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Key Wrap

Key Wrap constructions are a class of symmetric encryption algorithms designed to encapsulate (encrypt) cryptographic key material.[1] The Key Wrap algorithms are intended for applications such as protecting keys while in untrusted storage or transmitting keys over untrusted communications networks. The constructions are typically built from standard primitives such as block ciphers and cryptographic hash functions.

Key Wrap may be considered as a form of key encapsulation algorithm, although it should not be confused with the more commonly known asymmetric (public-key) key encapsulation algorithms (e.g., PSEC-KEM). Key Wrap algorithms can be used in a similar application: to securely transport a session key by encrypting it under a long-term encryption key.

Background

In the late 1990s, the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) posed the "Key Wrap" problem: to develop secure and efficient cipher-based key encryption algorithms. The resulting algorithms would be formally evaluated by NIST, and eventually approved for use in NIST-certified cryptographic modules. NIST did not precisely define the security goals of the resulting algorithm, and left further refinement to the algorithm developers. Based on the resulting algorithms, the design requirements appear to be (1) confidentiality, (2) integrity protection (authentication), (3) efficiency, (4) use of standard (approved) underlying primitives such as the Advanced Encryption Standard (AES) and the Secure Hash Algorithm (SHA-1), and (5) consideration of additional circumstances (e.g., resilience to operator error, low-quality random number generators). Goals (3) and (5) are particularly important, given that many widely deployed authenticated encryption algorithms (e.g., AES-CCM) are already sufficient to accomplish the remaining goals.

NIST AES Key Wrap Specification

Several constructions have been proposed. These include:

Each of the proposed algorithms can be considered as a form of authenticated encryption algorithm providing confidentiality for highly entropic messages such as cryptographic keys. The AES Key Wrap Specification, AESKW, TDKW, and AKW1 are intended to maintain confidentiality under adaptive chosen ciphertext attacks, while the AKW2 algorithm is designed to be secure only under known-plaintext (or weaker) attacks. (The stated goal of AKW2 is for use in legacy systems and computationally limited devices where use of the other algorithms would be impractical.) AESKW, TDKW and AKW2 also provide the ability to authenticate cleartext "header", an associated block of data that is not encrypted.

Rogaway and Shrimpton evaluated the design of the ANSX9.102 algorithms with respect to the stated security goals. Among their general findings, they noted the lack of clearly stated design goals for the algorithms, and the absence of security proofs for all constructions.

In their paper, Rogaway and Shrimpton proposed a provable key-wrapping algorithm (SIV—the Synthetic Initialization Vector mode) that authenticates and encrypts an arbitrary string and authenticates, but does not encrypt, additional data which can be bound into the wrapped key. This has been standardized as a new AES mode in RFC 5297.

See also
References
  1. "Key wrap algorithm". Retrieved 26 May 2016.
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Key Wrap

topic

Key Wrap constructions are a class of symmetric encryption algorithms designed to encapsulate (encrypt) cryptographic key material. The Key Wrap algorithms are intended for applications such as protecting keys while in untrusted storage or transmitting keys over untrusted communications networks. The constructions are typically built from standard primitives such as block ciphers and cryptographic hash functions . Key Wrap may be considered as a form of key encapsulation algorithm, although it should not be confused with the more commonly known asymmetric (public-key) key encapsulation algorithms (e.g., PSEC-KEM ). Key Wrap algorithms can be used in a similar application: to securely transport a session key by encrypting it under a long-term encryption key. Background In the late 1990s, the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) posed the "Key Wrap" problem: to develop secure and efficient cipher-based key encryption algorithms. The resulting algorithms would be formally evaluated by NIST, and ...more...



Key management

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Key management is the name of management of cryptographic keys in a cryptosystem . This includes dealing with the generation, exchange, storage, use, crypto-shredding (destruction) and replacement of keys. It includes cryptographic protocol design, key servers , user procedures, and other relevant protocols. Key management concerns keys at the user level, either between users or systems. This is in contrast to key scheduling , which typically refers to the internal handling of keys within the operation of a cipher. Successful key management is critical to the security of a cryptosystem. It is the more challenging side of cryptography in a sense that it involves aspects of social engineering such as system policy, user training, organizational and departmental interactions, and coordination between all of these elements, in contrast to pure mathematical practices that can be automated. Types of keys Cryptographic systems may use different types of keys, with some systems using more than one. These may include ...more...



Line wrap and word wrap

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Line breaking , also known as word wrapping , is the process of breaking a section of text into lines such that it will fit in the available width of a page, window or other display area. In text display, line wrap is the feature of continuing on a new line when a line is full, such that each line fits in the viewable window, allowing text to be read from top to bottom without any horizontal scrolling . Word wrap is the additional feature of most text editors , word processors , and web browsers , of breaking lines between words rather than within words, when possible. Word wrap makes it unnecessary to hard-code newline delimiters within paragraphs , and allows the display of text to adapt flexibly and dynamically to displays of varying sizes. Soft and hard returns A soft return or soft wrap is the break resulting from line wrap or word wrap (whether automatic or manual), whereas a hard return or hard wrap is an intentional break, creating a new paragraph. With a hard return, paragraph-break formatting can (a ...more...



End-user license agreement

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In proprietary software , an end-user license agreement ( EULA ) or software license agreement is the contract between the licensor and purchaser, establishing the purchaser's right to use the software. The license may define ways under which the copy can be used, in addition to the automatic rights of the buyer including the first sale doctrine and 17 U.S.C.   § 117 (freedom to use, archive, re-sale, and backup with legal restrictions). Many form contracts are only contained in digital form, and only presented to a user as a click-through where the user must "accept". As the user may not see the agreement until after he or she has already purchased the software, these documents may be contracts of adhesion . Software companies often make special agreements with large businesses and government entities that include support contracts and specially drafted warranties. Some end-user license agreements accompany shrink-wrapped software that is presented to a user sometimes on paper or more usually electronically, ...more...



Overwrap

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overwraps of frozen meat An overwrap or wrap is applied over an item or is applied over another form of packaging . It is often made of plastic film (sometimes called Polywrapping ) or paper . Functions An overwrap can have several purposes or functions: Combine two or more smaller packages into a larger multi-pack Keep a package or item clean Help prevent package pilferage or premature opening of the package Help provide a tamper indicating seal Help keep insects out of a package Obscure a package for distribution, sale, or gifting Help provide an authentication seal Help provide grease resistance or water resistance Keep an item, such as magazines, clean and intact during shipment; provide an address label that does not damage the item Provide graphics, advertising, warnings, instructions, bar codes, etc. Types of overwraps Shrink wrap Shrink wrap is a material made up of polymer plastic film. When heat is applied it shrinks tightly over whatever it is covering. Heat can be applied with a hand held heat gun ...more...



Key & Peele

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Key & Peele is an American sketch comedy television series created by Keegan-Michael Key and Jordan Peele for Comedy Central . Both Key and Peele previously worked on Mad TV . Each episode of the show consists mainly of several pre-taped skits starring the two actors. The sketches cover a variety of societal topics, often with a focus on American popular culture , ethnic stereotypes and race relations . Key & Peele premiered on January 31, 2012 and ended on September 9, 2015, with a total of 53 episodes, over the course of five seasons. A special entitled "Key & Peele's Super Bowl Special" aired on January 30, 2015. Key & Peele won a Peabody Award and two Primetime Emmy Awards and has been nominated for various other awards, including Writers Guild Award , NAACP Image Award and 16 additional Primetime Emmy Awards in various categories. Format In the first three seasons, an episode would consist of a cold opening , with a short sketch . After the intro plays, the two hosts would introduce ...more...



Locke & Key

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Locke & Key is an American comic book series written by Joe Hill , illustrated by Gabriel Rodríguez and published by IDW Publishing . Plot summary This plot is presented in non-chronological order. During the American Revolution , a group of Rebels, hiding beneath the future Keyhouse, discover a portal to another dimension, the plains of Leng filled with demons which can mesmerize any who see them and possess through touch. However, when the demons attempt to enter the real world, they collapse into lumps of "whispering iron", which young smith Benjamin Locke forges into a variety of magical keys, including the Omega Key, which seals the entrance to the dimension. The magic of the Keyhouse gradually evolves over the years, including a spell which causes occupants to forget about the keys and the magic of the house when they pass their 18th birthday. In 1988, a group of teenagers, having used the keys extensively in their high school years to their great delight, decide to open the black door with the Ome ...more...



Insidious: The Last Key

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Insidious: The Last Key is an upcoming American supernatural horror film directed by Adam Robitel and written by Leigh Whannell . It is the fourth installment in the Insidious franchise , and the second in terms of the series's in-story chronology, following 2015's Insidious: Chapter 3 . It stars Lin Shaye , Angus Sampson , Leigh Whannell, Josh Stewart and Caitlin Gerard . It is scheduled to be released on January 5, 2018, by Universal Pictures . Plot After the events in the previous film, Elise Rainier goes on to investigate the recent supernatural disturbances occurring in a family's home in New Mexico, a house in which she used to live in her youth, diving her deeper into The Further. Cast Lin Shaye as Elise Rainier Ava Kolker as Young Elise Rainier Hana Hayes as Teenage Elise Rainier Angus Sampson as Tucker Leigh Whannell as Specs Josh Stewart as Gerald Rainier Caitlin Gerard as Imogen Rainier Spencer Locke as Melissa Rainier Kirk Acevedo as Ted Garza Bruce Davison as Christian Rainier Pierce Pope as Youn ...more...



Alicia Keys

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Alicia Augello Cook (born January 25, 1981), known professionally as Alicia Keys , is an American singer, songwriter, record producer, pianist, actress, and activist. Keys released her debut album with J Records , having had previous record deals first with Columbia and then Arista Records . Keys' debut album, Songs in A Minor was released in 2001, producing her first Billboard Hot 100 number-one single " Fallin' ", and selling over 12 million copies worldwide. The album earned Keys five Grammy Awards in 2002. Her sophomore album, The Diary of Alicia Keys , was released in 2003, spawning successful singles " You Don't Know My Name ", " If I Ain't Got You " and " Diary ", and selling 8 million copies worldwide. The duet song " My Boo " with Usher scored her a second number-one single in 2004. The album garnered her an additional four Grammy Awards in 2005. Later that year, she released her first live album , Unplugged , becoming the first woman to have an MTV Unplugged album debut at number one. As I Am was ...more...



Key Management Interoperability Protocol

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The Key Management Interoperability Protocol ( KMIP ) is an extensible communication protocol that defines message formats for the manipulation of cryptographic keys on a key management server. This facilitates data encryption by simplifying encryption key management. Keys may be created on a server and then retrieved, possibly wrapped by other keys. Both symmetric and asymmetric keys are supported, including the ability to sign certificates. KMIP also allows for clients to ask a server to encrypt or decrypt data, without needing direct access to the key. The KMIP standard was first released in 2010 and has since become the industry standard for key management. Vendors have demonstrated commercially available clients and servers at every recent RSA Conference . The KMIP standard effort is governed by the OASIS standards body . Technical details can also be found on the official KMIP page and wiki . Description A KMIP server stores and controls Managed Objects such as symmetric and asymmetric keys, certific ...more...



List of McDonald's products

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McDonald's logo McDonald's is a fast food chain founded in 1940. Since then, McDonald's has become one of the largest restaurant franchise chains, selling various types of food items at thousands of locations worldwide. Throughout its history, McDonald's has added and removed different items to and from its menu. Hamburgers All beef patties are seasoned with salt and minced pepper. Hamburger (formerly known as the Junior Burger in some countries) and cheeseburger – a 1.6-ounce (45 g) ground beef patty, with 0.125 ounces (3.5 g) ketchup , mustard, a single dill pickle and re-hydrated onions on a toasted bun. At one time early in McDonald's history, the pickle was removed from the sandwich. In most of the New York City area, it is served without mustard. It is also sold as a double or triple, which adds an extra pickle slice for each beef patty added. A triple burger and a bacon double cheeseburger are optional items and are not always available in all restaurants or markets. In Australia, the average serving ...more...



The Lion King (2019 film)

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The Lion King is an upcoming American musical drama film, directed and co-produced by Jon Favreau , produced by Walt Disney Pictures , and written by Jeff Nathanson . It is the remake of Disney's 1994 animated film of the same name and inspired in part by William Shakespeare 's Hamlet . The film stars the voices of Donald Glover , Beyoncé , James Earl Jones , Chiwetel Ejiofor , Billy Eichner , Seth Rogen , John Oliver , John Kani , Alfre Woodard , Eric Andre , Florence Kasumba , Keegan-Michael Key , J.D. McCrary and Shahadi Wright Joseph. It is set to be released on July 19, 2019. Voice cast Donald Glover as Simba J.D. McCrary as young Simba Beyoncé as Nala Shahadi Wright Joseph as young Nala James Earl Jones as Mufasa Chiwetel Ejiofor as Scar Alfre Woodard as Sarabi John Oliver as Zazu John Kani as Rafiki Seth Rogen as Pumbaa Billy Eichner as Timon Eric Andre as Azizi Florence Kasumba as Shenzi Keegan-Michael Key as Kamari Production Development On September 28, 2016, Walt Disney Pictures confirmed that Jon ...more...



Key encapsulation

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Key encapsulation mechanisms (KEMs) are a class of encryption techniques designed to secure symmetric cryptographic key material for transmission using asymmetric (public-key) algorithms. In practice, public key systems are clumsy to use in transmitting long messages. Instead they are often used to exchange symmetric keys, which are relatively short. The symmetric key is then used to encrypt the longer message. The traditional approach to sending a symmetric key with public key systems is to first generate a random symmetric key and then encrypt it using the chosen public key algorithm. The recipient then decrypts the public key message to recover the symmetric key. As the symmetric key is generally short, padding is required for full security and proofs of security for padding schemes are often less than complete. KEMs simplify the process by generating a random element in the finite group underlying the public key system and deriving the symmetric key by hashing that element, eliminating the need for paddi ...more...



Pico (text editor)

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Pico ( Pi ne co mposer) is a text editor for Unix and Unix-based computer systems. It is integrated with the Pine e-mail client , which was designed by the Office of Computing and Communications at the University of Washington . From the Pine FAQ: " Pi ne's message co mposition editor is also available as a separate stand-alone program, called PICO. PICO is a very simple and easy-to-use text editor offering paragraph justification, cut/paste, and a spelling checker...". Pico does not support working with several files simultaneously and cannot perform a find and replace across multiple files. It also cannot copy text from one file to another (though it is possible to read text into the editor from a file in its working directory). Pico does support search and replace operations. By comparison, some popular Unix text editors such as vi and Emacs provide a wider range of features than Pico; including regular expression search and replace, and working with multiple files at the same time. By comparison, Pico's s ...more...



Exhaust heat management

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Exhaust Heat Management is the means of lessening the negative effects of internal combustion engine exhausts by preventing heat from escaping the exhaust system on automobiles. Overview The fact that exhausts often pass near important components means that ways of protecting these components from heat soak are especially important. As a result, heat management is used as a way of reflecting , dissipating or simply absorbing the heat. Heat shield is also useful to reduce under-bonnet temperatures which therefore reduces intake temperature, subsequently increasing power. Types There are many different types of heat management, some more effective than others. They range from basic solid heat shield to plasma sprayed ceramics. Heat shield Heat shield is one of the most widely used heat management options available due to its relative low price and ease to fit. In the past it has usually been custom made from rigid steel; however, flexible aluminium is now the standard. The key difference between a heat shield a ...more...



The Nutcracker and the Four Realms

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The Nutcracker and the Four Realms is an upcoming American fantasy film and a live-action adaptation of E.T.A. Hoffmann 's The Nutcracker and the Mouse King and Pyotr Ilyich Tchaikovsky 's ballet The Nutcracker about a young girl who finds a Nutcracker doll among the family's gifts and is charged by her parents to take special care of it. The film is directed by Lasse Hallström and written by Ashleigh Powell and Simon Beaufoy . The film stars Keira Knightley , Mackenzie Foy , Helen Mirren , and Morgan Freeman . It is scheduled to be released by Walt Disney Pictures on November 2, 2018. Cast Mackenzie Foy as Clara Keira Knightley as Sugar Plum Fairy Helen Mirren as Mother Ginger Morgan Freeman as Drosselmeyer Jayden Fowora-Knight as Philip Misty Copeland as The Ballerina Eugenio Derbez as Flower Realm King Miranda Hart as Dew Drop Fairy Jack Whitehall as Harlequin Ellie Bamber as Louise Production The project was first announced on March 4, 2016, which stated that Disney is developing The Nutcracker and the Fo ...more...



Hotel Transylvania 3: Summer Vacation

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Hotel Transylvania 3: Summer Vacation (known internationally as Hotel Transylvania 3: A Monster Vacation ) is an upcoming American 3D computer-animated fantasy - comedy film produced by Sony Pictures Animation and animated by Sony Pictures Imageworks . It is the third installment in the Hotel Transylvania franchise and the sequel to Hotel Transylvania 2 (2015). The film will be directed by Genndy Tartakovsky and co-written with Michael McCullers , and feature the reprised roles of Adam Sandler , Andy Samberg , Selena Gomez , Asher Blinkoff , Kevin James , Steve Buscemi , David Spade , Keegan-Michael Key , Fran Drescher , Molly Shannon , and Mel Brooks . It is scheduled to be released by Sony Pictures on July 13, 2018. Premise Six years after the events of the previous film , the story centers on Dracula, Mavis, Johnny and the rest of their family, both human and monster, and friends as they take a vacation on a luxury Monster Cruise Ship , where Dracula then falls for the ship's mysterious female captain, Eri ...more...



The Predator (film)

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The Predator is an upcoming American science-fiction action horror film directed by Shane Black and written by Black and Fred Dekker . It is the fourth installment in the Predator film series , set to take place between Predator 2 (1990) and Predators (2010). Black had a supporting role in the original 1987 Predator film , while Joel Silver , John Davis , and Lawrence Gordon all return as producers from the first two installments. The film stars Boyd Holbrook , Olivia Munn , Trevante Rhodes , Keegan-Michael Key , Sterling K. Brown , Jacob Tremblay , Yvonne Strahovski , Alfie Allen , and Thomas Jane . It completed filming in June 2017, and is set to be released on August 3, 2018, by 20th Century Fox in IMAX as well as standard formats. Cast Boyd Holbrook as Quinn McKenna, a former Marine and Special Forces commando who discovers the existence of the fierce Predators but finds that no one believes they exist. James Franco was originally offered the role but passed on it before Benicio del Toro was cast, but Del ...more...



Keystream

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In cryptography , a keystream is a stream of random or pseudorandom characters that are combined with a plaintext message to produce an encrypted message (the ciphertext). The "characters" in the keystream can be bits , bytes , numbers or actual characters like A-Z depending on the usage case. Usually each character in the keystream is either added, subtracted or XORed with a character in the plaintext to produce the ciphertext, using modular arithmetic . Keystreams are used in the one-time pad cipher and in most stream ciphers . Block ciphers can also be used to produce keystreams. For instance, CTR mode is a block mode that makes a block cipher produce a keystream and thus turns the block cipher into a stream cipher. Example In this simple example we use the English alphabet of 26 characters from a-z. Thus we can not encrypt numbers, commas, spaces and other symbols. The random numbers in the keystream then have to be at least between 0 and 25. To encrypt we add the keystream numbers to the plaintext. And t ...more...



Asia Market Wrap

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Asia Market Wrap is a business news programme aired on CNBC Asia between 1600-1800 ( Hong Kong / Singapore / Taiwan time, until December 2005. The show also aired on CNBC US on 5:30 to 6AM ET until 2000, then it was moved to CNBC World . Anchored by Christine Tan , Asia Market Wrap examined the day's headlines and numbers, with in-depth analysis of the day's financial news, interviewing key money managers, market experts and corporate chiefs. The programme, comes from its original edition on CNBC US, Market Wrap , included several segments, such as Australia Market Wrap, China Business Briefing and Eye on India. Asia Market Week - a weekly wrap-up of the market action in Asia - aired between 17:30-18:00 on Fridays. Prior to Martin Soong 's original departure from CNBC Asia, he was the programme's regular presenter (the programme was billed as Asia Market Wrap with Martin Soong). When he returned to present Asia Squawk Box , Tan was moved to present Asia Market Wrap instead. The programme was not aired on CNBC ...more...



Bumblebee: The Movie

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Bumblebee: The Movie (also known as Transformers Universe: Bumblebee or simply Bumblebee ) is an upcoming American science fiction action film directed by Travis Knight with a screenplay by Christina Hodson . It is a spin-off in the live-action Transformers film series , based on the Transformers ' character of the same name , and serves as a prequel to Transformers (2007). The film stars Hailee Steinfeld , John Cena , Jorge Lendeborg Jr. , Rachel Crow , and Pamela Adlon . Principal photography on the film began on July 31, 2017, in Los Angeles and San Francisco , California . This is the first film in the franchise to not be directed by Michael Bay , though he will still act as producer. It is scheduled to be released on December 21, 2018, by Paramount Pictures . Premise Twenty years before the events of the first film, in 1987, Bumblebee takes refuge in a small California beach town junkyard. A teenage girl learns that it is no ordinary Volkswagen Beetle . Cast Humans Hailee Steinfeld as Charlie Watson, a t ...more...



Untitled Avengers film

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The untitled Avengers film is an upcoming American superhero film based on the Marvel Comics superhero team the Avengers , produced by Marvel Studios and distributed by Walt Disney Studios Motion Pictures . It is intended to be the direct sequel to 2018's Avengers: Infinity War , as well as the sequel to 2012's Marvel's The Avengers and 2015's Avengers: Age of Ultron and the twenty-second film in the Marvel Cinematic Universe (MCU). The film is directed by Anthony and Joe Russo , with a screenplay by Christopher Markus & Stephen McFeely , and features an ensemble cast with many actors from previous MCU films . The film was announced in October 2014 as Avengers: Infinity War – Part 2. The Russo brothers came on board to direct in April 2015 and by May, Markus and McFeely signed on to script the film. In July 2016, Marvel removed the film's title, referring to it simply as Untitled Avengers film. Filming began in August 2017 at Pinewood Atlanta Studios in Fayette County, Georgia , shooting back-to-back wit ...more...



Aquaman (film)

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Aquaman is an upcoming American superhero film based on the DC Comics character of the same name , distributed by Warner Bros. Pictures . It is intended to be the sixth installment in the DC Extended Universe (DCEU), and the third live-action theatrical film featuring the titular character, following Batman v Superman: Dawn of Justice (2016) and Justice League (2017). The film is being directed by James Wan , with a screenplay by Will Beall , from a story by Wan and Geoff Johns , and stars Jason Momoa as the titular character, with Amber Heard , Patrick Wilson , Willem Dafoe , Yahya Abdul-Mateen II , Temuera Morrison , Dolph Lundgren , and Nicole Kidman as supporting characters. In Aquaman, Arthur Curry, the heir to the underwater kingdom of Atlantis , must step forward to lead his people and to be a hero to the world. Principal photography began in Australia on May 2, 2017, with most of the film shot at Village Roadshow Studios in Gold Coast, Queensland , and wrapped on October 21, 2017. The film is schedule ...more...



Piano

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The piano is an acoustic, stringed musical instrument invented in Italy by Bartolomeo Cristofori around the year 1700 (the exact year is uncertain), in which the strings are struck by hammers. It is played using a keyboard , which is a row of keys (small levers) that the performer presses down or strikes with the fingers and thumbs of both hands to cause the hammers to strike the strings. The word piano is a shortened form of pianoforte, the Italian term for the early 1700s versions of the instrument, which in turn derives from gravicembalo col piano e forte and fortepiano . The Italian musical terms piano and forte indicate "soft" and "loud" respectively, in this context referring to the variations in volume (i.e., loudness) produced in response to a pianist's touch or pressure on the keys: the greater the velocity of a key press, the greater the force of the hammer hitting the strings, and the louder the sound of the note produced and the stronger the attack. The first fortepianos in the 1700s had a quie ...more...



Sealed Air

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Sealed Air Corporation is a packaging company known for its brands: Cryovac food packaging, Bubble Wrap cushioning, and Diversey cleaning and hygiene. Sealed Air Corporation has three divisions: Food Care, Product Care, and Diversey Care. Jerome Peribere is the CEO of the Charlotte, North Carolina -headquartered Sealed Air. History In 1957, Alfred W. Fielding and Marc Chavannes attempted to invent plastic wallpaper with a paper backing. While the wallpaper failed, Fielding and Chavannes later realized that what they had come up with could be used for packing material. Sealed Air was founded in 1960 based on this invention of Bubble Wrap . That same year, Sealed Air raised $85,000 in its initial public offering . Fielding served as executive vice president and director of Sealed Air until his retirement in 1987, while Chavannes worked mostly as a consultant. T.J. Dermot Dunphy served as CEO from 1971-2000. Dunphy graduated from Oxford University and received his master of business administra ...more...



Molly's Game

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Molly's Game is a 2017 American crime drama film written and directed by Aaron Sorkin (in his directorial debut), based on the memoir Molly's Game: From Hollywood's Elite to Wall Street's Billionaire Boys Club, My High-Stakes Adventure in the World of Underground Poker by Molly Bloom . It stars Jessica Chastain as Bloom, along with Idris Elba , Kevin Costner , Michael Cera , Brian d'Arcy James , Chris O'Dowd , Bill Camp , Graham Greene , Claire Rankin , Joe Keery , and Jeremy Strong . The film follows Bloom, who becomes the target of an FBI investigation of her underground poker empire for Hollywood celebrities, athletes, business tycoons, and the Russian mob. Principal photography began in November 2016 in Toronto , Canada . It premiered on September 8, 2017, at the Toronto International Film Festival and had a limited release by STXfilms in the United States on December 25, 2017; it is scheduled to go wide on January 5, 2018. At the 75th Golden Globe Awards , Molly's Game received two nominations: Best Scre ...more...



Solo: A Star Wars Story

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Solo: A Star Wars Story , or simply Solo , is an upcoming American space Western film centered on Han Solo , a character from the Star Wars franchise. The film is being produced by Lucasfilm from a screenplay by Lawrence and Jon Kasdan , and will be distributed by Walt Disney Studios Motion Pictures . The film will be the second Star Wars anthology film, following the 2016 film Rogue One . A stand-alone installment , set prior to the events of the original 1977 film , it explores the adventures of a young Han Solo and Chewbacca , including meeting Lando Calrissian . The film stars Alden Ehrenreich as Solo, alongside Woody Harrelson , Emilia Clarke , Donald Glover , Thandie Newton , Phoebe Waller-Bridge , Joonas Suotamo and Paul Bettany . Principal photography began in January 2017 at Pinewood Studios , under the direction of Phil Lord and Christopher Miller . The pair left the project in June 2017 after reportedly being fired over "creative differences" with Lucasfilm, and Ron Howard took over directing dutie ...more...



Rijndael key schedule

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AES (Rijndael) uses a key schedule to expand a short key into a number of separate round keys. This is known as the Rijndael key schedule. The three AES variants have a different number of rounds. Each variant requires a separate 128-bit round key for each round plus one more. The key schedule produces the needed round keys from the initial key. Common operations Rijndael's key schedule utilizes a number of operations, which will be described before describing the key schedule. Rotate The rotate operation takes a 32-bit word like this (in hexadecimal): 1D 2C 3A 4F and rotates it eight bits to the left such that the high eight bits "wrap around" and become the low eight bits of the result. 2C 3A 4F 1D Rcon Rcon is what the Rijndael documentation calls the exponentiation of 2 to a user-specified value. Note that this operation is not performed with regular integers, but in Rijndael's finite field . In polynomial form, 2 is 2 = 00000010 = 0 x 7 + 0 x 6 + 0 x 5 + 0 x 4 + 0 x 3 + 0 x 2 + 1 x + 0 = b {\displaystyle ...more...



Hallmark Cards

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Hallmark Cards, Inc. is a private, family-owned American company based in Kansas City, Missouri . Founded in 1910 by Joyce Hall , Hallmark is the largest manufacturer of greeting cards in the United States . In 1985, the company was awarded the National Medal of Arts . In addition to greeting cards, Hallmark also manufactures such products as party goods, gift wrap, and stationery. They acquired Binney & Smith in 1987, and would later change its name to Crayola, LLC after its well-known Crayola brand of crayons, markers and colored pencils. Hallmark has also had a long foray in the television business, having produced the long-running Hallmark Hall of Fame series since 1951, and launching the Hallmark Channel 50 years later (replacing an earlier joint venture with The Jim Henson Company , Odyssey Network). History Hallmark corporate headquarters entrance. Hallmark corporate offices. A Hallmark Store in Markville Shopping Centre . Joyce Clyde Hall became enthralled by a salesman who stopped by his family ...more...



Reynolds Group Holdings

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Reynolds Group Holdings is an American packaging company with roots in the former Reynolds Metals Company , which was the second-largest aluminum company in the United States , and the third-largest in the world. Reynolds Metals was acquired by Alcoa in June 2000. Reynolds Metals became known for the consumer product Reynolds Wrap , as well as for developing and promoting new uses for aluminum. Its RV Aluminaut submarine was operated by Reynolds Submarine Services Corporation. It was headquartered for most of its existence in Richmond, Virginia , and after 1958 in the Modernist style Reynolds Metals Company International Headquarters built there. History The Reynolds Metals Company was founded in 1919 as the U.S. Foil Company in Louisville, Kentucky by Richard S. Reynolds, Sr. , nephew of tobacco king R. J. Reynolds . Initially, the new company supplied lead and tin foil wrappers to cigarette and candy companies. In 1924, U.S. Foil purchased the manufacturer of Eskimo Pies , which were wrapped in foil. In 192 ...more...



Lin Shaye

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Linda " Lin " Shaye (born October 12, 1943) is an American theater, film, and television actress. She is regarded as a scream queen due to her roles in various horror franchises or films including A Nightmare on Elm Street , Critters , Insidious , Dead End , 2001 Maniacs and its sequel 2001 Maniacs: Field of Screams , Alone in the Dark , Amityville: A New Generation , Tales of Halloween , Abattoir , Ouija , and its prequel Ouija: Origin of Evil . Shaye is also known for her comedic roles in many films by the Farrelly brothers , including Dumb and Dumber , Kingpin , and There's Something About Mary . Early life Shaye was born in Detroit , Michigan , the daughter of Dorothy (née Katz), a homemaker, and Max Mendle Shaye, a painter and supermarket owner. Her brother is film executive Robert Shaye . Her family is Jewish ; her mother was born in Russia, and her paternal grandparents were from Romania. Shaye studied acting at the University of Michigan before she moved to New York to appear in Off Broadway produ ...more...



Ready Player One

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Ready Player One is a 2011 science fiction novel, and the debut novel of American author Ernest Cline . The story, set in a dystopian 2044, follows protagonist Wade Watts on his search for an Easter egg in a virtual reality game, the discovery of which will lead him to inherit a fortune in a world wrecked by an energy crisis . Cline sold the rights to publish the novel in June 2010, in a bidding war to the Crown Publishing Group (a division of Random House ). The book was published on August 16, 2011. An audiobook was released the same day; it was narrated by Wil Wheaton , who was mentioned briefly in one of the chapters. In 2012, the book received an Alex Award from the Young Adult Library Services Association division of the American Library Association and won the 2012 Prometheus Award . A film adaptation , directed by Steven Spielberg , is currently in production, and slated to premiere on March 30, 2018. Setting In the year 2044, the world has been gripped by an energy crisis from the depletion of f ...more...



Billy Brown (actor)

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William "Billy" Brown (born October 30, 1970) is an American actor. In 2014, Brown began starring as Detective Nate Lahey in the Shonda Rhimes drama series, How to Get Away with Murder . He is also known for his roles in the television series Lights Out , Dexter , Sons of Anarchy , and Hostages . Life and career Brown was born and raised in Inglewood, California . He is known for his role as detective Mike Anderson on Showtime 's Dexter from 2011 to 2012. Previously he starred as boxer Richard "Death Row" Reynolds in the short-lived FX series Lights Out . In 2012, he landed the recurring role of August Marks in the fifth season of Sons of Anarchy . He also provides the second voice of Cliffjumper in the animated series Transformers: Prime . In 2013, he portrayed Agent Troy Riley in the first season of The Following . Brown starred opposite Toni Collette in the CBS drama series Hostages from 2013-14. In 2014, he was cast opposite Viola Davis in ABC drama How to Get Away with Murder , produced by Shonda Rhi ...more...



Don't Think Twice

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Don't Think Twice is a 2016 American comedy-drama film written and directed by Mike Birbiglia and stars Birbiglia, Keegan-Michael Key , Gillian Jacobs , Kate Micucci , Tami Sagher and Chris Gethard . The film had its world premiere at South by Southwest on March 13, 2016 and was released on July 22, 2016, by The Film Arcade . Plot The Commune is an improv troupe in New York headed by Miles (Birbiglia). Other members include Jack, a talented improviser with a tendency to grandstand ; Sam, his insecure girlfriend who acts as the group's emcee ; Allison, who has been working on a graphic novel for years; Lindsay, who lives off of her wealthy parents; and Bill, who loves improv but feels increasingly unsuccessful. One night, the group learns that staff from Weekend Live, a Saturday Night Live –style show, are attending a performance. Miles is excited for another chance to audition for the show, having auditioned and not been selected years ago. Following the performance, Jack receives a phone call informing him ...more...



Keanu (film)

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Keanu is a 2016 American action comedy film directed by Peter Atencio and written by Jordan Peele and Alex Rubens . The film stars Peele, Keegan-Michael Key , Tiffany Haddish , Method Man , Nia Long , and Will Forte . Filming began in New Orleans , Louisiana in June 2015. The film premiered at the South by Southwest Festival on March 13, 2016, and was released theatrically in North America on April 29, 2016, receiving generally positive reviews from critics and grossed $20 million against its $15 million budget. Plot Smoke and Oil Dresden ( Jordan Peele and Keegan-Michael Key ), a pair of assassins known as the "Allentown Brothers", enter a drug-processing facility run by a Mexican drug cartel and kill everyone inside, including the boss King Diaz. The pair take Diaz's cat Iglesias, but when they are momentarily distracted by policemen arriving, the cat escapes. Meanwhile, Rell (also played by Peele) has just been dumped by his girlfriend; he finds the cat on his doorstep, takes an immediate liking to it, and ...more...



Unlocked (2017 film)

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Unlocked is a 2017 American thriller film directed by Michael Apted and written by Peter O'Brien. The film stars Noomi Rapace , Orlando Bloom , Michael Douglas , John Malkovich and Toni Collette . The film was released in the United Kingdom on May 5, 2017, by Lionsgate . Plot A CIA interrogator is lured into a ruse that puts London at risk of a biological attack. Alice Racine ( Noomi Rapace ) is called upon to interrogate a suspected terrorist courrier who may be involved in a plan to release a weaponized biological agent in a London arena where two American Football teams from Oklahoma and Oregon are facing off. The delayed onset of the disease will ensure that the American visitors will carry the deadly virus back to their home country before it is detected. Cast Noomi Rapace as Alice Racine Orlando Bloom as Jack Alcott Michael Douglas as Eric Lasch John Malkovich as Bob Hunter Toni Collette as Emily Knowles Jessica Boone as Romley's Assistant Adelayo Adedayo Makram Khoury as Imam Yazid Production On Septem ...more...



The Piano

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The Piano is a 1993 New Zealand drama film about a mute piano player and her daughter, set during the mid-19th century in a rainy, muddy frontier backwater town on the west coast of New Zealand . It revolves around the musician's passion for playing the piano and her efforts to regain her piano after it is sold. The Piano was written and directed by Jane Campion and stars Holly Hunter , Harvey Keitel , Sam Neill , and Anna Paquin in her first acting role. The film's score by Michael Nyman became a best-selling soundtrack album, and Hunter played her own piano pieces for the film. She also served as sign language teacher for Paquin, earning three screen credits. The film is an international co-production by Australian producer Jan Chapman with the French company Ciby 2000 . The Piano was a success both critically and commercially, grossing US$140 million worldwide against its US$7 million budget. Hunter and Paquin both received high praise for their respective roles as Ada and Flora McGrath. In 1993, the film ...more...



Burger Fuel

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BurgerFuel is a New Zealand burger restaurant and franchise with 88 locations in six countries (plus 1 mobile location unit), including 54 locations in New Zealand. Its menu consists of typical fast-food fare such as hamburgers, beef and chicken dishes, and fries, as well as vegetarian and vegan dishes. History In 1995 the first Burger Fuel was opened in Auckland. In 2007 Burger Fuel Worldwide publicly floated on the NZX . The company directors were hoping to generate $15 million from the IPO; however, they ultimately raised a little over a third of that. Expansion On 5 May 2008, Burger Fuel Worldwide announced it had agreed to its first Master franchise agreement with Dubai based Al Khayyat Investment Group Investments LLC. They set up, and operated stores in Dubai , UAE by the end of the year. Dubai is considered to be a high-profile city for BurgerFuel. There are two BurgerFuel stores in Al-Khobar , and 3 branches in Riyadh , Saudi Arabia . BurgerFuel has won the "Franchise Export" of the Year award at t ...more...



Sketch (2018 film)

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Sketch is an upcoming Tamil-language action thriller film written and directed by Vijay Chander. Featuring Vikram , Tamannaah and Sri Priyanka in the lead roles, the film began its production in February 2017. Cast Vikram Tamannaah Soori Radharavi Vela Ramamoorthy Ravi Kishan R. K. Suresh Hareesh Peradi Sriman Sri Priyanka Meghali in a cameo appearance Production In November 2016, director Vijay Chander, who had previously made Vaalu (2015), revealed that his next project would feature Vikram in the lead role. Produced by Silverline Film Factory, who had worked on an incomplete fantasy film titled Karikalan with Vikram during 2010, the film was widely reported to be a remake of the American film, Don't Breathe (2016). Denying the reports, Vijay Chander later clarified that it was an original script and the film would be set in North Chennai. M. Sukumar was selected as cinematographer, while S. Thaman collaborated with Vijay Chander again despite reports that Anirudh Ravichander was set to be signed. Sai Pal ...more...



Insidious: Chapter 3

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Insidious: Chapter 3 is a 2015 supernatural horror film written and directed by Leigh Whannell in his directorial debut . It is a prequel to the first two films and the third installment in the Insidious franchise . The film stars Dermot Mulroney and Stefanie Scott , with Angus Sampson , Whannell, and Lin Shaye reprising their roles from the previous films. The film was released on June 5, 2015, received mixed reviews and grossed $113 million against a budget of around $10 million. Plot Several years before her death , retired demonologist Elise Rainier reluctantly uses her abilities to contact the spirit of teenager Quinn Brenner's mother, Lillith, who died a year prior. However, she urges Quinn not to try and contact with her mother again after sensing a malevolent force. After auditioning for a school for the performing arts, Quinn sees a mysterious figure waving to her from the distance on the street. Distracted, she is accidentally hit by a car, having both of her legs broken in the process. Now stuck in ...more...



Modular arithmetic

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In mathematics , modular arithmetic is a system of arithmetic for integers , where numbers "wrap around" upon reaching a certain value—the modulus (plural moduli ). The modern approach to modular arithmetic was developed by Carl Friedrich Gauss in his book Disquisitiones Arithmeticae , published in 1801. A familiar use of modular arithmetic is in the 12-hour clock , in which the day is divided into two 12-hour periods. If the time is 7:00 now, then 8 hours later it will be 3:00. Usual addition would suggest that the later time should be 7 + 8 = 15 , but this is not the answer because clock time "wraps around" every 12 hours. Because the hour number starts over after it reaches 12, this is arithmetic modulo 12. According to the definition below, 12 is congruent not only to 12 itself, but also to 0, so the time called "12:00" could also be called "0:00", since 12 is congruent to 0 modulo 12. Definition of congruence relation Modular arithmetic can be handled mathematically by introducing a congruence relation o ...more...



Suicide Squad (film)

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Suicide Squad is a 2016 American superhero film based on the DC Comics antihero team of the same name , distributed by Warner Bros. Pictures . It is the third installment in the DC Extended Universe (DCEU). The film is written and directed by David Ayer and stars an ensemble cast featuring Will Smith , Jared Leto , Margot Robbie , Joel Kinnaman , Viola Davis , Jai Courtney , Jay Hernandez , Adewale Akinnuoye-Agbaje , Ike Barinholtz , Scott Eastwood , and Cara Delevingne . In Suicide Squad, a secret government agency led by Amanda Waller recruits imprisoned supervillains to execute dangerous black ops missions and save the world from a powerful threat, in exchange for reduced sentences. By February 2009, a Suicide Squad film was in development at Warner Bros. Ayer signed on to write and direct in September 2014, and by October, the casting process had begun. Principal photography began in Toronto , Ontario on April 13, 2015, with additional filming in Chicago , Illinois , and ended in August that year. Suicide ...more...



Capo

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Spring clamp capo A guitar capo, which uses a lever-operated over-centre locking action clamp Adagio guitar capo with peg removal feature A capo , short for capo d'astro, capo tasto or capotasto , Italian for "head of fretboard"; Spanish , capodastro ; French , capodastre; German , Kapodaster; Portuguese , capodastro, Serbo-Croatian "kapodaster" or just "kap") is a device used on the neck of a stringed (typically fretted ) instrument to shorten the playable length of the strings, hence raising the pitch. It is frequently used on guitars , mandolins , banjos , and ukuleles . The word derives from the Italian "capotasto" which means the nut of a stringed instrument. The earliest known use of the term "capotasto" is by Giovanni Battista Doni who, in his Annotazioni of 1640, uses it to describe the nut of a viola da gamba . The first patented capo was designed by James Ashborn of Wolcottville, Connecticut . Musicians commonly use a capo to raise the pitch of a fretted instrument so they can play in a different k ...more...



It (2017 film)

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It (also known as It: Chapter One ) is a 2017 American supernatural horror film directed by Andy Muschietti , based on the 1986 novel of the same name by Stephen King . The screenplay is by Chase Palmer, Cary Fukunaga and Gary Dauberman . A second installment is planned. The film tells the story of seven children in Derry, Maine , who are terrorized by the eponymous being , only to face their own personal demons in the process. The novel was previously adapted into a 1990 miniseries . The film stars Jaeden Lieberher and Bill Skarsgård as Bill Denbrough and Pennywise the Dancing Clown, respectively, with Jeremy Ray Taylor , Sophia Lillis , Finn Wolfhard , Wyatt Oleff , Chosen Jacobs , Jack Dylan Grazer , Nicholas Hamilton, and Jackson Robert Scott in supporting roles. Principal photography began in the Riverdale neighborhood of Toronto on June 27, 2016, and ended on September 21, 2016. Other Ontario locations included Port Hope and Oshawa . It premiered in Los Angeles on September 5, 2017, and was theatric ...more...



Transmission Control Protocol

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The Transmission Control Protocol ( TCP ) is one of the main protocols of the Internet protocol suite. It originated in the initial network implementation in which it complemented the Internet Protocol (IP). Therefore, the entire suite is commonly referred to as TCP/IP . TCP provides reliable , ordered, and error-checked delivery of a stream of octets between applications running on hosts communicating by an IP network. Major Internet applications such as the World Wide Web , email , remote administration , and file transfer rely on TCP. Applications that do not require reliable data stream service may use the User Datagram Protocol (UDP), which provides a connectionless datagram service that emphasizes reduced latency over reliability. Historical origin During May 1974, the Institute of Electrical and Electronic Engineers (IEEE) published a paper titled A Protocol for Packet Network Intercommunication. The paper's authors, Vint Cerf and Bob Kahn , described an internetworking protocol for sharing resources ...more...



The Girl on the Train (2016 film)

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The Girl on the Train is a 2016 American mystery thriller drama film directed by Tate Taylor and written by Erin Cressida Wilson , based on Paula Hawkins ' 2015 debut novel of the same name . The film stars Emily Blunt , Rebecca Ferguson , Haley Bennett , Justin Theroux , Luke Evans , Allison Janney , Édgar Ramírez , and Lisa Kudrow , and follows an alcoholic divorcée who becomes involved in a missing persons investigation. Principal photography began on November 4, 2015, in New York City . Produced by Marc Platt and DreamWorks Pictures , The Girl on the Train was the first DreamWorks Pictures film to be distributed by Universal Pictures , as part of DreamWorks' new distribution deal via Amblin Partners . It premiered in London on September 20, 2016 and was theatrically released in the United States on October 7, 2016. The film was a box office success, grossing $173 million worldwide, and received mixed reviews, although Blunt's performance received praise and gained a nomination at the 23rd Screen Actors ...more...



Tagaru

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Tagaru (English: Ram ) is an upcoming Indian action Kannada film directed by Duniya Soori and produced by K. P. Srikanth. It features Shiva Rajkumar and Manvitha in the lead roles along with Dhananjay , Bhavana Menon , Vasishta N. Simha , Devaraj and Suhasini Maniratnam in key supporting roles. Shivakumara Swami of the "Sree Siddaganga Mutt" is said to have appeared for a brief length of the film. The soundtrack and score are composed by Charan Raj and the cinematography is by Mahendra Simha. The film was officially launched on 22 August 2016 and the first look was released the following day. The project marks the second collaboration between Soori and Shivarajkumar after Kaddipudi (2013). The first schedule was held in and around Bangalore and Tumkur while the second schedule scenes were canned at Mysore, Mangalore and other coastal belt regions of Karnataka. Cast Shiva Rajkumar Manvitha Bhavana Dhananjay Vasishta N. Simha Devaraj Suhasini Maniratnam Production Filming On 3 November 2015 an article was p ...more...




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