Key Wrap

Key Wrap constructions are a class of symmetric encryption algorithms designed to encapsulate (encrypt) cryptographic key material.[1] The Key Wrap algorithms are intended for applications such as protecting keys while in untrusted storage or transmitting keys over untrusted communications networks. The constructions are typically built from standard primitives such as block ciphers and cryptographic hash functions.

Key Wrap may be considered as a form of key encapsulation algorithm, although it should not be confused with the more commonly known asymmetric (public-key) key encapsulation algorithms (e.g., PSEC-KEM). Key Wrap algorithms can be used in a similar application: to securely transport a session key by encrypting it under a long-term encryption key.

Background

In the late 1990s, the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) posed the "Key Wrap" problem: to develop secure and efficient cipher-based key encryption algorithms. The resulting algorithms would be formally evaluated by NIST, and eventually approved for use in NIST-certified cryptographic modules. NIST did not precisely define the security goals of the resulting algorithm, and left further refinement to the algorithm developers. Based on the resulting algorithms, the design requirements appear to be (1) confidentiality, (2) integrity protection (authentication), (3) efficiency, (4) use of standard (approved) underlying primitives such as the Advanced Encryption Standard (AES) and the Secure Hash Algorithm (SHA-1), and (5) consideration of additional circumstances (e.g., resilience to operator error, low-quality random number generators). Goals (3) and (5) are particularly important, given that many widely deployed authenticated encryption algorithms (e.g., AES-CCM) are already sufficient to accomplish the remaining goals.

NIST AES Key Wrap Specification

Several constructions have been proposed. These include:

Each of the proposed algorithms can be considered as a form of authenticated encryption algorithm providing confidentiality for highly entropic messages such as cryptographic keys. The AES Key Wrap Specification, AESKW, TDKW, and AKW1 are intended to maintain confidentiality under adaptive chosen ciphertext attacks, while the AKW2 algorithm is designed to be secure only under known-plaintext (or weaker) attacks. (The stated goal of AKW2 is for use in legacy systems and computationally limited devices where use of the other algorithms would be impractical.) AESKW, TDKW and AKW2 also provide the ability to authenticate cleartext "header", an associated block of data that is not encrypted.

Rogaway and Shrimpton evaluated the design of the ANSX9.102 algorithms with respect to the stated security goals. Among their general findings, they noted the lack of clearly stated design goals for the algorithms, and the absence of security proofs for all constructions.

In their paper, Rogaway and Shrimpton proposed a provable key-wrapping algorithm (SIV—the Synthetic Initialization Vector mode) that authenticates and encrypts an arbitrary string and authenticates, but does not encrypt, additional data which can be bound into the wrapped key. This has been standardized as a new AES mode in RFC 5297.

See also
References
  1. "Key wrap algorithm". Retrieved 26 May 2016.
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Key Wrap

topic

Key Wrap

Key Wrap constructions are a class of symmetric encryption algorithms designed to encapsulate (encrypt) cryptographic key material.[1] The Key Wrap algorithms are intended for applications such as protecting keys while in untrusted storage or transmitting keys over untrusted communications networks. The constructions are typically built from standard primitives such as block ciphers and cryptographic hash functions. Key Wrap may be considered as a form of key encapsulation algorithm, although it should not be confused with the more commonly known asymmetric (public-key) key encapsulation algorithms (e.g., PSEC-KEM). Key Wrap algorithms can be used in a similar application: to securely transport a session key by encrypting it under a long-term encryption key. Background In the late 1990s, the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) posed the "Key Wrap" problem: to develop secure and efficient cipher-based key encryption algorithms. The resulting algorithms would be formally evaluated by NIST, ...more...

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Key management

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Key management

Key management refers to management of cryptographic keys in a cryptosystem. This includes dealing with the generation, exchange, storage, use, crypto-shredding (destruction) and replacement of keys. It includes cryptographic protocol design, key servers, user procedures, and other relevant protocols.[1] Key management concerns keys at the user level, either between users or systems. This is in contrast to key scheduling, which typically refers to the internal handling of keys within the operation of a cipher. Successful key management is critical to the security of a cryptosystem. It is the more challenging side of cryptography in a sense that it involves aspects of social engineering such as system policy, user training, organizational and departmental interactions, and coordination between all of these elements, in contrast to pure mathematical practices that can be automated. Types of keys Cryptographic systems may use different types of keys, with some systems using more than one. These may include s ...more...

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Line wrap and word wrap

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Line wrap and word wrap

Line breaking, also known as word wrapping, is the process of breaking a section of text into lines such that it will fit in the available width of a page, window or other display area. In text display, line wrap is the feature of continuing on a new line when a line is full, such that each line fits in the viewable window, allowing text to be read from top to bottom without any horizontal scrolling. Word wrap is the additional feature of most text editors, word processors, and web browsers, of breaking lines between words rather than within words, when possible. Word wrap makes it unnecessary to hard-code newline delimiters within paragraphs, and allows the display of text to adapt flexibly and dynamically to displays of varying sizes. Soft and hard returns A soft return or soft wrap is the break resulting from line wrap or word wrap (whether automatic or manual), whereas a hard return or hard wrap is an intentional break, creating a new paragraph. With a hard return, paragraph-break formatting can (and sh ...more...

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Key encapsulation

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Key encapsulation

Key encapsulation mechanisms (KEMs) are a class of encryption techniques designed to secure symmetric cryptographic key material for transmission using asymmetric (public-key) algorithms. In practice, public key systems are clumsy to use in transmitting long messages. Instead they are often used to exchange symmetric keys, which are relatively short. The symmetric key is then used to encrypt the longer message. The traditional approach to sending a symmetric key with public key systems is to first generate a random symmetric key and then encrypt it using the chosen public key algorithm. The recipient then decrypts the public key message to recover the symmetric key. As the symmetric key is generally short, padding is required for full security and proofs of security for padding schemes are often less than complete.[1] KEMs simplify the process by generating a random element in the finite group underlying the public key system and deriving the symmetric key by hashing that element, eliminating the need for pa ...more...

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Insidious: The Last Key

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Insidious: The Last Key

Insidious: The Last Key is a 2018 American supernatural horror film directed by Adam Robitel and written by Leigh Whannell. It is produced by Jason Blum, Oren Peli, and James Wan. It is the fourth and final installment in the Insidious franchise, and the second in the chronology of the story running through the series. Starring Lin Shaye, Angus Sampson, Leigh Whannell, Spencer Locke, Caitlin Gerard, and Bruce Davison, the film follows parapsychologist Elise Rainier as she investigates a haunting in her childhood home. The film was released in the United States on January 5, 2018, by Universal Pictures. It grossed $167 million worldwide, the highest of the franchise, and received mixed reviews, with praise for Shaye's performance but some critics stating that the franchise had run its course.[2] Plot In 1953, young Elise Rainier lives with her parents Audrey and Gerald, a prison executioner, and her brother Christian, in New Mexico. Elise claims to see the ghosts of the prisoners that have been executed, al ...more...

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Authenticated encryption

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Authenticated encryption

Authenticated encryption (AE) and authenticated encryption with associated data (AEAD, variant of AE) is a form of encryption which simultaneously provides confidentiality, integrity, and authenticity assurances on the data. These attributes are provided under a single, easy to use programming interface. The need for AE emerged from the observation that securely combining separate confidentiality and authentication block cipher operation modes could be error prone and difficult.[1][2] This was confirmed by a number of practical attacks introduced into production protocols and applications by incorrect implementation, or lack of authentication (including SSL/TLS).[3] Around the year 2000, a number of efforts evolved around the notion. In particular, strong interest in these modes was sparked by the publication of Charanjit Jutla's IACBC and IAPM modes[4] in 2000. Six different authenticated encryption modes (namely OCB 2.0, Key Wrap, CCM, EAX, Encrypt-then-MAC (EtM), and GCM) have been standardized in ISO/IE ...more...

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SIV

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SIV

SIV or Siv may refer to: Organizations Federal Executive Council (Yugoslavia) or Savezno izvršno veće (SIV) Sydney Intervarsity Choral Festival Sheffield International Venues, a facilities management company in Sheffield, UK Surinaamse Islamitische Vereniging Places SIV, the IATA and FAA airport code for Sullivan County Airport, Sullivan County, Indiana, USA Siv, Iran, a village in Kurdistan Province, Iran Science and Technology S IV, a shortcut pronoun for the Samsung Galaxy S4 Android smartphone Stress migration (Stress-induced voiding), a failure mechanism in MOSFETs Key Wrap (Synthetic Initialization Vector), a cryptographic key-wrapping algorithm Simian immunodeficiency virus, a virus found in primates and related to HIV Swine influenza virus, the cause of influenza in pigs Other Special Immigrant Visa, a type of immigrant visa in the United States Simulation d’incidents en vol, or simulation of flying incidents training Structured investment vehicle, a type of fund i ...more...



Locke & Key

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Locke & Key

Locke & Key is an American comic book series written by Joe Hill, illustrated by Gabriel Rodríguez and published by IDW Publishing. Plot summary This plot is presented in non-chronological order. During the American Revolution, a group of Rebels, hiding beneath the future Keyhouse, discover a portal to another dimension, the plains of Leng filled with demons which can mesmerize any who see them and possess through touch. However, when the demons attempt to enter the real world, they collapse into lumps of "whispering iron", which young smith Benjamin Locke forges into a variety of magical keys, including the Omega Key, which seals the entrance to the dimension. The magic of the Keyhouse gradually evolves over the years, including a spell which causes occupants to forget about the keys and the magic of the house when they pass their 18th birthday. In 1988, a group of teenagers, having used the keys extensively in their high school years to their great delight, decide to open the black door with the Omeg ...more...

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End-user license agreement

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End-user license agreement

In proprietary software, an end-user license agreement (EULA) or software license agreement is the contract between the licensor and purchaser, establishing the purchaser's right to use the software. The license may define ways under which the copy can be used, in addition to the automatic rights of the buyer including the first sale doctrine and 17 U.S.C. § 117 (freedom to use, archive, re-sale, and backup with legal restrictions). Many form contracts are only contained in digital form, and only presented to a user as a click-through where the user must "accept". As the user may not see the agreement until after he or she has already purchased the software, these documents may be contracts of adhesion. Software companies often make special agreements with large businesses and government entities that include support contracts and specially drafted warranties. Some end-user license agreements accompany shrink-wrapped software that is presented to a user sometimes on paper or more usually electronically, du ...more...

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Key Management Interoperability Protocol (KMIP)

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Key Management Interoperability Protocol (KMIP)

Participants in the OASIS 2017 interop at the 2017 RSA conference. The Key Management Interoperability Protocol (KMIP) is an extensible communication protocol that defines message formats for the manipulation of cryptographic keys on a key management server. This facilitates data encryption by simplifying encryption key management. Keys may be created on a server and then retrieved, possibly wrapped by other keys. Both symmetric and asymmetric keys are supported, including the ability to sign certificates. KMIP also allows for clients to ask a server to encrypt or decrypt data, without needing direct access to the key. The KMIP standard was first released in 2010. Clients and servers are commercially available from multiple vendors. The KMIP standard effort is governed by the OASIS standards body. Technical details can also be found on the official KMIP page and wiki. Description A KMIP server stores and controls Managed Objects such as symmetric and asymmetric keys, certificates, and user defined objects ...more...

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Key & Peele

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Key & Peele

Key & Peele is an American sketch comedy television series created by Keegan-Michael Key and Jordan Peele that was aired on Comedy Central. Both Key and Peele previously worked on Mad TV.[4] Each episode of the show consists mainly of several pre-taped skits starring the two actors. The sketches cover a variety of societal topics, often with a focus on American popular culture, ethnic stereotypes and race relations.[5] Key & Peele premiered on January 31, 2012[6] and ended on September 9, 2015, with a total of 53 episodes, over the course of five seasons. A special entitled "Key & Peele's Super Bowl Special" aired on January 30, 2015. Key & Peele won a Peabody Award and two Primetime Emmy Awards and has been nominated for various other awards, including Writers Guild Award, NAACP Image Award and 16 additional Primetime Emmy Awards in various categories. Format In the first three seasons, an episode would consist of a cold opening, with a short sketch. After the intro plays, the two hos ...more...

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List of McDonald's products

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List of McDonald's products

McDonald's logo McDonald's is one of the world's largest fast food chains, founded in 1940 in San Bernardino, USA and incorporated in Des Plaines, Illinois in 1955.[1] Since then, McDonald's has become a household name in American households, known for selling a variety of convenience food items at thousands of locations worldwide. Throughout its history, McDonald's has experimented with a number of different offerings on the menu. [2] Hamburgers McDonald's beef patties are seasoned with salt and ground pepper. This list is based on core menu items in the United States, with some additions from global products. Hamburger (formerly known as the Junior Burger in some countries) and cheeseburger consists of a 1.6-ounce (45 g) ground beef patty, with 0.125 ounces (3.5 g) ketchup, mustard, dill pickle slices and re-hydrated onions on a toasted bun. In most of the New York City area, it is served without mustard.[3] It is also sold as a double or triple burger. A triple burger and a bacon double cheeseburger ...more...

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to read

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Exhaust heat management

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Exhaust heat management

Exhaust heat management is the means of lessening the negative effects of internal combustion engine exhausts by preventing heat from escaping the exhaust system on automobiles. Overview The fact that exhausts often pass near important components means that ways of protecting these components from heat soak are especially important. As a result, heat management is used as a way of reflecting, dissipating or simply absorbing the heat. Heat shield is also useful to reduce under-bonnet temperatures which therefore reduces intake temperature, subsequently increasing power. Types There are many different types of heat management, some more effective than others. They range from basic solid heat shield to plasma sprayed ceramics. Heat shield Heat shield is one of the most widely used heat management options available due to its relative low price and ease to fit. In the past it has usually been custom made from rigid steel; however, flexible aluminium is now the standard. The key difference between a heat sh ...more...

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Sealed Air

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Sealed Air

Sealed Air Corporation is a packaging company known for its brands: Cryovac food packaging and Bubble Wrap cushioning packaging.[1][3][4] Sealed Air Corporation has two divisions: Food Care & Product Care. It sold off its stake in Diversey Care in 2017.[2] Ted Doheny is the CEO of the Charlotte, North Carolina-headquartered Sealed Air.[3][5] History In 1957, Alfred W. Fielding and Marc Chavannes attempted to invent plastic wallpaper with a paper backing.[6][7][8][9] While the wallpaper failed, Fielding and Chavannes later realized that what they had come up with could be used for packing material.[6][8][9] Sealed Air was founded in 1960 based on this invention of Bubble Wrap.[6][7][8][9] That same year, Sealed Air raised $85,000 in its initial public offering.[10] Fielding served as executive vice president and director of Sealed Air until his retirement in 1987, while Chavannes worked mostly as a consultant.[8] T.J. Dermot Dunphy served as CEO from 1971-2000.[8][10][11] Dunphy graduated from Oxford U ...more...

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Entropic security

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Entropic security

Entropic security is a security definition used in the field of cryptography. Modern encryption schemes are generally required to protect communications even when the attacker has substantial information about the messages being encrypted. For example, even if an attacker knows that an intercepted ciphertext encrypts either the message "Attack" or the message "Retreat", a semantically secure encryption scheme will prevent the attacker from learning which of the two messages is encrypted. However, definitions such as semantic security are too strong to achieve with certain specialized encryption schemes. Entropic security is a weaker definition that can be used in the special case where an attacker has very little information about the messages being encrypted. It is well known that certain types of encryption algorithm cannot satisfy definitions such as semantic security: for example, deterministic encryption algorithms can never be semantically secure. Entropic security definitions relax these definitions t ...more...

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Ant-Man and the Wasp

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Ant-Man and the Wasp

Ant-Man and the Wasp is a 2018 American superhero film based on the Marvel Comics characters Scott Lang / Ant-Man and Hope van Dyne / Wasp. Produced by Marvel Studios and distributed by Walt Disney Studios Motion Pictures, it is the sequel to 2015's Ant-Man, and the twentieth film in the Marvel Cinematic Universe (MCU). The film is directed by Peyton Reed and written by the writing teams of Chris McKenna and Erik Sommers, and Paul Rudd, Andrew Barrer, and Gabriel Ferrari. It stars Rudd as Lang and Evangeline Lilly as Van Dyne, alongside Michael Peña, Walton Goggins, Bobby Cannavale, Judy Greer, Tip "T.I." Harris, David Dastmalchian, Hannah John-Kamen, Abby Ryder Fortson, Randall Park, Michelle Pfeiffer, Laurence Fishburne, and Michael Douglas. In Ant-Man and the Wasp, the titular pair work with Hank Pym to retrieve Janet van Dyne from the quantum realm. Talks for a sequel to Ant-Man began shortly after that film was released. Ant-Man and the Wasp was officially announced in October 2015, with Rudd and Lilly ...more...

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Alicia Keys

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Alicia Keys

Alicia Augello Cook (born January 25, 1981), known professionally as Alicia Keys, is an American singer-songwriter. A classically-trained pianist, Keys was composing songs by age 12. She was signed at 15 years old by Columbia Records, and then, after disputes with the label, by Arista Records. Her debut album, Songs in A Minor, was released with J Records in 2001. Praised for Keys' musical talents and creative control, Songs in A Minor was critically and commercially successful, producing her first Billboard Hot 100 number-one single "Fallin'" and selling over 12 million copies worldwide. Songs in A Minor earned Keys five Grammy Awards in 2002. Her second album, The Diary of Alicia Keys (2003), was also a critical and commercial success, spawning successful singles "You Don't Know My Name", "If I Ain't Got You" and "Diary", and selling eight million copies worldwide.[1] The album garnered her an additional four Grammy Awards.[2] Her duet song "My Boo" with Usher became her second number-one single in 2004. Ke ...more...

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List of Marvel Cinematic Universe films

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List of Marvel Cinematic Universe films

The Marvel Cinematic Universe (MCU) films are an American series of superhero films, based on characters that appear in publications by Marvel Comics. The films have been in production since 2007, and in that time Marvel Studios has produced 20 films, with 12 more in various stages of production. The series collectively has grossed over $17 billion at the global box office, making it the highest-grossing film franchise of all time. Kevin Feige has produced every film in the Marvel Cinematic Universe. Avi Arad served as a producer on the first two releases, Gale Anne Hurd also produced The Incredible Hulk, Amy Pascal produced the Spider-Man films, and Stephen Broussard produced Ant-Man and the Wasp. The films are written and directed by a variety of individuals and feature large, often ensemble, casts. Many of the actors, including Robert Downey Jr., Chris Evans, Chris Hemsworth, Samuel L. Jackson, and Scarlett Johansson signed contracts to star in numerous films. The first film in the Marvel Cinematic Unive ...more...

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The Handmaid's Tale (TV series)

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The Handmaid's Tale (TV series)

The Handmaid's Tale is an American dystopian drama web television series created by Bruce Miller, based on the 1985 novel of the same name by Margaret Atwood. It was ordered by the streaming service Hulu as a straight-to-series order of 10 episodes, for which production began in late 2016. The plot features a dystopian future following a Second American Civil War wherein a totalitarian society subjects fertile women, called "Handmaids", into child-bearing servitude.[1] The first three episodes of the series premiered on April 26, 2017; the subsequent seven episodes aired on a weekly basis every Wednesday. In May 2017, the series was renewed for a second season which premiered on April 25, 2018.[2] The Handmaid's Tale has received widespread critical acclaim and its first season won eight Primetime Emmy Awards from thirteen nominations, including Outstanding Drama Series, becoming the first series on a streaming service to win an Emmy for Outstanding Series.[3] It also won Golden Globe Awards for Best Televi ...more...

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Curse of the Pink Panther

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Curse of the Pink Panther

Curse of the Pink Panther is a 1983 British comedy film and a continuation of The Pink Panther series of films started by Blake Edwards in the early 1960s. The film was one of two produced concurrently following the death of the series' star Peter Sellers. Whereas the previous film Trail of the Pink Panther made use of unused footage of Sellers as Inspector Clouseau, Curse attempted to relaunch the series with a new lead, Ted Wass, as bumbling American detective Clifton Sleigh, assigned to find the missing Inspector Clouseau. The film features a cameo by Roger Moore—as Clouseau himself—at the end of the film, This was David Niven's final film appearance, and he died shortly before its release. This film marked Herbert Lom's sixth outing as Chief Inspector Dreyfus. He would reprise the role one last time in Son of the Pink Panther (1993). The prized Pink Panther jewel would not return until The Pink Panther reboot in 2006. This film featured the sixth "Panther" appearance of Clouseau's trusty manservant Cato ...more...

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2018 in film

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2018 in film

There are numerous films set to be released in 2018. While some films have announced release dates but have yet to begin filming, others are in production but do not yet have definite release dates. Highest-grossing films The top films released in 2018 by worldwide gross are as follows:[1] Highest-grossing films of 2018 Rank Title Distributor Worldwide gross 1 Avengers: Infinity War Disney $2,042,294,443 2 Black Panther $1,346,567,144 3 Jurassic World: Fallen Kingdom Universal $1,139,144,065 4 Incredibles 2 Disney $860,722,318 5 Deadpool 2 20th Century Fox $731,097,735 6 Ready Player One Warner Bros. $582,018,455 7 Operation Red Sea Huaxia Film $579,220,560 8 Detective Chinatown 2 Wanda Media $544,061,916 9 Rampage Warner Bros. $425,733,659 10 Solo: A Star Wars Story Disney $384,990,957 Avengers: Infinity War grossed $2 billion worldwide, becoming the fourth movie to surpass the milestone, and is the 4th highest-grossing fil ...more...

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2019 in film

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2019 in film

There are numerous films set to be released in 2019. While some films have announced release dates but have yet to begin filming, others are in production but do not yet have definite release dates. 2019 films January–March Opening Title Studio Cast and crew Genre Country Ref. JANUARY 4 Eli Paramount Players / Intrepid Pictures Ciaran Foy (director); David Chirchirillo, Ian Goldberg, Richard Naing (screenplay); Charlie Shotwell, Sadie Sink, Kelly Reilly, Max Martini Horror US [1] 11 Ad Astra 20th Century Fox / Regency Enterprises / Plan B Entertainment James Gray (director/screenplay); Ethan Gross (screenplay); Brad Pitt, Tommy Lee Jones, Ruth Negga, Donald Sutherland, Jamie Kennedy Sci-fi, Thriller US [2] A Dog’s Way Home Columbia Pictures Charles Martin Smith (director); W. Bruce Cameron (screenplay); Edward James Olmos, Alexandra Shipp, Ashley Judd, Jonah Haur-King, Wes Studi Drama, Family US [3] Hellboy Summit Entertainment / Millennium Films Neil Marshall ...more...

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Rijndael key schedule

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Rijndael key schedule

AES key schedule for a 128-bit key AES (Rijndael) uses a key schedule to expand a short key into a number of separate round keys. This is known as the Rijndael key schedule. The three AES variants have a different number of rounds. Each variant requires a separate 128-bit round key for each round plus one more. The key schedule produces the needed round keys from the initial key. Common operations Rijndael's key schedule utilizes a number of operations, which will be described before describing the key schedule. Rotate The rotate operation takes a 32-bit word like this (in hexadecimal): 1D 2C 3A 4F and rotates it eight bits to the left such that the high eight bits "wrap around" and become the low eight bits of the result. 2C 3A 4F 1D Round constant (rcon) The round constant (the Rijndael documentation calls this rcon) is simply the exponentiation of 2 to a user-specified value. Note that this operation is not performed with regular integers, but in Rijndael's finite field. In polynomial form, 2 is ...more...

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Tham Luang cave rescue

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Tham Luang cave rescue

The Tham Luang cave rescue, also referred to as the Thailand cave rescue, involved the extraction of members of a junior football team trapped in a cave in the Chiang Rai Province of Thailand. Twelve members of the team, aged eleven to seventeen, and their 25-year-old assistant coach entered the Tham Luang Nang Non cave on 23 June 2018 after finishing football practice. Shortly afterwards, heavy rains partially flooded the cave, trapping the group inside. Efforts to locate the group were hampered by rising water levels and strong currents, and no contact was made for more than a week. The rescue effort expanded into a massive operation amid intense worldwide public interest. On 2 July, after advancing through narrow passages and muddy waters, British divers John Volanthen and Richard Stanton found the group alive on an elevated rock about 4 kilometres (2.5 mi) from the cave mouth. Rescue organisers discussed various options for extracting the group, including whether to teach them basic diving skills to enab ...more...

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List of Murdoch Mysteries episodes

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List of Murdoch Mysteries episodes

Murdoch Mysteries is a Canadian mystery drama television series that began in 2008. The series is based on the Detective Murdoch novels by Maureen Jennings, and is set in Toronto around the turn of the 20th century. It centres on William Murdoch, a detective at Station House Four, who solves crimes using scientific techniques and inventions which are highly advanced for the time (e.g. fingerprinting). He is assisted by Constable George Crabtree (Jonny Harris), city coroner Doctor Julia Ogden (Hélène Joy), and Inspector Thomas Brackenreid (Thomas Craig). The show was developed for television by R.B. Carney, Cal Coons, and Alexandra Zarowny, and is produced by Shaftesbury Films. The series was preceded by three television movies, which aired on Bravo! from 2004 to 2005. These featured a different cast: Peter Outerbridge as Murdoch, Keeley Hawes as Doctor Ogden, Matthew MacFadzean as Constable Crabtree, and Colm Meaney as Inspector Brackenreid.[1] Murdoch Mysteries aired on Citytv for five seasons before being ...more...

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Untitled Avengers film

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Untitled Avengers film

The untitled Avengers film, colloquially referred to as Avengers 4, is an upcoming American superhero film based on the Marvel Comics superhero team the Avengers, produced by Marvel Studios and distributed by Walt Disney Studios Motion Pictures. It is intended to be the direct sequel to 2018's Avengers: Infinity War, as well as the sequel to 2012's Marvel's The Avengers and 2015's Avengers: Age of Ultron and the twenty-second film in the Marvel Cinematic Universe (MCU). The film is directed by Anthony and Joe Russo, with a screenplay by the writing team of Christopher Markus and Stephen McFeely, and features an ensemble cast with many actors from previous MCU films. The film was announced in October 2014 as Avengers: Infinity War – Part 2. The Russo brothers came on board to direct in April 2015 and by May, Markus and McFeely signed on to script the film. In July 2016, Marvel removed the film's title, referring to it simply as Untitled Avengers film. Filming began in August 2017 at Pinewood Atlanta Studios i ...more...

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Marcus Rashford

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Marcus Rashford

Marcus Rashford (born 31 October 1997) is an English professional footballer who plays as a forward for Premier League club Manchester United and the English national team. A Manchester United player from the age of seven, he scored twice in both his first-team debut (in the UEFA Europa League) after the warm-up injury of striker Anthony Martial and in his first Premier League match in February 2016 (against Arsenal). He also scored in his first Manchester derby match, his first League Cup match and his first UEFA Champions League match. Rashford scored on his England debut in May 2016, becoming the youngest English player to score in his first senior international match. Club career Manchester United Early career Rashford was born in Wythenshawe, Manchester, and is of Kittitian descent.[4] Rashford began playing football for Fletcher Moss Rangers[5] at the age of five and joined the academy system at Manchester United at the age of seven.[6][7] 2015–16: Debut season Rashford warming up for Manchester ...more...

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Overwrap

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Overwrap

overwraps of frozen meat An overwrap or wrap is applied over an item or is applied over another form of packaging. It is often made of plastic film (sometimes called Polywrapping) or paper.[1] Functions An overwrap can have several purposes or functions: Combine two or more smaller packages into a larger multi-pack Keep a package or item clean Help prevent package pilferage or premature opening of the package Help provide a tamper indicating seal Help keep insects out of a package[2] Obscure a package for distribution, sale, or gifting Help provide an authentication seal Help provide grease resistance or water resistance Keep an item, such as magazines, clean and intact during shipment; provide an address label that does not damage the item Provide graphics, advertising, warnings, instructions, bar codes, etc. Types of overwraps Shrink wrap Shrink wrap is a material made up of polymer plastic film. When heat is applied it shrinks tightly over whatever it is covering. Heat can be applied wit ...more...

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Grey's Anatomy

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Grey's Anatomy

Grey's Anatomy is an American medical drama television series that premiered on March 27, 2005, on the American Broadcasting Company (ABC) as a mid-season replacement. The fictional series focuses on the lives of surgical interns, residents, and attending physicians, as they develop into seasoned doctors while trying to maintain personal lives and relationships. The title is a play on Gray's Anatomy, a classic human anatomy textbook first published in 1858 in London and written by Henry Gray. Shonda Rhimes developed the pilot and continues to write for the series; she is also one of the executive producers, along with Betsy Beers, Mark Gordon, Krista Vernoff, Rob Corn, Mark Wilding, and Allan Heinberg. Although the series is set in Seattle (at the fictional Seattle Grace, later known as the Grey-Sloan Memorial Hospital), it is filmed primarily in Los Angeles, California. The series was designed to be racially diverse and used color-blind casting. It revolves around the title character, Dr. Meredith Grey, pla ...more...

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Serena Williams

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Serena Williams

Serena Jameka Williams (born September 26, 1981)[1] is an American professional tennis player. The Women's Tennis Association (WTA) ranked her world No. 1 in singles on eight separate occasions between 2002 and 2017. She reached the No. 1 ranking for the first time on July 8, 2002. On her sixth occasion, she held the ranking for 186 consecutive weeks, tying the record set by Steffi Graf for the most consecutive weeks as No. 1 by a female tennis player. In total, she has been No. 1 for 319 weeks, which ranks third in the "Open Era" among female players behind Steffi Graf and Martina Navratilova. Some commentators, players and sports writers regard Williams as the greatest female tennis player of all time.[a][17][18] Williams holds the most Grand Slam titles in singles, doubles, and mixed doubles combined among active players. Her 39 major titles puts her joint-third on the all-time list and second in the Open Era: 23 in singles, 14 in women's doubles, and two in mixed doubles. She is the most recent female pl ...more...

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BTS (band)

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BTS (band)

BTS (Hangul: 방탄소년단; RR: Bangtan Sonyeondan), also known as the Bangtan Boys, is a seven-member South Korean boy band formed by Big Hit Entertainment. They debuted on June 12, 2013 with the song "No More Dream" from their first album 2 Cool 4 Skool. They won several New Artist of the Year awards for the track, including at the 2013 Melon Music Awards and Golden Disc Awards and the 2014 Seoul Music Awards. The band continued to rise to widespread prominence with their subsequent albums Dark & Wild (2014), The Most Beautiful Moment in Life, Part 2 (2015) and The Most Beautiful Moment in Life: Young Forever (2016), with the latter two entering the U.S. Billboard 200.[4] The Most Beautiful Moment in Life: Young Forever went on to win the Album of the Year award at the 2016 Melon Music Awards.[5] Their second full album, Wings (2016),[6] peaked at number 26 on the Billboard 200, which marked the highest chart ranking for a K-pop album ever.[7] In their native South Korea, Wings became the best selling album i ...more...

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Jumanji: Welcome to the Jungle

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Jumanji: Welcome to the Jungle

Jumanji: Welcome to the Jungle is a 2017 American fantasy adventure comedy film[3] directed by Jake Kasdan and written by Chris McKenna, Erik Sommers, Scott Rosenberg, and Jeff Pinkner, based on a story by McKenna. Part of the Jumanji franchise, the film is a sequel to 1995's Jumanji, which was based on the 1981 children's book of the same name by Chris Van Allsburg. It pays tribute to Robin Williams, the star of the first film, by mentioning his character's name.[6] In addition, a replica of the board game piece used by Williams' character also appears as a clue for the Jumanji game's new players. The film stars Dwayne Johnson, Jack Black, Kevin Hart, Karen Gillan, Nick Jonas, and Bobby Cannavale. Set twenty-one years after Jumanji, it follows four teenagers who are transported into the video game world of Jumanji and play as their chosen characters. Joining another player, they must overcome the game's magical power to win and return home. Principal photography began in Honolulu in September 2016 and ended ...more...

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13 Reasons Why

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13 Reasons Why

13 Reasons Why (stylized onscreen as TH1RTEEN R3ASONS WHY) is an American teen drama web television series developed for Netflix by Brian Yorkey, based on the 2007 novel Thirteen Reasons Why by Jay Asher. The series revolves around seventeen year old high school student, Clay Jensen, and his deceased female friend Hannah Baker, who has committed suicide after failing to cope with the culture, gossip and lack of support from her friends and her school. A box of cassette tapes recorded by Hannah in the lead up to her suicide detail thirteen reasons why she ended her life. The series is produced by July Moon Productions, Kicked to the Curb Productions, Anonymous Content and Paramount Television, with Yorkey and Diana Son serving as showrunners. Dylan Minnette stars as Clay, while Katherine Langford plays Hannah. Christian Navarro, Alisha Boe, Brandon Flynn, Justin Prentice, Miles Heizer, Ross Butler, Devin Druid, Amy Hargreaves, Derek Luke, Kate Walsh, and Brian d'Arcy James also star. A film from Universal Pic ...more...

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List of highest-grossing films

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List of highest-grossing films

Gone with the Wind held the record of highest-grossing film for twenty-five years and, adjusted for inflation, has earned more than any other film. Films generate income from several revenue streams, including theatrical exhibition, home video, television broadcast rights and merchandising. However, theatrical box office earnings are the primary metric for trade publications in assessing the success of a film, mostly because of the availability of the data compared to sales figures for home video and broadcast rights, but also because of historical practice. Included on the list are charts of the top box office earners (ranked by both the nominal and real value of their revenue), a chart of high-grossing films by calendar year, a timeline showing the transition of the highest-grossing film record, and a chart of the highest-grossing film franchises and series. All charts are ranked by international theatrical box office performance where possible, excluding income derived from home video, broadcasting rights ...more...

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Justin Bieber

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Justin Bieber

Justin Drew Bieber (; born March 1, 1994)[2][3] is a Canadian singer, actor and songwriter. After a talent manager discovered him through his YouTube videos covering songs in 2008 and he signed to RBMG, Bieber released his debut EP, My World, in late 2009. It was certified platinum in the U.S.[4] He became the first artist to have seven songs from a debut record chart on the Billboard Hot 100.[5] Bieber released his first full-length studio album, My World 2.0, in 2010. It debuted at or near number one in several countries, was certified triple platinum in the U.S.,[4] and contained his single "Baby". Following his debut album and promotional tours, he released his 3D biopic-concert film Justin Bieber: Never Say Never and his second studio album, Under the Mistletoe (2011), which debuted at number one on the Billboard 200. His third studio album, Believe (2012) generated the single "Boyfriend", which reached number one in Canada. His fourth studio album Purpose was released in 2015, spawning three number one ...more...

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Luke Cage (season 2)

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Luke Cage (season 2)

The second season of the American web television series Luke Cage, which is based on the Marvel Comics character of the same name, sees Cage become a hero and celebrity in Harlem after clearing his name, only to face a new threat. It is set in the Marvel Cinematic Universe (MCU), sharing continuity with the films and other television series of the franchise. The season was produced by Marvel Television in association with ABC Studios, with Cheo Hodari Coker serving as showrunner. Mike Colter stars as Cage, alongside returning principal cast members Simone Missick, Theo Rossi, and Alfre Woodard. They are joined by Gabrielle Dennis and Mustafa Shakir, with Jessica Henwick, Finn Jones, and Stephen Rider reprising their roles from other Marvel/Netflix series; Rosario Dawson also returns in a guest role. The season was ordered in December 2016, and filmed in New York City from June to November 2017. Coker again emphasized music in the season: Adrian Younge and Ali Shaheed Muhammad returned to compose the original ...more...

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Captain Marvel (film)

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Captain Marvel (film)

Captain Marvel is an upcoming American superhero film based on the Marvel Comics character Carol Danvers / Captain Marvel. Produced by Marvel Studios and distributed by Walt Disney Studios Motion Pictures, it is intended to be the twenty-first film in the Marvel Cinematic Universe (MCU). The film is written and directed by Anna Boden and Ryan Fleck, with Meg LeFauve, Nicole Perlman, Geneva Robertson-Dworet, Liz Flahive, and Carly Mensch also contributing to the screenplay. Brie Larson stars in the title role, alongside Samuel L. Jackson, Ben Mendelsohn, Djimon Hounsou, Lee Pace, Lashana Lynch, Gemma Chan, Algenis Perez Soto, Rune Temte, Mckenna Grace, Clark Gregg, and Jude Law. Set in the 1990s, the story follows Danvers as she becomes Captain Marvel after the Earth is caught in the center of an intergalactic conflict between two alien worlds. A film based on Carol Danvers has been in development at Marvel Studios since as early as May 2013. A release date was first set in October 2014, and Perlman and LeFau ...more...

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Bcrypt

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Bcrypt

bcrypt is a password hashing function designed by Niels Provos and David Mazières, based on the Blowfish cipher, and presented at USENIX in 1999.[1] Besides incorporating a salt to protect against rainbow table attacks, bcrypt is an adaptive function: over time, the iteration count can be increased to make it slower, so it remains resistant to brute-force search attacks even with increasing computation power. The bcrypt function is the default password hash algorithm for OpenBSD[2] and other systems including some Linux distributions such as SUSE Linux.[3] There are implementations of bcrypt for C, C++, C#, Go,[4] Java,[5][6] JavaScript,[7] Perl, PHP, Python,[8] Ruby and other languages. Background Blowfish is notable among block ciphers for its expensive key setup phase. It starts off with subkeys in a standard state, then uses this state to perform a block encryption using part of the key, and uses the result of that encryption (which is more accurately a hashing) to replace some of the subkeys. Then it ...more...

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Solo: A Star Wars Story

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Solo: A Star Wars Story

Solo: A Star Wars Story, or simply Solo, is a 2018 American space Western film[12][13] based on the Star Wars character Han Solo. Directed by Ron Howard, it was produced by Lucasfilm and distributed by Walt Disney Studios Motion Pictures. It is the second Star Wars anthology film following 2016's Rogue One. The plot takes place over ten years prior to the events of A New Hope,[14] and explores the early adventures of Han Solo and Chewbacca, as the pair are involved in a heist within the criminal underworld and meet a young Lando Calrissian. The film stars Alden Ehrenreich as Han Solo, alongside Woody Harrelson, Emilia Clarke, Donald Glover, Thandie Newton, Phoebe Waller-Bridge, Joonas Suotamo, and Paul Bettany. George Lucas began development on the film in 2012. He commissioned Lawrence Kasdan to write the screenplay, which was completed by his son Jonathan after Kasdan was hired to write Star Wars: The Force Awakens. Principal photography began in January 2017 at Pinewood Studios, under the direction of Phi ...more...

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Drake (musician)

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Drake (musician)

Aubrey Drake Graham (born October 24, 1986)[3] is a Canadian rapper, singer, songwriter, record producer, actor, and entrepreneur.[4] He is one of the most popular entertainers in the world, and one of the best-selling music artists of the 21st century. Drake's contributions to music and fashion has made him a global figure in popular culture for over a decade. Drake initially gained recognition as an actor on the teen drama television series Degrassi: The Next Generation in the early 2000s. Intent on pursuing a career as a rapper, he departed the series in 2007 following the release of his debut mixtape, Room for Improvement. He released two further independent projects, Comeback Season and So Far Gone, before signing to Lil Wayne's Young Money Entertainment in June 2009.[5] Drake released his debut studio album Thank Me Later in 2010,[6] which debuted at number one on the US Billboard 200 and was soon certified platinum by the RIAA. His next two releases, 2011's Take Care and 2013's Nothing Was the Same,[ ...more...

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Avengers: Infinity War

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Avengers: Infinity War

Avengers: Infinity War is a 2018 American superhero film based on the Marvel Comics superhero team the Avengers, produced by Marvel Studios and distributed by Walt Disney Studios Motion Pictures. It is the sequel to 2012's The Avengers and 2015's Avengers: Age of Ultron, and the nineteenth film in the Marvel Cinematic Universe (MCU). The film is directed by Anthony and Joe Russo, written by Christopher Markus and Stephen McFeely, and features an ensemble cast including Robert Downey Jr., Chris Hemsworth, Mark Ruffalo, Chris Evans, Scarlett Johansson, Benedict Cumberbatch, Don Cheadle, Tom Holland, Chadwick Boseman, Paul Bettany, Elizabeth Olsen, Anthony Mackie, Sebastian Stan, Danai Gurira, Letitia Wright, Dave Bautista, Zoe Saldana, Josh Brolin, and Chris Pratt. In the film, the Avengers and the Guardians of the Galaxy attempt to stop Thanos from amassing the all-powerful Infinity Stones. The film was announced in October 2014 as Avengers: Infinity War – Part 1. The Russo brothers came on board to direct in ...more...

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Pico (text editor)

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Pico (text editor)

Pico (Pine composer) is a text editor for Unix and Unix-based computer systems. It is integrated with the Pine e-mail client, which was designed by the Office of Computing and Communications at the University of Washington. From the Pine FAQ: "Pine's message composition editor is also available as a separate stand-alone program, called PICO. PICO is a very simple and easy-to-use text editor offering paragraph justification, cut/paste, and a spelling checker...".[2] Pico does not support working with several files simultaneously and cannot perform a find and replace across multiple files. It also cannot copy text from one file to another (though it is possible to read text into the editor from a file in its working directory). Pico does support search and replace operations. By comparison, some popular Unix text editors such as vi and Emacs provide a wider range of features than Pico; including regular expression search and replace, and working with multiple files at the same time. By comparison, Pico's sim ...more...

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Bumblebee (film)

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Bumblebee (film)

Bumblebee is an upcoming American science fiction film centered around the Transformers character of the same name. It is the sixth installment of the live-action Transformers film series and a prequel to 2007's Transformers. Directed by Travis Knight and written by Christina Hodson, the film stars Hailee Steinfeld, John Cena, Jorge Lendeborg Jr., Jason Drucker, Kenneth Choi, Gracie Dzienny, Rachel Crow, and Pamela Adlon. It is also the first Transformers film to not be directed by Michael Bay, though he still acts as a producer. Principal photography on the film began on July 31, 2017, in Los Angeles and San Francisco, California. Bumblebee is scheduled to be released in the United States on December 21, 2018. Synopsis Twenty years before the events of the first film, in 1987, Bumblebee takes refuge in a small California beach town junkyard, where a teenage girl named Charlie Watson takes him in. However, the two of them soon find themselves hunted by a government agency known as Sector 7, led by Agent Bu ...more...

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Roger Federer

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Roger Federer

Roger Federer (German pronunciation: ; born 8 August 1981) is a Swiss professional tennis player who is currently ranked world No. 2 in men's singles tennis by the Association of Tennis Professionals (ATP).[2] Federer has won 20 Grand Slam singles titles—the most in history for a male player—and has held the world No. 1 spot in the ATP rankings for a record total of 310 weeks, including a record 237 consecutive weeks. After turning professional in 1998, he was continuously ranked in the top ten from October 2002 to November 2016. He re-entered the top ten following his victory at the 2017 Australian Open. Federer has won a record eight Wimbledon titles, a joint-record six Australian Open titles, a record five consecutive US Open titles, and one French Open title. He is one of eight men to have captured a career Grand Slam. Federer has reached a record 30 men's singles Grand Slam finals, including 10 in a row from the 2005 Wimbledon Championships to the 2007 US Open. Federer has also won a record six ATP Fina ...more...

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The Lost World: Jurassic Park

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The Lost World: Jurassic Park

The Lost World: Jurassic Park is a 1997 American epic science-fiction adventure film and the second installment in the Jurassic Park film series. A sequel to 1993's Jurassic Park, the film was directed by Steven Spielberg and written by David Koepp, loosely based on Michael Crichton's 1995 novel The Lost World. The film was produced by Gerald R. Molen and Colin Wilson.[4] Actor Jeff Goldblum returns as the chaos-theorist and eccentric mathematician Ian Malcolm, leading a cast that includes Julianne Moore, Pete Postlethwaite, Vince Vaughn, Vanessa Lee Chester, and Arliss Howard. Goldblum is the only actor from the previous film to return with a major role. Cameos feature return appearances by Richard Attenborough as John Hammond and a brief appearance by Joseph Mazzello and Ariana Richards as Hammond's grandchildren Tim and Lex. The story is set four years after the events of the original film and centers around the fictional Central American island of Isla Sorna, off the Pacific coast of Costa Rica, where th ...more...

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Beyoncé

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Beyoncé

Beyoncé Giselle Knowles-Carter (; born September 4, 1981)[4] is an American singer, songwriter, dancer, actress, and businesswoman. Born and raised in Houston, Texas, Beyoncé performed in various singing and dancing competitions as a child. She rose to fame in the late 1990s as lead singer of the R&B girl-group Destiny's Child. Managed by her father, Mathew Knowles, the group became one of the world's best-selling girl groups in history. Their hiatus saw Beyoncé's theatrical film debut in Austin Powers in Goldmember (2002) and the release of her debut album, Dangerously in Love (2003). The album established her as a solo artist worldwide, earned five Grammy Awards, and featured the Billboard Hot 100 number one singles "Crazy in Love" and "Baby Boy". Following the break-up of Destiny's Child in 2006, she released her second solo album, B'Day (2006), which contained her fourth number one single, "Irreplaceable", as well as the top ten singles "Déjà Vu", and "Beautiful Liar". Beyoncé also continued her act ...more...

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DC Extended Universe

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DC Extended Universe

The DC Extended Universe (DCEU)[1][2][3][4] is an unofficial term used to refer to an American media franchise and shared universe that is centered on a series of superhero films, distributed by Warner Bros. Pictures and based on characters that appear in American comic books by DC Comics. The shared universe, much like the original DC Universe in comic books and the television programs, was established by crossing over common plot elements, settings, cast, and characters. The films have been in production since 2011 and in that time Warner Bros. has distributed five films. The series has grossed over $3.7 billion at the global box office, currently making it the fourteenth highest-grossing film franchise. The films are written and directed by a variety of individuals and feature large, often ensemble, casts. Several actors, including Henry Cavill, Amy Adams, Ben Affleck, Gal Gadot, Ezra Miller, Jason Momoa, and Ray Fisher, have appeared in numerous films of the franchise, with continued appearances in seque ...more...

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The Lion King (2019 film)

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The Lion King (2019 film)

The Lion King is an upcoming American musical drama film directed and produced by Jon Favreau, produced by Walt Disney Pictures, and written by Jeff Nathanson. It is the remake of Disney's 1994 animated film of the same name. The film stars the voices of Donald Glover, Beyoncé, James Earl Jones (who reprises his role from the original film), Chiwetel Ejiofor, Billy Eichner, Seth Rogen, John Kani, John Oliver, and Alfre Woodard. It is set to be released on July 19, 2019. Voice cast Donald Glover as Simba JD McCrary as young Simba Beyoncé as Nala Shahadi Wright Joseph as young Nala James Earl Jones as Mufasa Chiwetel Ejiofor as Scar Billy Eichner as Timon Seth Rogen as Pumbaa John Kani as Rafiki John Oliver as Zazu Alfre Woodard as Sarabi Eric Andre as Azizi Florence Kasumba as Shenzi Keegan-Michael Key as Kamari Production Development On September 28, 2016, Walt Disney Pictures confirmed that Jon Favreau would be directing a fast-tracked remake of the 1994 animated f ...more...

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Trey Gowdy

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Trey Gowdy

Harold Watson "Trey" Gowdy III (born August 22, 1964) is an American attorney, politician and former federal prosecutor serving as the U.S. Representative for South Carolina's 4th congressional district since 2011. A Republican, he is a member of the Tea Party movement.[1] His district includes much of the Upstate region of South Carolina, including Greenville and Spartanburg. Before his congressional career, Gowdy served as a federal prosecutor in the District of South Carolina from 1994 to 2000 and then as the solicitor (district attorney) for South Carolina's Seventh Judicial Circuit, comprising Spartanburg and Cherokee counties, from 2000 to 2010. From 2014 to 2016, Gowdy chaired the United States House Select Committee on Events Surrounding the 2012 Terrorist Attack in Benghazi which was partly responsible for discovering the existence of Hillary Clinton's private email server.[2] His investigative committee investigated the events surrounding the 2012 Benghazi attack [3][4] Since 2017 he chairs the Hou ...more...

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List of airline codes

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List of airline codes

This is a list of all airline codes. The table lists the IATA airline designators, the ICAO airline designators and the airline call signs (telephony designator). Historical assignments are also included for completeness. Codes Airline codes IATA ICAO Airline Call sign Country/Region Comments EVY 34 Squadron, Royal Australian Air Force Australia GNL 135 Airways GENERAL United States 1T Hitit Computer Services Turkey Computer reservation system WYT 2 Sqn No 1 Elementary Flying Training School WYTON United Kingdom Royal Air Force TFU 213th Flight Unit THJY Russia State Airline CHD 223rd Flight Unit CHKALOVSK-AVIA Russia State Airline TTF 224th Flight Unit CARGO UNIT Russia State Airline TWF 247 Jet Ltd CLOUD RUNNER United Kingdom SEC 3D Aviation SECUREX United States Q5 MLA 40-Mile Air MILE-AIR United States QRT 4D Air QUARTET Thailand Defunct PIU 43 Air School PRIMA South A ...more...

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