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Key Wrap

Key Wrap constructions are a class of symmetric encryption algorithms designed to encapsulate (encrypt) cryptographic key material.[1] The Key Wrap algorithms are intended for applications such as protecting keys while in untrusted storage or transmitting keys over untrusted communications networks. The constructions are typically built from standard primitives such as block ciphers and cryptographic hash functions.

Key Wrap may be considered as a form of key encapsulation algorithm, although it should not be confused with the more commonly known asymmetric (public-key) key encapsulation algorithms (e.g., PSEC-KEM). Key Wrap algorithms can be used in a similar application: to securely transport a session key by encrypting it under a long-term encryption key.


In the late 1990s, the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) posed the "Key Wrap" problem: to develop secure and efficient cipher-based key encryption algorithms. The resulting algorithms would be formally evaluated by NIST, and eventually approved for use in NIST-certified cryptographic modules. NIST did not precisely define the security goals of the resulting algorithm, and left further refinement to the algorithm developers. Based on the resulting algorithms, the design requirements appear to be (1) confidentiality, (2) integrity protection (authentication), (3) efficiency, (4) use of standard (approved) underlying primitives such as the Advanced Encryption Standard (AES) and the Secure Hash Algorithm (SHA-1), and (5) consideration of additional circumstances (e.g., resilience to operator error, low-quality random number generators). Goals (3) and (5) are particularly important, given that many widely deployed authenticated encryption algorithms (e.g., AES-CCM) are already sufficient to accomplish the remaining goals.

NIST AES Key Wrap Specification

Several constructions have been proposed. These include:

Each of the proposed algorithms can be considered as a form of authenticated encryption algorithm providing confidentiality for highly entropic messages such as cryptographic keys. The AES Key Wrap Specification, AESKW, TDKW, and AKW1 are intended to maintain confidentiality under adaptive chosen ciphertext attacks, while the AKW2 algorithm is designed to be secure only under known-plaintext (or weaker) attacks. (The stated goal of AKW2 is for use in legacy systems and computationally limited devices where use of the other algorithms would be impractical.) AESKW, TDKW and AKW2 also provide the ability to authenticate cleartext "header", an associated block of data that is not encrypted.

Rogaway and Shrimpton evaluated the design of the ANSX9.102 algorithms with respect to the stated security goals. Among their general findings, they noted the lack of clearly stated design goals for the algorithms, and the absence of security proofs for all constructions.

In their paper, Rogaway and Shrimpton proposed a provable key-wrapping algorithm (SIV—the Synthetic Initialization Vector mode) that authenticates and encrypts an arbitrary string and authenticates, but does not encrypt, additional data which can be bound into the wrapped key. This has been standardized as a new AES mode in RFC 5297.

See also
  1. "Key wrap algorithm". Retrieved 26 May 2016.
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Freaks of Nature (film)


Freaks of Nature is a 2015 American comedy horror film directed by Robbie Pickering, written by Oren Uziel, and stars Nicholas Braun , Mackenzie Davis , Josh Fadem , Joan Cusack , Bob Odenkirk , Keegan-Michael Key , Ed Westwick , Patton Oswalt , Vanessa Hudgens , and Denis Leary . The film was released in a limited release on October 30, 2015, by Columbia Pictures . Cast Nicholas Braun as human (later, werewolf) Dag Parker Jacob Eddington as young Dag Mackenzie Davis as vampire Petra Lane Josh Fadem as zombie Ned Mosely Max Wright as young Ned Joan Cusack as Peg Parker Bob Odenkirk as Shooter Parker Keegan-Michael Key as Mr. Mayhew P. Keller Ed Westwick as Milan Pinache Patton Oswalt as Stuart Miller Vanessa Hudgens as Lorelei Denis Leary as Rick Wilson Ian Roberts as Chaz Mosely, Sr. Utkarsh Ambudkar as Parminder Cerina Vincent as Daisy Chris Zylka as Chaz Mosely, Jr. Rachael Harris as Mrs. Mosely Mae Whitman as Jenna Zombie Werner Herzog as voice of the Perfect Being Derek Mears as wolf Aurora Perrineau as ...more...

Making a Murderer


Making a Murderer is an American documentary television series that premiered on Netflix on December 18, 2015. The ten-episode first season, written and directed by Laura Ricciardi and Moira Demos , explores the story of Steven Avery , a man from Manitowoc County, Wisconsin , who served 18 years in prison for the wrongful conviction of sexual assault and attempted murder of Penny Beerntsen, before being fully exonerated in 2003 by DNA evidence. He filed a suit against the county on this case. In 2005, Avery was arrested on charges of murdering Teresa Halbach , a local photographer, and was convicted in 2007. The series also covers the arrest, prosecution, and conviction of Avery's nephew, Brendan Dassey , who was also charged in the murder, largely based on his confession under interrogation. The series was filmed over the course of ten years, with the filmmakers moving back and forth from New York City to Wisconsin during filming. To promote the series, Netflix released the first episode concurrently on Y ...more...



Podocytes are cells in the Bowman's capsule in the kidneys that wrap around capillaries of the glomerulus . The Bowman's capsule filters the blood , retaining large molecules such as proteins while smaller molecules such as water , salts , and sugars are filtered as the first step in the formation of urine . Although various viscera have epithelial layers, the name visceral epithelial cells usually refers specifically to podocytes, which are specialized epithelial cells that reside in the visceral layer of the capsule. The podocytes have long processes , called foot processes, foot projections, or pedicels, for which the cells are named ( podo- + -cyte ). The foot projections wrap around the capillaries and leave slits between them. Blood is filtered through these slits, each known as a filtration slit or slit diaphragm. Several proteins are required for the foot projections to wrap around the capillaries and function. When infants are born with certain defects in these proteins, such as nephrin and CD2AP , ...more...

George Jones


George Glenn Jones (September 12, 1931 – April 26, 2013) was an American musician, singer and songwriter. He achieved international fame for his long list of hit records, including his best known song " He Stopped Loving Her Today ", as well as his distinctive voice and phrasing. For the last twenty years of his life, Jones was frequently referred to as the greatest living country singer. Country music scholar Bill Malone writes, "For the two or three minutes consumed by a song, Jones immerses himself so completely in its lyrics, and in the mood it conveys, that the listener can scarcely avoid becoming similarly involved." Waylon Jennings expressed a similar opinion in his song "It's Alright": "If we all could sound like we wanted to, we'd all sound like George Jones." The shape of his nose and facial features earned Jones the nickname "The Possum." Born in Texas, Jones first heard country music when he was seven and was given a guitar at the age of nine. He married his first wife, Dorothy Bonvillion, in 1950 ...more...

Legend (2015 film)


Legend is a 2015 crime thriller film written and directed by Brian Helgeland . It is adapted from John Pearson 's book The Profession of Violence: The Rise and Fall of the Kray Twins, which deals with the rise and fall of the Kray twins ; the relationship that bound them together, and charts their gruesome career to their downfall and imprisonment for life in 1969. This is Helgeland's fifth feature film. Tom Hardy , Emily Browning , David Thewlis and Christopher Eccleston star with Chazz Palminteri , Paul Bettany , Tara Fitzgerald and Taron Egerton as well as singer Duffy featured in supporting roles. Plot In the 1960s, Reggie Kray is a former boxer who has become an important part of the criminal underground in London. At the start of the film, his twin brother Ron is locked up in a psychiatric hospital for insanity and paranoid schizophrenia. Reggie uses threats to obtain the premature release of his brother, who is rapidly discharged from hospital. The two brothers unite their efforts to control a large ...more...

Hardware security module


Modern hardware security module with cryptographic acceleration A hardware security module ( HSM ) is a physical computing device that safeguards and manages digital keys for strong authentication and provides cryptoprocessing . These modules traditionally come in the form of a plug-in card or an external device that attaches directly to a computer or network server . Design HSMs may possess controls that provide tamper evidence such as logging and alerting and tamper resistance such as deleting keys upon tamper detection. Each module contains one or more secure cryptoprocessor chips to prevent tampering and bus probing . Many HSM systems have means to securely back up the keys they handle either in a wrapped form via the computer's operating system or externally using a smartcard or some other security token . Because HSMs are often part of a mission-critical infrastructure such as a public key infrastructure or online banking application, HSMs can typically be clustered for high availability. Some HSMs fea ...more...

Regina Hall


Regina Hall (born December 12, 1970) is an American film and television actress and comedian . She is perhaps best known for her lead role as Brenda Meeks in the Scary Movie film series (2000–2006). Hall, who was an English major in college and studied journalism in graduate school, envisioned a career as a journalist, but ventured into acting in her late twenties. Hall has appeared on numerous television series, most prominently in a recurring role on the comedy series Ally McBeal (2001–2002). Her other significant films include The Best Man (1999) and its sequel The Best Man Holiday (2013), Love & Basketball (2000), Malibu's Most Wanted (2003), Think Like a Man (2012) and its sequel Think Like a Man Too (2014), About Last Night (2014), Vacation (2015) and Girls Trip (2017). Early life Hall was born on December 12, 1970 in Washington, D.C. , the daughter of a contractor and electrician father, Odie Hall, and a teacher mother, Ruby. After graduating high school, Hall enrolled at Fordham University in ...more...



The classic wooden pallet, with a glove for scale. A plastic skid with nine legs, which can be lifted from all four sides. This type of transport is commonly called a pallet, but since it has no bottom it is technically a skid. A metal pallet with removable beams, in this case for firewood Automated palletizer of bread with industrial KUKA robots at a bakery in Germany 48" × 40" galvanized steel pallet. Galvanized steel pallets are fireproof and rust resistant. A pallet , sometimes inaccurately called a skid (a skid has no bottom deck boards), is a flat transport structure that supports goods in a stable fashion while being lifted by a forklift , pallet jack , front loader , work saver, or other jacking device , or a crane. A pallet is the structural foundation of a unit load which allows handling and storage efficiencies. Goods or shipping containers are often placed on a pallet secured with strapping , stretch wrap or shrink wrap and shipped. Since its invention in the twentieth century, its use has dramati ...more...

Youth (2017 film)


Youth ( Chinese : 芳华 ; pinyin : Fānghuá ) is a 2017 Chinese coming-of-age drama film directed by Feng Xiaogang and written by Geling Yan . It was screened in the Special Presentations section at the 2017 Toronto International Film Festival . It was scheduled to be released in China on October 1, 2017, but after previews in Beijing and other cities was pulled from the National Day schedule. It was released on 15 December 2017. Synopsis The film chronicles the lives of a group of idealistic adolescents in a military art troupe in the People's Liberation Army during the Cultural Revolution . They experience love, lust, betrayal, and sufferings in the background of Mao-era songs and dances. The two key characters, Feng Liu and Xiaoping He, also participate in the Sino-Vietnamese War in 1979 and become heroes for their act of courage. After the war, they are honorably discharged from the Army but struggle to make ends meet in the Reform-era China, while they eventually find love in each other. Cast Huang Xuan ...more...

Sleeved blanket


A woman wearing a blue Snuggie A sleeved blanket is a body-length blanket with sleeves usually made of fleece or nylon material. It is similar in design to a bathrobe that is meant to be worn backwards (i.e., with the opening in the back). The product has been marketed by various brands as the Snuggie, Snuggler, Doojo, Toasty Wrap, and Slanket, with varying sizes, colors and qualities of materials but similar basic design. The "Snuggie" brand itself also became a phenomenon of pop culture , outselling other brands and being referenced or imitated by many comedians or TV shows. Popularity In late 2008 and early 2009 the Snuggie brand of sleeved blankets became a pop culture phenomenon, sometimes described humorously as a " cult ". The product became famous after a direct response commercial promoting the product was aired. It was featured on television programs like Today where cast and crew donned Snuggie blankets for a segment which was described as looking like a Black Protestant choir . Others have des ...more...

Disk encryption


Disk encryption is a technology which protects information by converting it into unreadable code that cannot be deciphered easily by unauthorized people. Disk encryption uses disk encryption software or hardware to encrypt every bit of data that goes on a disk or disk volume . It is used to prevent unauthorized access to data storage. Expressions full disk encryption (FDE) or whole disk encryption signify that everything on disk is encrypted, but the master boot record (MBR), or similar area of a bootable disk, with code that starts the operating system loading sequence, is not encrypted. Some hardware-based full disk encryption systems can truly encrypt an entire boot disk, including the MBR. Transparent encryption Transparent encryption , also known as real-time encryption and on-the-fly encryption ( OTFE ), is a method used by some disk encryption software . "Transparent" refers to the fact that data is automatically encrypted or decrypted as it is loaded or saved. With transparent encryption, the files ar ...more...

List of most expensive films


Due to the secretive nature of Hollywood accounting it is not clear which film is the most expensive film ever made. Pirates of the Caribbean: On Stranger Tides officially holds the record with a budget of $378.5 million, while The Hobbit trilogy stands as the most expensive back-to-back film production with combined costs of $623 million after tax credits. Inflation, filming techniques and external market forces have impacted the economics of film production. Costs rose steadily during the silent era with Ben-Hur (1925) setting a record that lasted well into the sound era . Television had a direct impact on rising costs in the 1950s and early 60s as cinema competed with it for audiences, culminating in 1963 with Cleopatra ; despite being the highest earning film of the year, Cleopatra did not earn back its costs on its original release. The 1990s saw two thresholds crossed, with True Lies costing $100 million in 1994 and Titanic costing $200 million in 1997, both directed by James Cameron . Since then it has ...more...

Drill bushing


A drill bushing , also known as a jig bushing , is a tool used in metalworking jigs to guide cutting tools , most commonly drill bits . Other tools that are commonly used in a drill bushing include counterbores , countersinks , and reamers . They are designed to guide, position, and support the cutting tool. In the USA, Customary sized bushings are standardized via ASME B94.33 and metric bushings are standardized via ASME B94.33.1. There are over 50,000 standard configurations of customary sized bushings. Types Types of drilling bushings: A. Headless wearing press-fit bushing B. Head wearing press-fit bushing C. Headless liner bushing with renewable bushing D. Head liner bushing with renewable bushing Drill bushings can generally be classified as: press fit bushings or renewable bushings. Other classification methods include by head type, by use, and by liner type (or lack thereof). Press-fit bushings Press fit are available in two types with liners or without (wearing bushings). Liner bushings, sometimes ...more...

Bryson Tiller


Bryson Djuan Tiller (born January 2, 1993), is an American singer, songwriter and rapper. Born in Louisville, Kentucky , he started his career in 2011, releasing the debut mixtape titled Killer Instinct Vol.1. Tiller initially gained notable recognition following the release of his debut single, " Don't ", which peaked at number 13 on the Billboard Hot 100 , also being remixed by numerous other artists. Tiller's debut studio album, Trapsoul , was released in October 2015 and peaked at number eight on the Billboard 200 chart. In May 2017, Tiller released his second studio album, True to Self , which debuted at number one on the Billboard 200. In March 2016, Tiller received key to the city by Louisville's Mayor Greg Fischer . In the same year, he won two BET Awards for Best New Artist and Best Male R&B/Pop Artist . Tiller describes his music as " trap and hip hop -influenced R&B ". Early life Tiller was born on January 2, 1993, in Louisville, Kentucky . When he was four years old, his mother died, a ...more...

List of Walt Disney Pictures films


This is a list of films released theatrically under the Walt Disney Pictures banner (known as that since 1983, with Never Cry Wolf as its first release) and films released before that under the former name of the parent company , Walt Disney Productions (1929–1983). Most films listed here were distributed in the United States by the company's distribution division, Walt Disney Studios Motion Pictures (formerly known as Buena Vista Distribution Company [1953–1987] and Buena Vista Pictures Distribution [1987–2007]). The Disney features produced before Peter Pan (1953) were originally distributed by RKO Radio Pictures , and are now distributed by Walt Disney Studios Motion Pictures. This list is organized by release date and includes live action feature films, animated feature films (including films developed and produced by Walt Disney Animation Studios and Pixar Animation Studios ), and documentary films (including titles from the True-Life Adventures series and films produced by the Disneynature label). For a ...more...

Let's Be Cops


Let's Be Cops is a 2014 American action comedy film co-written and directed by Luke Greenfield . The film stars Jake Johnson and Damon Wayans, Jr. as two friends who pretend to be Los Angeles police officers. Co-starring Nina Dobrev , Rob Riggle , James D'Arcy and Keegan-Michael Key , the film was released on August 13, 2014. Plot Two longtime friends, Justin Miller (Wayans), a struggling video game designer, and Ryan O'Malley (Johnson), an unemployed, washed-up former college quarterback , recall a pact they once made: if they hadn't "made it" in Los Angeles by the time they were thirty, they would head back to their Columbus hometown. As they leave a bar, their car is hit by an Mercedes Benz G500 driven by an Albanian gang, who intimidate them into not retaliating. Justin attempts to pitch a video game about policemen , but the idea is rudely dismissed by his boss, Todd. Later, Ryan convinces him to use the police uniforms from his presentation as costumes for their college reunion party. Upon attending, th ...more...



SIV or Siv may refer to: Organizations Federal Executive Council (Yugoslavia) or Savezno izvršno veće (SIV) Sydney Intervarsity Choral Festival Sheffield International Venues , a facilities management company in Sheffield, UK Surinaamse Islamitische Vereniging Places SIV, the IATA and FAA airport code for Sullivan County Airport , Sullivan County, Indiana, USA Siv, Iran , a village in Kurdistan Province, Iran Science and Technology S IV , a shortcut pronoun for the Samsung Galaxy S4 Android smartphone Stress migration (Stress-induced voiding), a failure mechanism in MOSFETs Key Wrap (Synthetic Initialization Vector), a cryptographic key-wrapping algorithm Simian immunodeficiency virus , a virus found in primates and related to HIV Swine influenza virus, the cause of influenza in pigs Other Special Immigrant Visa , a type of immigrant visa in the United States Simulation d’incidents en vol, or simulation of flying incidents training Structured investment vehicle , a type of fund in the non-bank financial syste ...more...

Ocean's 8


Ocean's 8 is an upcoming American heist comedy film directed by Gary Ross and written by Ross and Olivia Milch. It is both a sequel and female spin-off of the Ocean's Trilogy , and will be released on June 8, 2018, by Warner Bros. Pictures . Principal photography on the film began on October 25, 2016, in New York City . Premise Danny Ocean's estranged sister Debbie attempts to pull off the heist of the century at New York City’s star-studded annual Met Gala . Her first stop is to assemble the perfect crew: Lou, Rose, Daphne Kluger, Nine Ball, Tammy, Amita, and Constance. Cast Sandra Bullock as Debbie Ocean, Danny Ocean 's estranged sister Cate Blanchett as Lou Helena Bonham Carter as Rose Anne Hathaway as Daphne Kluger Rihanna as Nine Ball Mindy Kaling as Amita Sarah Paulson as Tammy Awkwafina as Constance Damian Lewis as the main villain, Debbie's ex-lover and the target of the gang's robbery Richard Armitage as Claude Becker, an art curator James Corden Dakota Fanning will appear in an undisclosed role. Mat ...more...

Linear Tape-Open


Linear Tape-Open ( LTO ) is a magnetic tape data storage technology originally developed in the late 1990s as an open standards alternative to the proprietary magnetic tape formats that were available at the time. Hewlett Packard Enterprise , IBM and Quantum control the LTO Consortium , which directs development and manages licensing and certification of media and mechanism manufacturers. The standard form-factor of LTO technology goes by the name Ultrium , the original version of which was released in 2000 and can hold 100 GB of data in a cartridge. The eighth generation of LTO Ultrium was released in 2017 and can hold 12 TB in a cartridge of the same size. Upon introduction, LTO Ultrium rapidly defined the super tape market segment and has consistently been the best-selling super tape format. LTO is widely used with small and large computer systems, especially for backup . Historical context Half-inch (½-inch, 12.65 mm) magnetic tape has been used for data storage for more than 60 years. In the mid 1980s, ...more...

Star Wars sequel trilogy


The Star Wars sequel trilogy is the third set of three films in the Star Wars franchise, an American space opera created by George Lucas . It is being produced by Lucasfilm and distributed by Walt Disney Studios Motion Pictures . The trilogy is to consist of episodes VII through IX, and chronologically follows Return of the Jedi (1983) in the saga. Lucas had planned a sequel trilogy in the 1970s, but abandoned these plans by the late 1990s, producing only the planned prequel trilogy . The Walt Disney Company acquired Lucasfilm in late 2012 and then announced plans to produce this series. The first installment, Star Wars: The Force Awakens , was released in December 2015 in the U.S. It is directed by J. J. Abrams who co-wrote the screenplay with Lawrence Kasdan and Michael Arndt . Harrison Ford , Mark Hamill , Carrie Fisher , and other cast members from the original trilogy returned to reprise their roles and co-star alongside Daisy Ridley , John Boyega , Adam Driver , and Oscar Isaac . Unlike the previous tw ...more...

The Box (2009 film)


The Box is a 2009 American psychological thriller horror film based on the 1970 short story " Button, Button " by Richard Matheson , which was previously adapted into an episode of the 1980s iteration of The Twilight Zone . The film was written and directed by Richard Kelly and stars Cameron Diaz and James Marsden as a couple who receive a box from a mysterious man (played by Frank Langella ) who offers them one million dollars if they press the button sealed within the dome on top of the box, but tells them that, once the button has been pushed, someone they do not know will die. Plot In December 1976, financially-strapped couple Arthur (a NASA engineer) and Norma Lewis find a package on their doorstep. Inside is a wooden box, with a large red button locked under a transparent dome top. An accompanying note reads: "Mr. Steward will call upon you at 5:00 pm." Mr. Steward, a mysterious man with the left side of his face burned off, arrives to deliver the key for the box. He tells Norma that, if the button is p ...more...



Jumanji is a 1995 American fantasy adventure film directed by Joe Johnston . It is an adaptation of the 1981 children's book of the same name by Chris Van Allsburg , and the first installment in the Jumanji franchise . The film was written by Van Allsburg, Greg Taylor , Jonathan Hensleigh , and Jim Strain and stars Robin Williams , Bonnie Hunt , Kirsten Dunst , Bradley Pierce , David Alan Grier , Jonathan Hyde , and Bebe Neuwirth . The story centers on young Alan Parrish, who becomes trapped in a board game while playing with his best friend Sarah Whittle in 1969. Twenty-six years later, siblings Judy and Peter Shepherd find the game, begin playing and then unwittingly release the now-adult Alan. After tracking down Sarah, the quartet resolve to finish the game in order to reverse all of the destruction it has caused. The film was released on December 15, 1995. Despite its lukewarm critical reception, it was a box office success, earning $263 million worldwide on a budget of approximately $65 million and it b ...more...

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Alicia Vikander


Alicia Amanda Vikander ( ; Swedish:   (   listen ) ; born 3 October 1988) is a Swedish actress and former dancer. Born and raised in Gothenburg , she began acting as a child in minor stage productions at The Göteborg Opera and trained as a ballet dancer at the Royal Swedish Ballet School in Stockholm and the School of American Ballet in New York. She began her professional acting career by appearing in Swedish short films and television series and first gained recognition in Northern Europe for her role as Josefin Björn-Tegebrandt in the TV drama Andra Avenyn (2008–10). Vikander made her feature film debut in Pure (2010), for which she won the Guldbagge Award for Best Actress . She attracted widespread recognition in 2012 for portraying Princess Ekaterina "Kitty" Alexandrovna Shcherbatskaya in Joe Wright 's film adaptation of Anna Karenina and Queen Caroline Mathilde in the acclaimed Danish film A Royal Affair , starring Mads Mikkelsen . She went on to star in the 2013 Swedish drama film Hotell and appeared i ...more...

Baby sling


A young African woman carrying child in a baby sling. A baby sling is a piece of cloth that supports an infant or other small child from a carer's body. The use of a baby sling is called babywearing . Types Ring slings Man wearing child in a ring sling These are baby carriers that use dynamic tension, a length of cloth and metal (such as aluminum ) or nylon rings. One end of the cloth is sewn to two rings. The cloth wraps around the wearer's body from shoulder to opposite hip and back up to the shoulder, and the end is threaded through the rings to create a buckle effect. The baby sits or lies in the resulting pocket. Once a sling is threaded, it can be taken off and put back on without rethreading. A threaded sling forms a loop of cloth. The wearer can put one arm and the head through the loop of cloth to put the sling back on. When the baby is in the carrier, the baby's weight puts tension on the fabric, and the combination of fabric tension, friction of fabric surfaces against each other and the rings comb ...more...

Joseph Gordon-Levitt


Joseph Leonard Gordon-Levitt ( ; born February 17, 1981) is an American actor, filmmaker, singer and entrepreneur. As a child, he appeared in the films A River Runs Through It , Angels in the Outfield and 10 Things I Hate About You , and as Tommy Solomon in the TV series 3rd Rock from the Sun . He took a break from acting to study at Columbia University , but dropped out in 2004 to pursue acting again. He has since starred in (500) Days of Summer , Inception , Hesher , 50/50 , Premium Rush , The Dark Knight Rises , Brick , Looper , The Lookout , Manic , Lincoln , Mysterious Skin and G.I. Joe: The Rise of Cobra . He starred as Philippe Petit in the Robert Zemeckis -directed film The Walk (2015), and as Edward Snowden in the Oliver Stone film Snowden (2016). For his leading performances in (500) Days of Summer and 50/50, he was nominated for the Golden Globe Award for Best Actor – Motion Picture Musical or Comedy . Gordon-Levitt also founded the online production company hitRECord in 2004 and has hosted hi ...more...

Blue Ruin


Blue Ruin is a 2013 American thriller film written and directed by Jeremy Saulnier . The film premiered at the Cannes Film Festival as part of the Directors' Fortnight section on May 17, 2013, where it won the FIPRESCI Prize . Saulnier funded production on the film through a successful Kickstarter campaign, which called "the perfect example of what crowdfunding can accomplish." The film was nominated for the John Cassavetes Award at the 2015 Independent Spirit Awards . Plot Dwight Evans, living as a beach vagrant, lives out of his car and scavenges for food and money. A policewoman tells him that Wade Cleland, the man who murdered Dwight's parents, is to be released from prison. Dwight returns to his hometown in Virginia and watches the Clelands collect Wade from prison. Despite failing to steal a gun, Dwight follows Wade to a club restroom and, after a fight, fatally stabs him. Realizing he dropped his car keys in the club, Dwight steals the Clelands' limousine; as he drives away, he discovers a ...more...



The bassoon is a woodwind instrument in the double reed family that typically plays music written in the bass and tenor clefs , and occasionally the treble . Appearing in its modern form in the 19th century, the bassoon figures prominently in orchestral , concert band , and chamber music literature. The bassoon is a non- transposing instrument known for its distinctive tone colour, wide range, variety of character and agility. Listeners often compare its warm, dark, reedy timbre to that of a male baritone voice. Someone who plays the bassoon is called a bassoonist. Etymology The word bassoon comes from French basson and from Italian bassone (basso with the augmentative suffix -one). However, the Italian name for the same instrument is fagotto and in Spanish it is fagot. Fagot is a Germanic word which means bundle of sticks. Range Playing range of a bassoon (A) B ♭ –E (A) (   listen   ) The range of the bassoon begins at B ♭ (the first one below the bass staff ) and extends upward over three octaves , roughl ...more...

Offline private key protocol


The offline private key protocol (OPKP) is a cryptographic protocol to prevent unauthorized access to back up or archive data. The protocol results in a public key that can be used to encrypt data and an offline private key that can later be used to decrypt that data. The protocol is based on three rules regarding the key. An offline private key should: not be stored with the encrypted data (obviously) not be kept by the organisation that physically stores the encrypted data, to ensure privacy not be stored at the same system as the original data, to avoid the possibility that theft of only the private key would give access to all data at the storage provider; and to avoid that when the key would be needed to restore a backup, the key would be lost together with the data loss that made the restore necessary in the first place To comply with these rules, the offline private key protocol uses a method of asymmetric key wrapping . Security As the protocol does not provide rules on the strength of the encryption ...more...

Heap (data structure)


In computer science , a heap is a specialized tree -based data structure that satisfies the heap property: if P is a parent node of C, then the key (the value) of P is either greater than or equal to (in a max heap) or less than or equal to (in a min heap) the key of C. The node at the "top" of the heap (with no parents) is called the root node. The heap is one maximally efficient implementation of an abstract data type called a priority queue , and in fact priority queues are often referred to as "heaps", regardless of how they may be implemented. A common implementation of a heap is the binary heap , in which the tree is a binary tree (see figure). The heap data structure, specifically the binary heap, was introduced by J. W. J. Williams in 1964, as a data structure for the heapsort sorting algorithm. Heaps are also crucial in several efficient graph algorithms such as Dijkstra's algorithm . In a heap, the highest (or lowest) priority element is always stored at the root. A heap is not a sorted structure ...more...



Falafel or felafel ( , ; Arabic : فلافل ‎,  (   listen ) , dialectal : ) is a deep-fried ball, doughnut or patty made from ground chickpeas , fava beans , or both. Falafel is a traditional Middle Eastern food , commonly served in a pita , which acts as a pocket, or wrapped in a flatbread known as taboon ; "falafel" also frequently refers to a wrapped sandwich that is prepared in this way. The falafel balls are topped with salads, pickled vegetables , hot sauce , and drizzled with tahini-based sauces . Falafel balls may also be eaten alone as a snack or served as part of a meze (assortment of appetizers). Falafel is a common food eaten in the Middle East. The fritters are now found around the world as a replacement for meat and a form of street food . Etymology The word Falāfil ( Arabic : فلافل ‎) is the plural of Filfil ( فلفل ), meaning "pepper". The word itself spread and is used in other languages such as Persian pilpil ( پلپل ), from the Sanskrit word pippalī ( पिप्पली ), meaning "long pepper"; or an ea ...more...

The Divergent Series: Allegiant


The Divergent Series: Allegiant is a 2016 American action adventure film directed by Robert Schwentke with a screenplay by Bill Collage, Adam Cooper, and Noah Oppenheim . It is intended as the first of two cinematic parts based on the novel Allegiant , the final book in the Divergent trilogy by Veronica Roth , and the third installment in The Divergent Series . The film stars Shailene Woodley , Theo James , Jeff Daniels , Miles Teller , Ansel Elgort , Zoë Kravitz , Maggie Q , Ray Stevenson , Bill Skarsgård , Octavia Spencer , and Naomi Watts , and is the sequel to Insurgent and could be followed by the concluding entry, Ascendant (Allegiant and Ascendant were originally to be titled Allegiant – Part 1 and Allegiant – Part 2). Allegiant was released on March 18, 2016, in theaters and IMAX and received mainly negative reviews. The film was a financial disappointment, grossing $179 million worldwide, becoming the lowest-grossing Divergent film. This led to budget cuts on the fourth and the possibility that th ...more...

Jumanji: Welcome to the Jungle


Jumanji: Welcome to the Jungle is a 2017 American action adventure comedy film directed by Jake Kasdan and written by Chris McKenna , Erik Sommers, Scott Rosenberg , and Jeff Pinkner , from a story by McKenna. It is the second installment in the Jumanji franchise , based on the 1981 children's book of the same name by Chris Van Allsburg and serves as a stand-alone sequel to Jumanji (1995). The film also makes a tribute to Robin Williams , star of the original film, with a carving of his character's name. The film stars Dwayne Johnson , Jack Black , Kevin Hart , Karen Gillan , Nick Jonas , and Bobby Cannavale . Set twenty-one years after the first film, the plot follows four teenagers who are transported into the video game world of Jumanji, playing as the characters they chose , and uniting with another player, must overcome the game's magical power in order to win and return home. Principal photography began in Hawaii in September 2016. Jumanji: Welcome to the Jungle premiered at the Grand Rex in Paris on D ...more...

The Disaster Artist (film)


The Disaster Artist is a 2017 American biographical comedy-drama film produced and directed by James Franco . Written by Scott Neustadter and Michael H. Weber , the film is based on Greg Sestero and Tom Bissell 's non-fiction book of the same name , and chronicles the making of Tommy Wiseau 's 2003 The Room , widely considered one of the worst movies ever made . The film stars brothers James and Dave Franco as Wiseau and Sestero, respectively, alongside a supporting cast featuring Seth Rogen (who also produced), Alison Brie , Ari Graynor , Josh Hutcherson , and Jacki Weaver . Principal photography began on December 8, 2015. A work-in-progress cut of the film premiered at South by Southwest on March 12, 2017; it was later screened at the 2017 Toronto International Film Festival on September 11, and also played at the 2017 San Sebastián International Film Festival , where it became the first American film to win its top prize, the Golden Shell , since A Thousand Years of Good Prayers in 2007. Distributed by A24 ...more...



bcrypt is a password hashing function designed by Niels Provos and David Mazières, based on the Blowfish cipher, and presented at USENIX in 1999. Besides incorporating a salt to protect against rainbow table attacks, bcrypt is an adaptive function: over time, the iteration count can be increased to make it slower, so it remains resistant to brute-force search attacks even with increasing computation power. The bcrypt function is the default password hash algorithm for OpenBSD and other systems including some Linux distributions such as SUSE Linux . The prefix "$2a$" or "$2b$" (or "$2y$") in a hash string in a shadow password file indicates that hash string is a bcrypt hash in modular crypt format. The rest of the hash string includes the cost parameter, a 128-bit salt ( Radix-64 encoded as 22 characters), and 184 bits of the resulting hash value ( Radix-64 encoded as 31 characters) . The Radix-64 encoding uses the unix/crypt alphabet, and is not 'standard' Base-64 . The cost parameter specifies a key expan ...more...

Grip (job)


In the U.S. and Canada , grips are technicians in the filmmaking and video production industries. They constitute their own department on a film set and are directed by a key grip . Grips have two main functions. The first is to work closely with the camera department to provide camera support, especially if the camera is mounted to a dolly , crane , or in an unusual position, such as the top of a ladder. Some grips may specialize in operating camera dollies or camera cranes . The second main function of grips is to work closely with the electrical department to create lighting set-ups necessary for a shot under the direction of the director of photography . Grips' responsibility is to build and maintain all the equipment that supports cameras. This equipment, which includes tripods, dollies, tracks, jibs, cranes, and static rigs, is constructed of delicate yet heavy duty parts requiring a high level of experience to operate and move. Every scene in a feature film is shot using one or more cameras, each mount ...more...

List of radio stations in Florida


The following is a list of FCC -licensed radio stations in the U.S. state of Florida , which can be sorted by their call signs , frequencies , cities of license , licensees, and programming formats . List of radio stations Call sign Frequency City of license Licensee Format WAAZ-FM 104.7 FM Crestview Crestview Broadcasting Company, Inc. Country WACC 830 AM Hialeah Radio Peace Catholic Broadcasting, Inc. Spanish Catholic WAFC 590 AM Clewiston Glades Media Company LLP Classic hits WAFC-FM 106.1 FM Okeechobee BMZ Broadcasting, LLC Regional Mexican WAFG-LP 107.1 FM Pompano Beach Calvary Chapel Pompano Beach, Inc. Religious Teaching WAFZ 1490 AM Immokalee Glades Media Company LLP Spanish WAFZ-FM 92.1 FM Immokalee Glades Media Company LLC Spanish WAIG-LP 106.3 FM Daytona Beach Rhema Broadcasting, Inc. Urban Gospel WAIL 99.5 FM Key West Florida Keys Media, LLC Classic rock WAJD 1390 AM Gainesville Gillen Broadcasting Corporation Smooth jazz WAJP 107.7 FM Perry Hispanic Target Media, Inc. Country WAKJ 91.3 FM DeFunia ...more...

The X-Files (season 10)


The tenth season of the American science fiction television series The X-Files commenced airing in the United States on January 24, 2016, on Fox . The season consists of six episodes and concluded airing on February 22, 2016. The season, which takes place fourteen years after the ninth season (2001–02) and seven years after the film The X-Files: I Want to Believe (2008), follows newly re-instated Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) agents Fox Mulder ( David Duchovny ) and Dana Scully ( Gillian Anderson ) as they learn more about the existence of extraterrestrials and their relationship with the government. Ever since The X-Files: I Want to Believe debuted in theaters, there was talk of a third X-Files movie to wrap-up the series' remaining storylines. However, for years these talks never resulted in action until on March 24, 2015, Fox announced that the series would return as a short-format event series with six episodes. After the season aired, it received largely mixed reviews from critics. The second, th ...more...

Sorry to Bother You (film)


Sorry to Bother You is an upcoming American comedy fantasy sci-fi film written and directed by Boots Riley in his directorial debut. It stars Lakeith Stanfield , Armie Hammer , Tessa Thompson , Steven Yeun , Jermaine Fowler , Omari Hardwick and Terry Crews . The film will have its world premiere at the Sundance Film Festival on January 20, 2018. Plot A telemarketer discovers a magical key to business success, and uncovers the macabre secret of his corporate overlords. Cast Lakeith Stanfield as Cassius Green Armie Hammer as Steve Lift Tessa Thompson as Detroit Steven Yeun Jermaine Fowler Omari Hardwick Terry Crews Danny Glover David Cross Patton Oswalt Kate Berlant Robert Longstreet Michael Sommers Jason Berry Production In June 2017, it was announced Lakeith Stanfield , Tessa Thompson and Steven Yeun had been cast in the film, with Boots Riley directing from a screenplay he wrote. Nina Yang Bongiovi , Forest Whitaker , Jonathan Duffy, Kelly Williams, Charles D. King and George Rush will serve as producers on ...more...

Big data


Growth of and digitization of global information-storage capacity Big data is data sets that are so voluminous and complex that traditional data processing application software are inadequate to deal with them. Big data challenges include capturing data , data storage , data analysis , search, sharing , transfer , visualization , querying , updating and information privacy . There are three dimensions to big data known as Volume, Variety and Velocity. Lately, the term "big data" tends to refer to the use of predictive analytics , user behavior analytics , or certain other advanced data analytics methods that extract value from data, and seldom to a particular size of data set. "There is little doubt that the quantities of data now available are indeed large, but that’s not the most relevant characteristic of this new data ecosystem." Analysis of data sets can find new correlations to "spot business trends, prevent diseases, combat crime and so on." Scientists, business executives, practitioners of medicine, ...more...

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Fill light


In television, film, stage, or photographic lighting, a fill light (often simply fill ) may be used to reduce the contrast of a scene to match the dynamic range of the recording media and record the same amount of detail typically seen by eye in average lighting and considered normal. From that baseline of normality using more or less fill will make shadows seem lighter or darker than normal which will cause the viewer to react differently, by inferring both environmental and mood clues from the tone of the shadows. Natural skylight fill is omnidirectional and diffuse, with lower rate of inverse-square fall-off than artificial sources. A common artificial lighting strategy which creates an overall appearance similar to natural fill places the fill light on the lens axis so it will appear to cast few if any shadows from the point of view of the camera, which allows the key light which overlaps it to create the illusion of 3D in a 2D photo with the same single source patterns typically seen with natural lightin ...more...

In a Valley of Violence


In a Valley of Violence is a 2016 American Western film written, directed, executive produced and edited by Ti West . Jason Blum serves as producer through his production company Blumhouse Productions . The film stars Ethan Hawke , Taissa Farmiga , James Ransone , Karen Gillan , and John Travolta . It had its world premiere at South by Southwest on March 12, 2016, and was released in a limited release and through video on demand on October 21, 2016 by Focus World . Plot A drifter named Paul and his dog, Abbie, make their way towards Mexico through the desert of the Old West . They encounter a drunken priest attempting to get to the nearby town of Denton. The priest holds Paul at gunpoint in order to steal his horse, but Paul has Abbie attack him; the drifter then takes the priest's bullets and water canteen, and goes on his way. Surveying the area, Paul decides to cut through Denton in order to get supplies and reduce their journey time. In the local tavern, Paul meets Deputy Gilly Martin, who challenges the ...more...

Under Wraps (Jethro Tull album)


Under Wraps is the 15th studio album by the band Jethro Tull , released in 1984. The songs' subject matter is heavily influenced by bandleader Ian Anderson 's love of espionage fiction. It was controversial due to its electronic/synth sound, particularly the use of electronic drums. Dave Pegg has been quoted as saying that the tracks cut from Broadsword and the Beast would have made a better album, while Martin Barre called it one of his personal favourite Tull albums. The album reached Nº 76 in the Billboard 200 and Nº 18 in the UK charts. The single "Lap Of Luxury" reached Nº 30. Production This is the first Jethro Tull album since This Was where the majority of songs were co-written with band members, primarily Peter-John Vettese . Usually Ian Anderson is the sole songwriter. This is also the only Jethro Tull album that features no live drummer at all. After the recording Doane Perry joined the band on tour and became their permanent drummer. Releases The original 1984 release had 11 tracks, with "Astro ...more...



Zendaya Maree Stoermer Coleman (born September 1, 1996) ( ) is an American actress and singer. She began her career appearing as a child model and backup dancer before gaining prominence for her role as Rocky Blue on the Disney Channel sitcom Shake It Up (2010–2013). In 2013, Zendaya was a contestant on the sixteenth season of the competition series Dancing with the Stars . She currently produces and stars as K.C. Cooper in the Disney Channel sitcom K.C. Undercover (2015–present). She made her film breakthrough in 2017, starring as Michelle "MJ" Jones in the Marvel Cinematic Universe superhero film Spider-Man: Homecoming and as Anne Wheeler in the musical drama film The Greatest Showman . Zendaya began her career in music by recording songs independently and releasing the singles " Swag It Out " and " Watch Me " in 2011, the latter a collaboration with Bella Thorne . She signed with Hollywood Records in 2012 and later released her debut single, " Replay ", which reached number 40 on the Billboard Hot 100 cha ...more...



Wooden dowel pins A dowel is a solid cylindrical rod , usually made from wood , plastic , or metal . In its original manufactured form, a dowel is called a dowel rod. Dowel rods are often cut into short lengths called dowel pins. Dowels are employed in numerous, diverse applications including axles in toys, detents (e. g., in gymnastics grips ), structural reinforcements in cabinet making , and supports for tiered wedding cakes . Other uses include: As furniture shelf supports As moveable game pieces (i. e., pegs) As supports for hanging items such as clothing, key rings, tools, toilet roll dispensers and picture frames To precisely align two objects in a dowel joint : a hole is bored in both objects and the dowel pin is inserted into the aligned holes As a core to wrap cable or textiles around Wood dowel Manufacturing process A dowel plate The traditional tool for making dowels is a dowel plate, an iron (or better, hardened tool steel ) plate with a hole having the size of the desired dowel. To make a dowel, ...more...

Mary Elizabeth Winstead


Mary Elizabeth Winstead (born November 28, 1984) is an American actress and singer. She has starred in scream queen roles in horror films including Final Destination 3 (2006), Black Christmas (2006), Death Proof (2007), The Thing (2011), Abraham Lincoln: Vampire Hunter (2012), and 10 Cloverfield Lane (2016). She appeared as John McClane 's daughter Lucy in the fourth and fifth films in the Die Hard franchise (2007, 2013), Ramona Flowers in Scott Pilgrim vs. the World (2010), Leah in The Beauty Inside (2012), and Kate Hannah in the Sundance drama Smashed (2012). Her singing career started in 2013, with her formation of the music duo Got a Girl with Dan the Automator . Early life Mary Elizabeth Winstead was born on November 28, 1984, in Rocky Mount, North Carolina , to James Ronald and Betty Lou ( née Knight), and is the youngest of five children. Her grandfather was a cousin of actress Ava Gardner . When she was five years old, her family moved to Sandy, Utah , a Salt Lake City suburb . She attended Per ...more...

Logan (film)


Logan is a 2017 American superhero film , produced by Marvel Entertainment , TSG Entertainment and The Donners' Company, and distributed by 20th Century Fox . It is the tenth installment in the X-Men film series , as well as the third and final Wolverine solo film following X-Men Origins: Wolverine (2009) and The Wolverine (2013). The film takes inspiration from " Old Man Logan " by Mark Millar and Steve McNiven , which follows an aged Wolverine and an extremely ill Professor X defending the former's biological Mexican daughter Laura from the villainous Reavers and Alkali-Transigen led by Donald Pierce and Zander Rice , respectively. The film is directed by James Mangold , who co-wrote the screenplay with Michael Green and Scott Frank, from a story by David James Kelly and Mangold. Hugh Jackman stars as Logan in what is intended to be his final portrayal of the character after having played the role for 17 years, with Patrick Stewart co-starring as Charles Xavier . Richard E. Grant , Boyd Holbrook , Stephen ...more...

Niños Héroes


Former Brazilian president Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva at the Heroic Cadets Memorial in Chapultepec Park , Mexico City. The monument was designed by architect Enrique Aragón and sculpted by Ernesto Tamariz at the entrance to Chapultepec Park in 1952. The Niños Héroes ( Spanish:  , Boy Heroes), also known as the Heroic Cadets or Boy Soldiers , were six Mexican teenage military cadets. These cadets died defending Mexico City 's Chapultepec Castle from invading U.S. forces in the 13 September 1847 Battle of Chapultepec , during the Mexican–American War . According to legend, in an act of bravery, Juan Escutia wrapped the Mexican flag around his body and jumped from the top of the castle in order to keep it from falling into the enemy's hands. The Niños Héroes are a key part of Mexico's patriotic folklore, commemorated by a national holiday on September 13. However, several modern Mexican historians claim that parts of the story are not factual. History Painting on a ceiling of the Castillo de Chapultepec by Gabrie ...more...

Blade Runner 2049


Blade Runner 2049 is a 2017 American neo-noir science fiction film directed by Denis Villeneuve and written by Hampton Fancher and Michael Green . A sequel to the 1982 film Blade Runner , the film stars Ryan Gosling and Harrison Ford , with Ana de Armas , Sylvia Hoeks , Robin Wright , Mackenzie Davis , Carla Juri , Lennie James , Dave Bautista and Jared Leto in supporting roles. Set thirty years after the first film, Gosling plays K, a Blade Runner, who hunts rogue replicants. Principal photography took place between July and November 2016, mainly in Budapest, Hungary. Blade Runner 2049 premiered in Los Angeles on October 3, 2017 and was released in the United States in 2D, 3D and IMAX on October 6, 2017. The film was praised by critics for its performances, direction, cinematography, musical score, production design, and faithfulness to the original film, and has grossed $259 million worldwide. Plot In 2049, replicants ( bioengineered humans ) are servants and slaves in society. K, a replicant, works for the ...more...

Corey Hawkins


Corey Antonio Hawkins (born October 22, 1988) is an American actor and singer . He is known for his roles in the TV series The Walking Dead and 24: Legacy , as well as his portrayal of Dr. Dre in the 2015 film Straight Outta Compton . In 2017, he starred in the Broadway production Six Degrees of Separation , for which he received a nomination for the Tony Award for Best Actor in a Play . Life and career Hawkins was born in Washington, D.C. , where he was raised by his mother, a police officer. He attended the Duke Ellington School of the Arts , and graduated from the Juilliard School in New York City , a member of the Drama Division's Group 40. While studying at Juilliard, Hawkins received the prestigious John Houseman Award for excellence in classical theatre. Upon graduation, he began a career starring Off-Broadway and guest starring on television. Hawkins garnered a brief role in Marvel Studios ' Iron Man 3 and went on to star opposite Liam Neeson and Julianne Moore in Universal Pictures ' action-thrill ...more...



Kubotan (sometimes erroneously spelled as kubaton or kobutan) is a genericized trademark for a self-defense keychain weapon developed by Sōke Takayuki Kubota in the late 1960s. It is typically no more than 5.5 inches (14 centimetres) long and about half an inch (1.25 centimetres) in diameter, slightly thicker or the same size as a marker pen. The material is usually of a hard high-impact plastic (e.g. Lexan ). The body of the Kubotan is lined with six round grooves with a screw eye or swivel and split ring attachment at one end for keys. History The Kubotan keychain was originally based on a small bamboo weapon called the "hashi stick", an invention by Kubota's father Denjiro. Its popularity grew in 1969 to 1970s when Kubota, at the request of Senator Edward M. Davis then former Chief of the Los Angeles Police Department , created the weapon and began training female officers in its application. It is often touted as extremely effective in breaking the will of unruly suspects with painful locks and pressure p ...more...

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