Kandy Lake (Sinhalese: බෝගම්බර වැව/ කිරි මූද), also known as Kiri Muhuda or the Sea of Milk, is an artificial lake in the heart of the hill city of Kandy, Sri Lanka, built in 1807 by King Sri Wickrama Rajasinghe next to the Temple of the Tooth. Over the years, it was reduced in size. It is a protected lake, with fishing banned. There are many legends and folklore regarding the lake. One such is that the small island at its center was used by the king's helm for bathing and was connected to the palace by secret tunnel.
Kandy Lake, the main body of water in Kandy in central Sri Lanka, is a man-made lake created in 1807 by the last Sinhalese king of Kandy, Sri Wickrama Rajasinghe, using forced labor. Deveda Moolacharya is considered the architect of the Kandy Lake. The king used land which was a paddy field to create the lake. The king first built a dam across the paddy fields, starting from the Pattiruppuwa (Octogen) side, where the steps leading into the lake by the Mahamaluwa (Esplanade) are still visible, stretching across to the Poya-maluwa. The dam, upon which a roadway was constructed, allowed the king to go across to the Malwatte Vihare. According to D’Oyley, the dam was constructed between 1810–1812. It stands as an indictment of the excesses of the Kandyan monarchy for wasting away national resources to build an ornamental lake at a time when the kingdom was under serious threat. When a hundred of his advisors advised King Sri Wickrama Rajasinghe against building the lake, he had them impaled on the reservoir bund of the paddy field which he was converting into the ornamental lake. It was not long before the British captured him, with help from his own noblemen disgruntled by his irrational policies.
Kandy Lake has a perimeter of 3.4 kilometres (2.1 mi) and a maximum depth of 18 metres (59 ft). A decorative wall, called Walakulu wall, runs for 630 metres (2,070 ft) along the banks of the Kandy Lake. In the middle of the lake is an island housing the Royal Summer House. Sri Dalada Maligawa, or Temple of the Sacred Tooth Relic, is located beside the lake across the road. On the opposite side of the road from the Temple of the Tooth Relic is the Royal Bathhouse.
The Kandy Lake offers a place for a stroll or a jog. The shady path surrounding the lake provides a view of the hills and the town. The lake was created in 1807 by the last Sinhalese King. It is situated by the side of the Temple of the tooth relic. The Malwatte temple, one of the two head temples of the Siyam Nikaya sect of Theravada Buddhism, is also located overlooking the lake. Sri Wickrama Rajasinghe, the last king of Kandy, decorated the lake with the "walakulu" (clouds) wall.
Sri Wickrama Rajasinghe built a dam for the purpose of reaching the opposite side of the lake. The king removed the soil from both the palace end and the Malwatte Vihare end, leaving an island behind. At first this island was used as the Royal Summer House for the Queen and the ladies of the court to relax. The British later used it as an ammunition store and added a fortress-style parapet around its perimeter.
The lake is surrounded by a wall called Walakulu Bamma (Sinhalese: වළාකුළු බැම්ම) or Clouds Wall, which was built to increase the beauty of the Kandy Lake. It extends around half of the lake and has taken one skilled architect to build it. Sri Wickrama Rajasinghe was unable to complete the wall before the city was captured by the British and he was forced to relinquish the Kandian kingdom. The Walakulu Bamma still lies unfinished. The triangular shaped holes in the wall were used in the past for lighting oil lamps on festival days.
Ulpange or Queens Bathing Pavilion is situated partly in the waters of the Kandy Lake. The wives and concubines of Sri Wickrama Rajasinghe used the pavilion when bathing in the lake. After the British captured the city they added another storey and used the building as a library. It is currently used as a police post.
There are a variety of different trees planted around the lake including Nuga trees, palm trees, fruit trees, Sal trees and Mara trees. Some of the trees are about 74 years old. The trees are now maintained by the Municipal Council of Kandy.
There are a number of bird species found on the lake, including:
Pollution of the lake is a serious problem. The government and the surrounding schools are trying to decrease the problem by putting signs and operating environmental societies. Until 1960 the Kandy water board used the lake to distribute water to the surrounding areas. They stopped pumping water from the lake because of the increase in pollution.
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Kandy Lake.|
Kandy Lake ( Sinhalese : බෝගම්බර වැව / කිරි මූද), also known as Kiri Muhuda or the Sea of Milk, is an artificial lake in the heart of the hill city of Kandy , Sri Lanka , built in 1807 by King Sri Wickrama Rajasinghe next to the Temple of the Tooth . Over the years, it was reduced in size. It is a protected lake, with fishing banned. There are many legends and folklore regarding the lake. One such is that the small island at its center was used by the king's helm for bathing and was connected to the palace by secret tunnel. History Kandy Lake, the main body of water in Kandy in central Sri Lanka, is a man-made lake created in 1807 by the last Sinhalese king of Kandy, Sri Wickrama Rajasinghe, using forced labor. Deveda Moolacharya is considered the architect of the Kandy Lake. The king used land which was a paddy field to create the lake. The king first built a dam across the paddy fields, starting from the Pattiruppuwa (Octogen) side, where the steps leading into the lake by the Mahamaluwa (Esplanade) are sti
Kandy ( Sinhalese : මහනුවර Mahanuwara, pronounced ; Tamil : கண்டி , pronounced ) is a major city in Sri Lanka , located in the Central Province , Sri Lanka . It was the last capital of the ancient kings' era of Sri Lanka. The city lies in the midst of hills in the Kandy plateau, which crosses an area of tropical plantations, mainly tea. Kandy is both an administrative and religious city and is also the capital of the Central Province . Kandy is the home of The Temple of the Tooth Relic ( Sri Dalada Maligawa ), one of the most sacred places of worship in the Buddhist world. It was declared a world heritage site by UNESCO in 1988. Etymology The city and the region has been known by many different names and versions of those names. Some scholars suggest that the original name of Kandy was Katubulu Nuwara located near present Watapuluwa . However, the more popular historical name is Senkadagala or Senkadagalapura, officially Senkadagala Siriwardhana Maha Nuwara (meaning 'great city of Senkadagala of growing resp
Kandy is a city in the centre of Sri Lanka. Kandy may also refer to: Kandy District , a district of Sri Lanka Kandy Electoral District Kandy Lake Kingdom of Kandy , an independent monarchy on Sri Lanka between the 15th and 19th centuries Kandys , a Persian garment Kandy.io , a communications platform as a service (PaaS) created by GENBAND in September 2014. Kandy Wong , Hong Kong singer/actor. People with the name Kandi Barbour (1956-2012), American former adult model, pornographic actress and exotic dancer Kandy Nehova , Namibian politician Kandy Tamer , Australian-born rugby league player See also Candi (disambiguation) Candy (disambiguation) Kandi (disambiguation) Kandy is a city in the centre of Sri Lanka. Kandy may also refer to: Kandy District , a district of Sri Lanka Kandy Electoral District Kandy Lake Kingdom of Kandy , an independent monarchy on Sri Lanka between the 15th and 19th centuries Kandys , a Persian garment Kandy.io , a communications platform as a service (PaaS) created by GENBAND in Sept
The Nayaks of Kandy (a.k.a. Kandy Nayak Dynasty) were the Kamma rulers of Sri Lanka with Kandy as their capital from 1739 to 1815. They were also the last dynasty to rule Sri Lanka. They were related to the Madurai Nayak dynasty and to the Tanjore Nayak dynasty . There were four kings of this lineage and the last king, Sri Vikrama Rajasinha, was captured by the British and exiled to Vellore Fort in India Much earlier to the establishment of the Kandy Nayak dynasty, it was not unknown for the Sinhalese to take wives from ruling clans across Southern India. The first to do so was King Vijaya who procured his royal consort from the city of Madurai . Later kings followed suit. Because the Kandy kings received military support from the Nayaks of Madurai and the Tanjore Nayak dynasty to fight off the Portuguese, alliances between Kandy, Madurai and Tanjore were already established. In the 17th and 18th centuries, marital alliances between Kandyan kings and Nayak princesses were a matter of policy. When a Sinh
The Royal Palace Park , also known as Wales Park , Wace Park or Rajawasala Park , is a small park on top a small hill in the heart of the city of Kandy , that overlooks Kandy Lake and most of the city. Established by King Sri Vikrama Rajasinha of Sri Lanka it was renamed as Wales Park in honor of the Prince of Wales by the British . The hill, where the park is currently situated, was known as Castle Hill by the British, as it was the site of the palace of Konappu Bandara, who ruled as Vimaladharmasuriya I of Kandy from 1590 to 1604. Herbert Wace , CMG (1851–1906), the Government Agent of the Central Province and acting Colonial Secretary , arranged for this neglected site to be restored, and a park be built there in 1880. In the park is a Japanese field gun which was captured by the British 14th Army in Burma during World War II and presented to the City of Kandy by Lord Mountbatten , Supreme Allied Commander – South East Asia Theatre . References Karunaratna, Nihal; Aramudala, Madhyama Saṃskr̥Tika (1999).
Lake View Park International Scout Centre ( Sinhala language : ලේක්විව්පාක් ජාත්යන්තර බාලදක්ෂ මූලස්ථානය), is a camp site, Scout Activity Centre , training and conference centre for Scouting groups, which belongs to the 1st Kandy Dharmaraja Scout Group. This 57 acre site is located in Kandy , Sri Lanka . Lake View Park International Scout Centre is modeled on the Gilwell Park in London , and consists of rally grounds, camp sites , a campfire circle, the den, kitchen complex, lecture rooms and dormitories. The 57 acre land, belonging to Dharmaraja College , was allocated for the scout group by P. de.Kularatne, the college principal, in 1924. The founder of the Scout Movement , Robert Baden-Powell , visited the site twice during the 1920s. In 1984, the scout centre was named as the Lake View Park International Scout Centre, and its highest point was named Baden Powell hill to mark the historical visit of Baden-Powell. Parallel to the RISGO – Centenary celebration of the 1st Kandy Dharmaraja Scout Group, Lakev
Sri Vikrama Rajasinha (1780 – January 30, 1832, born Kannasamy Nayaka) was the last of four Kings, to rule the last Sinhalese monarchy of the Kingdom of Kandy in Sri Lanka . The Nayak Kings were Telugu nominal Buddhists who practiced Hinduism and spoke Tamil . The King was eventually deposed by the British under the terms of the Kandyan Convention , in 1815, ending over 2300 years of Sinhalese monarchy on the island . The island was incorporated into the British Empire , and Sri Vikrama Rajasinha was succeeded by George III , as monarch of British Ceylon . Early life Prior to his coronation in 1798, Sri Vikrama Rajasinha was known as Prince Kannasamy ( Peradeniya Kannasamy). He was a member of the Madurai royal family and the nephew of Sri Rajadhi Rajasinha . He succeed his uncle as the King of Kandy in 1798 at the age of eighteen. Reign The Throne of Kandyan Kings. Early reign There was a rival claimant to succeed Sri Rajadhi Rajasinha , the brother of Queen Upendrama , who had a stronger claim. However
Kandy railway station is a major railway station in Kandy , Sri Lanka . The station is served by Sri Lanka Railways and is the primary railway station in Kandy and one of the most significant in the central hills. The station sits on a branch of the Main Line , leading to the Matale Line. History The Main Line was extended in stages, towards Kandy and Badula. Service to Kandy began in 1867. By 1874, the line was extended to Nawalapitiya , backing out of Kandy and on from Peradeniya. Architecture Kandy Railway Station features both Modernist and Victorian architecture. The station building is of the Art Moderne style, incorporating curving forms and long horizontal lines. It uses concrete massing to create a geometric form. Its minimalist walls and simple, bold forms contrast sharply with the highly-ornamented, traditional architecture that surrounds it. The structure sheltering the platforms is of an older Victorian design . The structure displays stylish arches and intricate metalwork. Platform at Kandy stat
The Royal Palace of Kandy (Maligawa) in Kandy , was the royal residence of the Sinhalese monarchy of the Kingdom of Kandy in Sri Lanka . The last king to reside in it was King Sri Vikrama Rajasinha until he was overthrown by the British in 1815 with the aid of Kandian chieftains. Once part of a large palace complex that included the King's Palace (Raja Wasala), Royal Audience Hall (Magul Maduwa), Queen's Palace (Meda Wasala), King's Harem Quarters (Palle Vahale) and Queen's Bathing Pavilion (Ulpange), together with the Temple of the Tooth (Sri Dalada Maligawa) that held the Relic of the tooth of the Buddha . By ancient tradition the one who was in possession of the Tooth Relic had claim to the throne. Adjacent to the Royal Palace is the Victorian era building that until recently housed Kandy High Court. History The first palace was built by King Vickramabahu III (1357-1374) and by Senasamatha Vickramabahu (1469-1511) of the Kingdom of Gampola . Vimaladharmasuriya I (1592 – 1603) also occupied this palace ther
Mahamaya Girls’ College is a public girls' school in Kandy , Sri Lanka . Located in the heart of the city of Kandy overlooking the Kandy Lake , the school is named after Queen Mahamaya , the mother of the Lord Buddha. Location It is situated in Kandy, which is the capital of the Central province. The school faces the Kandy lake and is close to the Temple of the Tooth Relic. History Mahamaya Girl’s College Kandy was founded in 1932 by the Sadhachara Kulangana Samithiya led by Lady Sarah Soysa and Chitravo Ratwatte. The first classroom was in the West Cliffe Bungalow which was bought from Anagarika Dharmapala together with 2.5 acres of land adjoining the property which belonged to Mr. Arthur Fernando. National leaders like Anagarika Dharmapala, D.B. Jayatilaka, P. de S. Kularatna, G.P. Malalasekare and C.W.W. Kannangare contributed to the college. Chronology of notable events 14 January 1932 - Mahamaya Girls' College was founded under the name "Buddhist Girls' College" with sixteen registered students. 1938 - r
E. L. Senanayake Children's Park (formerly known as George E. De Silva Park) is an Urban Children's park in the city of Kandy, Central Province, Sri Lanka. Situated at the Ampitiya junction along the Kandy Lake Round Road, it the first children’s park, and one of the oldest parks in the city. The park is named in honour of E. L. Senanayake, former Mayor of Kandy and prominent Sri Lankan Politician. See also Wikimedia Commons has media related to E. L. Senanayake Children's Park. George E. de Silva References "No more a safe place for children!". Daily Mirror. Retrieved 19 June 2013. "E.L. Senanayake - Kandy's famous son". Daily News. Retrieved 19 June 2013.
Sri Dalada Maligawa or the Temple of the Sacred Tooth Relic is a Buddhist temple in the city of Kandy , Sri Lanka . It is located in the royal palace complex of the former Kingdom of Kandy , which houses the relic of the tooth of the Buddha . Since ancient times, the relic has played an important role in local politics because it is believed that whoever holds the relic holds the governance of the country. Kandy was the last capital of the Sri Lankan kings and is a World Heritage Site mainly due to the temple. Bhikkhus of the two chapters of Malwatte and Asgiriya conduct daily worship in the inner chamber of the temple. Rituals are performed three times daily: at dawn, at noon and in the evenings. On Wednesdays there is a symbolic bathing of the relic with an herbal preparation made from scented water and fragrant flowers called Nanumura Mangallaya. This holy water is believed to contain healing powers and is distributed among those present. The temple sustained damage from bombings by the Liberation Tigers o
Girls' High School is a public girls' School located in Kandy , Sri Lanka . It is the oldest school for girls in Kandy. Mission Honouring relationships with their society and fellow human beings to become disciplined, mature, responsible women who will be able to serve humanity without fear or favour, while being open to changes and to stand up to challenges and be able to hold beliefs while respecting the convictions of others. History Early years In 1873, the need of a school in connection with Wesleyan Mission work was urged by Samuel Langdon and so a Day and Boarding school was built in Katukele, Kandy Sri Lanka . The school was opened in 1879 at the Wesleyan school chapel adjoining the Girls' Boarding School, Katukele - Kandy, under the management of Mrs Langdon. Miss Payne, the next principal arrived in Colombo on 31 July 1879 but left the school in 1880. In May 1880 Miss Hay came from England and the school, which had 10 on the roll at its inception, increased to 70 and was registered to obtain a grant
Bogambara Stadium ( Sinhalese : බෝගම්බර ක්රිඩාංගනය ) is a multi-purpose stadium in Kandy , Sri Lanka It is one of the oldest grounds in the country. Stadium is currently used mostly for Rugby matches and hosted the games of the Singer Sri Lankan Airlines Rugby 7's . It has a capacity of 30,000. Early history In 1897 the grounds were converted from a lake to a playing field. At one time it was the site for carnivals, games circuses and gymkhana activities and even an execution ground during the British occupation. A number of sporting clubs including Kandy Sports Club , Young’s Stars SC, Young Wanders SC, Green Field SC and schools including St. Anthony’s, Trinity College , Sri Rahula College , St. Paul’s (now known as Sri Sumangala College ), Dharmaraja College and Kingswood College used the venue to conduct cricket, football, rugby, hockey and athletics. Bogambara Stadium was not only used for sports, it was also used for folk sports including elle , bahu , thattu and gudu . Sports Bogambara Stadium serves
Trinity College, Kandy , is a private school for boys in Sri Lanka founded in 1872 by Anglican missionaries, that offers primary and secondary education . It is considered to be a leading public school in Sri Lanka. Administration building, Trinity College, Kandy History Trinity College flag In 1857 the local Anglican community in Kandy urged the Church Mission Society (CMS) to establish a school for boys in the area. On 16 October 1857 the Rev . John Ireland Jones arrived from England, establishing the Kandy Collegiate School. The school operated for approximately six years. On 18 January 1872, it was re-opened as the Trinity College and Collegiate School, with the Rev. Richard Collins as Principal and by the end of that year there were 120 enrolled students. The school library was opened in 1875. Early in 1877 the Collegiate School name was dropped and it simply became Trinity College. Rev. Collins left in 1878 and Mr. Thomas Dunn became acting principal of the school. In 1879 the college was aff
Nittawela Rugby Stadium is a purpose-built rugby union stadium in Kandy , Sri Lanka . It is one of Sri Lanka's most famous rugby venues. History Kandy Sports Club 's original home ground was Bogambara Stadium until in 1939 the British Colonial Army took it over during the Second World War . The grounds were subsequently handed over to the General Hospital to house their offices. Kandy SC however continued to play rugby at Bogambara but without a club house. In 1949 the Kandy Municipal Council resolved to provide the club with an area of land, a landfill site, at Nittawela . The preparation of the site took approximately five years and it wasn't until 1954 that Nittawela became the permanent home ground for Kandy SC. In 1992 the gradient towards the entrance was levelled and a new pavilion was constructed, this was followed by the construction of the Central Finance grandstand and a pavilion named after Major General Denzil Kobbekaduwa . In 2004 a further two stands were constructed and were named after two
Dharmaraja College ( Sinhalese : ධර්මරාජ විද්යාලය ), founded in 1887 is a premier Boys' School in Kandy , Sri Lanka. It is a Buddhist school with around 175 teaching staff and around 4200+ students. The school has many renowned figures in its alumni (aka Rajans) including William Gopallawa , A. E. Goonesinha , T.B Kehelgamuwa and others. A land area of 54 acres (220,000 m ) is owned by the school spreading over half of the Dharmaraja hill. Dharmaraja has one of the oldest and most prestigious Scout troops in the world, the 1st Kandy Dharmaraja Scout Group , which was established in 1913. It is one of the first Sri Lankan schools to start playing cricket. It has consistently ranked among the first two boys schools in Sri Lanka in the preference rankings based on year 5 scholarship examinees' demand. History (first hundred years) Background and initiation Dharmaraja College, Kandy is one of the premier Buddhist schools in the country boasting a prolific history of more than 120 years since 30 June 1
Ehelapola Wijayasundara Wickremasinghe Chandrasekara Amarakoon Wasala Ranamuka Mudiyanse ( Sinhalese : ඇහැලේපොළ මහ නිලමේ ; 1773 - 1829) known as Ehelapola Nilame was a courtier of the Kingdom of Kandy . He was the 1st Adigar (Maha Adikaram) from 1811 to 1814 under the reign King Sri Vikrama Rajasinha . Following the brutal execution of his entire family by the King, he aided the British in launching an invasion of the Kandy Kingdom and was instrumental in the Kandyan Convention that followed which led to the annexed the Kandy Kingdom to the British Empire . Early life He was born to a Radala family of courtiers who hailed from the village of Ehelepola, nine miles from Matale and was educated by the Yatawatte Maha Thera (Chief Priest Yatawatte) before joining the Royal court as part of the Royal household . Royal service Seal of Maha Nilame. His first appointment was to the post of Paniwidakara Nilame by the King later he was appointed 2nd Adigar in 1808 succeeding Megastenne on his death. Ehelepola was appoin
Wariyapola Sri Sumangala College ( Sinhalese : වාරියපොළ ශ්රී සුමංගල විද්යාලය ) is a Boys' School in Kandy , Sri Lanka History The state timber co-operation was the first owners of the land which belongs to Wariyapola Sri Sumangala College today. It was named as ‘Wariyapola Sri Sumangala’ with retrospect of the Wariyapola Sri Sumangala thero who fought for our freedom during the era of imperialism. Now Wariyapola Sri Sumangala College is at its height of glory and grandeur in the ancient city of Kandy . Wariyapola Sri Sumangala College has a long history about 131 years. It was originated under the name of “‘St. Paul’s”‘ as a junior school of Trinity college Kandy. After laying the first brick on 8 February 1879. The new school was started in the name of St. Paul’s English school. It was considered as a boys school, after starting on 16 September 1879. By 1934, there were 175 students in this school, giving priority to disciplined behaviour promoting intelligence and virtuous life style. As a result of incre
D.S. Senanayake Memorial Public Library is a public library in Kandy , Sri Lanka . It's the main public library in Kandy situated in Kandy town. History D.S. Senanayake Memorial Public Library was initiated as Central Town Library in 1841 by a group of citizen for the benefit of the English educated local and foreign readers. In 1920 Kandy Municipal Council took charge of library and made it larger population to make use of its services. The present D.S. Senanayake Memorial Public Library was started in 1962 by the Prime Minister Late Rt. D.S. Senanayake and the building was declared open by the then Governor Hon. William Gopallawa who was a former commissioner of the Kandy Municipal Council. In 1989 auditorium was built with a seating capacity of 500, opened by the then Mayor His Worship Thilak Rathnayake to enhance the services of this Library. In 1996 enlarge the floor area and enable the large readership to utilize the facilities, funding by the Japanese. The upper floor was completed in 2002 which was
The A9 Highway is a 321-kilometer-long (199 mi) highway in Sri Lanka , which connects the central city of Kandy with Jaffna , a city on the northern tip of the island. Route The A9 highway in Killinochi District The A9 highway north-bound begins at Kandy, in the central hills. The highway begins at the heart of the city, next to the Kandy Lake. Within Kandy, it meets the A1 , A10 , and A26 highways. It moves north through the hills to Matale . It passes Dombawela and Naula, before reaching Dambulla . At Dambulla, the A9 crosses the A6 highway . The A6 provides connection to Sigiriya , Habarana , and Trincomalee . Traffic between Jaffna and Colombo transfer between the A6 and A9 highways at this point. The A9 passes Kekirawa and Maradankadawala, before reaching the Anuradhapura -area. The A13 highway at Galkulama and the A20 highway provide access to Anuradhapura. The A9 meets the A12 highway at Mihintale . The town of Medawachchiya provides connection to Mannar and the historic ferry to India, via the A14 hi
Madduma Bandara Ehelapola mostly known as Madduma Bandara was the second son of Ehelepola Maha Disawe the Dissava of Sabaragamuwa under the King Sri Vikrama Rajasinha of Kandy Sri Lanka. Madduma Bandara and his family were executed in 1814 by the King for treachery. The bravery shown by Madduma Bandara at the time of his execution made him a legendary child hero in Sri Lanka. Family of Madduma Bandara Madduma Bandara was born on 1806 in Kandy to the parents Ehelepola Maha Disawe and Ehelepola Kumarihamy. He had an elder brother(Loku Bandara) and two sisters(Tikiri Menike and Dingiri Menike). His uncle was Keppetipola Disawe one of the prominent Kandyan leaders who signed the 'Udarata Treaty’ at Kandy on 2 March 1815. Execution It was known at that time to king Sri Wickremarajasinha that Ehelapola, while being the Disawe of Sabaragamuwa, was aiding the flames of the rebellion against British rule. While Ehelapola was away from Kandy, the King ordered to arrest the Ehelapola Family.The king could not arrest E
The Kandyan Wars (or the Kandian Wars ) refers generally to the period of warfare between the British colonial forces and the Kingdom of Kandy , on the island of what is now Sri Lanka , between 1796 and 1818. More specifically it is used to describe the expeditionary campaigns of the British Army in the Kingdom of Kandy in 1803 and 1815. Background From 1638-58, the Dutch East India company had intervened in the Sinhalese–Portuguese War , capturing all the Portuguese possessions on the island of Ceylon (now called Sri Lanka). They established the colony of Dutch Ceylon , controlling the coasts and lowlands, whilst the Kingdom of Kandy maintained their independence in the mountainous eastern interior. In 1795 the Dutch Republic was overthrown with French assistance , forming the Batavian Republic as a puppet state . Britain, which was at war with France , feared that influence would result in French control or use of the strategically important port of Trincomalee and others on the island. Following the Kew Le
Hillwood College is a private girls school situated at the heart of the hill capital of Kandy , Sri Lanka . The school is famous for their well-mannered girls, who are being nurtured basically in a Christian-based environment. Even though the school is of a Christian origin, different pupils of different races as well as of different religions attend the school while keeping there identity as it is. Through this approach the school has been able to produce youngsters who can live cooperatively with different ethnic groups. The school is situated in the lake round area nearby to the Malwatu pirivena ( Buddhist Monastery). Origin Miss Elizabeth Bellerby. Hillwood College Auditorium in 1960s. Hillwood College Kandy was founded in 1890 by Miss Elizabeth Bellerby as a result of an appeal made by the Church of England Zenana Missionary Society(CEZMS) to open a school in benefit for the Kandyan girls. Miss Elizabeth Bellerby along with Miss Ethel Jones arrived Sri Lanka on 1889 to fulfill the request of the CEZMS. U
Portuguese Ceylon ( Portuguese : Ceilão Português , Sinhala : පෘතුගීසි ලංකාව Prutugisi Lankava) refers to the control of the Kingdom of Kotte by the Portuguese Empire , in present-day Sri Lanka , after the country's Crisis of the Sixteenth Century and into the Kandyan period . Portuguese presence in the island lasted from 1505 to 1658. Their arrival was largely accidental, seeking control of commerce over territorial conquest. Their appearance coincided with the political upheaval of the Wijayaba Kollaya and they were drawn into the internal politics of the island as they sought to establish control over the lucrative cinnamon trade that originated there. The Portuguese used these internal divisions to their advantage during the Sinhalese–Portuguese War . Direct Portuguese rule inside the island did not begin until after the death of Dharmapala of Kotte , who died without an heir and who by 1580 bequeathed the Kingdom of Kotte to the Portuguese monarch. This allowed the Portuguese sufficient claim to the Kin
The following is a list of mainstream hospitals in Sri Lanka . Central Province Kandy District Government Hospitals Line Ministry Hospitals General Hospital (Teaching), Kandy Sirimavo Bandaranayake Specialized Children (Teaching)Hospital, Peradeniya General Peradeniya Hospital, Peradeniya (Teaching) Hospitals of The Provincial Department of Health Services Base Hospital (Teaching) Gampola – 081-2352261 District General Hoaspital Nawalapitiya - Nawalapitiya M.S. 054-2222264 District General Theldeniya DH Akurana – D.M.O. 081-2300461 DH Ankumbura – D.M.O. 066-2240261 PMCU Abagahapelessa – D.M.O. 060-2553561 PMCU Atabage– D.M.O. 060-2825276 DH Babaradeniya– D.M.O. 081-2315521 DH Batumulla– D.M.O. 081-5677454 DH Bokkawala – D.M.O. 081-2461212 PMCU Deltota – D.M.O. 081-247261 DH Dolosbage – D.M.O. 054-2244261 DH Dunhinna – D.M.O. 060-2807288 DH Galagedara – D.M.O. 081-2461261 DH Galaha – D.M.O. 081-2467262 PMCU Gelioya – D.M.O. 081-2310127 DH Galapihlla– D.M.O. 081-2476361 DH Kadugannawa – D.M.O. 081-2571344 DH Ka
Alagalla Mountain Range or "Potato Range" is situated at the boundaries of the Central and Sabaragamuwa Provinces in Sri Lanka. It has protected Buddhism and ( Sinhala :සිංහල ජාතිය Sinhala Jathiya) culture from the western powerful nations such as the Portuguese, Dutch and English for approximately five centuries as a natural barrier (1505–1948). Most of the battles against invasions aimed at the Kandyan Kingdom by the western nations from time to time in their ruling period of maritime provinces happened at the Alagalla Mountains. Invading foreign armies were defeated by the battles at Balana (View Point) under the reign of Kandyan Kings. Balana fort was the main fortress established to protect the Sinhalese Kingdom from foreign powers, and is situated between Kadugannawa pass and Potato Range. When the English established themselves in Kandy , they started tea and coffee plantations in the area of the Colombo-Kandy railway line, which has cut through tunnels in the mountains. Alagalla from bottom of the ran
Udawatte Nanda Thero (or Udawatte Nanda ) is a Sri Lankan politician and a former member of the Parliament of Sri Lanka . In the 2010 general election he contested from the Sri Lanka National Front in Kandy District but was not elected. During the campaign he criticized his former party, the JHU and said that it was hijacked by laymen. References "PARLIAMENTARY GENERAL ELECTION - 02-04-2004" (PDF) . Sri Lanka Department of Elections . Retrieved 4 August 2011 . Wijayasiri, L.B. (28 October 2004). "Attack on Lake House correspondent condemned" . Daily News . Retrieved 7 August 2011 . Udawatte Nanda Thero (or Udawatte Nanda ) is a Sri Lankan politician and a former member of the Parliament of Sri Lanka . In the 2010 general election he contested from the Sri Lanka National Front in Kandy District but was not elected. During the campaign he criticized his former party, the JHU and said that it was hijacked by laymen. References "PARLIAMENTARY GENERAL ELECTION - 02-04-2004" (PDF) . Sri Lanka Department of Election
The Sri Lanka Scout Association ( Sinhala : ශ්රී ලංකා බාලදක්ෂ සංගමය; Tamil : இலங்கைச் சாரணர் சங்கம் ), the national Scouting organization of Sri Lanka , was founded in 1912, and became a member of the World Organization of the Scout Movement in 1953. The Ceylon Scout Council was incorporated by the Act No 13 of 1957. The coeducational Sri Lanka Scout Association has 33,709 members as of 2014. There are various community development projects carried out in cooperation with the government organizations, United Nations and other service organizations. Scouting has been introduced into the prisons. It has spread to other institutions such as certified schools. There are also Scout units for handicapped boys such as the blind and deaf and for boys in leprosy hospitals . History 1912 - The Boy Scouts of Ceylon (now Sri Lanka Scout Association) established the first Scout troop, by District Civil Engineer, Francis George Stevens (1st Chief Commissioner of Ceylon) at Christ Church College, Matale District  1913
Udawatta Kele Sanctuary, often spelled as Udawattakele, is a historic forest reserve on a hill-ridge in the city of Kandy . It is 104 hectares (257 acres) large. During the days of the Kandyan kingdom , Udawatta Kele was known as "Uda Wasala Watta" in Sinhalese meaning "the garden above the royal palace". The sanctuary is famous for its extensive avifauna . The reserve also contains a great variety of plant species, especially lianas, shrubs and small trees. There are several giant lianas. Many of small and medium size mammals that inhabit Sri Lanka can be seen here. Several kinds of snakes and other reptiles might be seen. Udawatta Kele was designated as a forest reserve in 1856, and it became a sanctuary in 1938. The Sri Lanka Forest Department has two offices in the reserve, one of which (at the southeastern entrance) has a nature education centre with a display of pictures, posters, stuffed animals, etc. Being easily accessible and containing a variety of flora and fauna the forest has a great educational
Shelton Ranaraja ( Sinhalese : ෂෙල්ටන් රණරාජා ; 3 November 1926 – 11 August 2011) was a Sri Lankan lawyer, politician and deputy minister. Early life and family Ranaraja was born on 3 November 1926 in Ranwala near Kegalle in central Ceylon . He was the son of landowner and politician P. B. Ranaraja. His father contested the 1931 State Council elections for the Galagedara, losing by 1,055 votes to P. B. Nugawela and unsuccessfully contested the seat at the 1936 State Council elections . His father also ran in the 1952 parliamentary elections as the UNP candidate for Dambulla , losing to H. B. Tenne . His father however subsequently served two terms as a UNP nominated Senator in the Senate of Ceylon . Ranarajara was educated at Trinity College, Kandy and S. Thomas' College, Mount Lavinia . He was a keen sportsman, obtaining colours in athletics, boxing, cricket and swimming. He also played in the 1945 Royal–Thomian match. After school he joined Ceylon Law College where he captained their cricket team.
Rugby union in Sri Lanka is mainly played at a semi-professional and recreational level. It is a popular team sport with a history dating back to 1879. In 2012, according to International Rugby Board figures, there were over 103,000 registered rugby union players in Sri Lanka, making it the second largest rugby-playing nation in Asia, behind Japan . Governing body The Sri Lankan Rugby Football Union (SLRFU) is the governing body in the country. The Sri Lankan Football Union (as Ceylon Rugby Football Union) was founded in 1908, the first Rugby Union in Asia. The SLRFU joined the IRB in 1988. In March 2011 the IRB stripped the SLRFU of full member status after it failed to conduct board elections in accordance with the By-Laws, the SLRFU's full membership however was subsequently re-instated follows the successful completion of the Union’s Annual General Meeting and Board elections. History Early years: 1879-1945 Sri Lanka discovered the game of rugby at the same time as India , and the first rugby club, th
Puviraja Pandaram ( Tamil : புவிராஜ பண்டாரம் ) (died 1591) ruled the Jaffna kingdom during a period of chaos during and after the death of his father Cankili I in 1565. He became king in 1561 following a local uprising against Cankili I. Although he was the nominal king, Cankili I wielded real power behind the throne until his death in 1565. After Cankili's death, Puviraja Pandaram lost power to one Kasi Nainar and Periyapillai . After the death or abdication of Periyapillai in 1582, Puviraja Pandarm was nominated as the king for the second time. During his second tenure he attempted to wrest the control of the pearl -rich Mannar Island from the Portuguese by attacking the fort by sea and land. He was defeated in both attempts. After the occupation of Kandy by Rajasinha I of Sitawaka , Puviraja Pandaram gave refuge and protection to the sole surviving member of the Kandyan Royal family, the infant, Princess Kusumasana, who was baptized, as Dona Catherina (The daughter of Karaliedde Bandara). Eventually Puvira
Lake Gregory ( Sinhalese : ග්රෙගරි වැව ) is a reservoir in heart of the tea country hill city, Nuwara Eliya , Sri Lanka . Lake Gregory was constructed during the period of British Governor Sir William Gregory in 1873. The lake and the surrounding area make up the Gregory Lake Area. History The area was originally a swampy bog at the foot of the small hills that border the town. In 1873 Sir William Gregory authorised the damming of the Thalagala stream, which originates from Mount Pidurutalagala , in order to make more land available for the expansion of the town. In 1881 the lake was stocked with trout by Mr C. J. R. Le Mesurier (Assistant Government Agent for Nuwara Eliya). In 1913 the waters of the lake were directed into a tunnel which flows to a hydro power station at 'Blackpool' between the town and Nanu Oya . The power station continues to supply electricity to the town to this day. In British times Lake Gregory was used for water sports and recreational activities. References "Gregory Lake, Nuwara
This is a list of what are intended to be the notable top hotels by country, five or four star hotels, notable skyscraper landmarks or historic hotels which are covered in multiple reliable publications. It should not be a directory of every hotel in every country: Saba Juliana's Saint-Barthélemy Cheval Blanc, St Barths Eden Rock, St Barths Hotel Le Toiny Saint Lucia Anse Chastanet Saint Martin La Vista Saint Vincent and the Grenadines The Cobblestone Inn Saudi Arabia Jeddah Hilton , Jeddah Makkah Clock Royal Tower Hotel , Mecca Serbia Singapore Conrad Centennial Singapore Damenlou Hotel Fairmont Singapore The Fullerton Hotel Singapore Gallery Hotel Goodwood Park Hotel Hilton Singapore Ibis Singapore on Bencoolen Mandarin Orchard Singapore Mandarin Oriental Singapore Marina Bay Sands Marina Mandarin Singapore The New 7th Storey Hotel New Majestic Hotel The Pan Pacific Singapore Raffles Hotel Rendezvous Hotel Singapore Resorts World Sentosa The Ritz-Carlton Millenia Singapore Royal Plaza on Scotts The Scarlet
Island Hermitage on (Polgasduwa) Dodanduwa Island, Galle District, Sri Lanka is a famous Buddhist forest monastery founded by Ven. Nyanatiloka Mahathera in 1911. It has an excellent English and German library. It is a secluded place for Buddhist monks to study and meditate in the Buddhist tradition . The Island Hermitage was the first centre of Theravāda Buddhist study and practice set up by and for Westerners. Its many prominent residents, monks and laymen, studied Theravada Buddhism and the Pali language, made translations of Pali scriptures, wrote books on Theravada Buddhism and practiced meditation. The Island Hermitage once formed an essential link with Theravāda Buddhism in the West. In 1951 Nyanatiloka moved to the Forest Hermitage in Kandy , then joined by Nyanaponika . Since 2003 the hermitage is run by a group of young Sri Lankan monks. There are currently no Western monks present. Location Bhikkhu Nyanasanta at Island Hermitage, (ca. 2006). The Hermitage is located in Ratgama Lake , a salt-water la
Deshamanya Jayaratna Banda Dissanayake (born 16 April 1937) is an Emeritus Professor and one of the leading authorities of the Sinhala Language . He was former Sri Lankan Ambassador to Thailand. Academia Dissanayake received his primary education at Dharmaraja College, Kandy , secondary education at Ananda College , he graduated from the University of Ceylon , Peradeniya campus in 1961. He would later received a Fulbright scholarship to the University of California, Berkeley , to read for a Masters in linguistics and obtained a PhD from the University of Colombo . With a long teaching career of over 40 years as a lecturer of the University of Colombo, he is the author of numerous books on linguistics, culture and history. Prior to his retirement Dissanayake served in the capacity of the Head of the Department of Sinhala at the University. Publications Lanka, the land of kings by J. B. Disanayaka (Sumitha Publishers, Distributed by Sarasavi Bookshop, 2007) Mānava bhāṣā pravēśaya by J. B. Disanayaka(Sumita Pr
Kala Keerthi Camillus Perera is a Sri Lankan cartoonist . His cartoon characters like Gajaman and Siribiris have been published in various Sinhala newspapers ranging from the Sunday Observer to Sivdesa. Perera was invited to join the advisory board of John Lent 's Cartoon Journal in 2002. Life and career Early life Perera was born in Negombo and was the eldest son in a family of four. He was educated at the Roman Catholic Sinhala School, Maris Stella and St. Mary's College, Negombo. Perera first dabbled in art in the lower grades. He also briefly pursued a career as a sportsman in his teens leading the Jupiter Football Association in Negombo. Cartoonist Perera began work as a cartoonist in 1966 developing characters for the Observer and "Dekkoth Pathmawathi" for Lake House's film magazine. In 1972 he created Gajaman, his most popular character. Gajaman first appeared on Sathuta, a Lake House comic art publication and from 1975 to 1984 occupied a spot on the comic publication Sittara. Perera's characters In A
John Henry Meediniya with his family in 1905 including daughters Adeline and Alice. Meedeniye Rajakaruna Senanayaka Panditha Heart Wasala Kupuppu Mudiyanse Ralahamillage Punch Banda John Henry Meedeniya (known as J. H. Meedeniya Adigar ) (1867 - 1931) was a Ceylonese legislator and a headmen . He was the Kandyan Sinhalese member of the Legislative Council of Ceylon and elected member of the State Council of Ceylon for Ruanwelia. He was appointed to the post of Adigar by the British Government of Ceylon. Meedeniya was born in 1867 in Marapona , Kegalle District , to Loku Banda Meedeniya, Deputy Coroner for Colombo , Kandy , Ratnapura and Trincomalee and grandson of Humbadee Dissawa , who served under the last king of Kandy. Meedeniya was educated at S. Thomas' College, Mutwal . He entered public service as a Clerk at the Colombo Kachcheri in 1886. After serving in several posts including that of Deputy Coroner, he was appointed as a Rate Mahatmaya in 1897 and was later appointed to the post of Adigar in 1920.
Bangaru Thirumalai Nayak , also known as Bangaru Tirumalai and Vangaru Thirumala (as per European Records and notes), was a member of Madurai Nayak royal family and Governor/Commander of the Madurai Nayak King Vijaya Ranga Chokkanatha (1704–1731). His son, a young boy was adopted and crowned to the Madurai Throne, with the queen Meenakshi as queen regent, when the Madurai king died without heir. Strife between Bangaru Thirumalai and queen Meenakshi would later erupt into many battles leading to the downfall of the dynasty. Later, through marriage alliances with the Sinhalese royalty, relatives of Bangaru Thirumala came to rule the Kandy kingdom in Sri Lanka . They ruled till 1815 when the last king, Sri Vikrama Rajasinha was deposed and taken captive by the British. He was exiled to Vellore Fort from Kandy . Family origins Bangaru Tirumala was a member of royal family of Madurai Nayaks and a Governor/Commander of the Madurai Country in charge of Madurai and Tirunelveli regions. He is said to be descendant fro
Lalith Wijerathna (Lalith Wijeratna. Lalith Wijeratne alias Aravinda) was a Sri Lankan politician. He was a member of the JVP party in the period 1983-1990. He was known to be appointed as the third leader of the JVP after Rohana Wijeweera and Saman Piyasiri Fernando . Wijerathna was killed in 1990. Family life Lalith Wijerathna was born in Divulapitiya of the Western Province in 1958. Wijerathna belonged to a family of five. His father was a farmer and the mother was a housewife. He had an elder brother and a younger brother named Ranjith Wijerathna who was a laborer at a textile factory. In December, the government security forces raided Lalith Wijerathna's home with the intention of arresting him. However, the forces could not find him, so they arrested the brother Ranjith Wijerathna and his father instead. Subsequently, the father was released, but the brother disappeared. It is believed that Ranjith Wijerathna had been tortured and killed by the government security forces. Education Lalith Wijerathna st
An agroecosystem is the basic unit of study in agroecology , and is somewhat arbitrarily defined as a spatially and functionally coherent unit of agricultural activity, and includes the living and nonliving components involved in that unit as well as their interactions. An agroecosystem can be viewed as a subset of a conventional ecosystem . As the name implies, at the core of an agroecosystem lies the human activity of agriculture . However, an agroecosystem is not restricted to the immediate site of agricultural activity (e.g. the farm ), but rather includes the region that is impacted by this activity, usually by changes to the complexity of species assemblages and energy flows , as well as to the net nutrient balance . Traditionally an agroecosystem, particularly one managed intensively , is characterized as having a simpler species composition and simpler energy and nutrient flows than "natural" ecosystem. Likewise, agroecosystems are often associated with elevated nutrient input, much of which exits th
The Sri Lanka national rugby union team has yet to make their debut at the Rugby World Cup . They have the longest tradition of organised club rugby in Asia, dating back to 1879, which was just 8 years after the founding of the world’s first rugby union in England. They regularly compete in the Asian Five Nations tournament and are currently in Division I. In the 2010 tournament , they made it to the finals beating Chinese Taipei 37 to 7. History national team in 2014 Early years Sri Lanka Rugby has a long history, dating back to the days of British colonialism . The first party to introduce Rugby to Sri Lanka is Kingswood College in Kandy, with the first club, Colombo Football Club , being established on 28 June 1879. The nation's first "national" match was on 12 September 1907 and involved an All Ceylon team against the professional All Blacks (the New Zealand rugby league team ) under rugby union rules on their 1907–1908 New Zealand rugby tour of Australia and Great Britain . The professional All Blacks
Kurunegala ( Sinhalese : කුරුණෑගල , Tamil : குருணாகல் ) is a major city in Sri Lanka . It is the capital city of the North Western Province and the Kurunegala District . Kurunegala was an ancient royal capital for 50 years, from the end of the 13th century to the start of the 14th century. It is at the junction of several main roads linking to other important parts of the country. It is about 94 km from Colombo and 42 km from Kandy . Located at an altitude of 116 meters above sea level, Kurunegala is surrounded by coconut plantations and rubber estates. There are eight very noticeable large rocks that encircle and dominate the city. Kurunegala's rocks rise from the plain below and have characteristic names, six of which come from the animals that they are imagined to represent. The largest among them is Ethagala or the " Elephant Rock" (though the translation is actually tusker ), reaches 325 meters. The shape of Ethagala resembles an elephant . Etymology Kurunegala has been named after the Elephant rock (ඇතු
Suratissa Diyasena Wijeyeratne ( Sinhala : සුරතිස්ස දියසේන විජයරත්න) (17 February 1923 – 11 July 2002) (known as Tissa Wijeyeratne) was a Sri Lankan politician, diplomat, barrister and businessman. He was also Additional Secretary to the Ministry of External Affairs and Defence , and Senior Advisor (Foreign Affairs) to the Prime Minister . Early life Tissa Wijeyeratne was born 17 February 1923 to a leading family from Sabaragamuwa in Sri Lanka . He was the eldest son of Sir Edwin and Lady Leela Wijeyeratne, of Buddenipola Walauwa , Kegalle . Sir Edwin Wijeyeratne was a former Cabinet Minister of Home Affairs and Rural Development. Tissa Wijeyeratne had two younger brothers, Nissanka and Cuda Wijeyeratne. Nissanka Wijeyeratne was a politician, civil servant , diplomat and Diyawadana Nilame . Dr.Cuda Wijeyeratne who is a consultant psychiatrist . Tissa Wijeyeratne with Prime Minister D.S Senanayake Education Wijeyeratne completed his primary and secondary education at the Royal College, Colombo . Wijeyeratne l
Deshabandu Nuwarapaksa Hewayale Keerthiratne (7 November 1902 - 15 November 1992) was a Sri Lankan politician, philanthropist, and Cabinet Minister of Posts and Broadcasting. He was accepted as being a leader to the oppressed lower class at the time. Keerthiratne was also an agronomist. Early life Nuwarapaksa Hewayale Keerthiratne was born 7 November 1902 in Rambukkana into a well-known family in Rambukkana – Kadugannawa area, who had become affluent by developing their own plantations at the beginning of the 20th century. His father, N. H. Abilinu was one of the largest land owners in Sri Lanka at the time. Keerthiratne was educated at St. Anthony's College, Kandy . Political career N. H. Keerthiratne - Parliament Portrait In 1936, Keerthiratne contested the Dedigama electorate in the second State Council election against four main contestants, Dudley Senanayake , Richard Nugewela, P. B. Dedigama and Mudliyar J.W. Udalagama. Keerthiratne and his supporters were severely harassed and by some of the opponents
The long-running British science fiction television series Doctor Who has featured many robots . The Daleks and Cybermen are not listed as they are organic beings that become cyborgs and therefore not true robots. A Adherents of the Repeated Meme Robots that worked for Lady Cassandra and were defeated by the Ninth Doctor . As the Doctor points out, "repeated meme" is just another way of saying "idea". Their jobs was to distribute spheres housing the spider-like robots that infiltrated the systems of Platform One, and sabotage it. Advertising satellite A small robot that delivers junk mail to advertise events, as in The Greatest Show in the Galaxy . The advertising satellite was able to use the TARDIS' viewing screen to show the advertisement. It has some degree of sentience as it took insult to Ace's commit about it being junk mail. Androids (Androzani) Androids created by Sharaz Jek. They are perfectly duplicates of the person they are modeled after, hence why the originals must be gotten out of the way. And
The Cingalee, or Sunny Ceylon is a musical play in two acts by James T. Tanner , with music by Lionel Monckton , lyrics by Adrian Ross and Percy Greenbank , and additional material by Paul Rubens . It opened at Daly's Theatre in London, managed by George Edwardes , on 5 March 1904 and ran until 11 March 1905 for a total of 365 (another source giving 391) performances. The musical had a short Broadway run, opening at the Original Daly's Theatre in New York on 24 October 1904 and running for 33 performances. The Cingalee is set in Ceylon and concerns colonial tea planters (one of the most popular songs in the score is called simply "Tea, tea, tea"!) in an era before this island paradise became the more troubled Sri Lanka . It was given a showy production and was a success in London. The fashion there for shows set in Asian locales had been started by The Mikado and continued by The Geisha , San Toy , The Nautch Girl , A Chinese Honeymoon and others. There is little in the music to give The Cingalee an Eastern f
Witiyala Seewalie Thera ( Sinhala :පූජ්ය විටියල සීවලී නාහිමි) is the founder and chief incumbent priest of Minnesota Buddhist Vihara . Currently, he is serving the Buddhist spiritual needs for people in six midwestern states: Minnesota , Wisconsin , South Dakota , North Dakota , Iowa and Nebraska . Early life and education Seewalie Thera was born in Witiyala, Sri Lanka. He was ordained as a Buddhist monk at the age of 12, and received his education at Migadaya Pirivena,(a monk's school) in Matara . He received upasampada (higher ordination), when he was 20, in Malwatta Maha Vihara, Kandy . He received his higher education at Vidyalankara Maha Pirivena , Peliyagoda, Sri Lanka. He obtained the degree of Royal Pundit from Oriental Studies Society of Sri Lanka, B.A. honors degree from University of Kelaniya , M.A. degree from Buddhist and Pali University of Sri Lanka , Doctor of Literature degree from Vidyalankara College, Kelaniya, Diploma in Pali Language & Buddhism from Buddhist and Pali University of Sr