Bunraku, a traditional Japanese puppet theatre Jōruri (opera), an opera by Japanese composer Miki Minoru Jōruri-ji (浄瑠璃寺), a Buddhist temple in Kyoto Joruri (song) by Bangladeshi heavy metal band Pledge Karma Jōruri is the Hepburn romanization of the Japanese (kanji) word. It is spelled Zyôruri in Kunrei-shiki Rōmaji (ISO 3602), and Zyōruri in Nihon-shiki Rōmaji (ISO 3602 Strict). ...more...



Keyboard layout

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Keyboard layout

A keyboard layout is any specific mechanical, visual, or functional arrangement of the keys, legends, or key-meaning associations (respectively) of a computer, typewriter, or other typographic keyboard. Mechanical layout is the placements and keys of a keyboard. Visual layout is the arrangement of the legends (labels, markings, engravings) that appear on the keys of a keyboard. Functional layout is the arrangement of the key-meaning associations, determined in software, of all the keys of a keyboard. Most computer keyboards are designed to send scancodes to the operating system, rather than directly sending characters. From there, the series of scancodes is converted into a character stream by keyboard layout software. This allows a physical keyboard to be dynamically mapped to any number of layouts without switching hardware components – merely by changing the software that interprets the keystrokes. It is usually possible for an advanced user to change keyboard operation, and third-party software is availa ...more...

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White Tiger (China)

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White Tiger (China)

The White Tiger is one of the Four Symbols of the Chinese constellations. It is sometimes called the White Tiger of the West (西方白虎, Xī Fāng Bái Hǔ), and is known as Bái Hǔ in Chinese, Byakko in Japanese, Baekho in Korean and Bạch Hổ in Vietnamese. It represents the west and the autumn season. Seven mansions of White Tiger As the other three symbols, there are seven astrological mansions, or positions, of the moon within White Tiger. The names and determinative stars are:[1][2] Mansion no. Name (pinyin) Translation Determinative star 15 奎 (Kuí) Legs Eta Andromedae 16 婁 (Lóu) Bond Beta Arietis 17 胃 (Wèi) Stomach 35 Arietis 18 昴 (Mǎo) Hairy Head Alcyone 19 畢 (Bì) Net Ain 20 觜 (Zī) Turtle Beak Meissa 21 參 (Shēn) Three Stars Alnitak Origin In Chinese culture, the tiger is the king of the beasts and has been presented with a 王 (wáng, eng. king) on his forehead for centuries. According to legend, the tiger's tail would turn white when it reached the age of 500 years. In this way, ...more...

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Mitutoyo

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Mitutoyo

Mitutoyo Corporation (株式会社ミツトヨ Kabushiki Kaisha Mitsutoyo) is a Japanese multinational corporation specializing in measuring instruments and metrological technology, headquartered at Takatsu-ku, Kawasaki, Kanagawa.[3] Mitutoyo, established on October 22, 1934 was founded by Yehan Numata (沼田 恵範 Numata Ehan) with one product, the micrometer. Mitutoyo's philosophy at that time was to make high-quality micrometers, but also to produce them in quantities that made them affordable and available to all of manufacturing. This philosophy was expanded in the next several decades to include a wider product offering focused on mechanical, dimensional gaging products, such as calipers, dial indicators, and other measuring tools. As electronic technology became more widespread in the 1970s, Mitutoyo applied electronics to its line of dimensional gaging equipment to include electronic, or digital, measuring tools. During this time it also began to offer larger, more complex and more sensitive measuring instruments, includ ...more...

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Vowel length

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Vowel length

In linguistics, vowel length is the perceived duration of a vowel sound. Often the chroneme, or the "longness", acts like a consonant, and may have arisen from one etymologically, such as in Australian English. While not distinctive in most other dialects of English, vowel length is an important phonemic factor in many other languages, for instance in Arabic, Finnish, Fijian, Kannada, Japanese, Old English, Scottish Gaelic and Vietnamese. It plays a phonetic role in the majority of dialects of British English and is said to be phonemic in a few other dialects, such as Australian English, South African English and New Zealand English. It also plays a lesser phonetic role in Cantonese, unlike other varieties of Chinese. Many languages do not distinguish vowel length phonemically. Those that do usually distinguish between short vowels and long vowels. A very few languages distinguish three phonemic vowel lengths, such as Luiseño and Mixe. However, some languages with two vowel lengths also have words in which l ...more...

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Sin (disambiguation)

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Sin (disambiguation)

Look up sin in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. A sin is a morally wrong act. Sin may also refer to: Mythology Wilderness of Sin, a geographic area mentioned in the Bible Sin (mythology), the Akkadian moon god (Sumerian Nanna - Suen) Sin, the sky god and chief deity in Haida mythology Sīn, another name for the Minaean moon god Wadd Places Sin, a name for China, in various ancient language sources Sin, a former kingdom in modern Senegal, also known as Sine The alternate name of Pelusium, a city in ancient Egypt Şin, Azerbaijan, a village and municipality Sin, Iran, a village in Isfahan Province, Iran Sin, Khuzestan, a village in Khuzestan Province, Iran Sin River, Thailand Sins, Switzerland, a village in the Swiss canton Aargau SIN, the IATA code for Singapore Changi Airport People Shin (Korean name), also spelled Sin Shin (Japanese name), spelled "Sin" using the Kunrei-shiki and Nippon-shiki romanization systems Jaime Sin (1928–2005), a Roman Catholic archbishop in the ...more...



Yotsugana

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Yotsugana

Different regions distinguish different sets of sounds. Using the Nihon-shiki romanization system:   1 sound (zi = di = zu = du)   2 sounds (zi = di ≠ zu = du)   3 sounds (zi = di ≠ zu ≠ du)   4 sounds (zi ≠ di ≠ zu ≠ du) Yotsugana (四つ仮名, literally "four kana") are a set of four specific kana, じ, ぢ, ず, づ (in the Nihon-shiki romanization system: zi, di, zu, du), used in the Japanese writing system. They historically represented four distinct voiced morae (syllables) in the Japanese language. However, Standard Japanese and the dialects of most Japanese-speakers have merged those morae down to two sounds. Modern sound usage in various dialects Most of the far northern dialects (Tōhoku dialects and Hokkaidō) and far southern dialects (notably Okinawan Japanese) and the Ryukyuan languages (the other Japonic languages) have also mostly merged the four sounds down to one sound. However, a few dialects, mainly around Shikoku and Kyushu in the southwest, have conserved the distinction between three or even al ...more...

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Sgt. Frog

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Sgt. Frog

Sgt. Frog (ケロロ軍曹 Keroro Gunsō, lit. "Sergeant Keroro") is a manga series by Mine Yoshizaki. It was later adapted into an anime television series directed by Junichi Sato. Both the anime and manga are comedies that follow the attempts of a platoon of frog-like alien invaders to conquer Earth. Sergeant Keroro, the titular character, is the leader of the platoon, but is at the mercy of a human family of three after he is captured while trying to hide in one of the family member's bedrooms. In both the manga and anime, Keroro is forced to do meaningless chores and errands for the family after his army abandons his platoon on Earth. The platoon has many failed attempts at taking over Earth. The series takes its comedy from a combination of wordplay (particularly puns and homophones), physical humor, situational irony, breaking of the fourth wall, and numerous pop culture references (especially to Gundam, Kamen Rider, Super Sentai, Space Battleship Yamato, Dragon Ball, Neon Genesis Evangelion and many others, alth ...more...

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TV Tokyo shows

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Feng shui

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Feng shui

A feng shui compass (luopan) Feng shui (simplified Chinese: 风水; traditional Chinese: 風水; pinyin: Fēngshuǐ, pronounced  ( listen)), also known as Chinese geomancy, is a pseudoscience originating from China, which claims to use energy forces to harmonize individuals with their surrounding environment.[1] It is closely linked to Taoism. The term feng shui literally translates as "wind-water" in English. This is a cultural shorthand taken from the passage of the now-lost Classic of Burial recorded in Guo Pu's commentary:[2] Feng shui is one of the Five Arts of Chinese Metaphysics, classified as physiognomy (observation of appearances through formulas and calculations). The feng shui practice discusses architecture in terms of "invisible forces" that bind the universe, earth, and humanity together, known as qi. Historically, feng shui was widely used to orient buildings—often spiritually significant structures such as tombs, but also dwellings and other structures—in an auspicious manner. Depending on the partic ...more...

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Azure Dragon

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Azure Dragon

The Azure Dragon on the Chinese national emblem, 1913-1928 The Azure Dragon (青龍 Qīnglóng), also known as Bluegreen Dragon, Green Dragon, or also called the Blue Dragon (蒼龍 Cānglóng), is one of the Dragon Gods who represent the mount or chthonic forces of the Five Forms of the Highest Deity (五方上帝 Wǔfāng Shàngdì). He is also one of the Four Symbols of the Chinese constellations, which are the astral representations of the Wufang Shangdi. The Bluegreen Dragon represents the east and the spring season.[1] It is also known as Seiryu in Japanese, Cheong-nyong in Korean, and Thanh Long in Vietnamese. The Dragon is frequently referred to in media, feng shui, other cultures, and in various venues as the Green Dragon and the Avalon Dragon.[2] His cardinal direction's epithet is "Bluegreen Dragon of the East" (東方青龍 Dōngfāng Qīnglóng or 東方蒼龍 Dōngfāng Cānglóng). His proper name as the "Dragon King of the East Sea" (東海龍王 Dōnghǎi Lóngwáng) is Ao Guang. The Seven Mansions of the Azure Dragon As the other three Symbols, t ...more...

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Black Tortoise

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Black Tortoise

The Black Tortoise or Black Turtle is one of the Four Symbols of the Chinese constellations. Despite its English name, it is usually depicted as a turtle entwined together with a snake. Further, in East Asia, it is not called after either animal but is instead known as the "Black Warrior" under various local pronunciations. It is known as Xuánwǔ in Chinese, Hyeonmu in Korean, Genbu in Japanese and Huyền Vũ in Vietnamese. It represents the north and the winter season. In Japan, it is one of the four guardian spirits that protect Kyoto and it is said that it protects the city on the north. Represented by the Genbu Shrine,[1] which is located to the north of Kyoto Imperial Palace. The creature's name is identical to that of the important Taoist god Xuanwu, who is sometimes (as in Journey to the West) portrayed in the company of a turtle and snake. History During the Han dynasty, people often wore jade pendants that were in the shape of turtles. Because of ancient Chinese influence on Japan, honorific titles ...more...

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Kenpō

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Kenpō

Kenpō (拳法) is the name of several Japanese martial arts. The word kenpō is a Japanese translation of the Chinese word "quán fǎ". This term is often informally transliterated as "kempo", as a result of applying Traditional Hepburn romanization,[1] but failing to use a macron to indicate the long vowel. The generic nature of the term combined with its widespread, cross-cultural adoption in the martial arts community has led to many divergent definitions. The word Kenpō at it's meaning is "Ken" means Fist and the "Po" means Law so Kenpō means the Law Of The Fist[2] Japanese Kenpo Shorinji Kempo (少林寺拳法 shōrinji-kempō, meaning "Shaolin Temple Fist Method") is considered a modified version of Shaolin Kung Fu (using the same kanji).[3] It was established in 1947 by Doshin So (宗 道臣 Sō Dōshin), a Japanese martial artist and former military intelligence agent,[4] who combined his Quan Fa and Jujutsu practice.[5] Okinawan Kenpo Some Okinawan martial arts groups use the term kenpō as an alternate name for their karat ...more...

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Tianxia

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Tianxia

Tianxia (Chinese: 天下) or All under Heaven is a Chinese term for an ancient Chinese cultural concept that denoted either the entire geographical world or the metaphysical realm of mortals, and later became associated with political sovereignty. In ancient China, tianxia denoted the lands, space, and area divinely appointed to the Emperor by universal and well-defined principles of order. The center of this land was directly apportioned to the Imperial court, forming the center of a world view that centered on the Imperial court and went concentrically outward to major and minor officials and then the common citizens, tributary states, and finally ending with the fringe "barbarians". The center of this world view was not exclusionary in nature, and outer groups, such as ethnic minorities and foreign people, who accepted the mandate of the Chinese Emperor were themselves received and included into the Chinese tianxia. In classical Chinese political thought, the "Son of Heaven" (Emperor of China) (Chinese: 天子; p ...more...

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World

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Knifehand strike

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Knifehand strike

In martial arts, a knifehand strike is a strike using the part of the hand opposite the thumb (from the little finger to the wrist), familiar to many people as a karate chop (in Japanese, shutō-uchi).[1][2] This refers to strikes performed with the side of the knuckle of the small finger. Suitable targets for the knifehand strike include the mastoid muscles of the neck, the jugular, the throat, the collar bones, ribs, sides of the head, temple, jaw, the third vertebra (key stone of the spinal column), the upper arm, the wrist (knifehand block), the elbow (outside knifehand block), and the knee cap (leg throw).[3] In many Japanese, Korean and Chinese martial arts systems, the knifehand is used to block as well as to strike. Japanese martial arts Tegatana (手刀 : てがたな, Japanese for hand-sword) is a term from Japanese martial arts like aikido and Chinese-Okinawan martial arts like karate and Shorinji Kempo referring to a hand position that resembles that of the blade of a sword. This can be in a high, middle or ...more...

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Japanese language and computers

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Japanese language and computers

A Japanese kana keyboard In relation to the Japanese language and computers many adaptation issues arise, some unique to Japanese and others common to languages which have a very large number of characters. The number of characters needed in order to write English is very small, and thus it is possible to use only one byte to encode one English character. However, the number of characters in Japanese is much more than 256, and hence Japanese cannot be encoded using only one byte, and Japanese is thus encoded using two or more bytes, in a so-called "double byte" or "multi-byte" encoding. Some problems relate to transliteration and romanization, some to character encoding, and some to the input of Japanese text. Character encodings There are several standard methods to encode Japanese characters for use on a computer, including JIS, Shift-JIS, EUC, and Unicode. While mapping the set of kana is a simple matter, kanji has proven more difficult. Despite efforts, none of the encoding schemes have become the de f ...more...

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Natural language and computing

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East Asian cultural sphere

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East Asian cultural sphere

"Chinese character (Hànzì) cultural sphere" and "East Asia Cultural sphere" written in Chinese, Japanese, Korean, and Vietnamese. The "Sinosphere", or "East Asian cultural sphere", refers to a grouping of countries and regions in East Asia that were historically influenced by the Chinese culture. Other names for the concept include the Sinic world, the Confucian world, the Taoist world, and the Chinese cultural sphere, though the last is also used to refer particularly to the Sinophone world: the areas which speak varieties of Chinese. The East Asian cultural sphere shares a Confucian ethical philosophy, Buddhism, Taoism and, historically, a common writing system. The core regions of the East Asian cultural sphere are Mainland China, Hong Kong, Macau, Taiwan, North Korea, South Korea, Japan, and Vietnam. The terms East Asian cultural sphere and "Chinese character (Hànzì) cultural sphere" are used interchangeably with "Sinosphere" but have different denotations. Academic usage Arnold J. Toynbee The Britis ...more...

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Cultural spheres of influence

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Roundhouse kick

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Roundhouse kick

A roundhouse kick (also known as swinging kick or an angled power kick) is a kick in which the attacker swings his or her leg around in a semicircular motion, striking with the front of the leg or foot.[1] This type of kick is utilized in many different martial arts and is popular in both non-contact and full-contact martial arts competitions. The kick has many variations based on stance, leg movement, striking surface, and the height of the kick. Semi-circular kick A semi-circular kick is a round kick to forty five degree roundhouse kick (or "diagonal kick"). Most popular in kick-boxing, lethwei, and muay Thai, it can be used in almost every situation. With this kick, all parts of the opponent’s body can be attacked and every kind of attack can be countered. Low kick outside Low kick inside Middle kick Low kick in counter Karate methods Karate has many different methods of delivering their roundhouse kick (mawashi geri). The original method involved bringing up the knee, and ...more...

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Japanese writing system

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Japanese writing system

The modern Japanese writing system uses a combination of logographic kanji, which are adopted Chinese characters, and syllabic kana. Kana itself consists of a pair of syllabaries: hiragana, used primarily for native or naturalised Japanese words and grammatical elements, and katakana, used primarily for foreign words and names, loanwords, onomatopoeia, scientific names, and sometimes for emphasis. Almost all written Japanese sentences contain a mixture of kanji and kana. Because of this mixture of scripts, in addition to a large inventory of kanji characters, the Japanese writing system is often considered to be the most complicated in use anywhere in the world.[1][2] Several thousand kanji characters are in regular use. Each has an intrinsic meaning (or range of meanings), and most have more than one pronunciation, the choice of which depends on context. Japanese primary and secondary school students are required to learn 2,136 jōyō kanji as of 2010.[3] The total number of kanji is well over 50,000, though ...more...

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Writing systems without word boundaries

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Asian Dust

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Asian Dust

Asian Dust (also yellow dust, yellow sand, yellow wind or China dust storms) is a meteorological phenomenon which affects much of East Asia year round but especially during the spring months. The dust originates in the deserts of Mongolia, northern China and Kazakhstan where high-speed surface winds and intense dust storms kick up dense clouds of fine, dry soil particles. These clouds are then carried eastward by prevailing winds and pass over China, North and South Korea, and Japan, as well as parts of the Russian Far East. Sometimes, the airborne particulates are carried much further, in significant concentrations which affect air quality as far east as the United States. Since the turn of the 21st century, it has become a serious problem due to the increase of industrial pollutants contained in the dust and intensified desertification in China causing longer and more frequent occurrences, as well as in the last few decades when the Aral Sea of Kazakhstan and Uzbekistan started drying up due to the diversi ...more...

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Yilan Creole Japanese

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Yilan Creole Japanese

Yilan Creole Japanese[2] is a Japanese-based creole of Taiwan. It arose in the 1930s and 1940s, with contact between Japanese colonists and the native Atayal people of southern Yilan County, Taiwan. The vocabulary of a speaker born in 1974 was 70% Japanese and 30% Atayal, but the grammar of the creole does not closely resemble either of the source languages.[3] It is incomprehensible to both Japanese and Atayal native speakers.[4] The creole was identified in 2006 by Chien Yuehchen and Sanada Shinji, however its existence is still largely unknown.[4][5] It was named by Sanada and Chien for its location.[6] The official language of Taiwan, Mandarin, threatens the existence of Yilan Creole.[6] Classification Yilan Creole is a creole language that is considered to be part of the Japonic language family.[7] The superstratum and substratum languages of the creole are Japanese and Atayal, respectively.[4] It has possibly been used as the first language among the Atayal and Seediq people since the 1930s.[6] Hist ...more...

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BTS (band)

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BTS (band)

BTS (Hangul: 방탄소년단; RR: Bangtan Sonyeondan), also known as the Bangtan Boys, is a seven-member South Korean boy band formed by Big Hit Entertainment. They debuted on June 12, 2013 with the song "No More Dream" from their first album 2 Cool 4 Skool. They won several New Artist of the Year awards for the track, including at the 2013 Melon Music Awards and Golden Disc Awards and the 2014 Seoul Music Awards. The band continued to rise to widespread prominence with their subsequent albums Dark & Wild (2014), The Most Beautiful Moment in Life, Part 2 (2015) and The Most Beautiful Moment in Life: Young Forever (2016), with the latter two entering the U.S. Billboard 200.[4] The Most Beautiful Moment in Life: Young Forever went on to win the Album of the Year award at the 2016 Melon Music Awards.[5] Their second full album, Wings (2016),[6] peaked at number 26 on the Billboard 200, which marked the highest chart ranking for a K-pop album ever.[7] In their native South Korea, Wings became the best selling album i ...more...

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Mawashi geri

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Mawashi geri

Mawashi geri (回し蹴り) can be translated as "spin kick", although it is also sometimes referred to as a roundhouse kick.[1][2] It is a kick used in Japanese martial arts.[3][4][5] Technique Mawashi geri may be executed from a variety of stances, and there are several methods of proper execution.[6][7] Technique is mainly used in Karate, Jujutsu, Kenpo etc.[8][9][10] The portion of its execution that is always consistent is that the kick is executed inward and at an angle that is anywhere from parallel to the floor to 45 degrees upward. In general, it is a lateral kick that strikes with the foot. Ideally, the foot that is on the ground during the kick points directly away from the opponent, but 90 to 45 degrees away from the opponent may also be acceptable.[11][12][13] Variations If mawashi geri is being thrown with the lead leg, the lead leg comes straight up from the ground, moving into a position with the knee bent back and pointing at the desired target area on the opponent. Without stopping, the upper le ...more...

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Damjing

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Damjing

Damjing (in modern Korean) or Donchō (in Japanese) was a Buddhist priest who was sent to ancient Japan from Goguryeo around 610. How his name was pronounced in the Goguryeo language is unknown. Almost nothing has come down about him besides a few lines in the Nihon Shoki (720 A.D.), which is almost the only reliable source. In the Spring, March, the 19th year [of Empress Suiko],[1] the king of Koma[2] offered up [the] priest[s] Donchō and Hōjō[3] as tribute [to Japan]. Donchō was familiar with the Five Classics. He produced colors, paper and ink well, moreover made watermill.[4] Has making watermill presumably started ever since?" — Nihon Shoki, Vol. 22 [5] On the grounds that this is the first appearance about the manufacture of paper, it has been said, all in all, from the Edo period, that he brought papermaking skills to Japan first. However, there is no sufficient grounds to say so from the text; as to the watermill, it is mentioned that he probably introduced it first, while papermaking is not ment ...more...

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Front stance

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Front stance

Front stance, sometimes also called forward leaning stance or forward stance, is a basic stance used in various Asian martial arts. Although the specifics of the stance vary by style, overall it is visually similar to a lunge, with the forward leg bent at the knee, and the rear leg straight, while the hips and shoulders remain squarely facing forward. The purpose of the stance is to teach musculo-skeletal alignment that adds as much mass of the earth to a strike as possible. The stance allows a great deal of power generation forward, but very little in any other direction. Japanese martial arts Karate students training in front stance at Shuri Castle, c.1938 In Japanese martial arts, the front stance (前屈立ち zenkutsu-dachi) is primarily practiced in karate and its variants. Some variations include the version practiced by Shotokan, where students generally place their feet at a longer depth, while Isshin-ryū students place their feet shoulder width, but with much shallower length. Other variations are als ...more...

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Kunigami language

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Kunigami language

The Kunigami or Northern Okinawan language (Yanbaru Kutuuba (山原言葉/ヤンバルクトゥーバ)) is a Ryukyuan language of northern Okinawa Island in Kunigami District and city of Nago, otherwise known as the Yanbaru region, historically the territory of the Hokuzan kingdom. The Nakijin dialect is often considered representative of Kunigami, analogous to the Shuri/Naha dialect of Central Okinawan. The number of fluent native speakers of Kunigami is not known. As a result of Japanese language policy, the younger generation mostly speaks Japanese as their first language. Location In addition to the northern portion of Okinawa Island, Kunigami is spoken on the small neighboring islands of Ie, Tsuken and Kudaka.[3] Scope and classification Glottolog, following Pellard (2009), classifies Kunigami with Central Okinawan as the two Okinawan languages. Ethnologue adds Okinoerabu and Yoron; these (along with all other languages of the northern Ryukyus) are classified as Amami languages by Glottolog. The UNESCO Atlas of the World's L ...more...

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Japantown

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Japantown

Japantown (日本人街 Nihonjin-gai) is a common name for official Japanese communities in big cities outside Japan. Alternatively, a Japantown may be called J-town, Little Tokyo, or Nihonmachi (日本町), the first two being common names for the Japanese communities in San Francisco, San Jose, and Los Angeles, respectively. History Historically, Japantowns represented the Japanese diaspora, and its individual members known as nikkei (日系), are Japanese emigrants from Japan and their descendants that reside in a foreign country. Emigration from Japan first happened and was recorded as early as the 12th century to the Philippines,[1] but did not become a mass phenomenon until the Meiji Era, when Japanese began to go to the Philippines,[2] North America, and beginning in 1897 with 35 emigrants to Mexico;[3] and later to Peru, beginning in 1899 with 790 emigrants.[4] There was also significant emigration to the territories of the Empire of Japan during the colonial period; however, most such emigrants repatriated to Japan ...more...

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Ethnic enclaves

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Palindrome

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Palindrome

A palindrome is a word, number, or other sequence of characters which reads the same backward as forward, such as madam or racecar. Sentence-length palindromes may be written when allowances are made for adjustments to capital letters, punctuation, and word dividers, such as "A man, a plan, a canal, Panama!", "Was it a car or a cat I saw?" or "No 'x' in Nixon". Composing literature in palindromes is an example of constrained writing. The word "palindrome" was coined by the English playwright Ben Jonson in the 17th century from the Greek roots palin (πάλιν; "again") and dromos (δρóμος; "way, direction"). History The Sator Square. Palindromes date back at least to 79 AD, as a palindrome was found as a graffito at Herculaneum, a city buried by ash in that year. This palindrome, called the Sator Square, consists of a sentence written in Latin: "Sator Arepo Tenet Opera Rotas" ("The sower Arepo holds with effort the wheels"). It is remarkable for the fact that the first letters of each word form the first wo ...more...

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(terryklos)

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(nomah)

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Z

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Z

Z (named zed or zee [1]) is the 26th and final letter of the modern English alphabet and the ISO basic Latin alphabet. Name and pronunciation In most English-speaking countries, including the United Kingdom, Canada, India, Ireland, New Zealand, and Australia, the letter's name is zed , reflecting its derivation from the Greek zeta (this dates to Latin, which borrowed X, Y, and Z from Greek, along with their names), but in American English its name is zee , analogous to the names for B, C, D, etc., and deriving from a late 17th-century English dialectal form.[2] Another English dialectal form is izzard . This dates from the mid-18th century and probably derives from Occitan izèda or the French ézed, whose reconstructed Latin form would be *idzēta,[1] perhaps a Vulgar Latin form with a prosthetic vowel. Its variants are still used in Hong Kong English although they are usually seen as mispronunciations.[3] Other languages spell the letter's name in a similar way: zeta in Italian, Basque, Spanish, and Icela ...more...

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ISO basic Latin letters

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Arion

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