Key Wrap

Key Wrap constructions are a class of symmetric encryption algorithms designed to encapsulate (encrypt) cryptographic key material.[1] The Key Wrap algorithms are intended for applications such as protecting keys while in untrusted storage or transmitting keys over untrusted communications networks. The constructions are typically built from standard primitives such as block ciphers and cryptographic hash functions.

Key Wrap may be considered as a form of key encapsulation algorithm, although it should not be confused with the more commonly known asymmetric (public-key) key encapsulation algorithms (e.g., PSEC-KEM). Key Wrap algorithms can be used in a similar application: to securely transport a session key by encrypting it under a long-term encryption key.

Background

In the late 1990s, the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) posed the "Key Wrap" problem: to develop secure and efficient cipher-based key encryption algorithms. The resulting algorithms would be formally evaluated by NIST, and eventually approved for use in NIST-certified cryptographic modules. NIST did not precisely define the security goals of the resulting algorithm, and left further refinement to the algorithm developers. Based on the resulting algorithms, the design requirements appear to be (1) confidentiality, (2) integrity protection (authentication), (3) efficiency, (4) use of standard (approved) underlying primitives such as the Advanced Encryption Standard (AES) and the Secure Hash Algorithm (SHA-1), and (5) consideration of additional circumstances (e.g., resilience to operator error, low-quality random number generators). Goals (3) and (5) are particularly important, given that many widely deployed authenticated encryption algorithms (e.g., AES-CCM) are already sufficient to accomplish the remaining goals.

NIST AES Key Wrap Specification

Several constructions have been proposed. These include:

Each of the proposed algorithms can be considered as a form of authenticated encryption algorithm providing confidentiality for highly entropic messages such as cryptographic keys. The AES Key Wrap Specification, AESKW, TDKW, and AKW1 are intended to maintain confidentiality under adaptive chosen ciphertext attacks, while the AKW2 algorithm is designed to be secure only under known-plaintext (or weaker) attacks. (The stated goal of AKW2 is for use in legacy systems and computationally limited devices where use of the other algorithms would be impractical.) AESKW, TDKW and AKW2 also provide the ability to authenticate cleartext "header", an associated block of data that is not encrypted.

Rogaway and Shrimpton evaluated the design of the ANSX9.102 algorithms with respect to the stated security goals. Among their general findings, they noted the lack of clearly stated design goals for the algorithms, and the absence of security proofs for all constructions.

In their paper, Rogaway and Shrimpton proposed a provable key-wrapping algorithm (SIV—the Synthetic Initialization Vector mode) that authenticates and encrypts an arbitrary string and authenticates, but does not encrypt, additional data which can be bound into the wrapped key. This has been standardized as a new AES mode in RFC 5297.

See also
References
  1. "Key wrap algorithm". Retrieved 26 May 2016.
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Luke Cage (season 2)

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Luke Cage (season 2)

The second season of the American web television series Luke Cage, which is based on the Marvel Comics character of the same name, sees Cage become a hero and celebrity in Harlem after clearing his name, only to face a new threat. It is set in the Marvel Cinematic Universe (MCU), sharing continuity with the films and other television series of the franchise. The season was produced by Marvel Television in association with ABC Studios, with Cheo Hodari Coker serving as showrunner. Mike Colter stars as Cage, alongside returning principal cast members Simone Missick, Theo Rossi, and Alfre Woodard. They are joined by Gabrielle Dennis and Mustafa Shakir, with Jessica Henwick, Finn Jones, and Stephen Rider reprising their roles from other Marvel/Netflix series; Rosario Dawson also returns in a guest role. The season was ordered in December 2016, and filmed in New York City from June to November 2017. Coker again emphasized music in the season: Adrian Younge and Ali Shaheed Muhammad returned to compose the original ...more...

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Sanju

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Sanju

Sanju (Hindi pronunciation: ) is a 2018 Indian biographical film directed by Rajkumar Hirani and written by Hirani and Abhijat Joshi. It was jointly produced by Hirani and Vidhu Vinod Chopra under the banners Rajkumar Hirani Films and Vinod Chopra Films respectively. The film follows the life of Bollywood actor Sanjay Dutt, his addiction with drugs, arrest for association with the 1993 Bombay bombings, relationship with his father, comeback in the industry, and his eventual release after completing his jail term. Ranbir Kapoor stars as Dutt, along with an ensemble cast which features Paresh Rawal as Sunil Dutt, Vicky Kaushal, Manisha Koirala as Nargis, Dia Mirza as Manyata Dutt, Sonam Kapoor, Anushka Sharma and Jim Sarbh. In a conversation with Hirani, Dutt shared anecdotes from his life, which the former found intriguing and prompted him to make a film based on Dutt's life. It was titled Sanju after the nickname Dutt's mother Nargis used to call him. Principal photography began in January 2017 and was compl ...more...

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The Lion King (2019 film)

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The Lion King (2019 film)

The Lion King is an upcoming American musical drama film directed and produced by Jon Favreau, produced by Walt Disney Pictures, and written by Jeff Nathanson. It is the remake of Disney's 1994 animated film of the same name. The film stars the voices of Donald Glover, Beyoncé, James Earl Jones (who reprises his role from the original film), Chiwetel Ejiofor, Billy Eichner, Seth Rogen, John Kani, John Oliver, and Alfre Woodard. It is set to be released on July 19, 2019. Voice cast Donald Glover as Simba JD McCrary as young Simba Beyoncé as Nala Shahadi Wright Joseph as young Nala James Earl Jones as Mufasa Chiwetel Ejiofor as Scar Billy Eichner as Timon Seth Rogen as Pumbaa John Kani as Rafiki John Oliver as Zazu Alfre Woodard as Sarabi Eric Andre as Azizi Florence Kasumba as Shenzi Keegan-Michael Key as Kamari Production Development On September 28, 2016, Walt Disney Pictures confirmed that Jon Favreau would be directing a fast-tracked remake of the 1994 animated f ...more...

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2017 in film

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2017 in film

This is an overview of events in the film world during 2017, including the highest-grossing films, award ceremonies, festivals, and lists of films released and deaths. Evaluation of the year Richard Brody of The New Yorker observed that for 2017, "the most important event in the world of movies was the revelation, in the Times and The New Yorker, of sexual abuse by Harvey Weinstein, and the resulting liberation of the long-stifled voices of the people who had been abused by him or other powerful figures in the movie business, and, for that matter, in other arts and industries, too." He emphasizes that in effect, "[w]hat’s missing from the year-end list, and from the era in movies, isn’t only the unmade work by these filmmakers but the artistry and the careers of cast and crew members who would have been in their unrealized films."[1] Highest-grossing films The top films released in 2017 by worldwide gross are as follows:[2] Highest-grossing films of 2017 Rank Title Distributor Worldwide gross 1 ...more...

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List of airline codes

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List of airline codes

This is a list of all airline codes. The table lists the IATA airline designators, the ICAO airline designators and the airline call signs (telephony designator). Historical assignments are also included for completeness. Codes Airline codes IATA ICAO Airline Call sign Country/Region Comments EVY 34 Squadron, Royal Australian Air Force Australia GNL 135 Airways GENERAL United States 1T Hitit Computer Services Turkey Computer reservation system WYT 2 Sqn No 1 Elementary Flying Training School WYTON United Kingdom Royal Air Force TFU 213th Flight Unit THJY Russia State Airline CHD 223rd Flight Unit CHKALOVSK-AVIA Russia State Airline TTF 224th Flight Unit CARGO UNIT Russia State Airline TWF 247 Jet Ltd CLOUD RUNNER United Kingdom SEC 3D Aviation SECUREX United States Q5 MLA 40-Mile Air MILE-AIR United States QRT 4D Air QUARTET Thailand Defunct PIU 43 Air School PRIMA South A ...more...

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Trey Gowdy

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Trey Gowdy

Harold Watson "Trey" Gowdy III (born August 22, 1964) is an American attorney, politician and former federal prosecutor serving as the U.S. Representative for South Carolina's 4th congressional district since 2011. A Republican, he is a member of the Tea Party movement.[1] His district includes much of the Upstate region of South Carolina, including Greenville and Spartanburg. Before his congressional career, Gowdy served as a federal prosecutor in the District of South Carolina from 1994 to 2000 and then as the solicitor (district attorney) for South Carolina's Seventh Judicial Circuit, comprising Spartanburg and Cherokee counties, from 2000 to 2010. From 2014 to 2016, Gowdy chaired the United States House Select Committee on Events Surrounding the 2012 Terrorist Attack in Benghazi which was partly responsible for discovering the existence of Hillary Clinton's private email server.[2] His investigative committee investigated the events surrounding the 2012 Benghazi attack [3][4] Since 2017 he chairs the Hou ...more...

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Bumblebee (film)

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Bumblebee (film)

Bumblebee is an upcoming American science fiction film centered around the Transformers character of the same name. It is the sixth installment of the live-action Transformers film series and a prequel to 2007's Transformers. Directed by Travis Knight and written by Christina Hodson, the film stars Hailee Steinfeld, John Cena, Jorge Lendeborg Jr., Jason Drucker, Kenneth Choi, Gracie Dzienny, Rachel Crow, and Pamela Adlon. It is also the first Transformers film to not be directed by Michael Bay, though he still acts as a producer. Principal photography on the film began on July 31, 2017, in Los Angeles and San Francisco, California. Bumblebee is scheduled to be released in the United States on December 21, 2018. Synopsis Twenty years before the events of the first film, in 1987, Bumblebee takes refuge in a small California beach town junkyard, where a teenage girl named Charlie Watson takes him in. However, the two of them soon find themselves hunted by a government agency known as Sector 7, led by Agent Bu ...more...

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Martha Brossier

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Martha Brossier

Martha Brossier (1556- d. after 1578) was a French woman, infamous for feigning demonic possession at the age of 22.[B 1] The fraud was discovered by Charles Miron, bishop of either the Diocese of Angers or the Diocese of Orléans. According to Augustin Calmet, Martha, the daughter of a weaver in Romorantin, claimed to have been demonically possessed, drawing considerable notoriety. Her case of demonic possession is often cited by theological historians along with the Loudun possessions because both cases consist of notorious accounts of apparent demonic possession which are now presumed to have been fraudulent.[A 1] Daemonic torment The maladies from which she was recorded to suffer included an extreme shortness of breath, the ability to stick out her tongue unreasonably far, and the gnashing of her teeth. She would writhe and move her mouth as if she had convulsions while contorting her face, rolling her eyes and appearing to show deep vexation and torment. She would also contort her body parts. A rumbling ...more...

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Harry Potter

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Harry Potter

Harry Potter is a series of fantasy novels written by British author J. K. Rowling. The novels chronicle the life of a young wizard, Harry Potter, and his friends Hermione Granger and Ron Weasley, all of whom are students at Hogwarts School of Witchcraft and Wizardry. The main story arc concerns Harry's struggle against Lord Voldemort, a dark wizard who intends to become immortal, overthrow the wizard governing body known as the Ministry of Magic, and subjugate all wizards and Muggles (non-magical people). Since the release of the first novel, Harry Potter and the Philosopher's Stone, on 26 June 1997, the books have found immense popularity, critical acclaim, and commercial success worldwide. They have attracted a wide adult audience as well as younger readers, and are often considered cornerstones of modern young adult literature.[2] The series has also had its share of criticism, including concern about the increasingly dark tone as the series progressed, as well as the often gruesome and graphic violence ...more...

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Jurassic World: Fallen Kingdom

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Jurassic World: Fallen Kingdom

Jurassic World: Fallen Kingdom is a 2018 American science fiction adventure film and the sequel to Jurassic World (2015). Directed by J. A. Bayona, it is the fifth installment of the Jurassic Park film series, as well as the second installment of a planned Jurassic World trilogy. Derek Connolly and Jurassic World director Colin Trevorrow both returned as writers, with Trevorrow and original Jurassic Park director Steven Spielberg acting as executive producers. Set on the fictional Central American island of Isla Nublar, off the Pacific coast of Costa Rica, it follows Owen Grady and Claire Dearing as they rescue the remaining dinosaurs on the island before a volcanic eruption destroys it. Chris Pratt, Bryce Dallas Howard, B. D. Wong, and Jeff Goldblum reprise their roles from previous films in the series, with Rafe Spall, Justice Smith, Daniella Pineda, James Cromwell, Toby Jones, Ted Levine, Isabella Sermon, and Geraldine Chaplin joining the cast. Filming took place from February to July 2017 in the United ...more...

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Mila Kunis

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Mila Kunis

Milena Markovna "Mila" Kunis (; born August 14, 1983) is an American actress. In 1991, at the age of seven, she moved from Soviet Ukraine to the United States with her family. After being enrolled in acting classes as an after-school activity, she was soon discovered by an agent. She appeared in several television series and commercials, before acquiring her first significant role at age 14, playing Jackie Burkhart on the television series That '70s Show (1998–2006). Since 1999, she has voiced Meg Griffin on the animated series Family Guy. Kunis' breakout film role came in 2008,[1][2] playing Rachel in the romantic comedy Forgetting Sarah Marshall. She gained further critical acclaim and accolades for her performance in the psychological thriller Black Swan (2010), for which she received the Marcello Mastroianni Award for Best Young Actor or Actress, and nominations for the SAG Award and the Golden Globe Award for Best Supporting Actress. Her other major films include the neo-noir action film Max Payne (2008 ...more...

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The Key to the Kingdom

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The Key to the Kingdom

The Key to the Kingdom (王国の鍵 Ōkoku no Kagi) is a Japanese manga series written and illustrated by Kyoko Shitou. The manga was serialised in Kadokawa Shoten's Asuka Fantasy DX. The manga is licensed and published in North America by CMX[1] and in Taiwan by Kadokawa Shoten's subsidiary Kadokawa Media.[2] Manga Kadokawa Shoten released the manga's 6 bound volumes between March 29, 2003 and December 25, 2004.[3][4] CMX released the manga's 6 tankōbon volumes between September 19, 2007 and December 30, 2008.[5][6] Plot There once was a great nation, comprising Certes in the north, Romul in the east and Landor in the middle. Three men battled over the right to the throne; as a result, a civil war broke out and the nation was split into three. After 300 years, the war between the split countries continues. In one of those wars, the King and Prince, Winslott, of Landor fall in battle, leaving the burden of governing the country to the young Prince Astarion. Unlike his brother, who participated in wars and was adm ...more...

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James Rodríguez

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James Rodríguez

James David Rodríguez Rubio (American Spanish: ;[a] born 12 July 1991), commonly known simply as James, is a Colombian professional footballer who plays as an attacking midfielder or winger for German club Bayern Munich on loan from Real Madrid, and the Colombia national team. He is commonly ranked as one of the best players of his generation.[2][3][4] He is praised for his technique, vision and playmaking skills, and often referred as the successor to his compatriot Carlos Valderrama.[3][5] James became well known in Europe during his time at Porto, winning several trophies and individual awards during his three years at the club. In 2014, James moved from AS Monaco to Real Madrid for a transfer fee of £63 million, which beat the one set by Radamel Falcao and made him the most expensive Colombian football player and one of the most expensive players in football.[6] He started his international career with the Colombia under-20 team, with which he won the 2011 Toulon Tournament. He then captained the U-20 te ...more...

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Deadpool 2

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Deadpool 2

Deadpool 2 is a 2018 American superhero film based on the Marvel Comics character Deadpool, distributed by 20th Century Fox. It is the eleventh installment in the X-Men film series, and a direct sequel to the 2016 film Deadpool. The film is directed by David Leitch from a script by Rhett Reese, Paul Wernick, and Ryan Reynolds, with Reynolds starring in the title role alongside Josh Brolin, Morena Baccarin, Julian Dennison, Zazie Beetz, T.J. Miller, Brianna Hildebrand, and Jack Kesy. In the film, Deadpool forms the team X-Force to protect a young mutant from the time-traveling soldier Cable. Plans for a sequel to Deadpool began before that film's release, and were confirmed in February 2016. Though the original creative team of Reynolds, Reese, Wernick, and director Tim Miller were quickly set to return for the second film, Miller left the project in October 2016 due to creative differences with Reynolds and was soon replaced by Leitch. An extensive casting search took place to fill the role of Cable, with Br ...more...

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Westworld (TV series)

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Westworld (TV series)

Westworld is an American science fiction western television series created by Jonathan Nolan and Lisa Joy. Produced by HBO, it is based on the 1973 film of the same name (written and directed by Michael Crichton) and to a lesser extent its 1976 sequel, Futureworld. The story takes place in Westworld, a fictional, technologically advanced Wild-West-themed amusement park populated by android "hosts". The park caters to high-paying "guests" who may indulge their wildest fantasies within the park without fear of retaliation from the hosts, who are prevented by their programming from harming humans. Nolan and Joy serve as executive producers, along with J. J. Abrams, Jerry Weintraub, and Bryan Burk. The first season was broadcast between October 2 and December 4, 2016; it comprised ten episodes. In November 2016, HBO renewed the series for a ten-episode second season, which was broadcast from April 22 to June 24, 2018. Westworld's debut on HBO had the network's highest viewership ratings for a premiere since the ...more...

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2010 Copiapó mining accident

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2010 Copiapó mining accident

The 2010 Copiapó mining accident, also known then as the "Chilean mining accident", began on Thursday, 5 August 2010 with a cave-in at the San José copper–gold mine, located in the Atacama Desert 45 kilometers (28 mi) north of the regional capital of Copiapó, in northern Chile. Thirty-three men, trapped 700 meters (2,300 ft) underground and 5 kilometers (3 mi) from the mine's entrance via spiraling underground ramps, were rescued after 69 days.[1][2] After the state-owned mining company, Codelco, took over rescue efforts from the mine's owners, exploratory boreholes were drilled, and seventeen days after the accident a note was found taped to a drill bit pulled back to the surface:"Estamos bien en el refugio, los 33" (English: "We are well in the shelter, the 33 of us"). Three separate drilling rig teams, nearly every Chilean government ministry, the United States' NASA space agency, and a dozen corporations from around the world cooperated completing the rescue. On 13 October 2010 the men were winched to t ...more...

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Blade Runner 2049

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Blade Runner 2049

Blade Runner 2049 is a 2017 American neo-noir science fiction film directed by Denis Villeneuve and written by Hampton Fancher and Michael Green. A sequel to the 1982 film Blade Runner, the film stars Ryan Gosling and Harrison Ford, with Ana de Armas, Sylvia Hoeks, Robin Wright, Mackenzie Davis, Carla Juri, Lennie James, Dave Bautista, and Jared Leto in supporting roles. Ford and Edward James Olmos reprise their roles from the original film. Set thirty years after the first film, Gosling plays K, a blade runner who uncovers a secret that threatens to instigate a war between humans and replicants. Principal photography took place between July and November 2016, mainly in Budapest, Hungary. Blade Runner 2049 premiered in Los Angeles on October 3, 2017 and was released in the United States in 2D, 3D and IMAX on October 6, 2017. The film was praised by critics for its performances, direction, cinematography, musical score, production design, visual effects, and faithfulness to the original film. Despite positive ...more...

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It (2017 film)

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It (2017 film)

It (also known as It: Chapter One)[5][6] is a 2017 American supernatural horror film[7] directed by Andy Muschietti, based on the 1986 novel of the same name by Stephen King. The screenplay is by Chase Palmer, Cary Fukunaga and Gary Dauberman.[8][9] The film tells the story of seven children in Derry, Maine, who are terrorized by the eponymous being, only to face their own personal demons in the process. The novel was previously adapted into a 1990 miniseries.[10][11][12] The film stars Jaeden Lieberher and Bill Skarsgård as Bill Denbrough and Pennywise the Dancing Clown, respectively, with Sophia Lillis, Jeremy Ray Taylor, Finn Wolfhard, Wyatt Oleff, Chosen Jacobs, Jack Dylan Grazer, Nicholas Hamilton, and Jackson Robert Scott in supporting roles.[13][8] Principal photography began in the Riverdale neighborhood of Toronto on June 27, 2016, and ended on September 21, 2016.[14][15] Other Ontario locations included Port Hope and Oshawa.[16][17][18] It premiered in Los Angeles on September 5, 2017, and was the ...more...

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Taylor Swift

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Taylor Swift

Taylor Alison Swift (born December 13, 1989) is an American singer-songwriter. One of the world's leading contemporary recording artists, she is known for narrative songs about her personal life, which have received widespread media coverage. Born and raised in Pennsylvania, Swift moved to Nashville, Tennessee at the age of 14 to pursue a career in country music. She signed with the label Big Machine Records and became the youngest artist ever signed by the Sony/ATV Music publishing house. Her 2006 self-titled debut album peaked at number five on the Billboard 200 and spent the most weeks on the chart in the 2000s. The album's third single, "Our Song", made her the youngest person to single-handedly write and perform a number-one song on the Hot Country Songs chart. Swift's second album, Fearless, was released in 2008. Buoyed by the success of pop crossover singles "Love Story" and "You Belong with Me", Fearless became the best-selling album of 2009 in the US. The album won four Grammy Awards, with Swift bec ...more...

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Ant-Man (film)

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Ant-Man (film)

Ant-Man is a 2015 American superhero film based on the Marvel Comics characters of the same name: Scott Lang and Hank Pym. Produced by Marvel Studios and distributed by Walt Disney Studios Motion Pictures, it is the twelfth film in the Marvel Cinematic Universe (MCU). The film was directed by Peyton Reed, with a screenplay by the writing teams of Edgar Wright and Joe Cornish, and Adam McKay and Paul Rudd. It stars Rudd as Scott Lang / Ant-Man, alongside Evangeline Lilly, Corey Stoll, Bobby Cannavale, Michael Peña, Tip "T.I." Harris, Anthony Mackie, Wood Harris, Judy Greer, David Dastmalchian, and Michael Douglas as Hank Pym. In Ant-Man, Lang must help defend Pym's Ant-Man shrinking technology and plot a heist with worldwide ramifications. Development of Ant-Man began in April 2006, with the hiring of Wright to direct and co-write with Cornish. By April 2011, Wright and Cornish had completed three drafts of the script and Wright shot test footage for the film in July 2012. Pre-production began in October 2013 ...more...

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List of Silent Library episodes

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List of Silent Library episodes

Silent Library is an American reality television series which premiered on MTV on June 15, 2009 in the United States. Series Overview Color Key Season No. episodes Year(s) aired 1 19 2009 2 20 2010 3 20 2010 4 30 2011 Season One Episode # Original Airdate 101 (1) June 15, 2009 Joshua, Juan, Jordan, Matt, Zach and Rashard face the Silent Library. Featured Challenges: Round 1: Big Bust, Milk Man, Noodle Foot Round 2: Frenched, Rear Footing, Bird Stink Vacuum Round 3: Seat Slip, Jack in the Box, Electric Puzzle Round 4: Turned Pig 102 (2) June 16, 2009 Emmanuel, Steve, Brandon, Stan, Mike and Nick face the Silent Library. Featured Challenges: Round 1: Pulled Sniff, Defective Vacuum, Passion Fish Round 2: Old Man Bites Tenderly, Sushi Mixup Round 3: Chicken Foot, Seat Slip, Hair Treat Round 4: Shoot Off Rubber 103 (3) June 17, 2009 Thomas, Vinnie, Brian, Beans, Dennis and Anthony face the Silent Library. Featured Challenges: Round 1: Sour Drink, Fore Head ...more...

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The Predator (film)

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The Predator (film)

The Predator is an upcoming American science fiction action horror film directed by Shane Black and written by Black and Fred Dekker. It is the fourth installment in the Predator film series (the sixth counting the two Alien vs. Predator films), following Predator (1987), Predator 2 (1990) and Predators (2010). Black had a supporting role in the original film, while John Davis returns as producer from the first three installments, and Lawrence Gordon serving as executive producer. The film stars Boyd Holbrook, Trevante Rhodes, Jacob Tremblay, Keegan-Michael Key, Olivia Munn, Sterling K. Brown, Thomas Jane, and Alfie Allen. It completed filming in June 2017, and is set to be released on September 14, 2018[2] by 20th Century Fox in IMAX as well as standard formats. Premise A young boy (Jacob Tremblay) accidentally triggers an alert that brings the Predators back to Earth. The universe’s most lethal hunters have genetically upgraded themselves with DNA from other alien species and only a crew of former soldie ...more...

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Black Mirror

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Black Mirror

Black Mirror is a British science fiction anthology television series created by Charlie Brooker, with Brooker and Annabel Jones serving as the programme showrunners. It examines modern society, particularly with regard to the unanticipated consequences of new technologies. Episodes are standalone, usually set in an alternative present or the near future, often with a dark and satirical tone, though some are more experimental and lighter. The show premiered for two series on the British television channel Channel 4 on December 2011 and February 2013, respectively. After its addition to the catalogue in December 2014, Netflix purchased the programme in September 2015. It commissioned a series of 12 episodes later divided into the third and fourth series, each six episodes; the former was released on 21 October 2016 and the latter on 29 December 2017. A fifth series was announced on 5 March 2018. Black Mirror was inspired by older anthology shows like The Twilight Zone, which were able to deal with controvers ...more...

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Alicia Vikander

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Alicia Vikander

Alicia Amanda Vikander (;[1] Swedish:  ( listen); born 3 October 1988) is a Swedish actress. Born and raised in Gothenburg, Vikander began acting as a child in minor stage productions at the Gothenburg opera house and trained as a ballet dancer at the Royal Swedish Ballet School in Stockholm and the School of American Ballet in New York. She began her professional acting career by appearing in Swedish short films and television series and first gained recognition for her role as Josefin Björn-Tegebrandt in the drama series Andra Avenyn (2008–2010). Vikander made her feature film debut in Pure (2010), for which she won the Guldbagge Award for Best Actress. She gained wider recognition in 2012 for portraying Kitty in Joe Wright's film adaptation of Anna Karenina and Queen Caroline Mathilde in the Danish film A Royal Affair. In 2014 and 2015, Vikander achieved global recognition for her roles as activist Vera Brittain in Testament of Youth, a humanoid robot in Ex Machina, for which she was nominated for the Go ...more...

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Game of Thrones

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Game of Thrones

Game of Thrones is an American fantasy drama television series created by David Benioff and D. B. Weiss. It is an adaptation of A Song of Ice and Fire, George R. R. Martin's series of fantasy novels, the first of which is A Game of Thrones. It is filmed in Belfast and elsewhere in the United Kingdom, Canada, Croatia, Iceland, Malta, Morocco, Spain, and the United States. The series premiered on HBO in the United States on April 17, 2011, and its seventh season ended on August 27, 2017. The series will conclude with its eighth season premiering in 2019.[1][2] Set on the fictional continents of Westeros and Essos, Game of Thrones has several plot lines and a large ensemble cast but centers on three primary story arcs. The first story arc centers on the Iron Throne of the Seven Kingdoms and follows a web of alliances and conflicts among the dynastic noble families either vying to claim the throne or fighting for independence from the throne. The second story arc focuses on the last descendant of the realm's dep ...more...

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James VI and I

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James VI and I

James VI and I (James Charles Stuart; 19 June 1566 – 27 March 1625) was King of Scotland as James VI from 24 July 1567 and King of England and Ireland as James I from the union of the Scottish and English crowns on 24 March 1603 until his death in 1625. The kingdoms of Scotland and England were individual sovereign states, with their own parliaments, judiciaries, and laws, though both were ruled by James in personal union. James was the son of Mary, Queen of Scots, and a great-great-grandson of Henry VII, King of England and Lord of Ireland, positioning him to eventually accede to all three thrones. James succeeded to the Scottish throne at the age of thirteen months, after his mother was compelled to abdicate in his favour. Four different regents governed during his minority, which ended officially in 1578, though he did not gain full control of his government until 1583. In 1603, he succeeded the last Tudor monarch of England and Ireland, Elizabeth I, who died without issue. He continued to reign in all th ...more...

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Kristen Stewart

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Kristen Stewart

Kristen Jaymes Stewart (born April 9, 1990)[1] is an American actress. She is the recipient of several accolades, including a César Award, making her the first American woman to win the award. Born in Los Angeles to parents who worked in show business, Stewart began her career as a child actor in 1999. She gained notice in 2002 for playing Jodie Foster's daughter in the thriller Panic Room, which garnered her a Young Artist Award nomination for Best Leading Actress in a Feature Film. She subsequently starred in Speak (2004), Catch That Kid (2004), Zathura: A Space Adventure (2005), and Into the Wild (2007). In 2010, she was awarded the BAFTA Rising Star Award. Stewart went on to gain wide recognition for playing Bella Swan in The Twilight Saga film series (2008–12), which collectively grossed over $3.3 billion worldwide.[2] Her work in the series established her as one of the highest-paid actresses in the world. Following a role in the fantasy film Snow White and the Huntsman (2012), Stewart eschewed parts ...more...

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Dunkirk (2017 film)

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Dunkirk (2017 film)

Dunkirk is a 2017 war film written, directed, and produced by Christopher Nolan that depicts the Dunkirk evacuation of World War II. Its ensemble cast includes Fionn Whitehead, Tom Glynn-Carney, Jack Lowden, Harry Styles, Aneurin Barnard, James D'Arcy, Barry Keoghan, Kenneth Branagh, Cillian Murphy, Mark Rylance, and Tom Hardy. The film is a British-American-French-Dutch co-production, and was distributed by Warner Bros. Dunkirk portrays the evacuation from three perspectives: land, sea, and air. It has little dialogue, as Nolan sought instead to create suspense from cinematography and music. Filming began in May 2016 in Dunkirk and ended that September in Los Angeles, when post-production began. Cinematographer Hoyte van Hoytema shot the film on IMAX 65 mm and 65 mm large-format film stock. Dunkirk has extensive practical effects, and employed thousands of extras as well as historic boats from the evacuation, and period aeroplanes. The film premiered on 13 July 2017 at Odeon Leicester Square in London, and ...more...

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Game Night (film)

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Game Night (film)

Game Night is a 2018 American black comedy film directed by John Francis Daley and Jonathan Goldstein and written by Mark Perez. It stars Jason Bateman and Rachel McAdams, and follows a group of friends whose game night turns into a real-life mystery after one of them is kidnapped by apparent burglars. The film's supporting cast includes Billy Magnussen, Sharon Horgan, Lamorne Morris, Kylie Bunbury, Jesse Plemons, Michael C. Hall and Kyle Chandler. Warner Bros. Pictures released the film on February 23, 2018. It was a commercial and critical success, grossing $117 million worldwide and receiving praise for its dark humor and the cast's performances. Plot Married competitive gamer couple Max (Jason Bateman) and Annie (Rachel McAdams) are trying to have a child, but their attempts are unsuccessful due to Max's stress surrounding his feelings of inadequacy when compared to his successful, attractive brother Brooks (Kyle Chandler). During Max and Annie's routine weekend game night with their friends Ryan (Billy ...more...

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Coco (2017 film)

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Coco (2017 film)

Coco is a 2017 American 3D computer-animated fantasy film produced by Pixar Animation Studios and released by Walt Disney Pictures. Based on an original idea by Lee Unkrich, it is directed by him and co-directed by Adrian Molina. The film's voice cast stars Anthony Gonzalez, Gael García Bernal, Benjamin Bratt, Alanna Ubach, Renée Victor, Ana Ofelia Murguía, and Edward James Olmos. The story follows a 12-year-old boy named Miguel who is accidentally transported to the Land of the Dead, where he seeks the help of his deceased musician great-great-grandfather to return him to his family among the living. The concept for Coco is inspired by the Mexican Day of the Dead holiday. The film was scripted by Molina and Matthew Aldrich from a story by Unkrich, Jason Katz, Aldrich and Molina. Pixar began developing the animation in 2016; Unkrich and some of the film's crew visited Mexico for research. Composer Michael Giacchino, who had worked on prior Pixar animated features, composed the score. Coco is the first film w ...more...

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Pablo Escobar

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Pablo Escobar

Pablo Emilio Escobar Gaviria (Spanish pronunciation: ; 1 December 1949 – 2 December 1993) was a Colombian drug lord and narcoterrorist. His cartel supplied an estimated 80% of the cocaine smuggled into the United States at the height of his career, turning over US $21.9 billion a year in personal income.[2][3] He was often called "The King of Cocaine" and was the wealthiest criminal in history, with an estimated known net worth of US $30 billion by the early 1990s (equivalent to about $56 billion as of 2017),[4] making him one of the richest men in the world in his prime.[5][6] Escobar was born in Rionegro, Colombia and grew up in nearby Medellín. He studied briefly at Universidad Autónoma Latinoamericana of Medellin but left without a degree; he began to engage in criminal activity that involved selling contraband cigarettes and fake lottery tickets, and he participated in motor vehicle theft. In the 1970s, he began to work for various contraband smugglers, often kidnapping and holding people for ransom bef ...more...

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Back in the Day

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Making a Murderer

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Making a Murderer

Making a Murderer is an American documentary television series that premiered on Netflix on December 18, 2015.[1] The ten-episode first season, written and directed by Laura Ricciardi and Moira Demos, explores the story of Steven Avery, a man from Manitowoc County, Wisconsin, who served 18 years in prison for the wrongful conviction of sexual assault and attempted murder of Penny Beerntsen, before being fully exonerated in 2003 by DNA evidence. He filed a suit against the county on this case. In 2005, Avery was arrested on charges of murdering Teresa Halbach, a local photographer, and was convicted in 2007.[2] The series also covers the arrest, prosecution, and conviction of Avery's nephew, Brendan Dassey, who was also charged in the murder, largely based on his confession under interrogation. The series was filmed over the course of ten years, with the filmmakers moving back and forth from New York City to Wisconsin during filming.[2] To promote the series, Netflix released the first episode concurrently on ...more...

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List of Idol Time PriPara episodes

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List of Idol Time PriPara episodes

The following is a list of episodes of the Idol Time PriPara anime television series. The first opening and ending themes are "Just be yourself" by The World Standard and "Idol:Time!!'" by Arisa Date & Himika Akaneya. Episode list No. in series Title Original air date[1] 01 "I Became a Dreamy-Cute Idol!?""Yumekawa Aidoru Hajime Chaimashita!?" (ゆめかわアイドル始めちゃいました!?)  April 4, 2017 Yui Yumekawa is a sixth grade boarding student at Avocado Private Academy in Paparajuku where BoyPara, boys who are idols, is very popular. She loves to daydream about becoming a PriPara idol, which is referred to as Delusion Time, which causes her to be late occasionally. When she is running late to class, she sees a Prism Stone shop opening up and is excited at going. While she is daydreaming, another student in a different school uniform collides into Yui saying she is going to be late making Yui realise the same. At morning assembly, the Principal, Bavaria, introduces the student as Laala Manaka a new transfer student ...more...

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Lists of anime episodes

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Andy Murray

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Andy Murray

Sir Andrew Barron Murray OBE (born 15 May 1987) is a British professional tennis player from Scotland currently ranked No. 839 in men's singles as of 16 July 2018.[6] Murray represents Great Britain in his sporting activities and is a three-time Grand Slam tournament winner, two-time Olympic champion, Davis Cup champion, winner of the 2016 ATP World Tour Finals and former world No. 1. Murray defeated Novak Djokovic in the 2012 US Open final, becoming the first British player since 1977, and the first British man since 1936, to win a Grand Slam singles tournament. Murray is also the first British man to win more than one Wimbledon singles title since Fred Perry in 1935.[10] Murray is the men's singles 2012 and 2016 Olympic gold medallist, making him the only tennis player, male or female, to have won two Olympic singles titles. He featured in Great Britain's Davis Cup-winning team in 2015, going 11–0 in his matches (8 singles and 3 doubles) as they secured their first Davis Cup title since 1936.[11][12] Ear ...more...

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Zendaya

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Zendaya

Zendaya Maree Stoermer Coleman (born September 1, 1996)[3] is an American actress and singer. She began her career appearing as a child model and backup dancer, before gaining prominence for her role as Rocky Blue on the Disney Channel sitcom Shake It Up (2010–2013). In 2013, Zendaya was a contestant on the sixteenth season of the competition series Dancing with the Stars. From 2015 to 2018, she produced and starred as K.C. Cooper on the Disney Channel sitcom K.C. Undercover. She made her film breakthrough in 2017, starring as Michelle "MJ" Jones in the Marvel Cinematic Universe superhero film Spider-Man: Homecoming and as Anne Wheeler in the musical drama film The Greatest Showman. Zendaya began her career in music by recording songs independently and releasing the singles "Swag It Out" and "Watch Me" in 2011, the latter a collaboration with Bella Thorne. She signed with Hollywood Records in 2012 and later released her debut single, "Replay", which reached number 40 on the Billboard Hot 100 chart in the Uni ...more...

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Orange Is the New Black

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Orange Is the New Black

Orange Is the New Black (sometimes abbreviated to OITNB) is an American comedy-drama web television series created by Jenji Kohan for Netflix.[1][2] The series is based on Piper Kerman's memoir, Orange Is the New Black: My Year in a Women's Prison (2010), about her experiences at FCI Danbury, a minimum-security federal prison. Orange Is the New Black premiered on July 11, 2013 on the streaming service Netflix.[3] In February 2016, the series was renewed for a fifth, sixth, and seventh season.[4] The fifth season was released on June 9, 2017.[5] The sixth season is scheduled to be released on July 27, 2018.[6] The series is produced by Tilted Productions in association with Lionsgate Television. Orange Is the New Black has become Netflix's most-watched original series.[4][7] It has received critical acclaim and many accolades. For its first season, the series garnered 12 Primetime Emmy Award nominations, including Outstanding Comedy Series, Outstanding Writing for a Comedy Series, and Outstanding Directing fo ...more...

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Hotel Transylvania

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Hotel Transylvania

Hotel Transylvania is a 2012 American 3D computer-animated comedy film produced by Sony Pictures Animation and distributed by Sony Pictures Releasing. It was directed by Genndy Tartakovsky and produced by Michelle Murdocca, and stars the voices of Adam Sandler, Andy Samberg, Selena Gomez, Kevin James, Fran Drescher, Steve Buscemi, Molly Shannon, David Spade, and CeeLo Green.[7] The film tells a story of Count Dracula, the owner of a hotel called Hotel Transylvania where the world's monsters can take a rest from human civilization. Dracula invites some of the most famous monsters to celebrate the 118th birthday of his daughter Mavis. When the "human-free hotel" is unexpectedly visited by an ordinary 21-year-old traveler named Jonathan, Dracula must protect Mavis from falling in love with him before the hotel's guests learn that there is a human in the castle, which may jeopardize the hotel's future and his career. The film was released on September 28, 2012, and was met with mixed critical reception, while th ...more...

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X-Men (film series)

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X-Men (film series)

X-Men is an American superhero film series based on the fictional superhero team of the same name, who originally appeared in a series of comic books created by Stan Lee and Jack Kirby and published by Marvel Comics. 20th Century Fox obtained the film rights to the characters in 1994, and after numerous drafts, Bryan Singer was hired to direct the first film and its sequel, X2 (2003), while Brett Ratner directed X-Men: The Last Stand (2006). After each film earned higher box office grosses than its predecessor, several spin-off films were released, including a Wolverine trilogy from 2009 to 2017 and a Deadpool duology from 2016 to 2018. Three X-Men prequels were also released from 2011 to 2016. X-Men, X2, X-Men: First Class, The Wolverine, X-Men: Days of Future Past, Deadpool, Logan and Deadpool 2 were all met with positive reviews from critics, X-Men: The Last Stand and X-Men: Apocalypse were met with mixed reviews, while X-Men Origins: Wolverine received negative reviews. With eleven films released, the ...more...

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Science fiction films by series

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Asia Market Wrap

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Asia Market Wrap

Asia Market Wrap is a business news programme aired on CNBC Asia between 1600-1800 (Hong Kong/Singapore/Taiwan time, until December 2005. The show also aired on CNBC US on 5:30 to 6AM ET until 2000, then it was moved to CNBC World. Anchored by Christine Tan, Asia Market Wrap examined the day's headlines and numbers, with in-depth analysis of the day's financial news, interviewing key money managers, market experts and corporate chiefs. The programme, comes from its original edition on CNBC US, Market Wrap, included several segments, such as Australia Market Wrap, China Business Briefing and Eye on India. Asia Market Week - a weekly wrap-up of the market action in Asia - aired between 17:30-18:00 on Fridays. Prior to Martin Soong's original departure from CNBC Asia, he was the programme's regular presenter (the programme was billed as Asia Market Wrap with Martin Soong). When he returned to present Asia Squawk Box, Tan was moved to present Asia Market Wrap instead. The programme was not aired on CNBC Asia's ...more...

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Business-related television series

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Rachel McAdams

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Rachel McAdams

Rachel Anne McAdams (born November 17, 1978)[1][2] is a Canadian actress. After graduating from a four-year theatre program at York University in 2001, she worked in Canadian television and film productions such as the drama film Perfect Pie (2002), for which she received a Genie Award nomination, the comedy film My Name Is Tanino (2002), and the comedy series Slings and Arrows, for which she won a Gemini Award. In 2002, she made her Hollywood film debut in the comedy The Hot Chick. McAdams rose to fame in 2004 with the comedy Mean Girls and the romantic drama The Notebook. In 2005, she starred in the romantic comedy Wedding Crashers, the psychological thriller Red Eye, and the comedy-drama The Family Stone. She was hailed by the media as Hollywood's new "it girl",[3][4] and received a BAFTA Award nomination for Best Rising Star. After a two-year break, McAdams starred in two limited-release films in 2008, the film noir Married Life and the road trip drama The Lucky Ones. She returned to prominence in 2009 ...more...

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The Shape of Water

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The Shape of Water

The Shape of Water is a 2017 American romantic dark-fantasy drama film directed by Guillermo del Toro and written by del Toro and Vanessa Taylor.[4] It stars Sally Hawkins, Michael Shannon, Richard Jenkins, Doug Jones, Michael Stuhlbarg, and Octavia Spencer. Set in Baltimore, Maryland in 1962, the story follows a mute custodian at a high-security government laboratory who falls in love with a captured humanoid amphibian creature. Filming took place in Ontario, Canada, between August and November of 2016. The film was screened in the main competition section of the 74th Venice International Film Festival, where it premiered on August 31, 2017,[5] and was awarded the Golden Lion for best film.[6] It was also screened at the 2017 Toronto International Film Festival.[7] It began a limited release in two theaters in New York City on December 1, 2017, before expanding on December 8, 2017, and grossed $195 million worldwide. The Shape of Water received critical acclaim for its performances, screenplay, direction, ...more...

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PewDiePie

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PewDiePie

Felix Arvid Ulf Kjellberg[5] ( SHEL-burg;[6] Swedish:  ( listen);[c] born 24 October 1989), known online as PewDiePie ( PEW-dee-py), is a Swedish YouTube personality and game commentator. He has been known for his Let's Play commentaries and vlogs, as well as for having the most subscribed channel on YouTube. Born in Gothenburg, Sweden, PewDiePie originally pursued a degree in industrial economics and technology management at Chalmers University of Technology in Gothenburg. In 2010, during his time at the university, he registered a YouTube account under the name PewDiePie. The following year, he dropped out of Chalmers after losing interest in his degree field, much to the dismay of his parents. After failing to earn an apprenticeship with an advertising agency in Scandinavia, he then decided to focus on creating content for his YouTube channel. In order to fund his videos, PewDiePie began selling prints of his Photoshop art projects and working at a hot dog stand. PewDiePie soon gathered a rapidly increasi ...more...

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Friday the 13th (franchise)

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Friday the 13th (franchise)

Friday the 13th is an American horror franchise that comprises twelve slasher films, a television show, novels, comic books, video games, and tie‑in merchandise. The franchise mainly focuses on the fictional character Jason Voorhees, who drowned as a boy at Camp Crystal Lake due to the negligence of the camp staff. Decades later, the lake is rumored to be "cursed" and is the setting for a series of mass murders. Jason is featured in all of the films, as either the killer or the motivation for the killings. The original film, created to cash in on the success of Halloween (1978),[1] was written by Victor Miller and was produced and directed by Sean S. Cunningham. The films have grossed over $464 million at the box-office worldwide. Frank Mancuso, Jr., a producer of the films, also developed the television show Friday the 13th: The Series after Paramount released Jason Lives. The television series was not connected to the franchise by any character or setting, but was created based on the idea of "bad luck and ...more...

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Dark Phoenix (film)

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Dark Phoenix (film)

Dark Phoenix is an upcoming American superhero film based on Marvel Comics' X-Men characters, distributed by 20th Century Fox. It is intended to be the twelfth installment in the X-Men film series, and the beginning of a new trilogy. The film is written and directed by Simon Kinberg, and stars James McAvoy, Michael Fassbender, Jennifer Lawrence, Nicholas Hoult, Tye Sheridan, Sophie Turner, Alexandra Shipp, Kodi Smit-McPhee, Evan Peters, and Jessica Chastain. In Dark Phoenix, the X-Men must face the full power of the Phoenix after a mission to space goes wrong. After X-Men: Days of Future Past erased the events of X-Men: The Last Stand from the series' timeline, Kinberg expressed interest in a new, more faithful adaptation of Chris Claremont's "The Dark Phoenix Saga" in a future film than his previous attempt with The Last Stand, which was not well received. The new adaptation was confirmed as a follow-up to X-Men: Apocalypse in 2016. Kinberg signed on to make his directorial debut in June 2017, when the majo ...more...

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Android (operating system)

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Android (operating system)

Android is a mobile operating system developed by Google, based on a modified version of the Linux kernel and other open source software and designed primarily for touchscreen mobile devices such as smartphones and tablets. In addition, Google has further developed Android TV for televisions, Android Auto for cars, and Wear OS for wrist watches, each with a specialized user interface. Variants of Android are also used on game consoles, digital cameras, PCs and other electronics. Initially developed by Android Inc., which Google bought in 2005, Android was unveiled in 2007, with the first commercial Android device launched in September 2008. The operating system has since gone through multiple major releases, with the current version being 8.1 "Oreo", released in December 2017. The core Android source code is known as Android Open Source Project (AOSP), and is primarily licensed under the Apache License. Android is also associated with a suite of proprietary software developed by Google, including core apps ...more...

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Research SDMN

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Yellow Flowers

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Yellow Flowers

Yellow Flowers is an Indian film production company established by Ramesh Puppala. The company is based in Hyderabad. Films produced Year Film Actors Director 2011 Mirapakay[1] Ravi Teja, Richa Gangopadhyay, Deeksha Seth Harish Shankar 2012 Srimannarayana[2] Nandamuri Balakrishna, Isha Chawla, Parvati Melton Ravi Chavali 2013 Paisa[3] Nani, Catherine Tresa Krishna Vamsi 2013 S/O Pedarayudu[4] Manoj Manchu Sagar References "Mirapakaya completes 100 days". SuperGoodMovies. Retrieved Apr 23, 2011. "Srimannarayana audio released". indiaglitz.com. August 7, 2012. Retrieved April 25, 2013. "Nani's Paisa shooting wrapped up". The Times of India. Retrieved April 6, 2013. "Manchu Manoj as S/O Pedarayudu". 123telugu.com. Retrieved September 12, 2013. ...more...

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A. P. J. Abdul Kalam

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A. P. J. Abdul Kalam

Avul Pakir Jainulabdeen Abdul Kalam ( ( listen); 15 October 1931 – 27 July 2015) was an Indian scientist who served as the 11th President of India from 2002 to 2007. He was born and raised in Rameswaram, Tamil Nadu and studied physics and aerospace engineering. He spent the next four decades as a scientist and science administrator, mainly at the Defence Research and Development Organisation (DRDO) and Indian Space Research Organisation (ISRO) and was intimately involved in India's civilian space programme and military missile development efforts.[1] He thus came to be known as the Missile Man of India for his work on the development of ballistic missile and launch vehicle technology.[2][3][4] He also played a pivotal organisational, technical, and political role in India's Pokhran-II nuclear tests in 1998, the first since the original nuclear test by India in 1974.[5] Kalam was elected as the 11th President of India in 2002 with the support of both the ruling Bharatiya Janata Party and the then-opposition I ...more...

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music

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Trapped! (TV series)

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Trapped! (TV series)

Trapped! is a British children themed game show that was broadcast on BBC, ABC3 and the CBBC Channel from 11 September 2007 to 4 November 2010. Format Trapped! (2007-2010) The show as a whole is set in a 5-storyed tower which, from the opening titles, appears to be on a small island in the middle of the sea. Every episode is introduced by the Caretaker, and also features a character referred to simply as "The Voice". 6 children (referred to as Unfortunates,) start at the top of the tower to complete one challenge per floor. They each wear a Whisper Clip, and prior to every challenge, one Unfortunate is chosen through their Whisper Clip as the Saboteur. It is that unfortunate's job to sabotage the game without being spotted, with guidance from The Voice. After every challenge, if the team pass the challenge, the rest of the team minus the Saboteur move down one level. If the team fail, each child votes for who they think was the Saboteur, and the one with the most votes doesn't move down. A straw draw is us ...more...

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Mary Elizabeth Winstead

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Mary Elizabeth Winstead

Mary Elizabeth Winstead (born November 28, 1984) is an American actress and singer. Her first significant role came as Jessica Bennett on the NBC soap opera Passions (1999–2000) and she went on to appear in TV series such as Tru Calling (2004) and films including the superhero comedy Sky High (2005). She came to wider attention as a scream queen[1][2] for her roles in the horror series Wolf Lake (2001–2002), the giant monster film Monster Island (2004), the supernatural horror film Final Destination 3 (2006), the slasher film Black Christmas (2006) and the exploitation horror film Death Proof (2007). Further success came with her roles as John McClane's daughter Lucy Gennero-McClane in Live Free or Die Hard (2007) and Ramona Flowers in Scott Pilgrim vs. the World (2010). Her critically acclaimed performance as Kate Hannah, an alcoholic struggling with sobriety in the Sundance drama Smashed (2012) was followed by a line of roles in other well-received independent films, including The Beauty Inside (2012), The ...more...

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Madonna (entertainer)

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Madonna (entertainer)

Madonna Louise Ciccone (; born August 16, 1958) is an American singer, songwriter, actress, and businesswoman. Referred to as the "Queen of Pop" since the 1980s, Madonna is known for pushing the boundaries of lyrical content in mainstream popular music, as well as visual imagery in music videos and on stage. She has also frequently reinvented both her music and image while maintaining autonomy within the recording industry. Besides sparking controversy, her works have been praised by music critics. Madonna is often cited as an influence by other artists. Born and raised in Michigan, Madonna moved to New York City in 1978 to pursue a career in modern dance. After performing as a drummer, guitarist and vocalist in the rock bands Breakfast Club and Emmy, Madonna signed with Sire Records in 1982 and released her eponymous debut album the next year. She followed it with a series of successful albums, including the global bestsellers, Like a Virgin (1984) and True Blue (1986), as well as the Grammy Award winners, ...more...

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